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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN        an        ap    aq    ar    aR    as    aS    at    au    aw    ay    az    











*-a₁ imperative suffix


PAN     *-a₁ imperative suffix

Bunun -aimperative suffix (Nihira 1983)
Kanakanabu -aimperative suffix
Saaroa -aobject focus imperative
Rukai -aimperative suffix (Li 1973:37, 286)
Bikol -aalternant command suffix for verbs taking -on in the infinitive
Aklanon -asuffix attached to verbs of object focus #1 (with infix -in- or suffix -on) to express a command
Mansaka -asuffix: active, imperative mode, object orientation
Javanese -aimperative suffix
Sasak -apronominal suffix marking the object in imperatives
Mongondow -asuffix that incites to action (no longer in general use)
Kapingamarangi -aimperative (transitivizing) suffix

Note:   Also Kanakanabu -au ‘imperative suffix’, Niue ā ‘sign of emphatic imperative’. Agreements in Saaroa, Bikol, Aklanon, and Mansaka suggest that this imperative suffix corresponded to the object focus of non-imperative forms. There is a fairly high probability that it ultimately derives from the same source as *-a ‘subjunctive’ and *-a ‘3sg. object marker’.


*-a₃ subjunctive suffix


PAN     *-a₃ subjunctive suffix

Atayal -asuffix forming active subjunctive from the reduced stem, sometimes preceded by the prefix m-
Cebuano -asubjunctive direct passive affix
Javanese -asubjunctive suffix
Wolio -averbal suffix: subjunctive

Note:   Possibly the same affix as *-a ‘imperative’, and *-a ‘3sg. object’. For arguments supporting the distinction of *-a ‘imperative’ and *-a ‘subjunctive’ cf. Wolff (1973:90).


*a₁ article


PMP     *a₁ article

Palauan aarticle
Tigak aarticle: a, the
Label adefinite and indefinite article
Tolai adefinite and indefinite article: the, a, an. It is prefixed to all common nouns, except those of a personal nature expressing relationships, parts of the body and person equipment, and also to adjectives; the possessive pronouns do not take it
Bugotu apersonal article, used with proper names; used also of particular persons and with relationship terms
Nggela apersonal article, with names of people; prefix to personal pronouns; prefixed to hanu, indefinite pronoun 'So-and-so'; personifies when prefixed to verbs
Lau sapersonal article, now obsolete
Sa'a apersonal article, used with all names of persons, and with certain nouns, and also with verbs; (a) precedes all personal names (except in the vocative), both native and foreign, male and female; (b) used with relationship terms to indicate a particular person, (c) the relationship terms huʔe 'wife', poro 'husband', keni 'woman, wife', mwela 'child', are not ordinarily preceded by a, but require the addition of a demonstrative; (d) in stories the article a may be prefixed to poro and huʔe, which may be translated 'Lord' and 'Lady'; (e) after the Melanesian idiom the noun ola, prefaced by the personal article a; a ola/, denotes 'So-and-so'; (f) the nouns kei, denoting a female, mwai, denoting a male, mwau, boy, are used with the personal article and a demonstrative; (g) the interrogative atei 'who, what person' is made up of a and tei 'interrogative'; (h) there is a regular use of a in personification; (i) used with a verb to indicate a descriptive title
Arosi apersonal article, used with names native or foreign; used with a common noun to personify; with verbs or adjectives to form a descriptive noun or nickname; and with pronouns; it seems to have been used once with names of places; also used with relationship terms
Fijian acommon article, used (1) before nouns: a tamata 'a man or the man'; (2) before possessives (really nouns): a noqu 'mine'; (3) before the preformative i
Niue aparticle used in the following cases: 1. before pronouns (except au), personal names, or local nouns when they are the subject of an intransitive verb; 2. before pronouns, personal nouns and names of months when they follow the prepositions ki and i; 3. before a common noun following (but not preceding) a possessive pronoun; 4. before a demonstrative pronoun drawing attention to a noun associated with an indefinite article and an adjective; 5. after falu (some), a is used in place of the ordinary article, either singular or plural
Nukuoro apersonal article
Anuta aparticle placed between a preposition and a personal pronoun or a proper name, but not before a common noun
Rarotongan arelative pronoun used before personal pronouns and before proper nouns
Maori aparticle used 1. before names of persons, the pronouns wai and mea, and names of canoes, months, etc. a) when they stand as subject in a sentence, b) when they follow any of the prepositions i, ki, hei, kei, c) in explanatory clauses

Note:   The history of this morpheme is problematic. In the Solomons and in Central Pacific languages reflexes of *a function as a personal article, in contrast to the common noun article *na. Pawley (1972:58) reconstructs "PEOc" *na/a ‘common article’, and *(q)a ‘personal article’, thus positing a rather dubious distinction between contrasting articles *a and *(q)a. Similarly, Walsh and Biggs (1966) posit PPn *ʔa ‘personal article’, but reconstruct *ʔ- purely on the basis of Tongan ʔa-. Since Tongan is known to have added initial glottal stop in the reflexes of some other grammatical morphemes (Clark 1976) the evidence for distinguishing *a ‘common article’ and *qa ‘personal article’ appears to be dangerously thin. This morpheme may be a sporadic shortening of *na which happened independently in a number of Oceanic languages. If so, however, it is puzzling that it often replaced *i as a personal article rather than continuing to function as a common noun article.


*a₂ conjunction: and


PMP     *a₂ conjunction: and     [doublet: *maS, *may]

Nias aconjunction: and (in counting and determining dimensions), then
Lou aand
Pohnpeian aconjunction: however, and
Lonwolwol aand, (but)
Fijian aconjunction: and or but
Hawaiian aand, then, but (usually preceding verbs, whereas a me usually precedes nouns; a may also connect words translated by English adjectives

Note:   Also Maori ā ‘and, and then (only connecting successive actions or events)’.


*-a₂ 3sg. object


PMP     *-a₂ 3sg. object

Maranao -aobjective/obligatory suffix
Balinese -asuffix indicating the third person (singular or plural) as a pronoun expressing the genitive, or the agent of a passive verb, or the direct object of a transitive verb
Tontemboan -aa short form of the pronominal suffix of the 3rd person, used with words that end in a consonant; it marks not so much the genitive relationship of the subject as the relationship of the word with -a to the word that follows it
Uma -a3sg. object (especially in future (gerundive) constructions)
Bare'e -apolite form of -ña 'pronominal suffix of the 3rd person
Wolio -a3p. object suffix
Lakalai -a3rd person sg. object pronoun, suffixed to verb
Gedaged -aa suffix added to certain finite verb forms to indicate that the third person plural is the undergoer of an action
Motu -a3sg. object suffix
Roviana -aobjective suffix
Eddystone/Mandegusu -a3sg. object suffix
Bugotu -asuffixed pronoun of the object, added to verbs and prepositions; 3sg., him, her, it; serves as anticipatory object
Nggela -ahe, she, it, as suffixed to transitive verb
'Āre'āre -apersonal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed to verb (with or without verbal suffix) as object, and to prepositions as an anticipatory object, and used both of persons and things: him, her, it; where the object is collective the anticipatory object is used in the singular, and not in the plural
Arosi -apersonal pronoun: he, she, it; suffixed to verbs and prepositions
Gilbertese -apersonal pronoun object suffix of the 3rd person, joined to a transitive verb
Mota -apersonal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed as object to verb and preposition; him, her, it
Fijian -atransitive suffix
Tongan -asuffix forming transitive verbs, usually durational
Kapingamarangi -aobject marker for 3sg. pronoun
Rennellese -asuffix with passive, transitivizing, and multiplicative meanings, in close juncture


PAN     *ni-a 3sg. agent/possessor

Atayal ni-aʔ3sg. agent/possessor
Seediq (Truku) ni-ahis, hers
Itbayaten -na3sg. agent and possessor
Isneg -nahis, her, its; he, she, it
Casiguran Dumagat -na3sg. agent and possessor
Sambal (Botolan) -na3sg. agent and possessor
Tagalog ni-yá3sg. agent and possessor
Bikol -niyá3sg. agent and possessor
Hanunóo -niyá3sg. agent and possessor
Murut (Timugon) -no3sg. agent and possessor
Kelabit -neh3sg. agent and possessor
Kenyah -ña3sg. agent
Bintulu -ña3sg. agent and possessor
Malay -ña3sg. agent and possessor
Simalur -nia3sg. possessor
Karo Batak -na3sg/pl. possessor
Toba Batak -na3sg. possessor
Angkola-Mandailing Batak -nia3sg. possessor
Enggano -nia3sg. possessor
Old Javanese -nya3sg. possessor
Javanese -ne3sg. possessor
Mongondow -nia3sg. possessor
Gorontalo -lio3sg. possessor
Muna -no3sg. possessor
Palauan -l3sg. suffix of inalienable possession, used with body parts, kinship relations, and the relationship of part to whole
Chamorro -ña3sg. agent and possessor (Topping 1973:225)
Kambera na- -na3sg. pronoun; as a prefix na- signals the actor: na-laku 'he is going'; as a suffix -na marks a) possession: na ama-na 'his father', b) the agent in substantive constructions: mbàda laku-na-ka 'he has gone already', c) reference to past time: la nomu wula-na 'six months ago'
Rotinese na-3sg. subject pronoun
Vaikenu -nia3sg. possessor
Leti -ne3sg. possessor
Asilulu -n3sg. (human and non-human) genitive pronoun for inalienable possession
  -ni3sg. human genitive pronoun for inalienable possession
  na-3sg. (human and non-human) genitive pronoun for alienable possession
Buruese -nahis, her, its; an ending for anatomical nouns
Labu na3sg. possessive marker
Magori -na3sg. genitive; his, her


POC     *-ña 3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns

Penchal -n3sg. possessor
Loniu -n3sg. possessor
Seimat -n3sg. possessor
Wuvulu -na3sg. possessor
Tolai -na3sg. possessor (with nouns of a personal nature, as body parts)
Gedaged -n3sg. possessor
Gitua -na3sg. possessor
Zabana -na3sg. possessor, his/her
Bugotu -ña3sg. possessor
Lau -nahe, she, it, him, her, after nouns and prepositions, usually called a possessive pronoun
Sa'a -nä3sg. pronoun suffixed to nouns of a certain class, the equivalent of the genitive (nime 'hand': nima-na 'his hand'); noun ending used with nouns denoting relationship
Arosi -na3sg. possessor; his, her, its, with certain classes of nouns; suffix to noun of relationship
Gilbertese -na3sg. possessor
Mokilese -n3sg. possessor
Chuukese -n3sg. possessive pronoun; of him, her, it (used in partitive constructions in many expressions where it would not appear in English, as in expressions of time, but not consistently
Mota -na3sg. possessor, suffixed to a class of nouns and to one preposition
Lonwolwol -n3sg. possessor
Fijian -na3sg. possessor

Note:   Also Enggano -dia, Mentawai inia ‘3sg. possessor’. As noted in Blust (1977), earlier reconstructions of the 3sg. genitive pronoun such as *-ña? (Dyen 1974) and *-na (Dahl 1976:122) erred in interpreting *ni-á as monomorphemic. As a result many irregular reflexes (Atayal, Tagalog, Javanese, Gorontalo, etc.) remained unexplained. I assume ultimate stress, since the genitive marker *ni is the non-contrastive element in genitive constructions. Given an etymon of such a shape and obviously high list and text frequency, it is not difficult to see how the initial consonant and following vowel sporadically contracted to a palatal nasal which then underwent a regular merger with *n in many daughter languages.


*a₃ exclamation, interjection


PMP     *a₃ exclamation, interjection

Kapampangan aintroductory exclamation like English Oh or Well
Aklanon aexclamation of discovery; "ah" (with high intonation)
Tontemboan aexclamation of surprise (short for ya)
Mongondow aexclamation capable of expressing joy or amazement, as well as fear and shock
Gorontalo aexpression of satisfaction or ridicule
Bare'e aaan exclamation which expresses a variety of emotions, above all uncertainty, amazement or annoyance
Mandar aOh! (exclamation expressing surprise at an unexpected occurrence, and as a response to a question or explanation)
Makassarese aexclamation: ha! See what I told you!
Manggarai a(at the beginning of a sentence) ah!; exclamation of surprise, contempt, etc.
Rembong aexclamation: ah!
Ngadha ainterjection: ah! oh!
Kambera áinterjection of surprise or terror
Tigak aaexclamation: ah!
Mono-Alu āexclamation
Bugotu aexclamation: oh! used in address

Note:   Also Nias aha ‘interjection: aha!’, Old Javanese ah ‘exclamation: ah!, oh!, ha!’, Old Javanese aha ‘exclamatory particle: ah!, oh!, alas!’, Palauan chach ‘oh! (exclamation of surprise)’, Komodo ‘interjection: ah!’, Sika ʔa ‘exclamation of surprise’, Rotinese aʔa ‘exclamation’. The obviously iconic and universal character of this form should not discourage us from a reconstruction, since proto-languages were no less likely than attested languages to contain such words.


*a₄ hesitation particle


PAN     *a₄ hesitation particle

Atayal aaamaybe; hesitation syllable
Pangasinan ainterjection marking hesitation, agreement, disagreement, etc.
Asilulu ahesitation word: umm, uh
Nukuoro aathe sound of hesitation noise


*a₅ ligature


PAN     *a₅ ligature     [disjunct: *Sa₁]

Kavalan anominative marker or linker between the attribute and head noun of an NP
Pazeh aco-ordinate particle (links head and attribute)
Amis aa connecting particle with some of the meaning of "and"; modifying particle
Thao alinking particle, ligature, mark of lexical, phrasal, or clausal attribution or modification
Paiwan aequational construction marker for noun phrase
Itbayaten aconnective particle; adjective-noun connective, clause connective
Pangasinan alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc.
Palauan aligature, linking particle
Label aligature between nouns; also binds possessive pronouns and adjectives with nouns; genitive particle

TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN        an        ap    aq    ar    aR    as    aS    at    au    aw    ay    az    







abal abal

















abu abu












*abá exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!


PWMP     *abá exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!

Tagalog abáemphatic denial; sudden reproach; simple surprise; hail!
  abah-íntake notice of someone
Hanunóo ʔabáan exclamation of surprise, admiration, wonder; the more commonly used form is ʔabaʔabá
Aklanon abá(h)an exclamation expressing strong disbelief: Really? Ah, go on!
Cebuano abáexclamation of pleasure and surprise
Maranao abaah -- exclamation of surprise
Subanen/Subanun abaalas!
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abaexpression of warning to stop an action
Toba Batak abáexclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!

Note:   Also Cebuano abaʔa ‘particle indicating disapproval (literary)’, Subanen/Subanun abaa ‘interjection of grief or wonder’.


*aba₁ father


PAN     *aba₁ father

Atayal abafather. Used in direct address only; otherwise i-aba (< i 'prefix for persons' + aba)
Tiruray ʔaba-yfather
Ngaju Dayak abafather (used by and with small children)
Malagasy ábafather, chiefly used by children
Malay aba-hfather, papa
Sundanese aba-hfather (rare)
Wolio abhafather (term of address), daddy
Bimanese abafather (used only within the family circle)

Note:   Also Maranao abo ‘father’, Moken apoŋ ‘father’, Bare'e ambo ‘stepfather’, Mandar abi ‘father’, Buginese amboʔ ‘father’, Wolio awo ‘stepfather, stepmother, etc.’, Yamdena abe ‘mother-in-law’. Apparently a nursery word which has resisted normal sound change in a number of languages (e.g. Tiruray, Malay, and Bimanese, where we would expect -w-; Malagasy, where we would expect -v-).

Although the Wolio form is cited in Anceaux 1987 as an Arabic loan, Wilkinson 1959 lists Malay aba ‘father (Arabic)’, but Malay abah ‘father; papa’, without indication of borrowing. Together with Atayal aba these facts suggest that this cognate set is more likely to be a native form than a loan.

Finally, although Malay abaŋ ‘elder brother’ could be analyzed as aba-ŋ (with fossilized vocative suffix), and hence compared with the other forms cited here, I prefer to treat it as distinct and to withdraw the etymon *ab(ae)ŋ ‘elder brother’ proposed in Blust (1970).


*aba₂ carry pick-a-back


PPh     *aba₂ carry pick-a-back     [doublet: *baba₁]

Bontok ʔabácarry on one's back, as a child or sick person
Kankanaey abácarry on the back (children are ordinarily carried in that way)
Aklanon abá(h)to get, climb up on one's back

Note:   Also Ifugaw abbá ‘carry a baby or little child on one's back with or without a blanket’, Maranao ababa ‘carry, as on the back’. These and the above forms may all reflect *a-baba.


*abag join forces, cooperate in working


PPh     *abag join forces, cooperate in working

Kankanaey abágput their money together; enter, get into partnership with somebody
Cebuano ábaggive material help, help do work

Note:   Also Tagalog habág ‘compassion’, Maranao aoag ‘distant relative’. Possibly a chance resemblance.


*abaká Manila hemp: Musa textilis


PPh     *abaká Manila hemp: Musa textilis

Yami avakaa plant: Manila hemp
Itbayaten avakafiber-producing banana tree. Musa sp.
Ilokano abakáManila hemp
Ifugaw abakáManila hemp
Kapampangan abakathe abaca plant, fiber, or cloth
Tagalog abakáhemp
Bikol ábakaabaca, Manila hemp: Musa textilis
Hanunóo ʔabakáManila hemp, abacá (Musa textilis Ne'e)
Aklanon abaká(h)abaca fibres, Manila hemp: Musa textilis
Aborlan Tagbanwa abakaabaca, Manila hemp
Maranao wakaMusa textilis Nee: abaca, Manila hemp
Tiruray wogoan abaca
Tboli woguuncultivated abaca, usually not good to strip

Note:   Also Agutaynen abaka ‘abaca hemp, used to weave clothing, ropes, mats, baskets, etc.’. Said to be a loanword because the abaca plant does not grow on Agutaya island.


*abal abal beetle sp.


PPh     *abal abal beetle sp.

Ilokano abal-ábalkind of brown burrowing June beetle or June bug. Many people eat it.
Keley-i abala black and yellow striped beetle
Tiruray ʔabal-ʔabalkind of scarab beetle, Leucopholis irrorata Chevrolat

Note:   Tiruray normally reflects PPh *-b- as /w/. This item may be a loan from an undetermined source, or perhaps a chance resemblance.


*abála to bother, disturb, annoy or inconvenience someone


PPh     *abála to bother, disturb, annoy or inconvenience someone

Casiguran Dumagat abálato bother, to disturb, to delay, to be occupied
Pangasinan man-abálato be busy or occupied; to annoy, be a disturbance
Ayta Abellan abalaactivity; doings; labor, productive work (especially physical work done for wages); to cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations
Kapampangan abalábother, worry
Tagalog abálainconvenience; bother; trouble; interruption; disturbance
Hanunóo ʔabálamolestation, bother
  ma-ʔabálato be bothered, be molested

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*abaŋ₁ ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance


PMP     *abaŋ₁ ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance     [doublet: *qambat]

Ilokano abáŋto wait for
  abaŋ-anto ambush
Kapampangan ambaŋ-anobstacle, impediment to passage
Tagalog abáŋperson asked to wait and watch for someone or some vehicle to come or pass by
Bikol mag-abáŋwait, watch for
  maŋ-abáŋkeep watch, keep vigil
  abáŋ-abáŋa hindrance (referring to a person who is always in the way)
Aklanon ábaŋobstruct, block, hinder; waylay, ambush
Lun Dayeh abaŋan ambush of an animal or enemy; a blocking, a guarding
Kelabit abaŋan ambush
Kayan avaŋan ambush; to ambush
Karo Batak ambaŋrestrain or hold back with outstretched arms, as a runaway horse
Balinese ambaŋhinder, interfere with
Komodo abaŋcross-beam
Manggarai ambaŋobstruct, block the way
Rembong ambaŋrestrain, hold back with extended hands; to catch (a horse) with lasso
Sika abaŋ-papakblock the road, cut off the way
Kambera ambacheck, stop, hold back (as a horse); to hinder


PWMP     *maŋ-abaŋ to block the way, ambush someone

Bikol maŋ-abáŋkeep watch, keep vigil
Lun Dayeh ŋ-abaŋlay an ambush, lay in wait for an enemy or animal; block, guard (soccer)
Kelabit ŋ-abaŋto ambush someone
Karo Batak ŋ-ambaŋ-ito restrain or hold back
Balinese ŋ-ambaŋ-into hinder, interfere with

Note:   Also Itbayaten abaŋ ‘lie in wait’.


*abaŋ₂ ditch


PWMP     *abaŋ₂ ditch

Kelabit abaŋditch, canal
Kayan abaŋtrench, ditch, excavation
Malay abaŋ-anwater conduit of split pinaŋ stem
Balinese abaŋgutter, drain-pipe, channel
  abaŋ-anchannel, groove
Sasak abaŋ-andrain-pipe from roof, aqueduct


PWMP     *ŋ-abaŋ make a gutter, ditch, or channel

Kelabit ŋ-abaŋmake a ditch
Balinese ŋ-abaŋmake a gutter or channel

Note:   Perhaps also Malay abaŋ ‘dimple’. Kayan abaŋ is regular only if it reflects earlier *ambaŋ. Malay abaŋ-an is irregular in any case, since *b normally became Malay /w/ in the sequence *-aba.


*abaŋ₃ rent


PWMP     *abaŋ₃ rent

Ilokano ábaŋrent, rental, hire, interest
  abáŋ-anto rent, hold under a lease, hire
Bontok ʔábaŋto rent; the amount of rent that one pays
Pangasinan ábaŋrent, interest
Cebuano ábaŋrent; hire a prostitute; make an offering to a supernatural being for the use of land which is thought to be in his possession
Kadazan Dusun t-ambaŋfare (on bus, etc.); freight, freightage, passage money


*abat₁ give a supporting hand


PWMP     *abat₁ give a supporting hand

Hanunóo ʔábatleading by the hand
Cebuano ábathold on to something fixed to support oneself
  abat-ánrailing in the shape of a ladder for baby to cling to when he starts to walk
Iban ambatlend a hand (to hold steady)


*abat₂ spirit that causes sickness


PPh     *abat₂ spirit that causes sickness

Isneg ábata spirit who brings sickness to people whoever they are and wherever they abide
Bontok ʔábatperform a ceremony for someone who has had a spirit encounter; such a ceremony
Cebuano abátany supernatural being or human with supernatural powers which shows itself in an unexpected and startling way
Tausug abata mild illness caused by evil spirits or dead people (usually a headache with fever that is cured by simply uttering some magic verses to drive away the evil spirits)

Note:   Also Manobo (Dibabawon) abot ‘sickness in which the victim vomits red vomitus, caused by an evil spirit’.


*abat₃ wound, to wound


PCEMP     *abat₃ wound, to wound

Ngadha abhacut oneself, wound
Buruese abatwound
Buli yabatwound, be wounded

Note:   Also Asilulu apat ‘the unhealed wound of the recently circumcised penis’.


*abat₄ to extract from body (as sliver, or imagined cause of illness in shamanic practice)


PPh     *abat₄ to extract from body (as sliver, or imagined cause of illness in shamanic practice)

Palawano abatto get out (shard, sickness), remove something causing pain
Tiruray ʔabatany instrument used to pry or scoop out something; to probe, to scoop out using a tool
Tboli abatto dig out, as a sliver or thorn; for the sick to go to a traditional healer to remove a curse or sickness encountered

Note:   Possibly identical to *abat₂ ‘spirit that causes sickness’.


*abaw high, lofty


PMP     *abaw high, lofty

Malagasy avohigh, lofty, eminent
Singhi Land Dayak omuhigh
Javanese ambohoist sail


POC     *apo high, lofty

Arosi saho-sahohigh, lofty; tilt up, tip up, elevate

Note:   Also Itbayaten havavaw ‘shallowness’, Tagalog hambáw ‘superficial, shallow’. With root *-baw₁ ‘high; top’.


*abay side by side


PPh     *abay side by side

Ilokano ag-ábayto stand, etc. side by side; to sing in unison
Kankanaey ábayto use like a friend; be the companion of; be friendly to; take a liking to; make very much of
Casiguran Dumagat abaystay parallel with (as for two people to walk side by side, or for workers harvesting in a field to stay together in a row, rather than one getting ahead of the others)
Pangasinan ábayside, proximity; to approach, go near person or object close by; put beside
Kapampangan ambaycouple, pair (Bergaño 1860)
  abeaccompany; live together, stay together; friend, companion (used as a term of address)
Tagalog ábaybest man in a wedding; maid-of-honor; escort
Bikol ábayaccompany one another; participate in something together; best man, brides maid
Aklanon ábaysponsor (at wedding or baptism)
Agutaynen abayfor people to sit or walk side by side; for boats to travel side by side; bridesmaid
Cebuano abáymove along together with something moving; bridesmaid or best man
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aveywalk together shoulder to shoulder; proceed side by side
Mansaka abáybe abreast

Note:   Iban ambai ‘lover, sweetheart’ may also be related, although this remains unclear.


*a(m)bek mat


PWMP     *a(m)bek mat

Casiguran Dumagat abəkmat
Beta ambokmat


*abi take hold of, grasp


POC     *abi take hold of, grasp     [disjunct: *qampi]

Lakalai abitake, catch, get
Gedaged abitake hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take
Numbami -ambihold, get, take
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka abitake hold of something, grasp something


*abij copulate


PPh     *abij copulate

Ilokano ábigto copulate (usually applied to adultery)
Mansaka abidcopulate, engage in sexual intercourse


*abijay sling over the shoulder


PPh     *abijay sling over the shoulder

Ilokano abígaythrow a blanket over the shoulder
Cebuano ambiláycarry something with a strap slung over the shoulder

Note:   Also Ilokano abáday ‘carry something in a band slung over the shoulder’, Ilokano abíday ‘throw a blanket over the shoulder’, Kalamian Tagbanwa kablay ‘carry suspended from shoulder diagonally’, Maranao abelai ‘hang over shoulder, sling across shoulder’, Maranao ambelai ‘put hand around shoulder’.


*abilus a plant: Acalypha spp.


PPh     *abilus a plant: Acalypha spp.

Yami aviosk.o. plant: Acalypha grandis
Bontok bilusk.o. plant: Acalypha angatensis Blco. (Madulid 2001)


*abit climb


PWMP     *abit₁ climb

Maloh ambitclimb, clamber up
Proto-Sangiric *abitclimb a tree
Sangir awiʔclimb

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. Alternatively, the forms cited here may be compared with Amis safit ‘cloth wrapped around the feet to help climb betel nut tree’, and assigned to PAn *Sabit ‘long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying’ through this semantic connection.


*abu abu fish sp.


PWMP     *abu abu fish sp.

Cebuano abuábukind of fish
Malay (Jakarta) ikan abu-abufish sp.
Makassarese au-auedible seafish, shining white and unspotted, the mackerel: Scomber neglectus

Note:   Also Bikol ábo ‘a fish, the grouper: Epinephelus undulosus’, Malay ikan ambu-ambu ‘bonito fish: Thynnus tunnina’, Kamarian apu ‘fish sp.’. Banjarese habu ‘young of the murrel (very small, like a fleck of ash): Ophiocephalus striatus)’ evidently reflects *qabu ‘ash’, and the same may be true of the present comparison.


*abuat long (of objects)


PWMP     *abuat long (of objects)

Hanunóo ʔabuwáttall, high, referring to people or objects; height
Kalamian Tagbanwa abwatlong
Palawan Batak ʔabwátlarge; long
Ida'an Begak buatlong
Berawan (Long Terawan) kebeiʔlong
Berawan (Long Jegan) kuβitlong
Miri bétlong
Kenyah buatlong
Kenyah (Long Wat) buatlong (of objects)
Bintulu (bə)batlong


*abúluy assistance given to someone in need


PPh     *abúluy assistance given to someone in need

Ilokano y-abúloyto donate to charity; contribute
Casiguran Dumagat abúluyto contribute, to give aid to
Pangasinan abóloyreadily allow or agree to
Ayta Abellan aboloyaid; alms; offering; money or assistance given to the poor
Tagalog abúloyaid; help; alms; contribution; donation; offering
  ábuluy-ánmutual aid
  abulúy-anto give a specific person, persons or cause some help
Bikol abúloycontribution to charity
Hanunóo ʔabúluydonation, gift, grant
Agutaynen aboloyfood or money donated or given to a family who has just lost their house or lost a loved one

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*abun collect, gather


PWMP     *abun collect, gather

Ilokano ambónassemble; concourse
  ambon-ento join in fighting against the enemy
Mentawai abutcollect, gather

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile; collect, assemble’. Possibly a convergent innovation.


*abuqaŋ beetle


PMP     *abuqaŋ beetle

Tagalog ambuwáŋlarge beetle
Kelabit buaŋbeetle (generic)
Ngadha fuʔakind of beetle, grub, larva in palm wine
Sika boʔaŋlarva of a caterpillar

Note:   Also Paiwan qaquŋ ‘soldier beetle’, Tagalog uwáŋ, uʔáŋ ‘big beetle, usually infesting coconut trees’, Bikol úʔaŋ ‘large, black, horned coconut beetle, living in and boring into palm trees’. Tae' ambo(y)oŋ ‘kind of beetle which emerges from felled sugar palms, and which develops from the white sago worm which lives on the pith of the sugar palm’ appears to be distinct.


*abuR dust


PWMP     *abuR dust     [disjunct: *qabug]

Cebuano abúgdust; become dusty; turn into dust
Manobo (Dibabawon) abugdust
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) amburdust, broken bits

Note:   Also Kankanaey abúd ‘fine sand, fine mud’.


*ábuR chase, drive away


PPh     *ábuR chase, drive away

Ilokano ábugdrive, drive away, incite
Isneg ma-ábugbe driven away
Bontok ʔábulchase away chickens or animals, using a stick; the stick so used
Kankanaey ábudrive away, turn out, expel
Ifugaw ábulchase, repel, drive away
Ifugaw (Batad) ābulfrighten away chickens, rice birds, pigs, flies in any effective manner
Ibaloy abolto drive, chase something away, as animals that are causing disturbance or damage
Cebuano ábugchase, drive, drive away
Maranao abogscatter, drive away
Manobo (Dibabawon) abugdrive away, drive out, chase
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) avugto drive, as animals; drive away, force out
Mansaka abogdrive away, chase away

Note:   Also Tagalog abóy ‘something or someone being driven about; act of driving away’ (probably an early Kapampangan loan). The similarity of Yamdena yabur ‘flee, run away’ to the forms cited above is assumed to be a product of chance.


*abus ash


PMP     *abus ash     [doublet: *qabu₁]

Iban abusashes
Manggarai awusash at the tip of a cigarette, etc.; sparks
Rembong awosspark, ashes


*abut₁ pull up, root up


PMP     *abut₁ pull up, root up

Malagasy ávotraplucked up, rooted up, eradicated
Banjarese ambuttear off coconut husk
Balinese abutpull out, pull up; raise (anchor)
Sasak abutpull out (as plants from the ground); draw in, as a kite
Proto-Minahasan *abutpull out
Tontemboan awutto weed, pull up or out
Bare'e awuclear the ground of weeds and bushes
  ma-awut-ia piece of weeded ground
Nggela avuto weed
'Āre'āre rahuuprooted; pull out

Note:   Also Tetun abut ‘root’. With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.


*abut₂ buttocks


PWMP     *abut₂ buttocks

Palawano ambutarse, behind
Miri abutbuttocks
Kayan avutbuttocks, bottom; the base or lower part of anything

Note:   With root *-but₁ ‘buttocks; bottom’.


*abuyu to boil sugarcane to make sugarcane wine


PPh     *abuyu to boil sugarcane to make sugarcane wine

Itbayaten in-avoyomolasses, juice of sugarcane; sugarcane juice gotten after milling
  paŋŋ-avoyw-ancontainer for molasses
Isneg abúyo ~ ag-abuyó-wana bamboo tube used to transfer bāsi (rum) from the brewery to the jarss something (as ‘pass the salt’)
Bontok ʔi-abúyuto boil for an extended period, of sugarcane juice in the preparation of sugarcane wine

Note:   Possibly borrowed from languages of northern Luzon (cf. Yami, Itbayaten onas ‘sugarcane’, which is almost certainly a borrowing of Ilokano unás, since nearly all other Philippine languages reflect PAn *tebuS in this meaning). However, this word is not found in any Ilokano source available to me.

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*acaŋ dove, pigeon


PWMP     *acaŋ dove, pigeon

Kadazan Dusun asaŋdove, pigeon
Kayan asaŋa bird of one of the pigeon species
Iban acaŋdomestic pigeon
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) asaŋdomestic pigeon
Lampung acaŋ-acaŋdove, pigeon

Note:   Also Bintulu manuk atəŋ ‘tame pigeon, domestic pigeon’, Mongondow asa-asaŋ ‘nocturnal bird sp.’. Possibly a product of borrowing, although it is noteworthy that this form is unattested in Malay (unless in the form acaŋ ‘messenger, errand-boy’, from the use of domestic pigeons to send messages).

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*aCab a cover


PAN     *aCab a cover

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) aTava cover (in general)


PMP     *atab a cover

Tagalog atábcovering, roofing, or siding of palm leaves
Iban antapcover, patch, lining, backing

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ʔeTav ‘to cover’.


*aCas high, tall


PAN     *aCas high, tall

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-Tashigh


PMP     *atas high, tall

Tagalog taʔásheight; physical stature (esp. of human body); eminence, nobility
Aklanon táʔasbecome taller, grow taller; raise, elevate
  pa-táʔaslet get taller, let grow
  ka-táʔasheight, tallness
Hiligaynon táʔastall
  mag-táʔasgrow tall; raise, increase
Cebuano taʔáslong, tall, high; grow, appear long; add more length, height; do something in a long way; rise in temperature
  ha-taʔásvery long; high
  pa-taʔásraise, lengthen, increase the length; upward
Mansaka taʔaslocative, above, up
Tiruray taʔahlong
Supan ar-atashigh
Ngaju Dayak atason, upon
Iban atasupon, above, over, (of position) upper
Jarai ataihfar
Rhade taihdistant, far
Malay atasposition over or above
Acehnese ateuëhup, above; high
Simalur ataehigh
Toba Batak atasabove, on top
Simalungun Batak atasabove, on top
Angkola-Mandailing Batak atasabove, over
Mentawai atātall, high
Lampung atasabove
Madurese attashigh; above
Sasak atashigh; above
  ber-atasgo upward
  per-atasraise, elevate (of terrain)
Sumbawanese atasabove
Sangir ataseʔraise oneself up
Proto-Minahasan *atasabove, on (top)
Tondano atasabove
Kambera atalong, tall; high
Rotinese atathe heavens, the top (of); above, on top of
Lakalai -ataup
  g-o-atago up, ascend
Motu latalength; tall, long
  lata na-iupon
  lata-latalong, tall (intensive)
Kosraean yateastern part of a village
Marshallese ejformant in place names; upper; eastern
Chuukese aasupper part, top, summit; eastern side; above (vertically)
Puluwat yáhtall, high, upper, easterly
Woleaian -yas(a)up, upside


PAN     *i aCas above, on top

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) i-Tasup, above


PMP     *i-atas above, on top

Bikol i-taʔásabove, over; upstairs
  mag-i-taʔáslift, raise, hoist, elevate
[Malay di-atasabove, upon]


PWMP     *ma-atas tall, high

Tagalog ma-taʔástall
Aklanon ma-táʔastall, high
Toba Batak m-atas arimidday (lit. 'the sun is high/above')


PWMP     *maŋ-atas lift or raise up

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-atasclimb up, ascend
Sangir maŋ-ataseʔraise oneself up


POC     *atas-ña its top

Mailu ata-natop; up
Motu lata-nathe top
Chuukese asa-nabove him; its upper side

Note:   Also Tboli tahaʔ ‘long, tall’, Simalur atas, aʔtaiʔ/ ‘high’, Selaru atat ‘high’, Gilbertese eta ‘top, upper, heavens (as opposed to the earth), the shore as opposed to the sea, the land; high’; eta-eta ‘very high’; i-eta above, ashore, over’. Although non-Formosan witnesses point consistently to *atas (with metathesis of the first vowel and consonant in PPh) the reconstruction of a PAn etymon is more problematic. Tsuchida (1983) identifies the Puyuma stem as -Tas, since e.g. i-Tas ‘up, above’ lacks an initial stem vowel. If this analysis is adopted, however, comparison of the Formosan and extra-Formosan material becomes difficult.

To explain the missing initial vowel in Puyuma -Tas we might posit a stem *Caqas which is prefixed both in Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-Tas ‘high’, and in all MP languages. This hypothesis offers the minor advantage of deriving the Central Philippine forms without metathesis, but creates two more serious problems: 1) it forces us to assume an irregular loss of -H- with contraction of the resulting vowel sequence in Puyuma, and 2) it forces us to assume that all non-Formosan reflexes outside the central Philippines contain an independently reconstructible prefix or particle (presumably *qa ‘locative particle’) which has become fossilized. While this analysis may work for most reflexes in MP languages, it is not clear that the initial vowel in Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-Tas ‘high’ has any connection with *Sa; the same must be said for the morphologically corresponding but probably convergent form Cebuano ha-taʔás ‘very long; high’. As a compromise, then, I assume that Puyuma (Tamalakaw) -Tas shows an irregular loss of the first syllable vowel. Finally, Ross (1988:276) reconstructs POc *qatas ‘summit, top’, but provides no supporting evidence for the initial consonant.


*aCay death


PAN     *aCay death

Bunun atađkill
  is-atađbe killed with something (Nihira 1983)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ki-n-aTay(imp) die


PMP     *atay death

Ifugaw atéword-base of all the words that convey the meaning of death, die, kill, try to kill by fighting
Casiguran Dumagat atɛdie; dead; death
Tiruray ʔateydying
Lun Dayeh atedeath
Kelabit atedeath
Tunjung pak-atekill
Nias ate-laburial place for the dead
Sangir atedie
  kuk-atebe dying
  met-atebe dying
Banggai maŋa-k-atekill
  baʔa-k-atecommit suicide
  pooa-k-atekill each other, fight to the death, duel, go to war
Padoe mateto die; dead
Lele i-methe is dying
  kin-i-mathe is dead
Mengen matito die
Petats matto die
Takuu mateto die; death; corpse
Vatrata maʔdead


PAN     *ka-aCay kill (?)

Thao k-acaya curse expressing anger toward someone: Drop dead! Go to Hell!
Kankanaey adi k-atéynot to die
Ifugaw k-atédeath
Kiput k-ataːykill
  sə-k-ataːy sədiriʔkill oneself, commit suicide
Melanau (Mukah) k-ataystop, as an engine that was running
  k-en-ataywas stopped, as an engine
Sangir k-atedie! (imperative)
Bimanese h-adekill; extinguish (a fire)


PAN     *ka-aCay-an lose someone through death (?)

Thao k-acay-anlose someone through death, be bereaved
Ifugaw k-atay-ántime of somebody's death, manner in which somebody dies
Totoli ka-ate-andeath


PAN     *ma-aCay die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon

Saisiyat masaydie
Thao m-acaydie, be dead
Bunun m-atađdie; be killed
  m-atađ valieclipse of the sun
Tsou m-cóidie
  hu-m-cóidead man
Luang n-matito die; dead


PMP     *m-atay die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love

Ilokano m-atáydie, expire, perish, cease, become extinct, be (sick, tired) to death, become indifferent, stop
Isneg m-atáydie
  matay-ānrelative of a dead person; having a dead person among (them)
Itawis m-atáydie
Kankanaey matéydie, depart this life, decease, expire, go out
Ifugaw m-atéhe/she will die
Kapampangan m-atédie
Tagalog pag-ka-matáydeath
Bikol matáymay I die; an oath taken whereby one swears to take his own life if he is not telling the truth
Hanunóo mátaydeath
  m-ar-aty-únslaughter, killing on a large scale
Aklanon m-atáydie
  mama-matáythose destined to die
Hiligaynon m-atáydie, pass away
Cebuano m-atáydie; stop functioning (as a watch); for the moon to be in its invisible phase; exclamation of displeasure
  kala-maty-ána fatal spot on the body
Maranao m-ataydie
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) m-ateydie
Tboli m-ataydie
Blaan (Koronadal) m-atidead
Rungus Dusun mataydie
Kadazan Dusun mataydie, expire, breathe one's last
Kelabit m-atedie; dead
Miri matayhdie; dead
Kenyah m-ataydead
Kayan mateydead
Kiput m-ataːydie; dead
Melanau (Mukah) m-ataydie; dead
Tunjung m-atedie
Murung m-atoydie
Siang m-atoydie
Ngaju Dayak m-atäydie; dead
Malagasy m-átydead, gone out, as a lamp or a fire; in danger; set, as the sun; beaten in a game
  máty-hénabenumbed, torpid, deprived of sensation
  máti-ny hiańya phrase used to express the setting of one's heart upon something: very desirous of, eagerly wishing for; lit. simply killed by it
Dusun Witu mateyto die; dead
Iban matidead; set (of the sun); fast, firm, tight, immovable
Cham mataidie, dead
Moken mataydie; dead
Malay matideath; extinction; perish
  me-mati-kancause to die
  harga matifixed price
Bahasa Indonesia matidie; dead; not having ever lived; various figurative senses, including: break up, of a gathering; quiet or ceased (wind); not moving any longer (machine parts); waterless (wells or springs); numb (skin); extinguished (lamp, fire, etc.); dead-end (path, etc.); fixed or agreed so that it cannot change (price, agreement, etc.); fallen quiet (as marketplace); not used any longer (as a language); set (sun)
  mati beranakdie in childbirth
  mati kutu(ña)unable to do anything any more
Dairi-Pakpak Batak matedie; dead; blocked path; go out (fire); new moon; paralyzed
Toba Batak m-atedie; dead; go out (fire); die down, cease (wind); conclude (fight)
  m-ate dalan ithe path-road cannot be used any longer
  mate ma hoa curse
  mar-mate-andie in throngs
  pa-mate-honkill someone
  bulan matenew moon
Nias matedie; become paralyzed; dry up, wither; extinguish
  mate dõdõmake a deep impression on something
Mentawai mataydead; death; die; kill; go out (cigarette); set (sun); become feeble (penis)
Rejang mateuidie
  mateui bilaisunset
Lampung m-atidead
Sundanese ŋa-mati-kenkill
Old Javanese m(a)-atidie; dead
  sumur matidried-up well
Javanese matidead; die; inert
  mati garingdie of thirst
  mati sabildie in childbirth
Madurese matedie; dead
Balinese m-atidie, be quenched (fire); dead
Sasak matedie; dead
  [mate ŋ-anakdie in childbirth]
  mate sesetsuicide
Tontemboan m-atedie; kill; a curse: may you die!
Mongondow m-atoydie, go out (fire, light)
Dampelas ma-atedie; dead
Banggai matedie
Uma m-atedead; die
Bare'e matedie; dead; also used of something that has stopped moving or working; go out (fire, torch); stop spinning (top); stop moving (hands of a clock, the wind)
  mate mpoanadie in childbirth
Tae' matedie; dead; disastrous, struck by misfortune
  mate deatawhat is meted out by the gods: die a natural death; lose (in playing dice); numb, asleep (of limbs)
  mate posodie suddenly
  mate ki-anakdie in childbirth
  to matedeceased person, corpse; worthless
Koroni mateto die, dead
Mandar m-atedie, pass away; dead
Makassarese matedead; die; new moon; paralyzed (of limbs); having lost its force (as glue that is no longer adhesive); beaten (in a game); completely done (of a matter)
  beraŋ mateworn-out bush knife
  jaraŋ matehorse that doesn't want to run any more
  takka luppa mate-matetotally forget
  ka-mate-idie somewhere; die with someone
  mate-i aŋiŋ-athere is no wind, the wind has died
Wolio matedead; paralyzed; out (of light or fire); asleep (of hand or foot); death
  mo-mate-nadeceased person
  bawabawa matepregnant (because an unborn child is not yet alive)
Muna matedie; dead
Popalia matedie; dead
Palauan maddie; (electricity, etc.) go out; go numb
  uləko-áddead, extinguished, paralyzed
  oaməko-ádkill; extinguish; put out
Chamorro mataidead; corpse; die
  matai-ñalaŋfamine, die of hunger
Tetun (Dili) mateto die


PCEMP     *matay₁ die; dead

Bimanese m-adekill; die out (of a fire)
Donggo madedie, dead
Komodo matedead; died; the late
Manggarai matadie; dead; extinguished; lose in a game
  mata wulaŋlunar eclipse
Ngadha matadie; dead; become poor, decline
Keo matato die
Riung matato die
Li'o matadie, dead
Sika matedie; dead
  mate-ŋnumb, of a foot or arm
Lamaholot matadead, deceased
Solorese matato die; dead
Kédang matedie, dead
Waiyewa mateto die
Lamboya matedie, dead
Anakalangu matito die
Kambera metidie; dead; go out (fire); be eclipsed (sun)
  meti mariŋudie a cool (natural) death
  meti mbanahudie a hot (unnatural) death (as when dying in an accident)
  marapu mameticorpse, cadaver
Hawu madedead
Dhao/Ndao madedie, dead
Rotinese matedie; dead; go out (of a light); still (of the sea when becalmed); eclipse of the sun or moon
  beli-na matethe price is fixed
  (hataholi) mate nulakone who dies young
  mate laʔasdie of hunger
  mate-kbe dead, be overcome (in a game)
Tetun matedie; extinguish (fire); wither, die (plants); stop or cease (machinery); dead, stopped
  mate-kdead, dormant, without life; dry (of plants)
  mate-nany animal (or bird) which is the loser in a fight, and by custom is condemned to death
  ai-n mate-kpins and needles in the leg
  kuda isi-n mate-ka quiet horse (easy to ride)
  mate-rkill, slay
Vaikenu matɛto die
Galoli mateto die
Erai matedie; dead; sleeping (of members of the body)
  mate ērbe parched with thirst (to death)
  mate klarstarve
Tugun matedie, dead
East Damar m-matto die
West Damar motodie
Leti matidie; dead
  wulla (lera) n-matithe moon (sun) is eclipsed
Wetan matidead; die
  mati wnoahereafter, abode of the dead
Selaru matidie
Yamdena matedie, go out (fire, light); finished, terminated, of a matter; (in some words) very, extremely , exceptionally
Kei mātdie, go out (fire), stop (machinery); be defeated (in a game); be overgrown, of a path; abate (wind); becalmed (sea); dried up (spring)
Kamarian matadead
Paulohi matadead; die
  mata-edie of something
  mata-e lalableed to death
Alune matadead, die
Hitu matadie, dead
  matato die; dead
Asilulu matadead; die; lose consciousness; end in a receptacle without markers in the joŋka game (game language)
Buruese matadie, faint, pass out; stop blowing (wind); by any means, in any way
  mata-kfulfilled, established, ready, finished; die of (as cold); ascertain; definitely; completely; to death
Soboyo matedie; dead
  meseʔ m-an-atecook until well done, cook thoroughly
Gimán motto die; dead
Sawai mɔtto die
Buli matdead; die, also said of a light going out, and of a wound, ulcer, or boil that has healed
  amcait matmatdeathly afraid, scared to death
Mayá ꞌma¹²tto die
Biga matto die; dead
As maʔdead
Minyaifuin -matto die
Moor maʔato die


POC     *mate die; dead

Lou matdie, dead
Titan mate-ydie, dead
  ku ta-mate-ykill it!
Andra metto die; dead
Leipon i methe is dead
Ponam metdie, dead
Bipi makdie, dead
Seimat matdead
Wuvulu maʔedie, dead
Aua maʔedie, dead
Kaniet me-matto die; dead
Mussau matedead, die
  e mate lahe is dead
Tigak matdie
Nalik matto die; dead
Mendak maredie, dead
Tanga metdie; affix with a superlative adverbial effect: completely, very, utter, too much
Label matdie; be dead
Tolai matdie; dead; extinguished, go out (of light or fire); numb; intensive particle and adverb: very, greatly, extremely
Bali (Uneapa) mateto die
Arop i-matato die
Biliau te maʔatto kill
Maleu matedie
Kove mateto die
Lakalai mateout, of a fire
Kairiru myatdie; dead, deceased
Ali miətto die; dead
Manam matedie, suffer
  madidi matefeel cold
  tole matebe hungry
Gedaged matdie, expire, pass away, yield up the ghost, perish, stop (motor), go out (fire); long, yearn, crave, hanker, desire, love, like, pine, pant for, languish for, care, want, die (for), lust after
Gitua matedie
Numbami mandedie, faint, be paralyzed, long for
Wampar mardie; dead
Suau mateto die; dead
Motu masedie; adverb of intensity
  mase-anitudie from disease, not a violent death
Mekeo (East) maedie, dead
Kilivila matadead; be out, come to an end; extinguish
Saliba matedie, dead
Tubetube matesoundly, as in sleeping soundly
  i keno matehe is sound asleep
Sudest maredeath; die
Haku meteto die; dead
Piva mateto die
Banoni matedie
Uruava mateto die; dead
Torau matedie, dead
Mono-Alu matedie, be sick, be tired
Hoava mateto die; dead
Roviana matedie; dead
Eddystone/Mandegusu matedead, weak, sick, rotten; death, illness resulting in death; die
Nggela matewithout movement; bedridden, paralyzed; numb, of a limb asleep; unconscious, fainted; dead; death; kill; extinguish; out, of a light; fighting man, soldier; enemy; ready, prepared; completely, quite; out, at cricket; withered, dry, as a branch
Kwaio maedie; dead; fight; death; blow (n.); finished, without residual obligations, of a financial transaction; unconscious; want very badly, very much
  mae-siadie from, completely, to the end
Lau maewithout motion, still; unconscious, numb, paralyzed; to faint; die; stop (of a clock), go out (of a light); be eclipsed, of sun or moon; tired out, weak, very ill, ready for rest; war; rainbow
  mae-la-nadying, death; death feast
'Āre'āre māeunconscious; faint; ill; die; paralyzed; numb; war
  māe-sibe ill of, die of
  māe-tadeath feast, memorial feast
  ʔāre māeweapons, instruments for killing
  āsi māethe calm sea in lagoons and passages, as opposed to āsi mauri, the open sea
Sa'a maedie; ill; become unconscious; numb; eclipsed, of moon; a fighting column; enemies; war; weapons; used with 3p. possessor and ni genitive to denote excess
  mae apoloparalyzed
Arosi maenumb, unable to move, ill; be eclipsed (of moon); be unconscious, faint; die; death; enemy; fighting party; weapons; lee side of an island (where the sea is maé)
  mae-ta(-na)death feast
Sikaiana mateto die
Gilbertese matedeath, disappearance, extinction; dead, defunct, paralyzed, stopped, extinct, tired, unconscious, lost, cancelled, taken, blocked (in games), known by heart, memorized; free, tranquil; calm (as the sea); die, go out (fire, etc.), stop (clock, etc.), perish, faint, succumb; extenuated, worn out, dead tired
  mate-akinadesire, love
  mate-n taieclipse of sun
  mate-n namakainaeclipse of moon
Kosraean misɛdeath; die
Marshallese mejdead; numb; death; disease; illness; peril; plague; wrath
  mej ābwinpalsy; paralyzed
Chuukese die, lose consciousness, lose sensation, become paralyzed; (fig.) be overcome with fatigue, hunger, or other physiological want; be extinguished (of a light), stop (of an engine)
  máádeath; loss of consciousness; collapse; paralysis; disease, illness, sickness, pestilence
  mááse-norphan (death parted)
Puluwat die, be dead, dying, stricken, paralyzed, very sick; be killed; stop working, as a machine; death
Woleaian masdeath; dead person; (be) dead, die; disease, ailment, sickness
Ulithian meseto die
Mota matedie, faint and appear to die; dead
Mosina ga-matdead
Lakona ga-metdead
Sakao nɛðdead
Nokuku mateto die; dead
Malmariv matedead
Lametin matedead
Amblong matto die
Aore m̈atedie, dead
Tangoa m̈atedie; dead
Raga matedie; dead
Apma matto die
Atchin mi-matsdie, dead
Rano me-mečdead
Lingarak -masto die
Leviamp -m̋ato die; dead
Avava matto die; dead
Axamb mæcdead
Maxbaxo ŋo-mæčdead
Lonwolwol mɛrdie; (be) dead; numb, unconscious, apparently dead
Southeast Ambrym mætdie
Namakir matdie; dead
Nakanamanga matedie; dead
Pwele matedead
Efate (South) matto die; dead
Ura misto die
Sie -mahto die; dead
Anejom masdie; dead
Canala extinguished, dead
Fijian matedeath, disease, sickness; to die, be sick
Tongan matedie; sometimes used in the sense of stunned or quite unconscious; (of fire or light) go out, be out; (of a boat) be sunk or wrecked; (of a volcano) be extinct; (of wind) die down, cease; (of sun or moon) be eclipsed; (of clock or engine, etc.) to stop, not to be going; paralyzed (as a limb); dead; death; be utterly sick and tired of; be overcome or carried away with (laughter, weeping, desire, sleepiness, fear, etc.)
Niue matedie, die out (as a fire); stop (as an engine); be desirous of, need intensely, be ill with deprivation; be destroyed
Samoan matedie (of animals, plants, fire, etc.)
  ta-matekill (animal or plant); (of a coco-nut tree, etc.) strip of leaves so as to kill
Tuvaluan matedie; dead; death; funeral wake
  taa matekill; switch off
Kapingamarangi madedie; deceased; death; paralyzed
Nukuoro madedead (of plants only); numb, paralyzed; go out (of a fire)
Rennellese matedead, dying, unconscious, faint, exhausted, paralyzed; be low tide; be killed or dead, as an engine; be extinguished or out, as a fire; to have stopped, as a clock; to be the dark of the moon; death, sorrow, sound of weeping (poetic)
Anuta matedie
Rarotongan mategeneral term for death: disaster, calamity, danger, defeat, ruin, oppression, hurt, injury, adversity, unconsciousness, subsidence, desire; out, as of a person being caught out when playing cricket; defeat, as in playing a game of cards or other game; a funeral burial; dead, oppressed, unconscious; extinguished, as a light; in lack of, in want of; loss of, as of vitality or vigor overcome with any emotions; overcome in a contest; deep emotion, as of a person or persons being deeply in love; calmed down, subsided; moving slowly or slack, as of the tide, slack water; beaten, as in any contest; benumbed, deadened, paralyzed; dried up, as the water of a stream; withered, as the foliage of trees; die, lose life, perish
Maori matedead; extinguished; sick, ill, unconscious; injured, damaged, suffering; in want of, lacking; overcome with any emotion, the emotion being expressed; deeply in love; calmed down, subsided; moving slowly, slack; completed, finished, accomplished; caught; death; sickness, injury, wound; danger, defeat, calamity; desire; company of mourners
Hawaiian makedie; defeated, killed, unfortunate; to faint; death, fainting, danger of death, peril, destruction, misfortune; kill; deathly, deadly, faint, deceased, late; obsolete; poisonous; desire, want, to want


POC     *mate-a kill

Nggela mate-akill
Hawaiian make-apassive/imperative of make: be defeated, be killed


PMP     *m-atay-an lose someone through death

Toba Batak mate-anlose someone through death
Banggai mate-andeath
Tae' mate-an(of a possession) get rid of, damage something so that it becomes worthless
Makassarese mate-aŋdeclare someone dead
Wolio mate-a(case of) death, decease
  banua mate-aa bereaved house


POC     *mate-an death

Roviana mate-analarge meteor (universally associated with the death of a leader)
Lau mae-adeath, sickness
Mota mate-adeath, dying


POC     *mate-qaŋa death

Kwaio mae-ŋadeath; war
Sa'a mae-ŋasickness, death
Niue mate-aŋadeath
Rennellese mate-ʔaŋadeath
Maori mate-ŋatime, circumstances, etc. of death


POC     *mate-na dead

Seimat i mate-nhe is dying
Mono-Alu mate-nadead
Roviana mate-nadie; dead


PMP     *pa(ka)-m-atay kill; commit suicide (?)

Aklanon paka-matáycommit suicide
Cebuano paka-matáydie for a cause; commit suicide; allow someone to die
Tae' pa-matedie; kill; numb something, bring under narcosis
Makassarese pa-matemistake for dead
Kambera pa-metikill, bring to an end
  tau pa-meti taukiller, murderer
Hawu pe-madekill
Rotinese ka-matereach a firm agreement about something; keep still
Paulohi fa-matakill
Hitu pa-matakill
Asilulu paka-matadeliver the final blows, administer a coup-de-grace; finish off
Soboyo ka-matekill
Buli fa-matkill


POC     *paka-mate kill; commit suicide

Maleu pa-mate-ŋekill
Kove pa-mateto kill
Banoni va-matekill
Mono-Alu fa-matekill
Arosi haʔa-mae-sikill
Fijian vaka-matego out, of a light
Niue faka-matehold the tongue, keep quiet
Samoan faʔa-matekill (an animal); (of fire) put out
Rennellese haka-matecommit suicide or attempt to
Maori whaka-mateput to death; cause to be sick
Hawaiian hoʔo-makekill; pretend to be dead; let die, let diminish, grow faint


POC     *paka-mate-ia kill

Aua foʔa fa-maʔe-iakill
Roviana va-mate-akill
Kwaio faʔa-mae-akill, extinguish
Gilbertese ka-mate-akill, extinguish; learn, memorize
Fijian vaka-mate-aput to death, kill; extinguish a light


PWMP     *paŋ-m-atay means of killing (?)

Aklanon pa-matáyslaughter, kill off, exterminate (in great numbers)
Sundanese pa-matithe center of life (where a man or animal can be struck dead)
Old Javanese pa-matimeans (instrument) for killing, instrumental in killing; killer, slayer
Mongondow po-matoythat with which one kills or wants to kill


PWMP     *ka-m-atay (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano ka-mátayfor people to be killing each other; mass death, killing on a vast scale
Ngaju Dayak ka-matäythose that have died (plants, etc.)
Uma ka-m-atedeath
  ka-m-ate-(k)idie from
Bare'e ka-matetime, place, or manner of death


PWMP     *ka-m-atay-an be affected by a death

Tagalog ka-mátay-andeath
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ke-metay-andeath
Malay ke-mati-an aŋinwind dying away
Bahasa Indonesia ke-mati-anoccurrence of death; suffer because of a death
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ke-mate-n anakone who has lost a child through death
Toba Batak ha-mate-anplace where one dies
  sahit ha-mate-andeadly sickness
Sasak ke-mate-anparalyzed, numb; affected by a death
Tae' ka-mate-anbe affected by a death; dead, the dying of something; time of dying; sensitive part of the body, when one is struck there by a blow; paralyzed, of the hand
Makassarese ka-mate-aŋdeath; end of the lunar cycle


PWMP     *m-atay anak spirit dangerous to children

[Tagalog ṕati-anakgoblin]
Malay mati-anakan evil spirit preying on newborn children
Wolio mate-anakind of fish eaten only by older people, because it is supposed to kill children (in accordance with its name)


PWMP     *m-atay uRat paralyzed

Kayan matey uhatparalyzed
Bare'e mate uaparalyzed


PWMP     *na-atay dead

Bontok na-tə́ydie; dead
Dampelas na-atedie; dead


PAN     *pa-aCay kill

Kavalan pataydie, dead
Amis pataydeath; die; figuratively to be crushed and despair; go to extreme limits to do something
Thao p-acayto beat, kill
Bunun (Takituduh) patazkill
Hoanya ma-pasato die
Tsou o-p-cóikill
Kanakanabu mia-pacáikill
Proto-Rukai *pacaydie


PMP     *p-atay kill

Ilokano patàydeath
  ag-patáyfaint, swoon, die away
  mama-pátaykill, commit murder or slaughter
  patay-énkill, slay, put to death, dispatch, murder, extinguish, put out; to stop (an engine)
Isneg p-um-atáykill
  mag-patáyfight fiercely to death
  patay-ánkill, extinguish, put out
Bontok pa-tə́ykill; extinguish or put out, as a fire or a light; turn off, as a radio or a motor
  p<um>atəybe extremely painful (as a headache)
Ifugaw p-um-atehe will kill
  mam-patèkiller, murderer
Ifugaw (Batad) patoykill any kind of animal life including man
  p-um-atoythat with which one kills, as a bolo
  patoy-onthat killed
Gaddang patay-ankill
Ilongot pasikill
Pangasinan patéydeath
Sambal (Botolan) pati-enkill
Kapampangan p-atékill; fight
Tagalog p-atáydead; dead person
  patay-pataydilatory, sluggish
Hanunóo pátaydry, as of grass
Aklanon p-atáykill (person, animal); put out, turn off (a light); corpse, dead person
  patáy-pátay"dead", poor, slim, inadequate, lousy
Kalamian Tagbanwa pataydead
Hiligaynon p-atáydead person, dead plant or animal, corpse
Palawan Batak pataydead, lifeless
Cebuano p-atáykill, slay; dead; for something to have been killed, deadened (as an engine); new moon; be head over heels in love
  patáy sa utuggirl used to satisfy one's sexual desires (lit. something to kill one's erection on)
  patáy-pátaydo something intensely
  pam-atáysomething used to kill
Mamanwa pataykill (cp. bonoʔ 'kill with spear')
Maranao p-ataydeath; die
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) p-ateydie
Mansaka pataycorpse; deceased; kill; die (as people), deteriorate (as crops)
Tboli h-ataykill
Blaan (Koronadal) f-otikill
Rungus Dusun na-pataydead
  pataz-unkill; death
Kelabit p-atedeath of someone
Miri f-atayhdead
Kenyah p-ataydeath
  pe-patayfight to death
Kayan p-ateycorpse; death
  pe-pateykilling one another; killing in warfare
Kiput jakaʔ p-ataːytime of death, time when someone dies
Murung taŋan p-atoykill
Siang ŋom-p-atoykill
Ngaju Dayak p-atäidead person
Malagasy f-átycorpse; death
  maha-fàtykill; put out a lamp
Malay denda patifine for slaying; blood-money (Java)
Toba Batak p-atecomplete, finished, come to an end (argument, process); dead
Lampung p-atikill
Sundanese p-atidying, someone's death; dead body, corpse
  talaŋ patilay down one's life for another
  pati-pate-ndead person
Old Javanese p(a)-atideath
Javanese patideath; dead; unusable
  pati-nhaving ceased to function
Madurese patesomething that is dead
  pate-ñahis death, his corpse
Balinese patideath
  salah paticondemned to death; so much, very
Proto-Sangiric *patedie; kill
Proto-Minahasan *patedie; kill
Tontemboan patetime of death; death; go out from time to time (fire, light)
  maka-patehaving died, having gone out (of fire)
  pate-anplace of dying or killing
Mongondow p-atoykill; extinguish a fire or light; bring flowing water to a standstill
  moko-patoyable to kill
Gorontalo patecorpse
Dampelas p-atekill
Uma p-ate-hikill
Bare'e mpate(-ña)the dead branches on trees
  mem-patedie in throngs
Tae' p-ate-ikill
Mandar p-ate-ikill


PWMP     *ka-p-atay (gloss uncertain)

Old Javanese ka-patideath (concrete case of dying)
Bare'e ka-patetime, place, or manner of death


PWMP     *ka-p-atay-an end or death of something (?)

Toba Batak ha-pate-anthe end of a matter, agreement
Mongondow ko-patoy-ancome to die, place or time in which one is overcome by death


PWMP     *ka-p-atay-en death

Hiligaynon ka-patáy-undeath
Javanese ke-pati-nsuffer loss through death; (of sleep) deep, sound
Madurese ke-patey-andeath


PWMP     *p<in>atay was killed

Kelabit p-in-atewas killed
Old Javanese p-in-atikill, mortify, cause to be like dead
Mongondow p-in-atoykilled
Chamorro f<in>ataydeath


PAN     *p-aCay-en be killed

Thao (kay) p-acay-inbe beaten, be killed
Ilokano patay-énkill, slay, put to death
Mongondow patoy-onhe must or will die


PAN     *pa-p-aCay kill

Thao pa-p-acayto fight
Saaroa pa-pa-pacikill
Proto-Rukai *pa-pacaykill


PMP     *pa-p-atay kill

Ilokano ag-pa-patáycommit suicide, take one's own life
Samal pa-pataykill
Kelabit pe-p-atekill each other
Toba Batak pa-pate-honbring to an end, extinguish
Sangir pa-patedeath
  ka-pa-patehour of death
Tontemboan pa-patedeath, time of dying or killing


PWMP     *pa-p-atay-an kill

Atta (Pamplona) pa-patay-ankill
Isneg pa-patay-ānplace in the axilla of a hog through which its heart is pierced, when slaughtering hogs
Tae' pa-p-ate-ankill
  to pa-p-ate-anmurderer


PMP     *in-atay dead

Ilokano n-atáydead, defunct, extinct, extinguished, indifferent, stopped
Atta (Pamplona) n-ataydead
Isneg n-atáydied, dead
Itawis n-atáydead
Bontok na-tə́ydie; dead
Kankanaey n-atéydied, departed, deceased, expired, gone out
Ifugaw n-atéhe/she died
Gaddang n-ataydead
Sambal (Botolan) n-atidead
Lun Dayeh in-atewas killed
Kelabit n-atewas killed
Sangir tau n-atedead person
Gorontalo il-atedead
Soboyo n-ate2sg, 3sg, and 3pl form of mate 'die'


PAN     *m<in>aCay burial ground (?)

Thao m<in>acaygrave, burial place
Ilokano m-in-atáydead (person). Considered as being in somebody's charge
Maranao m-i-a-tay so lawasparalysis
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) m-in-ateydead person
Mongondow m-in-atoydied; gone out (fire, light)


POC     *m<in>ate one who has died, dead person

Tolai m-in-atdeath
Duke of York m-in-atcorpse, dead body; dead
Roviana m-in-atedeath


PMP     *ma-m-atay as if dead?

Itawis ma-matáykill
Pangasinan ma-matéybutcher
Hanunóo ma-matáydie
Rungus Dusun ma-mataykill
Ngaju Dayak ma-matäyas if dying, half to death (of working hard, etc.)
Sangir ma-matekill
Banggai ma-mate-konkill
Rotinese ma-matelooking half dead; deathly sick
Erai ma-matewho dies; going to die
Yamdena ma-matedead


POC     *ma-mate (gloss uncertain)

Gilbertese ma-mateimmortal, imperishable, inextinguishable
Maori ma-matedistressed


PMP     *m-atay m-atay die in throngs; be on the verge of death

Toba Batak mate mate naalmost dead
Old Javanese a-mati matikill (in general, not in a particular case), commit the crime of killing
Makassarese mate matedie in throngs (in times of epidemic); total (with verbs)
Rotinese mate mateabsolute, thorough, complete
Buruese mata matadeadly
Buli mat-matdead body; corpse
Manam mate mateto die (iterative), to suffer
Motu mase maseused as an intensive with hebiri (sit or stand close together), hesede (crowded, jostle, etc.)
Nggela mate mateto overcome
Sa'a mae-maedie, be ill, become unconscious
Arosi mae-maevery weak, wasting; infirmity, weakness
Lonwolwol mɛr-mɛrbe faint; to faint, be half-hearted
Fijian mate matesickly
Rennellese mate mateweak, exhausted, as from sickness or grief; be nearly out, as a fire
Maori mate matedie or be taken or caught in numbers; sickly; shallow, failing, of streams

Note:   Also Bontok etéy ‘death’, pátay ‘any sacrifice performed on behalf of the village’, Aklanon ka-mátay-on ‘death’, Manggarai mate ‘the late, the deceased’, Ngadha mate ‘die; dead; the deceased; kill, slay’, Lamaholot maté-n ‘already dead, not moving any more’, Fordata matta ‘die; dead; go out (fire, light)’, Kowiai/Koiwai matata ‘corpse’, Marshallese mij ‘dead; numb; death’, Niue mase ‘die’. Since all of the forms that Dempwolff compared contain a reflex either of *p- or of *m-, he reconstructed both *patay and *matay ‘die, dead’. However, rather than list these reconstructions with the relevant supporting evidence separately, as was his practice with doublets, he posited paired etyma *patay, *matay at the head of a single mixed comparison, with an empty cross-reference to *matay. The explanation for this treatment is given in Dempwolff (1934-38:sect. 47e), where it is suggested that *matay is derived from *patay by nasal substitution, but is sufficiently widespread (being found in ‘Indonesian’, ‘Melanesian’ and Polynesian languages) to require a separate reconstruction. This was perhaps the closest Dempwolff came to the reconstruction of morphology.

The evidence now available shows that the unaffixed PAn base in question was *aCay. Dempwolff's *patay and *matay can most convincingly be derived from *pa-aCay ‘kill’ (with causative *pa-) and *ma-aCay ‘dead’ (with stative *ma-). That the base began with a vowel rather than *q- is clear from such reflexes as Bunun atađ ‘kill’, Kalamian Tagbanwa patay ‘dead’, Moken matay ‘die; dead’, Muna mate ‘die; dead’, Lou mat ‘die; dead’, and Tongan mate ‘die; dead’. The merger of *q- and zero in many attested languages would have led to homophony between reflexes of PAn *aCay ‘death’ and *qaCay ‘liver’, both of which figured in numerous expressions relating to the emotions. Possibly to avoid such potentially awkward homophony the unaffixed base was lost in the great majority of languages, leaving reflexes of *pa-aCay and *ma-aCay as effective secondary base forms for further morphological elaboration. Thus, next to PAn *pa-aCay and PMP *pa-atay ‘kill’ there is a priori evidence for e.g. PMP *pa(ka)-m-atay ‘kill’ and PWMP *ka-m-atay-an ‘affected by a death’, where the outer affixation evidently was added to an already prefixed base.

The alternative hypothesis, that forms such as Bunun atađ ‘kill’, Casiguran Dumagat atë ‘die; dead; death’ or Kelabit ate are products of analogical back-formation from a base *paCay or *maCay is more difficult to maintain in view of the fairly clear (though by no means universal) association of reflexes of the former with the causative ‘kill’ and of reflexes of the latter with the stative ‘dead’. Partly by analogy with *ma-qudip ‘living, alive’, I have attributed all reflexes that Dempwolff would have assigned to *matay to PAn *ma-aCay, PMP *ma-atay, PCEMP *matay, POc *mate. It is possible that these forms actually represent a conflation of *ma-aCay ‘dead’ (stative) and *um-aCay ‘die’ (active), since the initial vowel in reflexes of *in-atay generally disappeared even though it was retained in most other forms, and we would expect a parallel treatment of the initial vowel of *um-atay. Nonetheless, pairs such as Kelabit mate ‘die; dead’, in-ate ‘killed’ suggest that the former does contain a reflex of *ma- rather than *um-. The same apparently must be assumed in PMP *m-in-atay ‘person who has died, corpse’ (= *m-in-a-atay, with contraction of the sequence of like vowels), despite the fact that the co-occurrence of *ma- ‘stative’ and *-in- ‘perfective’ is otherwise rare.

Because of occasional ambiguities in the morphology it is possible that I have posited some morphologically complex forms of *aCay and its reflexes which are in reality products of convergent innovation. Examples include *m-atay-an ‘lose someone through death’, *paŋ-m-atay ‘means of killing(?)’, *ka-p-atay-an ‘end of death of something(?)’ and *ka-p-atay-en ‘death(?)’. As implied in passing above, it appears likely that the prefix of PAn *ma-aCay was reinterpreted as part of the stem in PCEMP *matay. The only known counterevidence to this claim is Bimanese h-ade ‘kill, extinguish a fire’ and Soboyo n-ate ‘2sg, 3sg and 3pl form of m-ate ‘die’. Finally, although Dempwolff reconstructed both *patay and *matay with the meaning ‘die, dead’ it is clear from the data assembled here that by at least PMP times a far richer complex of meanings was associated with *atay, whether alone, affixed, or in combination with various other free morphemes. These meanings included not only ‘death’, ‘dead’, ‘die’, ‘kill’, and ‘corpse’ but also the following more figurative senses:

1. ‘sick’ (Ilokano, Mono-Alu, Eddystone/Mandegusu, Lau, Sa'a, Chuukese, Puluwat, Woleaian, Fijian, Maori),
2. ‘tired, tired of something’ (Ilokano, Mono-Alu, Lau, Gilbertese, Tongan),
3. ‘faint, lose consciousness; unconscious’ (Ilokano, Asilulu, Buruese, Numbami, Nggela, Lau, Kwaio, Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi, Gilbertese, Chuukese, Mota, Lonwolwol, Tongan, Rennellese, Rarotongan, Maori, Hawaiian),
4. ‘(in conjunction with *qalejaw or *waRi ‘sun’ and *bulan ‘moon’) solar or lunar eclipse’ (Bunun, Manggarai, Kambera, Rotinese, Leti, Lau, Sa'a, Arosi, Gilbertese, Tongan),
5. ‘new moon’ (Cebuano, Toba Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Makassarese, Rennellese),
6. ‘go out, become extinguished, of a torch or fire’ (Isneg, Bontok, Ilokano, Toba Batak, Bahasa Indonesia, Nias, Mongondow, Palauan, Bimanese, Manggarai, Tetun, Tolai, Kilivila, Nggela, Kwaio, Gilbertese, Chuukese, Fijian, Rennellese, Rarotongan, Maori),
7. ‘overgrown or otherwise blocked, of a path’ (Bahasa Indonesia, Toba Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Kei),
8. ‘paralyzed, of the limbs’ (Kayan, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Nias, Sasak, Bare'e, Tae', Makassarese, Wolio, Palauan, Numbami, Nggela, Lau, Sa'a, Arosi, Gilbertese, Marshallese, Chuukese, Puluwat, Tongan, Rennellese, Kapingamarangi, Nukuoro),
9. ‘numb, asleep, of the limbs’ (Malagasy, Bahasa Indonesia, Sasak, Tae', Palauan, Sika, Tolai, Nggela, Lau, Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi, Marshallese, Lonwolwol, Nukuoro, Rarotongan),
10. ‘die down (of wind)’ (Malay, Toba Batak, Bahasa Indonesia, Bare'e, Makassarese, Kei, Buruese, Tongan),
11. ‘waterless, of springs or rivers’ (Bahasa Indonesia, Old Javanese, Mongondow?, Rarotongan, Maori),
12. ‘dry up, of plants’ (Hanunóo, Hiligaynon, Ngaju Dayak, Nias, Tetun, Nggela, Nukuoro, Rarotongan, Samoan),
13. ‘beaten in a game’ (Malagasy, Makassarese, Manggarai, Rotinese, Kei, Asilulu?, Gilbertese, Rarotongan),
14. ‘fixed, of a price’ (Malay, Bahasa Indonesia, Rotinese),
15. ‘terminate a matter, reach an agreement’ (Toba Batak, Makassarese, Yamdena, Buruese, Maori),
16. ‘disaster, misfortune’ (Tae', Rarotongan, Maori, Hawaiian),
17. ‘intensive, superlative: very, greatly; completely, thoroughly’ (Cebuano, Balinese, Rotinese, Soboyo?, Tanga, Tolai, Motu, Nggela, Kwaio),
18. ‘desire intensely, be deeply in love’ (Malagasy, Gedaged, Numbami, Gilbertese, Rarotongan, Maori).

To these we can add for PWMP:
19. ‘limp, of the penis’ (Cebuano, Mentawai),
20. ‘fatal spot on the body’ (Isneg, Cebuano, Sundanese),
21. ‘curse; oath; exclamation’ (Cebuano, Bikol, Toba Batak, Tontemboan),

and for PCEMP
22. ‘becalmed, of the sea’ (Rotinese, Kei, 'Āre'āre, Arosi, Gilbertese, Rarotongan).

For convenience I have associated all of these meanings with PMP *ma-atay. It is, moreover, likely that some form of *aCay was found in a PMP expression meaning ‘commit suicide’ (Ilokano, Aklanon, Cebuano, Kiput, Sasak, Banggai, Rennellese), and in a PWMP expression meaning ‘die in childbirth’ (Bahasa Indonesia, Javanese, Sasak, Bare'e, Tae'). The latter may have been the expression I have reconstructed here as *m-atay anak, although borrowing from Malay (e.g. Tagalog páti-anak) has complicated the issue. By contrast, the common practice of using a reflex of *aCay to refer to machinery which has stopped moving (stopped watch or clock, dead engine, etc.) clearly is convergent. Needless to say, many of these usages express universal tendencies.

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*adaduq long (of objects)


PWMP     *adaduq long (of objects)     [doublet: *anaduq]

Isneg adaddulong (of objects)
Kenyah (Long Anap) dadoʔlong (of objects)

Note:   Also Saisiyat ʔinaroʔ ‘long (objects)’, Paiwan laḍuq ‘be long (spatially)’, Chamorro anakkoʔ ‘long’.


*adamay a plant: Pipturus argenteus


PMP     *adamay a plant: Pipturus argenteus

Cebuano handa-lámaysmall tree: Pipturus argenteus. The white part of its bark is scraped and placed over dislocated bones to prevent swelling; the leaves are applied to eczemas
Maranao aramayhibiscus sp.: Pipturus arborescens
Manggarai samaa tree: Pipturus argenteus
Ngadha zamakind of small tree, the bark of which is used for cordage and mail (armor)

Note:   Sundanese haramay ‘an urticacea: Boehmeria nivea’ may also be cognate. If so, *adamay must be changed to *qadamay. The essence of this comparison appears in Verheijen (1984).


*adani near


PMP     *adani near     [doublet: *daŋi]

Ilokano adanínear
Atta (Pamplona) aranninear
Isneg adannínear
Kalinga (Guinaang) adanínear
Sambal (Botolan) ma-raninear
Mamanwa araninear
Manobo (Ata) ma-daninear
Subanon mo-laninear
Manobo (Tigwa) ma-daninear
Sebop daniʔnear
Kenyah (Long Dunin) daniʔnear
Kenyah (Long San) laniʔnear
Penan (Long Labid) daniʔnear
Kiput danaiʔnear
Katingan daninear
Lawangan daninear
Bimanese ɗeninear
Anakalangu ma-raninear
Helong daninear
Tugun raninear
Kola rennear
Ujir rennear
Dobel rrennear

Note:   Also Seediq dalex ‘near (in space or time)’, Ilokano addaní ‘close intervals (of events)’, Gaddang araʔni, Narum sanæʔ, Bintulu janiʔ ‘near’.


(Formosan only)

*adaS bring, take along


PAN     *adaS bring, take along

Kavalan azasto bring (people), to take something/someone along
Atayal arastake, take along, bring


PAN     *um-adaS bring

Kavalan m-azasto bring people, to take something/someone along
Saisiyat maraʃbring
Atayal m-arastake, take along, bring
Bunun madastake along, take

Note:   Although Bunun madas appears to be an affixed form of a base /adas/ Jeng (1972) gives the base as /madas/ because of affixed forms like /madas-in/. It is unclear whether the same is true of Saisiyat.


*adayúq far


PPh     *adayúq far

Ilokano adayófar, distant
  ka-adayóinterval, distance
  adaw-anto go far away from, get away from, keep one’s distance
  dáyoguest from another town
Itawis arayyúfar, distant
Gaddang aroyofar
Casiguran Dumagat adëyofar, distant; to withdraw, go far away
Bikol rayóʔdistance, stretch; range (as of a gun)
  mag-rayóʔto take further away; to move something to a more distant location
Subanon mo-layuʔfar
Tiruray rayuʔfar, distant, far apart
  se-rayuʔbeing related by blood, but not closely, no closer than fourth cousin
Tboli layukdistance; to be a long way off; to go away
Tausug layuʔdistance


PPh     *ma-adayuq far, far away, far off, distant

Ilokano ma-adayódistant (in personal relationship)
Tausug ma-layuʔfar
Mongondow mo-yayuʔfar, far away


PPh     *d<um>ayuq to distance oneself, move far off

Ilokano d<um>áyoto go to another place (for livelihood)
Tausug l<um>ayuʔto get far away from (something)
Mongondow y<um>ayuʔto distance oneself, move far away

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Zorc (1986:161). Despite the general phonetic similarity of the forms, *dayuq appears to be a clear replacement innovation for PMP *zauq ‘far’.


*adi no, not


PAN     *adi no, not     [disjunct: *hadiq]

Seediq (Truku) adinegation expressing the rejection of a preceding implicit affirmation
Puyuma aɖinegation
Atta (Pamplona) arino, not
Balangaw adino, negation of non-nominal expressions
Bontok ʔadino, not, negative of verbs and adjectives
Ifugaw adinegative auxiliary of verbs that actually denote a present action; if the verb denotes a past action uggé must be used

Note:   Also Itbayaten alih ‘not, none’. All Philippine reflexes that are assigned to *adi could just as easily be assigned to *hadiq, but this is not true of Seediq adi, which forces the reconstruction of a disjunct.


*adu compete, confront in a contest


PWMP     *adu compete, confront in a contest

Maranao adothreaten, as a piece in chess
Iban aduarbitrate, arrange, settle, adjust; complaint, appeal
Malay adupitting; matching one against the other; getting up a contest. Of any trial of strength or skill, or even of smartness and looks
Acehnese aducompete
Karo Batak aducompetition, rivalry
Toba Batak mar-aducompete with
Sundanese aducome into contact with one another (as the noses or foreheads of two persons
Javanese aduin contact, in confrontation
Balinese adufighting, duel, quarrel
Sasak aducompete for something, as in cockfights or races


PWMP     *maŋ-adu compete, confront in a contest

Karo Batak ŋ-aducomplain
  ŋ-adu-kencomplain about someone
Sundanese ŋ-adufight, confront, argue
Old Javanese aŋ-aduput face-to-face, bring into contact, make clash, have fight, pit against; to vie in, measure
Balinese ŋ-aduto fight
Sasak ŋ-aducompete with others

Note:   Also Tagalog áro ‘prodding test of strength of textiles’, Javanese aḍu ‘sue, bring legal action against’, Mongondow adu ‘accusation, charge’ (Malay loan). Many of the forms cited here probably are Malay loans, and the antiquity of the etymon is thus very much in doubt.


*aduq exclamation of pain, distress, etc.


PMP     *aduq exclamation of pain, distress, etc.

Mansaka adoʔshout to the spirits (as is the custom of a shaman)
Banjarese aduhexclamation of pain, surprise, etc.
Iban adohexclamation of pain or surprise, adih; cry to a child to sooth it
Malay adohoh! as an interjection of grief or pain
Karo Batak aducomplain
Sundanese aduhan exclamation of pain or grief' oh! ouch! alas!
Old Javanese aḍuhan exclamation of emotion (pain, surprise, etc.)
Javanese aḍuhexclamation of pain, sorrow, joy
Balinese aḍuhalas, oh! (pain, grief); address to superiors; illness, groaning
Kambera arúexclamation of pain, disappointment, astonishment


PWMP     *maŋ-aduq to exclaim in pain, distress, etc.

Karo Batak ŋ-adu-kencomplain about someone
Javanese ŋ-aḍuhto exclaim in pain, etc.

Note:   Also Tagalog aróy ‘pleased or complimentary exclamation’, Hanunóo adúg ‘ow! ouch! An exclamation of sudden pain similar to adíg’, Aklanon adóy ‘oh darn! (expression of frustration)’, Tiruray adoy ‘exclamation of pain’, Old Javanese aḍu, aḍū ‘an exclamation of emotion’, Tae' alu ‘exclamation of lamentation, regret, or disappointment’, Kei adō ‘exclamation of surprise or compassion’.


*a(n)duq long, of objects


PWMP     *a(n)duq long, of objects

Balangaw andulong
Bontok ʔandulong; tall
Kayan arulong (general term)

Note:   Apparently a syncopated form of either *adaduq or *anaduq, with possible contamination from *Sadu ‘much, many’.

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*ága early; punctual


PPh     *ága early; punctual

Ifugaw agáquick, swift, fast, implying a short time; as verb it conveys the meaning of doing something in a short time, without delaying
Casiguran Dumagat ágato be early
Tagalog ágaearliness
  um-agáh-into be overtaken by morning
Bikol ágamorning
  sa ágatomorrow
Hanunóo ʔágapunctuality
  ma-ʔágato be punctual
Binukid agato be early; to do something early


*agag a sieve; to sift


PWMP     *agag a sieve; to sift

Agutaynen mag-agagto sift flour, sand, etc.
Kelabit agaga sieve


PWMP     *maŋ-agag to sift

Agutaynen maŋ-agatto sift flour, sand, etc.
Kelabit ŋ-agagto sift (esp. rice that has already been husked through pounding)


*agam consider, think


PWMP     *agam consider, think

Iban agamconsider, think, reckon that
Toba Batak agamthink, intend

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Tagalog ágam-ágam ‘retrospection; misgiving, foreboding’, but the cognation of this form is very doubtful. Although PWMP *agam is only weakly supported it is difficult to explain the known reflexes through an appeal to borrowing, since a reflex has not been reported in Malay.


*a(ŋ)gap think carefully about, consider


PWMP     *a(ŋ)gap think carefully about, consider

Aklanon ágapgive time to, concentrate, think carefully (while working)
Iban aŋgapreckon, calculate, think, consider, look ahead; forethought, foresight
Malay (Jakarta) aŋgapto look carefully at

Note:   Chaer (1976) gives Jakarta Malay aŋgep ‘judge, estimate, calculate, think out’, which raises questions about the cognation of the Aklanon form.


*agas a tree: Aporosa spp.


PWMP     *agas a tree: Aporosa spp.

Binukid agasa tree: Aporosa sphaeridophora Merr. (Madulid 2001)
Malay agas-agasa tree: Aporosa maingayi


*agem₁ hold, grip


PWMP     *agem₁ hold, grip

Sebop agemhand
Bintulu agəmhand
Bukat ŋ-agemto hold
Melanau (Matu) agemhand
Madurese agemhold
Balinese agemhold

Note:   With root *-gem ‘grasp, grip’. Hiligaynon águm ‘obtain, attain, achieve, possess’ and related forms in other Philippine languages are assumed to derive from *agem ‘use, get use from’ (Blust 1980).


*agem₂ use, get use from


PWMP     *agem₂ use, get use from

Cebuano águmget full use out of some benefit someone bestows on one
Subanen/Subanun agomto enjoy (Churchill 1913)
Javanese di-agemused, made use of


*agem₃ overcast


PWMP     *agem₃ overcast

Cebuano agumdirtyish-white, greyish
Karo Batak agemdull (of color, sound); not entirely clear, of the light
Old Javanese agemcloudy sky


*ágiw soot


PPh     *ágiw soot

Ilokano ágiwcobweb
Tagalog ágiwsoot
Hanunóo ʔágiwsoot, such as that which collects on the rafters of a house
Aklanon ágiwsoot, black smoke deposit on wall or ceiling; to smudge, blacken with soot
  agíw-onsooty, smudged
Cebuano ágiwwhite, fine ashes; burn to white ashes

Note:   Also Itbayaten ariw ‘soot’, which suggests a different medial consonant that cannot presently be reconstructed. Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano.


*agu and, also


PMP     *agu and, also

Maranao agoand, also
Manggarai aguand, more, yet more, still
Rembong aguand, with, together with

Note:   Also Kambera àŋu ‘and, with’.


*águm greedy; take for oneself


PPh     *águm to appropriate for oneself

Yami agomgreedy
Itbayaten agomidea of defending, greed
Ilokano águmambition, greed; envy
Isneg na-áxumgreedy, gluttonous
Pangasinan ágomgreedy
  ma-ágomvery greedy
Aklanon ágomto taste, receive one’s due, enjoy, obtain, attain
Hiligaynon mag-águmto obtain, attain, achieve, possess
Cebuano águmget full use out of some benefit someone bestows on one


PPh     *agum-an defend, protect one’s interests

Itbayaten agom-anto defend, to protect
Ilokano agúm-anto crave for, covet; be envious


*agúm to associate with someone


PPh     *agúm to associate with someone

Kankanaey agúm-ento collect; to assemble; to gather together; to bring together
Casiguran Dumagat agúmcompanion
  məg-agúmfor a married couple to live together
  məŋ-agúmto help someone
Ayta Abellan agomto join, put together
Kapampangan águmto associate
  k-águman associate, a concomitant
  maki-águmto join a group
Bikol agómspouse, mate; husband, wife
  mag-agómto get married; husband and wife, couple

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*ai₁ anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place


POC     *ai₁ anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place

Tolai aiit, sometimes used as a relative pronoun
Motu aiof time or place; in, at, when, during. May be used after single words or clauses
Mono-Alu -aisuffix: there, away; place where or whither
Arosi aithere, that place
Tongan aipronominal adverb: there, in it, on it, because of it, etc.; or (in a relative sense) where, in which, on which, because of which, etc.
Niue aia particle used in the following ways: 1. after verbs to show that what has happened, or is to happen, is the result, consequence, or intention of what has gone before, 2. to indicate a relative clause, frequently giving a verb a passive sense, 3. with the prepositions i and aki to refer to a thing or place already mentioned
Samoan aianaphoric and relative particle: there, why (e.g. 'that was the reason why he came'), herein, hereby
Tuvaluan aianaphoric pronoun
Nukuoro aipredicate complement
Rennellese aicommon anaphoric particle usually closing a verb phrase and liking it to a preceding noun, often with meaning there, thereby, thus, at, in, it, him, her
Rarotongan aiparticle used after a verb to denote cause, means, etc. of event, or to connect an intransitive verb with a transitive verb
Maori ainot generally to be translated by any equivalent English word, but used in the following cases: 1. in relative clauses, where the relative in English is governed by a verb or preposition, 2. in clauses expressing the reason for which anything is done, or the object in view in doing it, 3. in clauses marking the time or place of an action or event, 4. with a verb or adjective denoting an action or state consequent upon some previous action, 5. denoting present habitual condition or action, 6. with reference to something previously mentioned
Hawaiian ailinking or anaphoric particle. Every ai in Hawaiian has an antecedent, usually expressed, but sometimes understood (Elbert and Pukui 1979:96)

Note:   Also Lau ʔai ‘which (relative pronoun)’, Rotuman e ‘adverb, therein, therefrom, because of it, etc. Though generally a quasi-suffix, it is used occasionally in a more independent position’. There is a history of discussion of this form in the literature, with the following milestones:

(1) Pawley (1972:77) reconstructed POc *(q)i-ai ‘previously mentioned place; there, thereat’, adding that this form is ‘Probably analyzable into relational preposition ... and *ai ‘there, previously mentioned place";

(2) Chapin (1974) provided an extensive discussion of PPn *ai,

(3) Pawley (1978:37) showed that many of the Austronesian languages of New Guinea reflect *-iai ‘a postposition marking locative or general relation’, and noted that ‘Evidently, in New Guinea Oceanic the locative pronoun *ai was reanalyzed as a post-nominal particle and its function was generalised to that of a locative case marker. Further study is needed to determine the precise distribution of this putative innovation’;

(4) most recently Ross (1988:347ff) has documented the distribution of *-iai among most languages of the Papuan Tip cluster, several branches of the North New Guinea cluster, and in Torau and Mono-Alu of the Meso-Melanesian cluster. He argues that its use as a postposition in the latter two languages probably is historically independent from the similar usage in the Austronesian languages of New Guinea, and characterized its ‘most usual function in Oceanic languages’ as that of an ‘oblique proform’.


*ai₂ interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc.


PAN     *ai₂ interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc.

Atayal aiexclamation
Paiwan aiexclamation: alas! oh my!
Itbayaten ayan expression of surprise, awe and the like
Ilokano ayan interjection: ah!
  ay-áywoe to
Isneg ayan interjection: ah!
Kankanaey ay-ʔayah! ho! what a pickle you are in! Interjection denoting wonder or surprise
Ifugaw ayexclamation to arouse someone's attention
Pangasinan ayinterjection expressing hesitation, surprise, or consternation
Tagalog ayinterjection: ay! alas!
Bikol ayah (exclamation)
Aklanon ayinterjection: my! oh! what? (shock, surprise)
Maranao ay-ʔayexclamation of disdain or disbelief
Kelabit aicry of surprise, shock or dismay
Melanau (Mukah) ayexclamation, oh!
Malay aiinterjection expressive of interest and approval
Nias aiinterjection: hey!
Rejang ai-aiejaculation of astonishment or appreciation
Javanese aiexclamation of incredulity or deprecation
Mongondow aiexclamation: hey!
Gorontalo aːyiexclamation, as on seeing a snake
Bimanese aiexclamation
Ngadha aiwail and lament; complain
Kambera aiexclamation
Mbula aihey!
Kilivila aioh no!
Cheke Holo aiexclamation of surprise
Nggela aiexclamation of surprise
Sa'a aiexclamation of dissent, disapproval or surprise

Note:   Also Itbayaten ayyih ‘exclamation of satisfaction’, Cebuano aháy ‘exclamation expressing utter tiredness or frustration’, Iban aih ‘interjection of annoyance, mockery, etc.’, Malay ahi ‘interjection to invite attention’, Nias hai-hai ‘interjection: oh! oh!, Manggarai ‘exclamation’, Nggela ae ‘exclamation of surprise, or deprecatory’.


*ai₃ come


PAN     *ai₃ come     [doublet: *ari, *aRi]

Ilokano ayto come
  ipa-ayto present, use as, offer
Tiruray ʔayto go, to come
Tboli è ec’mon, come on!
Enggano aicome
Tontemboan aihither, toward the place where the speaker is; used as a verbal postclitic
  ke-aiat the coming of
  maka-aiall come
  mapa-ailet come, allow to come
  ai-ento have come to (a condition)


PAN     *um-ai to come     [doublet: *um-ari, '(ari', *um-aRi 'aRi)']

Favorlang/Babuza maito come
Ilokano um-ayto come
  aginʔa-ayto pretend to come
  maka-umayable to come
Tontemboan m-aiwill come, shall come
Banggai maiCome!
Tae' maihither, toward the speaker
  dio maifrom there
  dao maifrom above
  male maicome here
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *maito come
Mandar maifrom; hither, to here
Wolio maicome; hither; Come on! (= ‘Let’s go!’)
Muna maicome
  mai-moCome on! Let us.
Bimanese maito come; Come on! Let’s go!
Manggarai maiCome on! Let’s go!; hither; to come; then, therefore, thus; origin, originate; from, after (in time)
Rembong maito come; Come on! Let’s go!
Ngadha maito come; hither
Sika maito come
Lamboya maito come
Kambera maito come
Hawu maito come
Rotinese maito come; to arrive
Tetun maito come; prepostion: to, for, here
  mai bebut, however
Erai mato come
Kisar maito come
Leti maito come
Luang n-maito come
Wetan maito come, to come to, to become (in this case it is usually followed by pi)
Selaru r-mato come
Yamdena n-mato come
Kamarian maihither, toward the speaker
Paulohi maito come; hither
Alune maito come; here
Buli mahither, toward the speaker
Numfor matoward the speaker
  rā-macome hither
Waropen mahither, toward the speaker
  aede macome here
Ansus ra-macome


POC     *mai come; toward the speaker

Munggui ra-mato come
Lou meto come
  wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Penchal meto come
  wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Loniu meto come
Titan meto come
Levei o meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Sori mayto come
  go mayCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Lindrou wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Bipi meto come
Wuvulu maito come
  no maiCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Mussau maito come
  kasu maiCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Tolai maihither, to here; Come here!; to cease, stop, abate, of rain
Bali (Uneapa) maito come
Vitu maicome; this way, here; to me
Amara -mecome
Lakalai maito me; hither
  s-o-maiin my direction
Sobei e-mato come
Kairiru -myaicome; motion towards the speaker
Kis meto come
Manam maito come
  go maiCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Motu maito come
Molima maito come; hither (vs. wai)
Selau la maCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Piva nu-maito come
Mono-Alu lao-maCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Sengga meto come
Kokota maito come
Hoava maeto come
Vangunu maito come
Eddystone/Mandegusu maihither, to here, generally used with an imperative; to come
  bola maiCome here!
Nggela maihither, from a point, at a point away from the speaker; come; up til now, from up til now
  nia maicome with, bring
  vula te mainext month
Lengo maito come
Longgu la maiCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Kwaio maihither; come
  mai-acall someone by waving the hand; beckon
  siŋali loʔo mainext month
Toqabaqita maivenitive directional; signals direction toward the deictic center; in temporal noun phrases it signals that the period of time is distant from the time of reference
'Āre'āre maihere, hither, this way, said of things and persons coming nearby; come here; give it to me; let me see, show me
  uta mairain is coming
Sa'a maihither, here, this way
Arosi maihither; nearer
  mai hei?Where do you come from?
  haa maiGive me
Proto-Micronesian *maifrom
Gilbertese maifrom
  mai ikaifrom here
  ka-maiGive me! (for distant objects)
  nako-maiCome here, come towards me!
Puluwat mefrom
Woleaian mefrom, at, to than (as in ‘Where did you come from?’)
Carolinian mefrom, at
Motlav van meCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Mota mahither, this way
Fortsenal su-maito come
Raga maito come
Leviamp mato come
Axamb -ko-maiCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Makatea nu-maito come
Nakanamanga u-maito come
Wayan maiindicates movement or orientation towards the speaker or the speaker’s point of reference: this way, hither, here (the movement may be actual or figurative); indicates that a change of state is beginning or is in progress: start to, become, grow, get (into a new state)
Fijian maia directive particle after verbs, indicating movement towards the speaker
Tongan maito or towards me or us, etc.; also expression of desire, etc.
Niue maidirective particle: hither, this way, towards the speaker; to give (towards the speaker only); from
Futunan maimai
  mai le tosiGive me the book!
Samoan maipre-basic particle, from; post-basic particle which denotes a literal or figurative movement from a position (in space or time) toward the point where the speaker is
Tuvaluan maitowards the speaker; to pass to the speaker; to come (plural)
Kapingamarangi maitoward speaker; from (place or time)
Nukuoro maitoward the speaker; less; nearer
Rennellese maidirectional particle and verb indicating direction towards the speaker; this way, here; me, us; give me; look here; preposition, from
Anuta maiparticle indicating action toward some point of reference, generally the speaker; from
Rarotongan maihither, here; correlative of atu; used with verbs, adjectives and local nouns to indicate direction or action towards the speaker
Maori maihither, correlative of atu; used with verbs, adjectives and local nouns to indicate direction or action towards the speaker; indicating extension of time or space towards the speaker; often to be translated ‘from’
Hawaiian maidirection towards the speaker; come, come here; say, give (used without particles); almost, nearly, as though; particle of negative command
  hele maiCome!

Note:   Also Kajeli mae ‘to come’, Nauna ko me-h ‘Come here! (= ‘you come’)’, Roviana mae ‘come; used frequently in conjunction with other words, but always implies motion towards speaker’. Dempwolff reconstructed only *maRi ‘hither’, and although he noted that Sa'a mäi showed an unexplained loss of the medial consonant under his interpretation, he regarded the Fijian and Polynesian forms as regular developments. However, nearly all reflexes of this form in Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages reflect *um-ai, suggesting that even where they are ambiguous for *um-ai or *um-aRi they probably reflect the first variant. It is further noteworthy that both Ibaloy ali (< *aRi) and Toqabaqita mai (< *um-ai) signal distance in time from the present.

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*ajan name


PMP     *ajan name     [doublet: *najan, *ŋajan]

[Isneg náxanwho?, what? (cp. ŋáxan 'name, appellation')]
Kalamian Tagbanwa aranname
Mansaka aranname
Belait adinname
Kayan (Uma Juman) araname
Bukat aranname
Lahanan aranname
Ngaju Dayak araname
Taboyan aranname
Maloh asanname
Singhi Land Dayak adunname
Old Javanese aranname
Javanese aranpersonal name; name, (what something is) called or known as
Balinese adanname, appellation; give a name
Sasak aranname


POC     *acan name

Seimat axa-name
Tigak asanname
Tabar asa-name
Mendak aza-name
Tanga asaname, either personal or common; who?
Label asawhat?
Sobei asa-name
Tarpia taya- <Mname
Kairiru asa-name
Manam ara-name
Magori akaname
Hula araname
Motu lada-name
Gabadi aganame
Roro ata-name
Mekeo (East) aka-name
Banoni vasaŋaname
Nggela ahaname
  ahei (< *asa-i)who?; whoever, anyone, he who
Kwaio lataname
  lata-naname; reputation
Lau sataname; namesake; friend
'Āre'āre rata-iname
Sa'a sataname
Arosi ataname
  atei (< *asa-i)who; interrogative pronoun, but not indefinite like Mota isei
Gilbertese araname, title, noun
  are (< *asa-i)who, whom, that, which, what, whoever
Marshallese ātname; reputation
Pohnpeian ahdname; noun
Mokilese adname; reputation
Jawe yatname
Rotuman asaname; reputation, honor
Fijian yacaname


PMP     *pa(ka)-ajan to name, give a name to

Sasak p-arangive someone a name
Fijian vaka-yaca-nato name

Note:   Also Samal oon ‘name’, Jarai anan ‘name’, Sasak ara ‘name’, Sangir areŋ ‘name’, Bantik adeŋ ‘name’, Buginese aseŋ ‘name’, Makassarese areŋ ‘name’, Numbami ase ‘name’. Kayan (Uma Juman) ara appears to have lost the final nasal through analogical back-formation by reinterpretation of -n as ‘3sg. possessor’ (cp. mata-n ‘his/her eye’). The same presumably is of true of Ngaju Dayak, Sasak ara, although the facts in these cases are less well known.

Finally, the use of the word for ‘name’ as an interrogative marker, either ‘who?’ (extension of its use as a marker of personal names), or ‘what?’ (extension of its use as a marker of common names) has a thin but widespread distribution in Austronesian languages, including the northern and southern Philippines, New Ireland, the Solomon Islands and portions of Micronesia. I assume that these usages are convergent developments.


(Formosan only)

*ajem heart; mind


PAN     *ajem heart; mind

Basai anemliver
Kavalan anemheart, mind
  kasi-anemto think
  si-anemto remember
Saisiyat (Taai) azemheart (mind)
  maL-ʔaz-ʔazemto think


*ajiq exclamation of pain or surprise


PWMP     *ajiq exclamation of pain or surprise

Pangasinan agíouch!
Iban adihexclamation of pain or surprise

Note:   Also Tiruray adey ‘exclamation of pain’, Malay adoh, aduh ‘oh! as an interjection of grief or pain’. Given their expressive character some or all of these items could be products of convergence.

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*aka elder sibling


PWMP     *aka elder sibling     [doublet: *kaka₂]

Casiguran Dumagat ákaolder sibling (reference)
Yakan s-akato be older in age than someone else (people and domesticated animals); older brother or sister; elder sibling
Sama (Central) si-akaelder sibling
Tarakan i-akaelder sibling
Ngaju Dayak akaone’s own elder sibling of the same sex


PWMP     *aka-ŋ elder sibling (vocative)

Sundanese aŋka-ŋelder brother
Balinese aka-ŋolder brother or sister
Sangir aka-ŋthe older of two brothers or sisters


PWMP     *aka-q elder sibling (vocative)

Kalamian Tagbanwa aka-Ɂolder sibling
Tingalan (West) pag-aka-Ɂsibling
Tingalan (East) aka-Ɂsibling


*akak cackling laughter


PMP     *akak cackling laughter

Bikol ákákto quack
Balinese akaklaugh loudly
Manggarai ahakimitation of the sound of a cough

Note:   Also Hanunóo akhák ‘expectoration of catarrhal phlegm’, Cebuano akaʔak ‘make a crackling sound, loud creaking sound’. With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.


*akaŋ take a long step, step over something


PWMP     *akaŋ take a long step, step over something     [disjunct: *sakaŋ]

Bontok ʔákaŋto step over, as a rock or a sleeping person
Kankanaey akaŋ-káŋto spread one’s legs; to straddle
Ifugaw (Batad) ākaŋfor someone to step over someone or something, especially something low
Casiguran Dumagat akáŋto cautiously take a step (as a hunter in stalking game, or a small child just learning to walk)
Lun Dayeh akaŋa pace, step, stride
  ŋ-akaŋopen the legs to step forward, step over something
  kaŋ-en ~ kaŋ-inwill be stepped over

Note:   Kankanaey akaŋ-káŋ is assumed to show rightward reduplication. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*akaR root


PMP     *akaR root     [disjunct: *wakaR]

Bisaya (Limbang) akawvine, creeper
Murik akahvines, creepers, aerial roots
Kayan (Uma Juman) akahvines, creepers, exclusive of rattan
Malay akarroot; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana
Karo Batak akarvery young jungle (must have earlier referred to creepers)
Balinese akahroot, tree root
Sasak akarroot
Tugun ai ʔakarroot
Watubela akalroot
Tongan akaroot
Samoan aʔaroot
Tuvaluan akaroot
Kapingamarangi agaroot (of tree or plant)
Rennellese akaroot
Anuta vai-akaroot
Rarotongan akaroot
Maori akalong and thin roots of trees or plants; vine of any climbing plant
Hawaiian aʔasmall root, vein, artery, nerve, tendon, muscle

Note:   Also Sasak akah ‘root’.


*ake tree sp.


POC     *ake tree sp.

Eddystone/Mandegusu akesp. tree
Tongan akehardwood tree found at Vava’u
Rarotongan akeakea tree which is common at high altitudes --- it attains from 12 to 15 feet in height, Xylosma gracile
Maori akea tree: Dodonaea viscosa
Hawaiian aʔeseveral native trees, the soapberry (sapindus saponaria f. inaequalis), and all species of Fagara (also known as Xanthoxylum), Fagara having yellowish wood formerly used for digging sticks and spears; seeds of all (largest in the soapberry) are black, round, and used for leis

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*aken₁ 1sg oblique


PAN     *aken₁ 1sg oblique

Thao y-akin1sg accusative and absolute possessive pronoun
Proto-Bunun *ð-akun1sg acc (Ross 2006:533)
Paiwan ti-akenI
Ibatan y-aken1sg topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun
  dy-aken1sg dative and emphatic possessive marker
Tagalog ákin1sg oblique
Maranao r-aken1sg oblique
Bonggi di-adn1sg oblique
Sungai Seguliud akon1sg oblique
Ida'an Begak n-akon1sg oblique
Murut (Kolod) d-akon1sg oblique


*aken₂ preposition, on, upon; applicative marker


PWMP     *aken₂ preposition, on, upon; applicative marker

Malay akanto; towards; going towards; about to; shall
  -kantransitive suffix
Bahasa Indonesia akanabout (as in ‘forget about’); concerning; in order to
Karo Batak -kentransitive or causative suffix (tasak ‘ripe, ready to eat’ : tasak-ken ‘to make ready, cook’ pajek ‘vertical’ : pajek-ken ‘to erect’; peti ‘box’ : peti-ken ‘to put into a box’, begi ‘to hear’ : begi-ken ‘to listen to’
Toba Batak -honverb suffix that represents the object as being the immediate cause of an action or state
Old Javanese akənlike, by way of; to be considered as
Javanese (Krama) -akento do on someone’s behalf; to have someone do, to have something done; to use; to bring about (an act or condition)
Wolio -akasuffix marking a phrase as subordinate; verbal suffix indicating a relation with an object (e.g. unda ‘to agree’ : unda-aka ‘to approve of’, potawa ‘to laugh’ : potowa-aka ‘to laugh at’, taŋi ‘to weep’ : taŋi-aka ‘to bewail, weep for s.o.’)


*akerahaq cry of a monkey


PMP     *akerahaq cry of a monkey

Tagalog akláhaʔcry of monkeys
Maranao keraʔsound made by the monkey
Iban kerah-kerahchattering
Manggarai keracall, cry of a monkey
Ngadha kerashrill cry of monkeys

Note:   Iban kerah-kerah was earlier assigned to *keraq ‘chattering of monkeys’ (Blust 1970: no. 207).


(Formosan only)

*aki grandfather


PAN     *aki grandfather, ancestor     [doublet: *baki]

Atayal akiʔpaternal or maternal grandmother
Thao akigrandfather
Tsou akʔigrandfather
Molbog akigrandfather
Tatana aki ~ yakigrandfather
Murut (Timugon) akigrandfather
Lolak akigrandfather
Mongondow akigrandfather

Note:   Thanks to Jason Lobel for pointing out the reflexes of this form in Sabah and northern Sulawesi. Also Yami Ivatan akay, Isneg akáy, Agta (Dupaningan) kakay ‘grandfather’. With unexplained postconsonantal glottal stop in Tsou. Since a non-problematic reflex of *aki is not available in at least two primary branches of Austronesian this might be considered a ‘near comparison’. However, since it is found next to the doublet *baki, which can be reconstructed without issues it is posited here.


*a(ŋ)kit bite


PMP     *a(ŋ)kit bite

Aklanon áŋkitto bite, nip
Ngaju Dayak p-aŋkitbiting, to bite (as a dog)
Manggarai akitto bite


PMP     *um-a(ŋ)kit to bite

Dusun Malang maŋkitto bite
Tetun makkitto bite


*akot to point out, show, teach


POC     *akot to point out, show, teach

Duke of York akototo point out, show
Tongan akoto learn, to receive, to receive education
Samoan aʔoto learn; to teach, train
Rennellese akoteacher; religious instructor; to teach
Anuta akoto learn
  paka-akoto teach
Rarotongan akoto admonish, warn, reprove mildly; to exhort, to teach, to advise
Maori akoto learn; to teach, instruct, advise
Hawaiian aʔoinstruction, teaching, doctrine, learning

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) assigned the Tongan and Samoan forms cited here to *a(ŋ)ken ‘to approriate to oneself; mine’.


*aku 1sg nominative; I


PAN     *aku 1sg nominative; I

Kavalan iku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Atayal s-akuprimary pronoun, I
Proto-Atayalic *-akuI
Tsou na-ʔo1sg.; I’
Rukai (Budai) ko-akó1sg.; I’
Proto-Rukai *-ako1sg.; I’
Itbayaten akoI
Ivatan ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sambal (Botolan) aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kapampangan aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tagalog akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Remontado s-aku1sg., I
Bikol akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Buhid 1sg., I
Hanunóo ʔakúI (pronoun)
Inati ako1sg,, I/me
Aklanon akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hiligaynon akú1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Palawan Batak ʔakóI (pronoun)
Cebuano akúI, me
Aborlan Tagbanwa aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Maranao ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mansaka aku1sg. topic pronoun: I
Yakan aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bonggi ou1sg. focused actor pronoun: I
Tboli ɔʔuh1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tausug akuh1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Samal aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Murut (Timugon) aku1sg. topic and theme pronoun: I
Ida'an Begak aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Murut (Tagol) aku1sg. short form nominative pronoun
Bisaya (Lotud) oku1sg., I
Bisaya (Limbang) aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bisaya aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (coarse, or non-respect form)
Bulungan aku1sg. nominative; I
Kelabit u-ih1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Berawan (Long Terawan) akkoh1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Narum kaw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Miri ko-y1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Penan (Long Labid) akəuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Kayan (Uma Juman) aku-y1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Bintulu akəw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Melanau (Mukah) akəw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Siang akuh1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Ma'anyan aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Malagasy ahoI, myself (used chiefly after the predicate)
Dusun Witu aku1sg., I
Iban akuI, me, my, mine
Singhi Land Dayak aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Jarai kəwI, me
Rhade kəwI, me
Malay akuI; me. The pronoun of the first person singular, but used in a double sense: (i) 'myself', used by a superior to an inferior, by an elder to a younger, or between equals talking so familiarly as to ignore etiquette. Also in prayer, (ii) 'my own', i.e. taking responsibility for or answering for
Gayō aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Simalur aʔu1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Karo Batak aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Toba Batak ahu1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Mentawai āku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Rejang uku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Old Javanese akupronoun of the first person: I, me
Javanese aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me; my (variant of -ku)
Sasak aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tonsawang ahu1sg., I
Mongondow aku-oi1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Buol aku1sg., I
Banggai i-aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Uma aku-ʔ1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bare'e aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tae' aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mori aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (future)
Wolio -akusuffix with transitive verbs indicating 1sg. object
Palauan ŋak1sg. emphatic subject and object pronoun: I, me
Chamorro gwahu1sg. emphatic subject pronoun: I
Komodo ahu1sg.: I, me
Manggarai aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Riung aku1sg., I
Li'o aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hawu yaː1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Rotinese au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Atoni auʔ1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tetun (Dili) h-au1sg., I
Kemak au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mambai au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Erai au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Talur g-aʔuI
Tugun au1sg., I
Kisar au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Leti au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Luang aʔu1sg., I, me
Wetan ai1sg., I
Selaru yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kola ak1sg., I
Ujir ak1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Dobel saʔu1sg. nominative pronoun: I
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) ok1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Elat ak1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Geser aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bonfia y-ā1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Nuaulu au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Paulohi au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Alune aku~ au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Boano₂ au-ne1sg., I, me
Soboyo aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sekar yai1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kowiai/Koiwai laʔ1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Buli ya1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Munggui yau1sg., I
Wuvulu au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tabar au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sursurunga yau1sg., I
Arop au1sg., I
Sobei yau1sg., I
Kis au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sinaugoro au1sg., I/me
Roro au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Papapana au1sg. object, me
Haku aku1sg., I
Torau in-au1sg, I, me
Ura yau1sg., I
Tongan au1sg.: I, me
Niue au1sg.: I, me
Samoan aʔu1sg. exclusive conjunct verbal pronoun (post-basic)
Tahitian (v)au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Maori au1sg.: I, me
Hawaiian (w)au1sg. nominative pronoun: I


PAN     *i-aku 1sg., I, me

Saisiyat y-ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Seediq (Truku) y-akuemphatic form of the 1sg. personal pronoun; always requires a particle (ka or o) in order to be united with the predicate of which it is the subject
Pazeh y-aku1sg. topic and accusative pronoun: I, me
Thao y-aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bunun ðakume
Saaroa ilh-aku1sg.; I
Ba'amang y-akuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Malagasy iz-ahoI, myself (used chiefly before the predicate)
Nias y-aʔó1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Wolio i-aku1sg.: I, me
Kodi jajo1sg., I
Yamdena yaku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hitu y-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Buruese y-akome. Usually objective case
Tifu yako1sg., I/me
Onin i-ai1sg., I
Gimán yak1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Dusner ya1sg., I
Wandamen yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Ron ya1sg., I
Numfor ya1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Marau₁ i-au1sg., I
Ansus y-au1sg, I
Ambai yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
  yau1sg., I
Woi yau1sg., I
Leipon yo1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Ponam ja1sg, I, me
Duke of York i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Maleu i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Lakalai e-auI, me
Mengen i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sobei yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Gitua yau1st sg., I
Ubir yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Suau yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Motu lau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Pokau i-au1sg., I
Mekeo (East) lau1sg., I
Saliba yau1sg, I, me
Tinputz yo1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sie i-au1sg., I
Sye y-au1sg., I
Southwest Tanna i-ou1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Fijian i-au1sg. cardinal pronoun: I


PWMP     *aku-en acknowledge; receive, accept

Ilokano ako-énreceive, accept with both hands; receive graciously (a petitioner, etc.); to get (a reward)
Malay (Sarawak) akunclaim, admit
Old Javanese akon-akonpossession (promised as war booty); acknowledged (adopted) child


PAN     *k-aku 1sg oblique: to me, for me

Amis kako1sg.; I
Kapampangan kaku1sg. benefactive-dative personal pronoun; to (for) me (Mirikitani 1972:102)
Karo Batak kakusomeone who answers for another
Rejang k-akewacknowledge (imperative)
Old Javanese k-ākumake something one's own, to appropriate; relate to oneself, take possession of, master; regard as one's own, acknowledge, confess to, admit; to claim (as one's own), be sure of, depend on, answer for, guarantee, declare that one is able to (often boastfully)


PWMP     *maŋ-aku admit, confess

Pangasinan maŋ-ákoaccept, receive
Iban ŋ-akuʔtreat as, acknowledge; claim, admit, confess, own (as if owning up to the paternity of a child)
Karo Batak ŋ-akuadmit, confess
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-aku-iguarantee, be responsible for
Toba Batak meŋ-ahu-hondesire for oneself
Rejang meŋ-akewacknowledging
Sundanese ŋ-akuadmit, confess; to receive (a guest)
Old Javanese aŋ-akumake something one's own, to appropriate; relate to someone; take possession of, master; regard as one's own, acknowledge, confess to, admit; claim (as one's own), be sure of, depend on, answer for, guarantee, declare that one is able to (often boastfully)
Javanese ŋ-akuacknowledge, claim or acknowledge as one's own; claim falsely
Madurese ŋ-akoadmit, confess
Balinese ŋ-akuclaim as one's own, say 'mine'; acknowledge (a child)
Sasak ŋ-akuadmit, confess
Sangir maŋ-akuadmit, confess; undertake something
Tontemboan maŋ-akuadmit, confess; commit oneself to something
Mongondow moŋ-akuadmit, confess, acknowledge, promise
Gorontalo moŋ-akuadmit, confess
Dampelas meŋ-akuadmit, confess
Bare'e maŋ-akuadmit, confess; undertake something
Tae' maŋ-akuadmit, confess
Makassarese aŋŋ-akuadmit, confess


PMP     *ni aku 1sg. agent

Cebuano n-ákuʔmy; by me (agent/possessor form)
Lampung ñakI (coarse form)
Bimanese nahuI (older person speaking to younger one: coarse, or non-respect form)


POC     *naku 1sg., I, me

Tigak nakI
Magori nau1sg.
Misima nau1sg.
Bugotu i-nauI
Nggela nauI, me; to seize
Kwaio nauI, me
  nau ʔaniaclaim title to
Lau nauI, me
  nau-nauself-assertive, egotist; strong and violent, of a person
  nau satato own
Sa'a i-neu1sg., used as subject only and followed by nou
Ulawa i-nau1sg., used as subject and also as a possessive
Mota i-nau1sg., I, me
Raga i-nau1sg.
Paamese i-nauI, me, 1sg.
Nakanamanga ki-nau1sg.
Canala naI, me


POC     *ŋau₂ 1sg.: I

Lou ŋa1sg.: I
Seimat ŋa1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Lamogai ŋa1sg.: I
  ŋa1sg.: I
Sengseng ŋa1sg.: I
Manam ŋau1sg.: I
Gedaged ŋa1sg.: I, me
Gitua ŋaI (subject prefix): yau ŋa geno 'I slept'
Nehan i-ŋo1sg.: I, my
Kosraean ŋa1sg.: I
Marshallese ŋaabsolute pronoun, 1sg.: I
Nokuku nau1sg., I
Amblong n-au1sg., I

Note:   Also Nias yaʔo ‘I’, Ngadha dzao ‘I’, Sika ʔaʔu ‘I’, Tetun haʔu ‘I, me’, Yapese gaeg ‘I, me’, Mussau agi ‘I’, Vitu Gau ‘I, me’, Wogeo va ‘I’, Roviana rau ‘I, me’, Rotuman goua ‘I, me’, Tongan ou ‘I, me’. Many reflexes of *aku contain a fossilized person marker *i (cf. Blust 1977). In some Oceanic languages it is difficult to determine whether an initial high front glide in this form is the reflex of *i, or the epenthetic onset that was commonly added to forms that began with *a (Blust 1990:10ff).

There are several additional problems associated with the morphology of this entry, not including the non-morphologically derived forms *-ku and *ak, which are treated as separate entries.

First, independent evidence for a directional particle *ki suggests that *k-aku derives ultimately from *ki aku, although direct evidence for this collocation still is lacking.

Second, widespread reflexes of *n-aku or *ñ-aku (presumably < *ni aku) suggest that the long-form pronoun *aku followed the agent/possessor marker *ni in certain constructions, even though normally only the short-form pronouns occurred in this environment (Blust 1977:5).

Third, although it is necessary to reconstruct a POc variant *ŋau the source of the initial consonant, and the syntactic distinctions between *ŋau and other forms of the 1sg. personal pronoun remain unclear (cf. Pawley 1972:61, where ‘PEOc’ *(i) nau is glossed ‘1sg. focal’, *au and *nau as ‘1sg. object’, *(ŋ)ku and *na(u) as ‘1sg. subject’, and *-ŋku as ‘1sg. possessive’, although *ŋau does not appear among the languages considered, and hence is not considered).

Fourth, so many CMP and OC languages show an irregular loss of *k in *aku that it is simplest to posit a change *aku > *au in their immediate common ancestor (PCEMP), which thus had variants *aku, *au. Although this is a distinction of form which evidently had no connection with morphology, we still must ask whether there could have been a syntactic distinction between *aku and *au in PCEMP or any of its descendants.

Finally, although affixed forms of *aku meaning ‘admit, confess, acknowledge’ and the like apparently must reconstructed, many of the known reflexes probably are due to borrowing (e.g. Tagalog paŋ-ákoʔ ‘promise’, Javanese peŋaku ‘confession, acknowledgement, verification’), Manggarai aku, Kambera maŋaku ‘admit, confess’.

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*ala take, get, fetch, obtain; marry


PAN     *ala take, get, fetch, obtain; marry     [disjunct: *alaq₁]

Kavalan araget it!
Pazeh arato take, get, obtain; marry
Amis alato take
Thao araget it!
  maki-arapluck rice heads between the thumb and index finger in harvesting
Bontok ʔálaget
Ibaloy alato get, take something
Pangasinan aláget, take
  ala-ánsource of something
Mentawai alafetch, get, pick up
Sundanese alafetch, get, look for, gather in, harvest
Uma pa-ʔalacatch something; haul in loot or booty
Mandar alafetch, get, take
Komodo alatake; marry
Soboyo alafetch, get, take, capture
Gilbertese anatake, subtract, take away, remove, take off


PAN     *ma-ala be fetched, be taken

Amis ma-alabe taken
Ibaloy m-adato get, take something
Uma ma-ʔalaseized, caught


PAN     *um-ala to fetch, get, take

Kavalan m-arato get, take
Pazeh m-arato take
Thao m-arato get, fetch, take
Tsou m-aroto take
Kanakanabu um-á-alato take
Saaroa um-a-alato take
Proto-Rukai *maLato take
Ilokano um-álaresemble in looks, take after
Bontok ʔ<um>álato fetch, to get
Wawonii um-ala-oto take (Mead 1998:425)
Buginese m-alato take


PAN     *ala-en be taken

Amis ala-enbe taken
Ilokano alá-entake, get, go and get
Ibaloy ala-ento get, take something
Malagasy ala-ìnabe fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred


*alabat fence, wall


PPh     *alabat fence, wall

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) elavatwall; to make a wall
Mansaka arabatwall
Tboli labatfence
Proto-Minahasan *alabatfence
Tondano alawatobstruction (esp. on road)
Mongondow olabat ~ labatbeam of a balustrade


*alagád to wait


PPh     *alagád to wait     [disjunct: *asu₃]

Pangasinan man-alagárto wait
Hanunóo ʔalagádwaiting
Cebuano (dialectal) alagádwait for someone to do something


*alagaq kind of large red tree ant with bad bite


PWMP     *alagaq kind of large red tree ant with bad bite

Ifugaw alágakind of big reddish ant, known to cause much pain by its stinging
Tombonuwo lagaʔtype of large ant
Proto-Minahasan *lagaʔlarge red tree ant
Mongondow olagaʔkind of large red tree ant
Wolio lagakind of big red ant living on trees

Note:   Also Bontok allága ‘kind of large ant’, Ifugaw (Batad) allāga ‘large stinging red tree ant’, Mongondow lolagaɁ ‘kind of large red tree ant’.


*alali halibut, sole, flounder


PMP     *alali halibut, sole, flounder

Agta (Eastern) alalitype of fish
Proto-Ambon *alalihalibut, flounder
Seimat alalflat bottom-dwelling fish: halibut, flounder
Wuvulu alaliflounder
Tongan aliflounder (fish)
Samoan aliname given to flat fish, esp. to flounders of genera Platophrys and Zebrasoma
Rennellese agigeneral name for flat fishes: flounders, soles, etc.

Note:   Osmond (2011:118) has proposed that this reconstruction be raised to PCEMP *alali ‘halibut, flounder’, based on what she cites as ‘Ambon’ (al)ali ‘halibut, flounder’. However, Ambon is an island, not a language, and because she provides no source her citation of this form outside the Oceanic group cannot be traced. The Polynesian forms are assumed to have reduced by haplology.


*alaŋ doubt; hesitation


PPh     *alaŋ doubt; hesitation

Hanunóo ʔaláŋdoubt


PPh     *alaŋ-án to hesitate; to doubt

Ilokano alaŋán metof course
  alaŋan-ento be doubtful
Ayta Abellan alaŋanto hesitate
Tagalog mag-alaŋánto hesitate; to vacillate; to scruple; to be left in an ambiguous or doubtful position
  álaŋan-indoubtful; uncertain; hesitant; undecided; perplexed
Bikol alaŋánawkward, feeling out of place; indecisive; undecided
Hanunóo ʔaláŋandoubt, uncertainty
Binukid ka-alaŋanto figure out, to think up (a way to do or come up with something)
Mansaka araŋanto be hesitant; to be reluctant; to be overly cautious


PPh     *alaŋ-alaŋ₂ to hesitate; to doubt

Casiguran Dumagat alaŋ-alaŋin consideration of; for the sake of
Pangasinan alaŋ-alaŋto be doubtful
Tagalog alaŋ-alaŋregard; respect; esteen; consideration (as for the elderly)
  isa-alaŋ-alaŋto consider; to take into account
Waray-Waray alaŋ-alaŋuncertain; not sure; doubtful
Hiligaynon alaŋ-álaŋdoubtful; immature
  mag-alaŋ-álaŋto hesitate
Maranao alaŋ-alaŋincomplete, suspended

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat alaŋan-in ‘to doubt, to be uncertain, to be vague, to be hesitant, to be undecided’ (< Tagalog). Although reflexes of *alaŋ-án appear to be monomorphemic in all known witnesses, the likelihood that this word contains a suffix is suggested by evidence for *alaŋ-alaŋ in the same meaning. However, this suffix must have been fossilized relatively early for languages like Tagalog to then add a reflex of *-en after it. Hanunóo aláŋ ‘doubt’ stands alone as a morphologically simple disyllable, but must represent the base in PPh.


*alaŋ-alaŋ insufficient, half-heartedly


PWMP     *alaŋ-alaŋ₁ insufficient, half-heartedly

Binukid alaŋ-alaŋsomewhat, but not quite; not up to a certain level; to be not quite (as fruit that isn’t yet ripe enough to eat)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) alaŋ-alaŋto deceive by hypocrisy; to be at the stage of growth where one is almost an adult
Mansaka araŋ-anhesitant; reluctant; overly cautious
Tiruray ʔalaŋ-alaŋfalling short, not fully completed, discontinued too soon
Mapun alaŋ-alaŋpartially; sparingly; without all of one’s effort; half-heartedly
  alaŋ-kapalaŋto be hesitant or reluctant
Iban alaŋ-alaŋinsufficient, (do) half-heartedly
Malay alaŋmediocre; medium; half-and-half
  alaŋ-alaŋ-anhalf-hearted; in a mild way; of a man who is a poor hater, or lover
Acehnese alaŋtoo short, too little, insufficient, inadequate
Karo Batak alaŋ-alaŋmediocre; in-between; insufficient; for one purpose too large, for another too small
  alaŋ-alaŋ-enlacking the courage to do something; indecisive, wavering
Toba Batak alaŋinsufficient, inadequate
  si-alaŋ-alaŋnot enough to make two, but too much for one, as with pieces in carpentry
  horbo si-alaŋ-alaŋa carabao that is too large to slaughter, but too small to work

Note:   Also Kayan alaŋ-alaŋ ‘half-heartedly; carelessly’ (< Malay). Possibly a Malay loan distribution, although in some cases this appears unlikely.


*alap fetch, get, take


PAN     *alap fetch, get, take     [doublet: *ala, *alaq]

Paiwan alaptake, pick up
  ki-alap(bride) go to groom's house
Itbayaten axapidea of taking, getting, bringing
  axa-axapchildren's game: catching, tag
  paka-axap-anobject-agent for plentiful catch (in fishing)
Casiguran Dumagat alápto get, catch, trap
Kelabit alapact of taking, getting or fetching
Jarai dua rep-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
Malay alapgather fruit by means of a long pole to which a knife or hook is attached
  d-elap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
Talaud alappato get, fetch
Toba Batak alapfetch; invite
  si-alap arimessenger of the bridegroom to the father of the bride to inquire about the day of the wedding ceremony
Sundanese d-alap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
  s-alap-annine (etymologically = 'one taken away from ten’)
Old Javanese alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win
  alap alapa certain bird of prey. The texts suggest a large creature, which can attack a man; an eagle?
  dwa-lap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
  sa-lap-aneight (etymologically = 'one taken away from ten')
Javanese alapa variety of hawk
Balinese alaptake off, pluck (fruit), harvest; take away, abduct; the fruit-harvest
Proto-Sangiric *alapget, fetch
Sangir alaʔfetch, take; bite (of fish)
Mongondow alapcatch, seize, grasp
Mori Bawah mo-ʔalato take
Nggela alav-ito get, take
Tongan alagather or catch with the hands, of certain kinds of shellfish and small crabs
  alaf-icatch it
  alaf-ia(of a woman) to be married, or (more strictly) to have had sexual intercourse, not to be a virgin


PWMP     *ka-alap fetched, gotten, taken

Itbayaten ka-axapupon getting (it)
Old Javanese k-ālaptaken, fetched, carried off


PWMP     *ka-alap-an fetched, gotten, taken

Itbayaten ka-axap-angetting
Old Javanese k-ālap-antaken, fetched, carried off


PAN     *ma-alap be taken

Paiwan ma-alapbe taken; able to be reached; become convinced, have mind changed; be enticed, led astray
Itbayaten ma-axapbe caught, be apprehended
Old Javanese m-ālaptake, fetch, carry off


PPh     *maka-alap able to fetch, get, take, reach

Itbayaten maka-axapcan get
Sangir maka-alaʔable to reach or get
Mongondow moko-alapable to seize or capture


PWMP     *maŋ-alap fetch, get, take

Itbayaten maŋ-xapfetch, get, buy, procure, take
Kelabit ŋ-alaptake, get, fetch
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-alapfetch (knock down) fruits, etc.
Toba Batak maŋ-alapfetch; invite
Old Javanese aŋ-alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win
Sangir maŋ-alaʔfetch, take; bite (of fish)


PWMP     *paŋ-alap means or instrument for catching

Old Javanese paŋ-alapa means of catching
Sangir paŋ-alaʔall sorts of fishing gear: nets, traps, lines, spears, etc.


PWMP     *paŋ-alap-an place where something is fetched

Toba Batak paŋ-alap-an boruthat relationship within which a man is permitted by customary law to take a wife
  paŋ-alap-an gogothe place or means by which one acquires strength
Old Javanese paŋ-alap-anplace for fetching something


PAN     *in-alap that which has been taken; was taken by

Paiwan in-alapsomething which has been taken; one's catch (hunting)
Itbayaten in-axapwas taken; took, got
Kelabit n-alapwas taken or gotten by
Old Javanese in-alapwas taken, fetched, carried off, stolen, seized, won
Mongondow in-alapcaptured, seized, taken


PWMP     *um-alap fetch, get, take

Itbayaten om-axaptake, get, bring
Old Javanese um-alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win


PWMP     *alap-an what is taken (?)

Itbayaten axap-anmeans for taking
Balinese alap-anthe harvesting of fruit


PWMP     *alap-en fetch, get, take

Itbayaten axap-enget, take, fetch, buy, take out, draw out
Mongondow alap-onit must or shall be gotten or taken
Mori Bawah ala-oto take

Note:   Also Itawis álak ‘take’, Eddystone/Mandegusu alavi ‘marry’, Nggela alavi ‘get, take’. The reduplicated forms of *alap in Itbayaten and Old Javanese are assumed to be independent developments. This form and its doublet *alaq both appear to have covered the semantic range represented by the common English verbs ‘get’ and ‘take’, and there is some evidence that it could be used at least in certain contexts in the sense of ‘to bring’. In addition reflexes of both variants contain recurrent references to 1. one's ‘catch’ in hunting or fishing (Paiwan, Itbayaten, Sangir, Tongan), 2. the harvesting of fruit or grain (= one's ‘catch’ in gathering; Malay, Balinese), and 3. to marriage, with particular reference to a man ‘taking’ a woman to wife (Paiwan, Toba Batak, Tongan, perhaps Eddystone/Mandegusu for *alap, Banggai, Uma, Wolio, Komodo, Wetan for *alaq).


*alaq₁ fetch, get, take; marry


PAN     *alaq₁ fetch, get, take     [doublet: *ala, *alap]

Pazeh araʔ-itake it!
Ilokano álatake, get, go to and get
Isneg aláʔget, obtain, take, catch, bring
Bontok ʔálaget
Ifugaw álaconveys the action-denoting idea of getting, taking
Ifugaw (Batad) ālaget
Pangasinan aláget, take
  ala-ánsource of something
Kenyah alaʔtake
Kayan alaget, receive, take, find
Malagasy álaremoved, taken away, released, fetched, withdrawn, freed from
Mentawai alafetch, get, pick up
Banggai alatake away, fetch
Uma alaʔfetch, get, take
Bare'e ayafetch, get, take; use; believe, trust; care for; reckon with
Tae' alafetch, get, take; begin a song; contact, touch
Mandar alafetch, get, take
Buginese alafetch, get, take
  ka-ala-alatake what is not rightfully one's own
Wolio alatake, fetch, include, take along, take away, accept
  po-alachange with each other, marry one another
Komodo alatake; marry
  alafetch, get, take; search for (firewood), cut and haul (pandanus); understand, grasp
Manggarai alaget, fetch
Rembong alafetch, get, take
Ngadha alafetch, get, take; take out, win, capture
  ala atétake note of, remember
Sika ʔalafetch, get, take, capture
Rotinese -alafetch, get, take, capture
Kisar alagive
Wetan alato use, to take; like, love, marry
  i-alabelongings, clothing, what one uses
Selaru alreceive, get, take; give
Dobel n-altake
Buruese ala-hpluck, as grain from the stem
Soboyo alafetch, get, take, capture
Buli yalget, fetch
Gilbertese anatake, subtract, take away, remove, take off


PWMP     *ma-alaq taken, fetched

Isneg ma-alaʔto get, etc., be able to get, etc., it can be got, etc.
Bare'e m-ayait is taken, caught, succeeded, it can be, may be, it is possible
Tae' ma-alait is gotten, it is successful, it is popular, it has a discount (of merchandise)
Wolio ma-alain demand, in favor, popular


PWMP     *maŋ-alaq₁ fetch, get, take

Isneg maŋ-alaʔcatch
Ifugaw maŋ-álago to get
Malagasy man-àlatake away, remove from, subtract, withdraw from
Banggai maŋ-alatake away, fetch
Uma ŋ-alaʔtake, fetch, get
Bare'e maŋ-ayado one thing or another to someone; damage something
Tae' maŋ-alafetch, take, in the pregnant sense of lending money


PWMP     *paŋ-alaq what is used for getting something

Isneg paŋ-alaʔto get, etc.
Ifugaw (Batad) paŋ-ālainstrument used to get something
Tae' paŋ-ala geloŋleader of song group in the maro ceremony


PAN     *um-alaq fetch, get, take

Kanakanabu um-á-alato take
Bontok ʔ<um>álato get
Ifugaw um-álaget, take
Buginese m-alaget, fetch, obtain


PAN     *alaq-en be taken

Pazeh araʔ-enbe received, accepted
Ilokano alá-entake, get, go and get
Bontok ʔalá-ʔənget
Ifugaw (Batad) ala-ʔonget
Malagasy ala-ìnabe fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred

Note:   Although the basic sense of this form appears to have been ‘to fetch, get, take’, its extended meanings evidently included the notion of ‘taking’ a bride, as reflected in the Wolio, Komodo and Wetan glosses, and the similar semantics in various reflexes of the doublet *alap. In this connection the gloss ‘capture’ is significant in view of the many 19th century anthropological discussions of ‘marriage by capture’.


*alaq₂ defeat


PWMP     *alaq₂ defeat

Kadazan Dusun ahaʔdefeat, overcome, conquer
Ngaju Dayak alahlose, be overcome (in battle, legal matters); lose things
Iban alahbeaten, defeated; subdue, vanquish
Malay alahdefeat; being worsted in battle
Rejang aleaʔdefeated
Old Javanese alahlose, be defeated, be worsted, give away, succumb
Balinese alahdestroy, defeat, abandon; destruction
Buginese p-alato win


PWMP     *ka-alaq defeated

Kadazan Dusun ka-ahabe able to overcome, beat or conquer
Ngaju Dayak k-alahlose, be overcome
Malay k-alaha condition or position of inferiority
Balinese ka-alahdestroy, defeat


PWMP     *maŋ-alaq₂ defeat, overcome

Kadazan Dusun maŋ-ahadefeat, overcome
Old Javanese maŋ-alahgive in, admit oneself beaten
Balinese ŋ-alahdestroy, defeat, abandon

Note:   Also Asilulu ala ‘overcome, defeat; outsmart’ (probably a loan from Malay (Ambon)). Kadazan Dusun ka-aha may reflect *maka-alaq). Said (1977) cites a number of apparently disparate forms under ala, some of which probably are ala and others alaʔ. I assume that Buginese pala does not end with a glottal stop, although no explicit indication of the contrast between -ʔ and zero is given in his orthography.


*alaq₃ resemble


PWMP     *alaq₃ resemble

Cebuano álaʔbe mistaken for another person
Balinese alahbe like, resemble


*alawid far


PWMP     *alawid far

Kalamian Tagbanwa alawidfar
Agutaynen alawidfar, a great distance
Palawan Batak ʔaláwidfar
Ma'anyan lawitfar
Malagasy lávitrafar, distant
Samihim lawitfar
Dusun Witu lawitfar


*álem a shrub or tree: Melanolepis multiglandulosa


PPh     *álem a shrub or tree: Melanolepis multiglandulosa

Yami aoma type of plant:: Melanolepis multiglandulosa
Itbayaten axema tree with yellowish-greenish fruit and flower: Melanolepis multiglandulosa
Ilokano álemkind of shrub with greenish-yellow flowers
Tagalog alima shrub or tree: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Madulid 2001)
Hanunóo ʔalúma tree: Melanolepis multiglandulosa
Cebuano álumkind of small tree with itchy leaves which are used as a poultice, Melanolepis multiglandulosa
Mansaka arema shrub or tree: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Madulid 2001)


*alem dark, night


PMP     *alem dark, night

Tausug aluma bruise (black and blue spot on the body)
Lun Dayeh alemevening
Kelabit alemnight
East Damar alamnight

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.


*alikas quick, fast


PAN     *alikas quick, fast

Saisiyat (Taai) alikæhquick, fast
Singhi Land Dayak rikasquick
Sangir liŋkasəʔenergetic; a quick and strong man
Mongondow ko-likatbe quick about it!; speed
  mo-likatquick, fast

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.


*alílaq to care for someone, wait on


PPh     *alílaq to care for someone, wait on

Ilokano alílamaid, servant
Casiguran Dumagat alilato take care of (as to take care of someone’s domestic animal for him, or to take care of a sick person)
Pangasinan alílaservant; to care for (esp. children)
Ayta Abellan aliliservant, one who serves another (for pay)
Tagalog alílaʔservant; houseboy; housemaid; domestic

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


(Formosan only)

*alim forget


PAN     *alim forget

Kavalan marimforget for a moment, slip one’s mind
Paiwan alimforget something/someone
  m-alimforget (object/person)
  ma-alimbe forgotten; be caused to forget
  s-alimbusy, preoccupied

Note:   Kavalan marim is assumed to contain a prefix that is either fossilized, or attached to a base that was not elicited by Li and Tsuchida (2006).


*alinaw shadow


PPh     *alinaw shadow     [doublet: *qaninu, etc.]

Gaddang alinawshadow
Mongondow olinowshadow, that is shadow-image

Note:   Also SUBC dlinaw ‘image’, Kayan hiŋau ‘shade’.


*aliq move, change place


PMP     *aliq move, change place

Ngaju Dayak alihchange, alteration, evasion
Iban alihchange
Malay aléhveer, change, shift one's position
Toba Batak aliin place of
Rejang aliaʔmove, transfer (of an individual or group)
Sundanese alihmove, change residence
Old Javanese alihmoving to another place, changing
Javanese alihact of moving (changing residence); (having been) moved from one place to another
Mota alto move
  ali-almove from place to place

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Tagalog alí ‘dominating; influence; succession; to dominate, influence’, and Fijian yali ‘lost, absent, missing’ in this comparison, but neither form is semantically close to the set given here. Moreover, although he cites Tagalog aliʔ ‘Nachfolger with a final glottal stop his source (Laktaw 1914) gives ali. In addition, Tsuchida (1976:172) compares Kanakanabu taku-aíʔi ‘change one's direction, veer’, a resemblance which I believe can most plausibly be attributed to chance. The distribution of the residual cognate set leaves open the possibility that *aliq was a relatively late innovation in western Indonesia.


*aliten firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood


PWMP     *aliten firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood     [doublet: *aluten]

Isneg alitánfirebrand, half-burned wood
Nias alitõfire

Note:   Also Mota lito ‘firewood’.


*a(lR)im pancreas, spleen


PAN     *a(lR)im pancreas, spleen

Kavalan arima long body part adjacent to the liver: pancreas
Bunun alimpancreas


*alub put in or over a fire


PWMP     *alub put in or over a fire

Maranao alobroast, blacken by heating
Tiruray ʔalubwarm or dry something briefly over a fire
Old Javanese alubput in the fire, heat
Javanese alubto parboil (vegetables) by placing them in hot water briefly


*alud type of canoe


PWMP     *alud type of canoe

Maranao arorraft
Tiruray ʔarura raft
  feg-arurto ride a raft
Tombonuwo aludcanoe
Ida'an Begak aludboat
  bəg-aludride a boat
Lun Dayeh aluda boat
Tabun alodboat
Kelabit aluddugout canoe, boat
  ŋ-aludcarry things in a boat
Berawan (Long Terawan) alunboat, canoe
Miri aludboat
Sebop alutboat, canoe
Kenyah (Lepu Anan) alutboat, canoe
Kiput alotboat, canoe
  ŋ-alotpaddle a canoe
Bintulu aludboat
Dohoi alʸutcanoe
Katingan alurboat
Singhi Land Dayak orudboat, canoe

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak arut ‘boat made by joining different planks (as opposed to jukuŋ, a single-log dugout)’, h-arut ‘have a boat, travel in a boat’ (expected **alut). Probably a canoe used on interior rivers rather than a boat that could be used at sea. As such, it lacked outriggers, and was no doubt built for sturdiness and agility in navigating river rapids.


*aluja to paddle


PAN     *aluja to paddle

Thao ruzaboat, canoe
  maka-ruzapaddle a boat
Karo Batak er-lugato paddle (Joustra 1912)
Toba Batak mar-lugato row, pull an oar
Nias aluxarudder, steering paddle
  maŋ-aluxato steer a canoe
Palauan mə-iúsrow, paddle; stir


POC     *aluca to paddle

Tolai (Nokon) alusto paddle


PAN     *pa-aluja to paddle

Kavalan palunapaddle, oar; to paddle, to row
Thao pa-ruzaboat, canoe; a canoe paddle
Gaddang paluwato paddle
Subanun (Sindangan) pɨlulato paddle


POC     *paluca to paddle

Likum heluhto paddle
Cheke Holo valuhapaddle
Arosi harutato paddle
Southeast Ambrym hælisto paddle, row
Bonkovia waluapaddle

Note:   Also Isneg pilóxa ‘the oars and paddles of a canoe’. Consonant-initial forms are assumed to contain the (fossilized) causative prefix *pa-. Some of the Oceanic members of this comparison were first brought to my attention by Ross Clark.


(Formosan only)

*alujah ant sp.


PAN     *alujah ant sp.

Saisiyat ʔæL-ʔæLozæhant sp.
Amis (Kiwit) alunahlarge variety of ant


*aluluŋ to howl, of dogs


PMP     *aluluŋ to howl, of dogs

Tagalog alulóŋdistant howling or barking of dogs
Malay mə-loloŋto give a long-drawn howl, esp. of dogs
Lau luluto bark in unison, of dogs


*aluŋ shade, shadow


PMP     *aluŋ shade, shadow

Bontok ʔáluŋto shelter; to get into the shade
Cebuano áluŋcast a shadow over something
Maranao aloŋshadow, see dimly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aluŋshadow, reflection
Tiruray ʔaluŋshade
Tboli oluŋshadow, reflection
Sasak aluŋscreened, shaded
Soboyo ka-m-aloŋshadow
Arosi m-aru(-na)shade; to shadow, overshadow
Tongan m-alushaded or sheltered
Rennellese m-agushade, shelter, protection; to shade, shelter, protect

Note:   Also Tiruray galuŋ ‘shade oneself; in the shade’, Tboli keluŋ ‘shade’, Mongondow oliuŋ ‘shadow’, Tolai malur ‘shade’.


*aluten burning brand; charred or smoldering wood


PMP     *aluten burning brand; charred or smoldering wood     [doublet: *aliten]

Isneg alutánfirebrand, half-burned wood
Bontok ʔalutə́npieces of split log when placed on a fire; firewood
Ifugaw alutónpieces of wood that are not, or not wholly burned and still lie in the hearth
Bisaya lutonfirewood
Kenyah (Long Wat) lutenfire
Kayan lutenfirebrand, partly burnt stick; faggots
Iban lutancharred wood, cold embers, litter of charred logs in burned clearing; unburned logs
Mongondow olutonremains of firewood in the hearth, pieces of smoldering wood
Tetun haʔi lutanburning brand
Gimán lutanfire
Sawai lutenfire


POC     *aluton firewood

Mota litofirewood

Note:   Bisaya luton ‘firewood’ was erroneously glossed ‘burning brand’ in Blust (1980). This comparison is complicated by the occurrence of apparent cognates in some of the non-Austronesian languages of Halmahera, as with Tidore luto ‘firewood’.

TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN        an        ap    aq    ar    aR    as    aS    at    au    aw    ay    az    



amaŋ amaŋ


































*amak mat


PWMP     *amak mat     [doublet: *lamak]    [disjunct: *hamak]

Sambal (Botolan) amakmat
Hanunóo ʔamákwoven mat, especially one made of buri-palm leaves and used for sleeping purposes
Aklanon amák-anmat of woven bamboo
Cebuano amák-anbamboo matting woven with a kind of twill weave, commonly used for walling (the weft is passed over two and under two warp pieces); weave amákan
  in-amák-ansomething woven like amákan
Aborlan Tagbanwa amak-anreed mat used to dry rice
Toba Batak amakmat woven of bulrushes
  amah-amakstraw that is scattered under the ears of rice after the stalks are trampled to separate the grain
  amak podom-ansleeping mat


*áman careful, cautious


PPh     *áman careful, cautious

Bontok ʔámancareful or deliberate, esp. of an undesirable activity
Hanunóo ʔámancare, carefulness
Aklanon ámanto beware of, be careful with


*amaŋ amaŋ dare to do something


PWMP     *amaŋ amaŋ dare to do something

Cebuano amáŋ-amáŋhave the nerve to do something which an ordinary person wouldn't dare do
Iban amaŋmenace, threaten, aim (weapon) at; (hence) test, try (someone)
Malay amaŋdefiance
  amaŋ amaŋto challenge
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-amaŋ amaŋfrighten someone, threaten (by pointing a weapon at them, etc.)


*amaq to eat


PWMP     *amaq to eat

Tiruray ʔamaʔto eat
Balinese amaheat


PWMP     *amaq-an eating place (?)

Tiruray ʔamaʔ-anthe place on the floor where people are eating; by recent extension, a table
Balinese amah-anwood eaten into dust (by worms); cooked rice


*amaRa tree sp.


PWMP     *amaRa tree sp.

Cebuano amagáa forest tree: Diospyros sp.
Malay mara keluaŋa tree: Melanorrhoea curtisii, Melanorrhoea pubescents W.
Tae' maratree with beautiful black wood, of which blowpipes are made
Makassarese amaratree with strong wood used to make the shafts of lances and pikes, and also formerly used to make the finishing planks of royal canoes


*amat continuous, unceasing


PWMP     *amat continuous, unceasing

Hanunóo ʔámatcontinuity, continuousness
Agutaynen amat-amatlittle by little (of continuous effort)
Iban amattrue, real, certain, authentic
Malay amatvery; exceedingly; after an adjective it means excess

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*amatu double-headed parrotfish


POC     *amatu double-headed parrotfish     [disjunct: *kamatu]

Seimat amatua large reef fish, probably double-headed
Patpatar amatularge green fish
Kove amatudouble-headed parrotfish

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:96-97).


*amax father


PAN     *amax father

Sakizaya w-amaʔfather
Amis w-amafather
  amafather (Hualien county)
Thao amafather
Tsou amófather
Saaroa amaʔafather
Siraya (Gravius) amafather
Rukai (Budai) amafather (addr.)
Proto-Rukai *amafather
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) amafather, uncle
Paiwan amafather!
Yami amafather
Ilokano amáfather. Also said of persons that are old enough to be one's father
Ibanag y-amafather
Isneg amāfather. Sometimes: uncle or any relative whose relationship is similar to that of a father
Itawis amáfather
Malaweg amáfather
Bontok ʔamámarried man; adult male, one who has had a child; an old man, one who has grandchildren and who knows the prayers; be big, of children, male or female, especially newborn, also of sweet potatoes
  ʔámaterm of address for one's male relatives at the first ascending generation level; father; uncle; father-in-law
Kankanaey amáfather; parent; sire
  ámamy father
Ifugaw amáfather
Casiguran Dumagat ámafather (reference)
Pangasinan amáfather
Tagalog amáfather, progenitor; founder
Buhid maŋ-amahusband
Aklanon amá(h)father
Cebuano ama námuʔthe Lord's prayer
  amáexpression uttered when frightened: help!
Yakan s-amafather
Kadazan Dusun amafather (addr.)
Bekatan amafather
Melanau (Matu) amahfather
Ngaju Dayak amauncle (term used for one's own uncle; for the uncle of another person one uses mama); also often used for other older unrelated persons
Singhi Land Dayak s-amafather
Tsat ma¹¹father
Jarai amafather
Rhade amafather
  mafather (children's speech)
Gayō amafather
Simalur amafather
Nias amafather, uncle (also more distant relatives), father-in-law
Mentawai amafather
Enggano amafather; father-in-law
Gorontalo tiy-amofather
Uma tu-amafather
Mori amafather
Buginese amafather
Wolio amafather
Bonerate amafather
Muna amafather
Popalia amafather
Bimanese amafather
Donggo amafather
Keo emafather
Riung amefather
Sika amafather
Lamaholot amafather (used only in traditional ceremonies)
Adonara amafather
Kédang amofather
Waiyewa amafather
Lamboya amafather
Anakalangu amafather
Kambera amafather, FB
Hawu àmafather
Rotinese amafather
Tetun ama-nfather, FB
Vaikenu ama-ffather
Kemak ama-kaifather
Galoli amafather
Erai ama(n)father, father's brother and the other male members of father's lineage and generation
Leti amafather
Selaru amafather
Yamdena amefather, FB, MZH
Kei yama-nfather
Kola ama-father
Ujir emafather
Dobel samafather
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) amafather
Elat amafather
Bonfia yamafather
Teluti ama-colofather
Paulohi amafather
Alune amafather
Saparua amafather
Asilulu amafather (archaic); a rank in the village hierarchy related to adat
Morella amafather
Buruese amafather; ancestor; son. Used as 'son' in address only
Soboyo n-amafather
Sekar yamafather
Kaniet tama-father
Yabem tamafather
Labu amafather
Watut rama-father
Wampar rama-nfather
Patep mafather
Ubir tama-father
Suau tama-father
Hula amafather
Mekeo (East) amfather
Lakona tama-father
Lametin tama-father
Toak temo-xfather


PAN     *da-amax father

Siraya damafather
Agta (Central Cagayan) demefather (ref.)
Melanau (Sarikei) dama-myour father (used by persons of GP's generation in speaking to GC)
Simalur da-amathe fathers
Old Javanese r-āmafather, also used for uncle, guru, etc.; eldest, senior (in religious community, village, army)
Javanese rămăfather; older and/or higher-ranking male


PAN     *maR-amax to be father and child

[Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maR-tamafather and child]
Itbayaten mi-amafather and child
Isneg magga-amāfather and child(ren)
[Bikol mag-amá-ʔfather and child]
Aklanon mag-amárelated as father and child
Simalur mal-amahave a father


PAN     *si amax father (ref.)

Thao ti amafather (ref.)
Yakan s-amafather
Singhi Land Dayak s-amafather
Gorontalo tiy-amofather
Lauje si amafather
Dampelas si amaŋfather


PAN     *ta-amax father (ref.)

Saisiyat t-amæhfather
Seediq (Truku) tamafather
Bunun tamafather
Bunun (Takituduh) t-amahfather
Rukai (Budai) t-ámafather (ref.)
Rukai (Tanan) t-amáfather (ref.)
Paiwan tjamafather (familiar, usually in questions to child)


PMP     *t-amax father

Kadazan Dusun tamafather (ref.)
Belait tamahfather
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) tama-nfather
Kelabit te-tamehfather (ref.)
Berawan (Long Terawan) tamehfather
Berawan (Batu Belah) t-amahfather (ref.)
Narum tamahfather (ref.)
Miri tamafather
Kenyah (Long Wat) t-amenfather (ref.)
Kayan (Long Atip) t-ama-nfather (ref.)
Kiput tamafather
Bintulu tamafather
Melanau (Mukah) tamafather
Banggai tamafather
Bungku tamafather
Moronene tamaman/male; father
Palauan ʔə-dámfather (addr.)
  dəmá-paternal GP
  ua-dámold man (term of reference for older male in-law)
Buli hmāfather, FB
Dusner tama-father
Wandamen tama-father
Windesi tamafather
Ron kama-father
Numfor kemafather (ref.)
Pom tama-father
Ansus tama-father
Papuma tama-father
Nauna tama-father
Lou tama-father
Nali tama-father
Andra tamofather
Leipon time-father
Ahus tama-nhis/her father
Likum tama-father
Ponam damafather
Seimat tam(a)-father
Wuvulu ama-father
Mussau tama-father
Tigak tama-father
Tabar tama-father
Mendak tama-father
Tolai tama(-na)father, father and child, or the relationship between them or between them and the father's brothers
Vitu tama-father
Arop tama-father
Biliau tama-father
Amara temefather
Kove tamafather
Lakalai tama-father, FB
Sengseng re-tamafather (ref.)
Tarpia tama-father
Wogeo tama-father
Manam tama-father, uncle
Gedaged tama-father, FB, son, MZH (w.s.); FB, MZH (m.s.); lord, master, guardian; owner, composer, originator, inventor
Sio tamafather
Gitua tama-father, FB, MZH
Numbami tama-father (term of third person reference)
Wampar rama-father
Sinaugoro tamafather
Adzera rama-nfather
Motu tama-father
Roro hama-father
Kilivila tama-father, FB, FZS, MZH
Dobuan tama-father
Molima tama-father
Saliba tamafather
Misima tama-father
Nehan tama-father
Haku tama-father
Selau tama-glafather
Piva a tama-father
Banoni tama-father
Uruava tama-father
Babatana tama-efather
Roviana tama-nafather
Eddystone/Mandegusu tama-father, grandfather, uncle
Bugotu tama-ñafather
Nggela tamafather (ref.); those of his standing in a man's clan
Lau ama-nafather
Sa'a amafather, FB
Gilbertese tamafather
Marshallese jemafather, FB
Pohnpeian sahmfather, any person one's father would call brother
Chuukese saamone who is a father, fathers (when used without a possessive suffix); father, grandfather, uncle, any male relative of higher generation in one's own or one's spouse's father's lineage
Woleaian tam(a)father; father's side, patrilineality
Ulithian tama-father
Motlav i-tme-kmy father
Mota tama-ifather, in relation to individuals
Mosina tomo-father
Piamatsina tama-father
Sakao ðana-father
Malmariv tama-father
Mafea tam̈a-father
Amblong tama-father
Marino tama-father
Central Maewo tamafather
Raga tamafather
Apma tema-father
Atchin tima-father
Southeast Ambrym tamefather, FB, FFF, MZH (w.s.), BS, HZS
Nakanamanga tamafather
Sie e-tme-nfather
Anejom e-tma-father
Fijian tamafather, FB, MZH
Tongan tama-ifather, FB
Samoan tama-afather
Kapingamarangi dama-nafather, uncle; big, large (singular)
Nukuoro dama-nafather, uncle, senior male relative, male elder, person in a fatherly relationship
Rennellese tama-naclassificatory father; to have a classificatory father
Rarotongan tamaterm used as a respectful manner of address to a man, being equivalent to the English word, sir
  e tama!interjection, exclamation which denotes 'I say!', 'oh dear!', 'bother'; sometimes used as an exclamation of surprise or annoyance
Maori tamaman


PWMP     *ka-ama-en fatherhood

Bontok ka-ʔama-ʔənuncle
Aklanon ka-amah-án <Afatherhood
Toba Batak ha-ama-onpaternity, fatherhood


PWMP     *kam-ama-an father's brother

Rungus Dusun kam-ama-nFB, MB
Bisaya (Limbang) kem-ama-nMB, MZ
  kem-ama-n mianayFB
  kem-ama-n kekimuʔFZ
Kiput kəm-ama-nuncle
Mentawai kam-ama-anFB, FZ


PMP     *pa(ka)-amax treat like a father

Nias fa-ʔamacall father
Samoan faʔa-tama-atreat like a father


PWMP     *paR-ama-en relationship of father and child

Toba Batak par-ama-onrelationship of children to their father
Javanese p-ama-nuncle; uncle who is a parent's younger brother; older man of lower status than speaker
[Tontemboan pa-ama-ŋ-ananything that serves as a sign of the relationship, or the reason for the relationship between father and child]


PWMP     *paRi-amax relationship of father and children

Boano pogi-ama-ŋ-anuncle


POC     *paRi-tama relationship of father and children

Sa'a mu hei ama-dafathers and children
Fijian vei-tama-nifather and son relationship: applied to animals (cp. also Toba Batak par-ama-on 'relationship of children to their father')
Rennellese hai-tama-naclassificatory father in relation to his children; to be such


PWMP     *ama-an (gloss uncertain)

Ifugaw ama-ānthumb
[Palawan Batak ʔamāy-anFB]
Cebuano amah-anfather
Mentawai amaʔ-ancorpulent, easy, comfortable (given by Morris 1900 under āma 'father')


PWMP     *ama-en uncle

Itbayaten ama-enfather-in-law, one considered as father, foster father
Kalinga amaʔ-onuncle, great uncle
Cebuano amáʔ-ungodfather in any ceremony
Mamanwa amaʔ-enuncle


PMP     *amá-ŋ father (voc.)

Casiguran Dumagat amə-ŋfather (vocative)
Tagalog amá-ŋ(in some localities) elder person
Hanunóo ʔamá-ŋfather (vocative)
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) amaŋfather
Tapuh emaŋfather
Toba Batak amáŋvocative: oh, father!
Sangir i amaŋfather
Tontemboan amaŋfather
Totoli amaŋfather
Manggarai ama-ŋFZH, HF, MB, WF


PMP     *ama-q father (voc.)

Itbayaten amaʔfather
Bikol amáʔfather
Hanunóo ʔámaʔfather (particularly in the nominative)
Kalamian Tagbanwa amaʔfather
Palawan Batak ʔamáʔfather (particularly in the nominative)
Maranao amaʔfather
Subanen/Subanun gamaʔfather
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amaʔfather (direct address)
Mansaka amaʔfather
Bonggi ameʔfather
Tboli maʔfather
Samal ɨmmaʔfather
Murut (Timugon) amaʔfather
Ida'an Begak amaʔfather
Murut (Tagol) amaʔfather
Kenyah (Long Wat) amaʔfather (add.)
Kenyah (Long Selaaʻn) amaʔfather
Bukat amaʔfather
Lahanan amaʔfather
Tunjung maʔfather
Maloh amaʔfather
Madurese emmaʔfather
Sasak amaʔfather
Sangir (Siau) amaʔfather
Sangir (Tamako) amaʔfather
Bantik (i)amaʔfather
Tondano amaʔfather
Mongondow amaʔfather; sometimes also mother, and uncle
Makassarese ammafather
Manggarai emaF, FB, MZH
Ngadha emafather; favorite son
Atoni amaʔfather


PMP     *ama-i father (voc.)

Casiguran Dumagat amáyuncle
Hiligaynon amáyfather
Palawan Batak ʔamay-anFB
Binukid amayfather, vocative. Term of address for one's father
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ameyfather (reference)
Manobo (Sarangani) amayfather
Kenyah (Long Anap) amayfather
Kayan ameifather (vocative); polite address to an older man
[Siang tamayfather]
Dusun Malang amaifather
Ngaju Dayak amaifather
Ngadha amefather, uncle, nephew
Riung amefather


PWMP     *ama ama stepfather

Bontok ʔam-ʔamáan old man, one who has grandchildren and who knows the prayers
Kankanaey am-ʔamáold man
Aklanon áma-ámastepfather
Cebuano ama-ámastepfather
[Maranao amaʔ amaʔstepfather]
[Binukid amay-amaystepfather]
Mansaka ama-amabig man
Toba Batak ama-amaeveryone who is called father
Wolio ka-ama-amaadopted father (an older person of one's own choice with whom one has a friendly relationship)

Note:   Also Paiwan kama ‘father’, Mongondow kog-amaʔ ‘have a father’, Nias maŋ-ama ‘acknowledge as a father, call father’, Bikol pakó-amaʔ-ón ‘uncle’, Cebuano paŋ-ama ‘to go to someone as if he were one's father to ask for help’, Mongondow poku-amaʔ-an ‘uncle’, Uma tuama ‘father’, Ma'anyan amah ‘father Manggarai ema ‘father’, Li'o ema ‘father’, Sika ʔama ‘father’.


*ambak stamp or smack against


PMP     *ambak stamp or smack against

Cebuano ambákjump down to a lower place
  ambák-ambákjump up and down
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ambakcollide with something (person, post, etc.)
Mandar ambaʔhit, beat
Makassarese ambaʔtry to hit something in a game (one marble with another, billiard ball, etc.)
Yamdena ambakstamp on the ground with the foot

Note:   Possibly a product of chance. With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*ambawaŋ wild mango


PWMP     *ambawaŋ wild mango

Iban əmbawaŋa wild mango
Sichule ambawaŋkind of large mango

Note:   Also Iban mawaŋ ‘wild mango, ‘horse mango’, Mangifera kemanga or M. caesia Jack’.


*ambay wave back and forth


PWMP     *ambay wave back and forth

Malay ambaipurse-net attached to stakes in a tideway or river. The stakes hold its mouth open; the bunt trails away in the current
Toba Batak m-abe-abewave back and forth
Old Javanese awaybeckon, wave (to)
Javanese awe-aweto wave
Lauje ambebeckon with the hand

Note:   Also Agutaynen lambay ‘to summon a person to come near by waving the hand downward in a large gesture’, Tboli keway ‘up and down movement, as the motion of a bamboo-suspended cradle’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Ngaju Dayak awei ‘temporary wall (using only loose leaves, etc.)’, but a connection appears difficult to justify. The comparison offered here is itself problematic, since Totoli kambe ‘beckon with the hand’ suggests that Lauje ambe (which regularly loses *k) may not reflect *ambay.


*amben belly strap


PWMP     *amben belly strap     [doublet: *ambet]

Sundanese ambenbelly strap of a horse
Javanese ambenbelly band for draft animal
Tae' abaŋband, as an iron band around a chisel
Makassarese ambaŋbelly strap of horses

Note:   Possibly a Javanese loan in the SSul languages.


*ambet strap; something wrapped around


PWMP     *ambet strap; something wrapped around     [doublet: *amben]

Maranao abetstrap
Tiruray ʔambetcatch a loose animal by entwining it in a rope
Kelabit abetway of tying; thing used to tie
  ŋ-abetto tie
Ngaju Dayak ambetbrought near, drawn to one, seized
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abUtsecuring devices: pin, band, tie, string, belt
Malay ambatnoose
Malay (Jakarta) ambetchild's first garment; swaddling band
Alas abetcoil; cloth that is wound around the body
Old Javanese ambetto lash
Balinese ambetstrap
  ambet basaŋsaddle-girth

Note:   Also Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abet ‘wear a sarong without undergarment’, Karo Batak abit ‘the long cloth that is fastened under the armpits by women’.


*ambiq extension to house


PWMP     *ambiq extension to house     [doublet: *surambiq, *surambi]

Kapampangan ambiwing or interior gallery of a house (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog ambíʔeaves, gable end
Karo Batak ambihmake an extension to a house that is too small
Toba Batak ambiwhat one adds; the piece of material that a tailor adds to trousers that are too small
Sundanese ambé-ngallery, veranda of a house
Balinese ambé-nfront balcony, porch, veranda, gallery
Sasak ambé-nside-wings of a roof; side-gallery of a house

Note:   This word apparently meant ‘gallery, veranda’. It is unclear what implications *ambiq has for inferences about the early Austronesian house. The only type of residential structure in use by Austronesian-speaking peoples today which regularly has a veranda is the communal longhouse, found widely over central and northern Borneo. Various considerations, however, suggest that the longhouse is a relatively late development. All that can safely be inferred on present knowledge is that some type of veranda-like extension was sometimes constructed on houses that appear to have normally lacked them. The Sundanese, Balinese and Sasak forms are assumed to reflect *ambiq-an.


*ambit seize with the hands


PMP     *ambit seize with the hands

Samal ambitlead by the hand
Kadazan Dusun ambittake with the hands
Toba Batak ambitcarry a child in the arms
Mentawai abittake along with, bring hither
Manggarai ambétcarrying astraddle on the hip (as in carrying a child); climb (a tree) with a rope looped around the feet


POC     *abit₂ hold, get, take

Numbami -ambihold, get, take


PWMP     *maŋ-ambit take with the hands

Kadazan Dusun maŋ-ambittake with the hands
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-ambitfetch or take in a figurative sense: take a woman from her lineage because she must reside with the lineage of her husband
Toba Batak maŋ-ambitcarry


PWMP     *maR-ambit take with the hands

Kadazan Dusun mag-ambittake with the hands
Toba Batak mar-ambitcarry a child in the arms in front of oneself

Note:   Also Tiruray abit ‘beckon, wave someone to come by moving the palm of the hand down and towards the body’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abit ‘plaited rattan carrying strap’, Mongondow abito ‘carrying basket’. With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*ambun dew, mist, fog


PWMP     *ambun dew, mist, fog     [doublet: *embun, *hapun]

Casiguran Dumagat ambúnthin, overcast, hazy (sky)
Kapampangan ambundew
  may-ambunovercast, misty
Tagalog ambónshower, drizzle
Bikol ambóndew; fog, mist, haze
Aklanon ámbonfog, mist, haze
  ma-ámbonfoggy, covered with haze, hazy
Kalamian Tagbanwa ambunground fog, mist
Bisaya (Limbang) ambunfog
Murik abuncloud, fog
Bintulu ambunfog
Ngaju Dayak ambondew, fog
Banjarese ambundew
Iban ambundew, damp
Maloh ambundew, vapor
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ambundew (in small drops)
Singhi Land Dayak abuncloud, fog
Minangkabau ambundew
Sundanese awun-awunmorning mist, fog, haziness
Old Javanese awun-awunfine rain, wet mist
  ambuncloud (or mist?)
Javanese awundew
Sasak awun-awunfog, mist
Gorontalo wambulofog
Tae' ambundew, morning mist

Note:   Also Tetun ai abu ‘fog’.


*ambuŋ proud, haughty


PWMP     *ambuŋ proud, haughty     [doublet: *hambúg]

Malagasy ávonapride, haughtiness, arrogance
Iban amboŋproud, haughty

Note:   Also Malay somboŋ ‘arrogance, self-assertion; be puffed-up with pride’, tamboŋ ‘stubborn, headstrong, arrogant’.


*ambuq high, lofty


PWMP     *ambuq high, lofty     [disjunct: *abaw]

Cebuano ambúʔoverlook, look from a high point (as in looking at someone downstairs), tower over
Malagasy ámbohigh, lofty, long, overhead
  ávohigh, lofty, eminent


*amen 1pl ex oblique


PAN     *amen 1pl ex oblique

Sambal (Botolan) kun-n-awən1pl ex oblique
Tagalog ámin1pl ex oblique
Central Palawan d-amen1pl ex oblique
Aborlan Tagbanwa amen1pl ex oblique
Sungai Seguliud ŋ-amon1pl ex oblique
Ida'an Begak n-amon1pl ex oblique
Murut (Kolod) d-amon1pl ex oblique


PAN     *i-amen 1pl.ex oblique

Thao yamin1pl ex accusative and absolute possessive pronoun
Proto-Bunun *ð-amun1sg acc (Ross 2006:533)
Yami y-amenwe (nominative case) exclusive
Ibatan y-amen1pl ex topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun
  dy-amen1pl ex dative and emphatic possessive marker


*ameq 1pl ex oblique


PWMP     *ameq 1pl ex oblique     [doublet: *amen]

Cebuano (SE Bohol) ameʔ1pl ex oblique
Murut (Kalabakan) r-amoʔ1pl ex oblique

Note:   Also Lotud j-amiʔ ‘1pl ex oblique’. Ross proposes first person accusative pronouns with a morpheme boundary before *-en. While it is clear that this is historically accurate it can be questioned whether the morpheme boundary was still present in these forms in PAn, since the derivation of *aken from *aku, *iten from *ita and *amen from *ami require two ordered operations: 1. deletion of the final vowel of the nominative pronoun, and 2. addition of a suffix *-en of unknown origin to the shortened stem (simple addition of *-en would have predictably produced **akun, *itan and *amin). As noted in Blust (1977), and reinforced in Ross (2006:533), all known Malayo-Polynesian reflexes show an irregular change of PAn *iten to PMP *aten, presumably as a result of paradigmatic leveling (*iten : *amen > *aten : *amen).


*ami 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive)


PAN     *ami 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive)

Atayal (Squliq) s-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Pazeh ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Remontado si-kami1pl., excl., we (exclusive)
Subanon amilpl., excl., we
Bulungan ami1pl. excl. genitive, our
Kenyah (Long Anap) ameɁ pat1pl. excl., we
Penan (Long Labid) ameɁ tələwwe three, excl.
Simalur ami1pl. excl., we, us
Tajio si-ami1pl. excl., we
Balaesang s-ami1pl. excl., we
Manggarai (Central) ami1pl. excl., we
Rotinese ami1pl. excl., we
Tetun (Dili) ami1pl. excl., we
Mambai aim <M1pl. excl., we
Luang amiwe (excl.)
Selaru ar-ami1pl. excl., we, us
Kamarian ami1pl. excl., we, us
Alune ami1pl. excl., we, us
Larike amilst pl. excl., we
Gimán am1pl. excl., we
As amwe (excl.)
Minyaifuin am-ne1pl. excl., we (excl.)
Mbula ni-am1pl. excl. nominative, we


PAN     *i-ami 1pl. excl. nominative, we

Saisiyat y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Proto-Atayalic *i-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Pazeh y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Bunun ð-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Kalamian Tagbanwa y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Subanun (Sindangan) y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Mandar i-amiɁ1pl. excl., we
Onin i-ami1pl. excl.


PMP     *kam-ami 1pl. excl., we

Bontok ʔátulthe top row of rocks around the rock wall of a pig pen
Palauan kəmám1pl. excl. emphatic pronoun, we, us


POC     *kamami 1p. excl., we

Tanga kemem1pl. excl., we all, all of us
Proto-Western Micronesian *ka(a)mami1pl. excl., we, us
Sonsorol-Tobi xame̲m1pl. excl., we, us
Mota kamam1pl. excl., we, us
Merig kamem1pl. excl., we, us
Tasiriki komam1pl. excl. focal and object, we, us
Seke kamam1pl. excl., we, us
Wayan kemam1pl. excl., topic pronoun


PAN     *k-ami 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive)

Amis kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Itbayaten kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Ivatan kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Ibatan kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Ilokano da-kamí ~ si- kamí1pl excl. independent pronoun, we
Isneg kamí ~ da-kamí1pl. excl. nominative and accusative pronoun, we
Itawis kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Bontok da-kamí1pl. excl. nominative, we
Casiguran Dumagat kame1pl. excl. topic pronoun, we
Ilongot si-kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Hanunóo kamíwe (exclusive)
Palawan Batak kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Aborlan Tagbanwa kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Mamanwa kam1pl. excl. nominative, we
Mansaka kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Kalagan kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Bilaan (Sarangani) gami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Tausug kami1pl. excl. topic pronoun, we, to us, for us
Bisaya (Limbang) jamiɁ1pl. excl. nominative, we
Bulungan kami1pl. excl. nominative, we
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) kay1pl. excl. nominative, we
Kelabit kamih1pl. excl. nominative, we
Berawan (Long Terawan) kammeh1pl. excl., we, us
Tring kamih1pl. excl. nominative, we
Narum hamay1pl. excl., we, us
Sebop kami luɁwe, three or more, excl.
Kenyah (Long Wat) kaməy1pl. excl., we, us
Murik kameɁ1pl. excl., we, us
Kayan (Uma Juman) kameɁ1pl. excl., we, us
Kiput kamay1pl. excl., we, us
Bintulu mə-ləw1pl. excl., we (3 or more), us
Melanau (Balingian) mə-tələw1pl. excl., we (3 or more), us
Melanau (Mukah) mə-ləw1pl. excl., we (3 or more), us
Melanau Dalat kaməy1pl. excl., we, us
Bekatan kai1pl. excl., we
Melanau (Matu) kamiɁ1pl. excl., we, us
Tunjung kamiɁ1pl. excl., we, us
Lawangan kai-n1pl. excl., we, us
Dusun Witu kami1pl. excl., we, us
Iban kami1pl. excl., we, us
Tsat mi³³1pl. excl., we
Jarai ɓiŋ gəməy1pl. excl., we, us
Malay kami1pl. excl., we, us
Acehnese kamɔə1pl. excl., we, us
Gayō kami1pl. excl., we, us
Karo Batak kami1pl. excl., we, us
Toba Batak hami1pl. excl., we, us
Mentawai kai1pl. excl., we, us
Enggano Ɂai1pl. excl., we, us
Sundanese kamilst sg. (used with someone of lower rank)
Old Javanese kamilst person pronoun (sg. and pl.)
Sasak kami1pl. excl., we, us
Sangir kami1pl. excl., we, us
Proto-Minahasan *kami1pl. excl., we, us
Tondano key1pl. excl., we, us
Tontemboan kami1pl. excl., we, us
Mongondow kami1pl. excl., we, us
Gorontalo Ɂami1pl. excl., we; term of address to an older man (esp. to Arabs)
Totoli kami1pl. excl., we, us
Pendau Ɂami1pl. excl., we
Banggai i-kami1pl. excl. independent pronoun, we, us
  -kami1pl. excl. accusative pronoun, us
Uma kaiɁ ~ kamiɁ1pl. excl., we, us
Bare'e kami1pl. excl., we, us
Tae' kami1pl. excl., we, us
Mori Atas i-kami1pl. excl., we
Duri kami1pl. excl., we, us
Wolio (iŋ)-kami1pl. excl., we, us
Chamorro ham1pl. excl., we, us
Manggarai hami1pl. excl., we
Ngadha gami1pl. excl., we, us
Keo kami1pl. excl., we, us
Ende kami1pl. excl., we, us
Sika ami1pl. excl., we
Lamaholot kame1pl. excl., we, us
Adonara kamewe (excl.)
Solorese kamé1pl. excl. possessor
Helong kaim <M1pl. excl., we
Atoni hai1pl excl., we, us
Tetun ami1pl. excl., we
Galoli gami1pl. excl., we, us
Erai ami1pl. excl., we, us
Talur gamiwe (excl.)
Buruese kam1pl. subject, we
  kami1pl. object, us
Tifu kamiwe (excl.)
Soboyo kami1pl. excl., we, us
Kowiai/Koiwai am1pl. excl., we, us
Irarutu amwe (excl.)
Waropen ami1pl. excl., we, us
Seimat ami-1pl. excl. subject pronoun
Wuvulu ai1pl. excl. subject pronoun
Sursurunga gim <Mwe (excl.)
Tanga kem1pl. excl., we, us
Bali (Uneapa) ghami1pl exclusive subject pronoun
Lakalai ami-lua1dl. excl. subject and object pronoun
  ami-teu1pl. excl. subject and object pronoun
Kis amwe (excl.?)
Gitua -gai1pl. excl. object, us
Suau ʔai‘1pl. excl., we’
Motu ai1pl. excl., we, us
Saliba kaiwe (excl.)
Kokota gai1pl. excl., we, us
Hoava γami1pl. excl., we
Roviana gami1pl. excl., we, us
Marovo hami1pl. excl., we, us
Zabana ɣaiwe (excl.)
Nggela gami ~ gai1pl. excl., we, us
Ghari i-hami1pl. excl., we, us
Lau gami1pl. excl., we; subject or suffixed
Proto-Micronesian *kamiwe (exclusive), us
Marshallese (Eastern) kémʷwe (exclusive), us
Marshallese (Western) kémwe (exclusive), us
Chuukese áám1pl. excl., we, us
Marino kami1pl. excl., we, us
Maewo kami1pl. excl., focal, subject, and object pronoun
Sie kamwe
Proto-Polynesian *kima <M1pl. excl., focal pronoun, we


PMP     *m-ami 1pl. excl. genitive, our

Pendau m-ami1pl. excl. genitive, our
Tialo m-ami1pl. excl. genitive, our
Bugotu -mami1pl. excl. possessive, our
Sa'a -memi1pl. excl. possessive, our
Arosi -mami1pl. excl. possessive, our
Mota -mami1pl. excl. possessive, our
Maewo -mami1pl. excl. possessive, our
Fijian -mami1pl. excl. possessive, our


PAN     *n-ami 1pl. excl. genitive, our

Rukai (Budai) -nai1pl. excl. nominative and genitive
Rukai (Maga) namɨ1pl. excl. nominative and genitive
Mongondow -nami1pl excl. agent and possessor
Bimanese nami1pl excl., we
Manggarai namiwe say
Lamboya nami1pl. excl., we
Kurudu nami1pl. excl., we

Note:   Base forms of free pronouns are often difficult to decide. Although the most common form for the first person plural exclusive pronoun is a reflex of *kami, both Formosan and Malayo-Polynesian evidence suggests that the base was *ami, with *k-ami containing a prefix of uncertain function. Blust (1977:8-9) suggested that *kaSu ‘2sg’ next to *iSu ‘2sg.’ arose from *ka-iSu through a blend of the first syllable of *kamu ‘2pl.’ with the 2sg. base, and Ross (2006:533) has suggested that this pattern was extended to other persons and numbers; the matter remains unsettled.

A number of CEMP languages have lost *k- through regular sound change, and reflexes like ami are assigned to *k-ami on the assumption that they reflect the more common form. In assembling data for this comparison and other pronounsI have benefitted from Ross (2006:533-534) for Formosan languages, Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi (1987:19-23) for Bashiic, Reid (1971) for most Philippine minor languages, Lobel (2016) for Sabahan, and Pawley (1972) for eastern Oceanic. Phonological irregularities are to be expected in pronouns, which are often compressed, or reworked without losing the inherited morphemes.


*amiaŋ any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness


PWMP     *amiaŋ any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness

Malagasy amíanashrubs with large stinging hairs
Iban miaŋirritants produced by plants; irritating; irritated (as by paddy dust or bamboo) (Scott 1956), minute bristles on bamboos and other plants; irritation of skin caused by them (Richards 1981)
Malay miaŋitchiness; the fine hairs on certain plants (as bamboo) that cause itchiness when touched


*amin all; finished


PAN     *amin all; finished

Bunun aminall
Paiwan aminfinished; there is no more, there is no other than
  pu-amincomplete, terminate, leave
Ilokano áminall; total, entire, complete, whole
  ámin nowhatever
Isneg áminall
Bontok ʔamínuse up, consume
Ifugaw (Batad) amindo all, complete something, exhaust a supply, as of food, money; all, exclusively
Pangasinan amínall
Kapampangan aminconsume, finish
Maranao aminformula used in ending prayer; so be it
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amincomplete; consume; use up

Note:   Also Amis Ɂəmin ‘complete; all; every one included’, Bontok ʔamʔín ‘all’, Kankanaey amʔín, ‘all, whole, each, any, every; everyone, everything, wholly, entirely, quite, completely, thoroughly’, Ifugaw amʔín ‘all, persons or things; is often pronounced as if there were no glottal catch’, Kowiai/Koiwai lomin ‘full’.


*ampal beetle sp.


PWMP     *ampal beetle sp.

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ampallarge cockroach
Old Javanese ampala particular kind of beetle
Javanese ampalbeetle


*ampaw empty husk (of rice, etc.)


PMP     *ampaw empty husk (of rice, etc.)

Ilokano ampáwempty shell, nut, etc.
Tagalog ampáwpuffed rice or corn
Bikol ampáwpuffed rice
Aklanon ámpawpopped rice candy
Cebuano ampáwdelicacy consisting of puffed rice coated with caramel and stuck into bricks
Maranao ampawpopped rice
Buruese apa-nempty (grain) hull


*ampeRij type of finch, rice bird


PWMP     *ampeRij type of finch, rice bird     [doublet: *apiRit]

Malay emperitfinch
Toba Batak amporikrice bird

Note:   Also Karo Batak perik ‘rice bird’, perik perik ‘birds in general’, Javanese emprit ‘a certain small hummingbird, considered an omen of danger’, Balinese perit ‘species of rice bird’, Sasak perit ‘rice bird’. This comparison is unlikely to be a product of chance, yet it can be maintained only precariously. The relationship of the Malay and Toba Batak forms is straightforward, and given the correspondence of the final consonants is not easily explained through a hypothesis of borrowing. However, the Karo Batak form, an almost certain cognate of Toba Batak amporik, has final /k/ rather than the expected final /ŋ/. Both it and the Dairi-Pakpak Batak perik ‘rice bird’ may be early loans from Toba Batak, just as the Javanese, Balinese and Sasak forms appear to be loans from Malay. The validity of *ampeRij is made more likely by the need to reconstruct a doublet, *apiRit, a form which also serves to disambiguate the intervocalic consonant as *R.


*ampet stanch the flow, as of blood


PWMP     *ampet stanch the flow, as of blood

Kapampangan ampatstanch the flow of blood; stop, detain, check the progress of (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol ampát <Astop, put a stop to, quell, suppress
Malagasy mi-àfitrato stay, to halt, to be arrested in one's progress
Javanese ampetto check, restrain
Balinese ampetstanch, stop the flow

Note:   Also Tagalog ampát ‘checked, stopped, as of bleeding’ (presumpably a Kapampangan loan). With root *-pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.


*ampias wind-driven rain


PWMP     *ampias wind-driven rain

Tagalog ampíasrain entering through open or cracked windows, doors, walls, etc.
Iban empiasdrops of driven rain (e.g. drops of rain blown onto a table by a window, drops of rain driven into a room)
Malay t-empiasdeflected (and so beating in), as rain; commonly of slanting rain
Malay (Jakarta) t-ampiasraindrops that spatter or splash in

Note:   Also Aklanon ambi ‘get inside a window, seep in (rain)’, Malagasy tafío ‘rain blown by the wind’, tafíotra ‘rain blown by the wind’, Iban bias ‘rain storm with high wind, driving rain’, Malay bias ‘deflected (of a course). Of rain falling at an angle (hujan bias) because of wind; of a ship's course being affected by tides or currents; but not of a ship being blown off its course altogether by storms’, Malay (Jakarta) lampias ‘veer off one's course at sea’.


*ampik pat, clap


PWMP     *ampik pat, clap

Kankanaey ampíkpat, tap lightly
Banjarese ampikclap

Note:   Possibly a convergent innovation. With root *-pik ‘pat, light slap’.


*ampin roll of leaves or cloth


PWMP     *ampin roll of leaves or cloth

Toba Batak maŋ-ampinin weaving, to roll up a woven cloth because it would otherwise be too long for the arms
  sa-ampina piece of cloth as large as a woman can weave at one time
Balinese ampinbunch (of leaves), bundle, pile, heap
Sasak ampinroll of sirih leaves
Tontemboan ampinleaf, cloth, etc. with which one seizes something


*ampuk scatter, disperse


PWMP     *ampuk scatter, disperse

Bontok ʔapúkscatter, as a crowd of people or broken beads
Kankanaey apókspread; scatter; dissipate; expand
Balinese ampukwidely scattered, dispersed

Note:   Also Itbayaten hapak ‘act of scattering’. Possibly a chance resemblance.


*ampun pardon, forgiveness


PMP     *ampun pardon, forgiveness

Kadazan Dusun ampunpardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve
Ngaju Dayak ampunpardon, forgiveness
Banjarese ampunpardon
Iban ampunforgiveness, pardon, submission; apologize, confess
Malay ampunpardon (of a royal or divine superior showing mercy; forgiveness between equals is maaf, mahap, tabek)
Acehnese ampōnpardon, forgiveness; apology; remission, absolution
Toba Batak ampunpardon, forgiveness
Rejang apunpardon, mercy
  apun tuaninitial salutation to ancestral spirits in propitiation rites
Sundanese ampunpardon, forgiveness
Old Javanese ampunshow mercy toward, receive with favor
Balinese ampunpardon, forgive
Sasak ampunpardon, forgiveness
Sangir ampuŋforgiveness, pardon
Dampelas ampunpardon, forgiveness
Banggai ampunforgiveness, pardon
Bare'e ámpuŋ-iforgiveness, pardon
Manggarai ampuŋpardon, forgiveness


PWMP     *maŋ-ampun pardon, forgive

Kadazan Dusun maŋ-ampunpardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve
Toba Batak maŋ-ampunask for forgiveness, apologize
Sangir maŋ-ampuŋpardon, forgive
[Mongondow moŋ-ampuŋask for forgiveness, entreat, implore]


PWMP     *maŋ-ampun-i pardon, forgive

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-ampun-ipardon, forgive
Old Javanese aŋ-ampun-ishow mercy toward, receive with favor
Dampelas meŋ-ampun-ipardon, forgive
Banggai moŋ-ompun-ito pardon


PWMP     *paŋ-ampun-an forgiveness (?)

Bahasa Indonesia peŋ-ampun-anforgiveness, absolution
Toba Batak paŋ-ampun-anapology
Sangir paŋ-ampuŋ-aŋone who will be granted forgiveness; one who asks for forgiveness


PWMP     *ampun-an pardon, forgiveness

Malay ampun-anpardon, apology
Sasak ampun-anpardon, forgiveness
[Tontemboan ampuŋ-anbe forgiven]

Note:   Also Tontemboan ampuŋ ‘pardon, forgiveness’, Mongondow ampuŋ ‘pardon, forgiveness’; Gorontalo aːmbuŋu ‘pardon’, Wolio ampon-i ‘forgive; pardon, forgiveness’, Manggarai ampoŋ ‘pardon, forgiveness’, Rembong ampoŋ ‘pardon, forgiveness’, Rembong (Wangka) apon ‘pardon, forgiveness’, Rotinese apon ‘pardon, forgiveness’. Two problems with this comparison are noteworthy.

First, many reflexes in Sulawesi show an irregular final velar nasal for expected /n/. For Bare'e ampuŋ-i I assume a regular development *-n- > -/ŋ/, with later loss of consonants in absolute final position. The irregular forms in Tontemboan and the GM languages may be due to borrowing from a SANG language, but this is speculative.

Second, the semantic distinction between *maŋ-ampun and *maŋ-ampun-i remains unclear. The former may have meant ‘ask for forgiveness’ and the latter ‘give forgiveness, forgive’. However, on a priori grounds one would expect that the meaning ‘ask for forgiveness’ would have been marked morphologically with the PWMP petitive prefix *maki-, reflected e.g. in Sangir maki-ampuŋ and Tontemboan meki-ampuŋ ‘ask for forgiveness’.

Finally, many of the forms cited here appear to be loans from Malay, and the same would seem to be true of Tagalog ampón ‘protection in the form of adoption’, ampún-an ‘asylum; orphan asylum’. However, since it is often unclear in particular cases which forms are native and which are borrowed, it remains uncertain whether the elimination of Malay loanwords would force us to abandon the reconstruction of *ampun on the PWMP level.


*amu 2pl. nominative pronoun


PAN     *amu 2pl. nominative pronoun

Kavalan -imu1pl. excl. nominative
Proto-Atayalic *y-amuyou (plural)
Amis amoyou (plural)
Bunun amu2pl. actor and patient
Kalamian Tagbanwa y-amu2pl. nominative, you all
Subanun (Sindangan) y-amu2pl. nominative, you all


PAN     *k-amu 2pl. nominative, you all

Amis kamo2pl. nominative, you all
Bunun kamu2pl. nominative, you all
Kanakanabu i-kamu2pl. nominative, you all
Siraya (Gravius) kamu2pl. nom.


PMP     *kamu₂ 2pl. nominative, you all

Yami (Imorod) kamo2pl. nominative, you all
Itbayaten kamo2pl. nominative, you all
Ivatan kamo2pl. nominative, you all
Ibatan kamo2pl. nominative, you all
Casiguran Dumagat kam2pl. topic pronoun, you all
Remontado si-kamu2pl., you all
Hanunóo kámu2pl. nominative, you all
Palawan Batak kamu2pl. nominative, you all
Aborlan Tagbanwa kamu2pl. nominative, you all
Mamanwa kamo2pl. nominative, you all
Mansaka kamu2pl. nominative, you all
Kalagan kamu2pl. nominative, you all
Bilaan (Sarangani) gamu2pl. nominative, you all
Tausug kamu2pl. topic pronoun, you all
Lingkabau kau2pl. nominative, you all
Berawan (Long Terawan) kam2pl., you all
Tring kam2pl., you all
Tunjung kaam2pl., you all
Lawangan kam2pl., you all
Dusun Witu kau-n2pl., you all
Malay kamuyou; you all (not discourteous except when addressed to a single person, in which case it is somewhat arrogant)
Gayō kam2pl. independent pronoun, you all
Karo Batak kam ~ kamupolite 2nd person pronoun (sg. and pl.)
Toba Batak hamu2pl., you all
Old Javanese kamu2nd person (sg. and pl.)
Sasak kamu2nd person (sg. and pl.)
Proto-Minahasan *kamu2pl., you all
Tondano kow2pl., you all
Tontemboan kamu2pl., you all
Mongondow kamu2pl., you all (used only when a specific number of persons is named, thus: kamu-nda ‘you two’, kamu-(in)-tolu>/wd> ‘you three’, kamu opat ‘you four’)
Totoli kamú2pl., you all
Tae' kamu2pl., you all; also 2sg. to persons to whom one owes respect
Kambera -ŋgamusuffixed form of the 2pl. personal pronoun
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) kemyou (pl.)
Alune amu2pl. possessive, your
Asilulu amu2sg. genitive for alienable possession, your
Moor amu2pl., you all
Waropen mu2pl., you all
Tanga kam(u)2pl., you all
Lakalai amu-lua2dl. subject and object pronoun
  amu-tou *k > zero2pl. subject and object pronoun
Tarpia kamyou (plural)
Ali amyou (pl.)
Mbula ni-om2pl. excl. nominative, you
Numbami amu2nd person plural free pronoun; you (plural)
Patep γam2pl., you
Papapana amu2pl.,, you
Kokota gau2pl., you all
Hoava γamu2pl., you all
Roviana gamu2pl., you all
Zabana ɣauyou (plural)
Bugotu gamu2pl. focal pronoun, you all
  -gamu2pl. object pronoun, you all
Ghari i-hamu2pl., you all
Lau gamu2pl., you all; subject or suffixed
Fagani gamu2pl. object pronoun, you all
Proto-Micronesian *kamʷu2pl., you all
Gilbertese kam2pl., you all
Kosraean kom2pl., you all
Marshallese kʷémʷ2pl., you all
Pohnpeian komʷyou (honorific)
Lametin ŋgamyou (pl.)
Southeast Ambrym xami2pl., you all
Efate (South) a-kamyou (pl.)


PAN     *n-amu 2pl. genitive, your, by you

Amis namoyour, by you (agent/possessor form)
Kanakanabu nimu (?)2pl. genitive, your


PAN     *kamu-yu 2pl. nominative, you all

Saisiyat moyo2pl. nominative, you all


PMP     *kamu-yu 2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your

Lingkabau muyu2pl. genitive, your
Ida'an Begak muyu2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your
Bisaya (Limbang) muyu-n2pl. nominative, you all
Lun Dayeh muyuh2pl. nominative, you all
Kelabit muyuh2pl. nominative, you all
Tajio si-miu2pl., you all
Balaesang miu2pl., you all
Banggai i-komuyu2pl. independent pronoun, you all
  -komuyu2pl. accusative, you all
Bonerate i-komiu2pl.; you all
Popalia komiu2pl., you all
Palauan kəmiu2pl. emphatic, you all
Chamorro hamyo2pl., you all


PCEMP     *kamiu 2pl. nominate and genitive; you all, your

Ngadha miu2pl., you all
Ende miu2pl., you all
Sika miu2pl., you all
Dhao/Ndao miu2pl., you all
Vitu hamiu2pl. genitive, your
Suau ʔomi2pl. nom., you all
Motu umui <M2pl., you all
Saliba komiu2pl.; you all
Sudest ghemiyou, 2pl free pronoun
Bugotu -miu2pl. genitive, your
Nggela gamiu2pl. genitive, your
Fagani gamiu2pl. focal pronoun
  -miu2pl. genitive, your
Raga kimiu2pl. focal and object pronoun
  -miu2pl. genitive, your
Leviamp kam̋i2pl., you all

Note:   Reflexes of PMP *kamu-yu probably arose from *kamu ‘2pl. + *ihu ‘2sg.), which then contracted *uy to i in some daughter languages. Saisiyat moyo remains a puzzle.


*amuluŋ type of wild vine used to blacken the teeth


PPh     *amuluŋ type of wild vine used to blacken the teeth

Arta amuluŋtype of wild vine (substitute for betel nut)
Casiguran Dumagat amulóŋtype of vine which is chewed as a substitute for betel nut; it causes the spittle to turn black
Bikol amlóŋvine hanging from trees in the forest and used to make baskets
Hanunóo ʔamlúŋany of several varieties of a very useful climbing fern, some of which are used to blacken the teeth

Note:   The hypothesized loss of the medial vowel in this form in Bikol and Hanunóo is unexplained, but the comparison is otherwise faultless.


*amuma to entertain guests, look after visitors


PPh     *amuma to entertain guests, look after visitors

Aklanon amúma(h)to entertain, take care of
Agutaynen mag-amomato entertain visitors, care for their needs; to host visitors, show hospitality to them
Cebuano amúmato take care of someone and guide him
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) emumato show affection or good feeling for someone by taking good care of them or by welcoming them

Note:   Possibly a Bisayan loan in Agutaynen.

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*-an verbal suffix marking locative voice; nominal suffix marking location


PAN     *-an verbal suffix marking locative voice; nominal suffix marking location

Atayal -ansuffix forming first passive indicative from the reduced stem, and suffix forming first passive perfect from the reduced stem in connection with the infix -in-. Forms an imperative with the reduced or extra reduced stem. Forms nouns indicating place or time. Common suffix in place names, and less common suffix in personal names (e.g. qalup 'to hunt' : qlup-an 'hunting ground')
Paiwan -anspecific location in time or space; specific one/type: kan-an 'eating place' (kan 'eat')
Ilokano -ana suffix of general use, mostly locative
Bontok ʔana voice-marking suffix, non-completive aspect, which subjectivalizes the locative case relation; a gerundivizing suffix occurring in combination with voice marking affixes... In appropriate contexts it also functions as a temporal or locative suffix
Ifugaw -ansuffix of general use. First, it conveys a locative meaning; it is used to form names of places, or common nouns indicating certain places... Second, -an (like -on) is a suffix which actually verbalizes a given word-base by making it pertain to the so-called passive voice..... The difference between the suffix -on and the suffix -an can be (in some way) clarified as follows: the suffix -on puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base can be applied and, in fact, is applied to the direct object, while the suffix -an puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base is only indirectly applicable to the grammatical object
Tagalog -anthe -an suffix usually functions as the affix that focuses attention on the person or object or place toward which the action is directed or where the action is being carried out. Usually the actor focus counterpart of the -an suffix is -um-: b-um-ilí kamí sa kaniyá 'we bought from her (actor focus construction)', b-in-ilh-án namín siyá 'we bought from her (locative focus construction) (Ramos 1981:63)
Bikol -an1. verbal affix, locative series, infinitive-command form: dumán 'there, yonder' : duman-án 'come or go to', 2. verbal affix, reflexive action series, infinitive-command form: hugák 'lazy' : hugak-án 'to feel lazy', 3. verbal affix, regular series, infinitive-command form: imbitár 'invite' : imbitar-án 'to invite', 4. alternant command suffix for verbs taking i- in the infinitive: i-abót mo an asín or abot-án an asín 'pass the salt', 5. nominal affix, locative: eskuéla 'student' : eskuelah-án 'school'
Aklanon -ancommon suffix denoting a place or a referent. Used with (1) verbs: ginbáke-an sánda it dúlsi 'candy was bought for them', (2) nouns: simbáh-an 'church' (from símba(h) 'worship'), tindáh-an 'market' (from tínda(h) 'goods for sale'), (3) adjectives: baʔbá-an 'talkative' (from báʔbaʔ 'mouth')
Hiligaynon -aninfinitive benefactive-locative focus affix; noun formative affix designating a container or a place where an action occurs
Cebuano -anlocal passive verb affix, future; noun forming affix. 1. forming nouns which refer to a place where something is found, done, held, located..., 2. forming nouns which refer to a person possessed of a certain power..., adjective forming suffix 1. forming adjectives which mean 'characterized by being [so-and-so]..., 2. added to nouns to form adjectives which mean 'having [so-and-so]
Maranao -ana third grammatical relation between the verb and the so-phrase is indicated by the suffix -an: Tabas(an) o bebai so mamaʔ (cut o-woman so-man) 'The man is the one for whom the woman will cut it' or 'The woman will cut it for the man'. Here the action is performed on behalf of the one designated by the particle so. The so-phrase stands in an indirect relation to the verb. It may indirectly receive the action, be the location of the action, or be the associate or beneficiary of the action. The suffix -an thus marks referential voice
Murut (Timugon) -anassociate focus suffix. It occurs with all verbs that are inflected with -um- in the subject focus...The past temporal aspect is formed by the addition of -in- ... to the future temporal forms (e.g. min-oŋoy 'went (active)' : in-aŋay-an 'place where someone went')
Kelabit -anmarker of nouns of location (e.g. irup 'what is drunk; way or manner of drinking' : m-irup 'to drink' : rup-an 'watering hole for animals in the jungle', dalan 'path, road' : nalan 'to walk' : delan-an 'path made by repeated walking over the same course
Malagasy -anapassives in -ana are often similar in meaning to those in -ina, and are used simply as passives of verbs active transitive in mi- and man-. Often, however, passives in -ina and -ana are made from the same root, and used in different senses, thus: from tàmpoka ('suddenly, unexpectedly') are formed tampóh-ina 'being surprised', and tampóh-ana 'having cold water added'; the passive in a- is of very frequent occurrence. Its primary meaning is said to be that an object is placed in such and such a position...The most difficult use, however, to a learner is when it is made a correlative of the passive in -ana...Many verb that govern two accusatives, one of an object to which something is done, and the other of the instrument, means, etc., with which the action is effected, make the former the nominative case of a passive in -ana, and the latter of a passive in a-... Thus in the sentence manóso tsólika ázy àho 'I anoint it with oil', the body anointed would be made nominative case of the passive hosór-ana ..., and the oil of the verb a-hòsotra
Bahasa Indonesia -anthe suffix -an is used to form nouns from various types of base ... It is also used to form a small number of adjectives and adverbs ... When added to a root which can function as a noun, the suffix -an 1. occasionally produces a noun which hardly varies in meaning from the base noun (e.g. ruaŋ 'room' : ruaŋ-an 'room'); 2. more usually it produces a noun whose referent has some real or fancied resemblance to the referent of the base noun (e.g. achir 'end' : achir-an 'suffix', anak 'child' : anak-an 'interest (on an investment)', rambut 'hair' : rambut-an 'a fruit, the hairy cherry'; 3. when added to a noun root (usually reduplicated) the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to a collection of the referents of the simple noun, or of related referents (e.g. bintaŋ 'star' : bintaŋ-an 'constellation', pohon 'tree' : pohon-pohon-an 'trees, the vegetable kingdom'; 4. when added to a numerative (usually only satu, or those which can be preceded by satu in the form se-), the suffix -an forms a noun referring to a group consisting of that number (e.g. satu 'one' : satu-an 'a unit', -puluh 'ten' : puluh-an 'decade, a group of ten'; 5. when added to a verb (all other prefixes and suffixes being lost), the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to what is involved in the performance of the action referred to by the verb, whether as the product or the instrument (e.g. makan 'eat' : makan-an 'food', me-lukis 'to draws, paint' : lukis-an 'a drawing, painting', meŋ-ayun 'to rock, sway' : ayun-an 'cradle'. Such nouns in -an contrast with nouns in ke- -an, per- -an and peŋ- -an in that they refer to more concrete or definite things, while the three latter groups refer to more abstract processes. Nonetheless, there is sometimes a congruence in meaning between the noun in -an and the other nouns, especially those in per- -an and peŋ- -an... 6. Such nouns, derived from verbs by the addition of -an, refer to a collection of items, when the root is reduplicated (e.g. meŋ-gali 'to dig' : gali-an 'what is dug up' : gali-gali-an 'minerals, root crops', tembak 'to shoot' : tembak-an 'shot' : tembak-tembak-an 'shooting'; 7. Just as the suffix -an, added to a reduplicated noun root, produces a noun referring to a collection of items, the same suffix, added to a few adjective roots, usually reduplicated, produces a noun referring to a collection of items which can be characterized by that adjective (e.g. enak 'delicious' : enak-enak-an 'delicacies', manis 'sweet' : manis-an 'candy, sweets'; 8. Otherwise, adjectives and the occasional verb root, when reduplicated and followed by -an, produce adjectives, or adverbs of manner (e.g. teraŋ 'bright' : teraŋ-teraŋ-an 'frank', takut 'afraid' : takut-takut-an 'bashful', buta 'blind' : buta-buta-an 'at random, blindly') (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:65ff).
Simalur -ansuffix used to form: 1. abstract nouns, 2. nouns which express a nominal perfect participle, 3. nouns of location; verbal suffix used to express various relationships between the action and the object; added to qualitative and intransitive constructions it has a causative function
Toba Batak -an(in the second passive) the prefix tar- or ha- is placed before the nominal form. The prefix ha is always used when the active has the suffix -i: in the passive, this suffix is replaced by -an... The passive verbal substantives with the suffix -an do not always have a corresponding verb with the suffix -i. Their meaning can also be derived from another verbal form. For example, I have never come across a ma-maŋani-, which would mean 'to eat out of (something), as an active corresponding to paŋan-an: 1. 'that which can be eaten out of' (e.g. a large leaf); 2. 'from which one usually eats (a plate or a dish); 3. 'that which has been eaten into (by a disease)' (referring to marks left on the limbs by, for example, an eruptive skin disease... Such derived substantives represent a place where that which the verb represents usually takes place, or must take place... The suffix -an, just as the suffix -i, can, moreover, not only refer to a plural, but also to the repeated occurrence of the thing represented by the verb, or to its occurring on and off, for example, dalan-an can also mean where it is customary for someone to walk... The suffix -an seldom denotes a direct object, but an example is suru-an 'messenger who is sent', from ma-nuru. Suru-suru-an (repetition of the stem-word) is, however, far more often found...where such a word has not been taken from Minangkabau or Malay -an, representing -i, also means a plural, or repetition, or frequency ... (The second kind of nominal verb) has the suffix -an. a. When verbs of this kind are derived from substantives, the suffix indicates place and the subject is, therefore, represented by this verb as being a place where what the stem-word means can be seen (e.g. panas-an 'to sweat' = the place where the sweat (panas) is; roŋit-an 'to be bothered by flies' = something where flies (roŋit) are to be found), b. when this kind of nominal verb is derived from a verb, the subject is other than the stem-word, i.e. a person who is affected by what the stem-word represents (e.g. ŋolŋol-an 'be bored' : ŋolŋol 'boring', c. the suffix further strengthens what is represented by the stem-word and the derived form then means 'taking place continually', or 'occurring extensively' (e.g. borat-an 'be very laden' : borat 'heavy'; d. these verbs also mean 'an acquiring of', or 'a losing of', as a state (e.g. mate-an 'having deaths, of someone whose soldiers have been slain'; e. when they are derived from a qualificative verb, these verbs have the accent on the suffix and indicate that the quality exists to a greater degree (e.g. gabe-án 'to be richer' : gabé 'rich', datu-án 'to be a more skillful datu' ... Words ending in a vowel can insert an n before the suffix (e.g. dae-n-an, from dae) (van der Tuuk 1971:161, 196ff)
Lampung -ana noun + -an, most often a reduplicated noun, specifies a large variety of the thing signified by the single-morpheme noun' (e.g. bataŋ 'tree' : bataŋ-bataŋ-an 'all kinds of trees'; verbal roots combine with -an to form nouns signifying the result of the action of the verb: cinciŋ 'carry (something light)' : cinciŋ-an 'that which is carried', aji 'to chant' : aji-an 'the chant', xatoŋ 'to come' : xatoŋ-an 'guests, the people coming'; partial reduplication + -an functions as a circumfix, combining with some intransitive verb roots meaning to cook, expressing a variety of ingredients used in the cooking process: gulay 'to make soup' : ga-gulay-an 'vegetables', pajaʔ 'to boil something' : pa-pajaʔ-an 'greens for boiling'; this combination also occurs with a few adjective and intransitive verb roots to give the abstraction of the root meaning: taway 'to teach' : ta-taway-an 'teaching, instruction', demon 'like' : da-demon-an 'a liking'
Mongondow -ansuffix with locative sense, where what the base-word says happens, is, or comes; afflicted with
Banggai -ansuffix forming adjectives. The suffix -an is actually local, and in the second instance temporal, and it thus gives the place and time at which or in which the meaning of the stem word is realized... Examples of adjectives with the suffix -an are: buluŋ-an 'loud, of sound' (from buluŋ 'throat', boo-an 'evil-smelling' (from boo 'stench'), buku-an 'strong' (from buku 'bone'), mon-doso-an 'be taboo' (from doso 'a taboo')...The collective function of -an which is found in some other languages is seen in osoa-an 'to marry' (from soa 'spouse') ... In other cases the meaning of the stem word is not available in Banggai, and hence the precise meaning of the suffix -an cannot be determined
Uma -athe basic sense of the suffix -a is locative, although this basic sense is applied and extended in a variety of directions, so that there is often little or nothing of a local function left to perceive. As for the relationship of -a to the similarly local suffix -i, it can be said in general that -i is found in verbal, -a in nominal forms. There are, however, also many exceptions to this rule ... a. when added to a noun derived from a verb or adjective -a denotes the place or time in which the action takes place or the condition in question prevails; this suffix also occurs with forms that are prefixed with ka- and a possessive pronoun; b. -a is added to (underived) nouns in the sense 'having, supplied with, suffering from. These forms are adjectives, and have no prefix
Makassarese -aŋ1. suffix used to form passive nouns: that on which, in which, with which something is done (e.g. doŋkoʔ 'back (anat.)' : doŋkok-aŋ 'carriage', at-taʔgalaʔ 'to hold, keep ahold of' : taʔgall-aŋ 'handle', enteŋ 'stand, stand up' : enteŋ-aŋ 'place where one stands, position'); 2. suffix used to form deverbal adjectives or nouns with a passive sense, and carrying an implication of possibility or desirability; 3. suffix used to form adjectives with the meaning 'afflicted with, suffering from' (e.g. kaluara 'ant' : kaluar-àŋ 'covered with ants', bulalaʔ 'white spot on the cornea' : bulalakk-aŋ 'have a white spot on the cornea'; 4. substitute for the more commonly used -aŋŋaŋ, which expresses the comparative; here also belong indications of place and time in comparison with other place and time indicators; 5. suffix in connection with siapa and piraŋ- 'how much', with the meaning 'how much not'; 6. verbal suffix with the meaning 'do something for the benefit of, do something with something, do something because of something, do something at a certain point in time'
Chamorro -anattributive suffix. It is difficult to find an appropriate name for this suffix. It is usually added to nouns. The affixed form then describes something that has attributes or features of the stem... The stem usually, but not always, takes the infix -in- (e.g. bosbos 'skin rash' : b-in-esbus-an 'condition of having a skin rash', chugoʔ 'sap, juice' : chiguʔ-an 'salty fish sauce', palaoʔan 'woman' : p-in-alaoʔan-an 'effeminate male' or 'having attributes of woman', pao 'odor' : pagu-an 'smelly')
Roviana -anasuffix of location (e.g. huhuve 'bathe' : huhuve-ana 'bathing place, bath')

Note:   *-an is one of the more important affixes that can be reconstructed for PAn and PMP. The reflexes in such languages as Atayal, Tagalog, Murut (Timugon) and Chamorro show that PAn *-an probably could co-occur with *-in- in past temporal expressions, and examples in other languages suggest that the final element in PWMP *ka- (stem) -an was identical to *-an. Reflexes of *-an are often the exclusive or principle morphological means of expressing the ‘locative focus’ in Philippine languages, and at the same time are commonly used to derive nouns of location. It is, however, perhaps an oversimplification to associate *-an exclusively with semantic properties that can be characterized in a straightforward sense as ‘locative’. To judge from its functioning reflexes in modern Formosan and Philippine languages, and from its fossilized reflexes in other languages, *-an had multiple functions (alternatively, we might recognize more than one homophonous suffix).

Thus, many of the languages of western Borneo have a form tapan ‘winnowing basket’ (active verb: napan ‘to winnow grain’) which reflects PMP *tahep ‘up and down movement of grains being winnowed’ + *-an, here receiving a more natural universal interpretation as instrumental rather than locative. Particularly interesting is *tian-an ‘pregnant’ (from *tian ‘abdomen’ + *-an), found in a number of WMP and OC languages, since here the suffix clearly was used adjectivally in PMP. Like *-en, reflexes of *-an sometimes mean ‘inflicted with’ or ‘suffering from’ the referent of the base (Mongondow, Makassarese, Chamorro). In general the use of *-an decreases sharply as one moves southward from the Philippines, and eastward in Indonesia. The evidence for POc *-an is slim, but difficult to dismiss, although it probably was something of a relic affix in the eastern region of the Austronesian-speaking world even at this early time.


*-ana attributive suffix


POC     *-ana attributive suffix

Penchal -anattributive suffix
Seimat -anattributive suffix
Label -naattributive suffix
Arop -anaattributive suffix
Gedaged -ansuffix added to substantives to form qualifiers, and sometimes to verbs to form nouns or qualifiers
Gapapaiwa -naattributive suffix


*anabu shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L.


PWMP     *anabu shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L.

Ilokano anabosmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001)
Ibanag anabosmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001)
Isneg anabóa malvaceous tree with red or yellow flowers, and entire leaves that affect the skin like nettles. The fibers of its bark are used for binding purposes
Isinay anafusmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001)
Hanunóo ʔanabúsmall tree (Abroma augusta L.); the leaves are used to rub on swollen parts of the body; the bast fibers of the inner bark are used extensively for making twisted bowstrings
Cebuano anabúshrub or small tree which produces strong bark fiber of commercial importance: Abroma augusta
Palauan labbush in cocoa family (bark used for cord): Abroma augusta L.

Note:   Also Isneg anabnó ‘a malvaceous tree with red or yellow flowers’, Iban ñabuʔ ‘grass sp.’, Malagasy adábo ‘a tree (Ficus sp.); if eaten to excess the fruit is said to cause a vomiting of blood’. Palauan lab (rather than **ŋelab) suggests that unstressed initial vowels in trisyllables were lost prior to the addition of word-initial ŋ.


*anad accustomed to, skilled at, used to


PPh     *anad accustomed to, skilled at, used to

Ibaloy anadcaution, ability to avoid trouble; forethought to avoid something; discretion
Hanunóo ʔánadaccustomed to, skilled at, expert in
Aklanon ánadto be used to, be accustomed to; familiar with
Waray-Waray pag-pa-pa-anadthe act of taming or domesticating animals
Agutaynen mag-anadto get used to doing something; to train, accustom yourself to do something; to train a dog, small child, etc. to do something
Hiligaynon anádusual; sophisticated; used to
Cebuano ánadto take to, become fond of; to get accustomed, get in the habit of doing; tame
Maranao anadto learn, familiarize (oneself with something)
Subanon mog-anadto learn
Binukid anadto accustom, familiarize someone or oneself to something by use or habit; to be accustomed, used to
Tausug anadtrained, accustomed to


PPh     *ma-anad (gloss uncertain)

Ibaloy ma-anadcautious
Waray-Waray ma-anadtame; subdued; domesticated


*anaduq long (of objects)


PMP     *anaduq long (of objects)     [doublet: *adaduq]

Itbayaten anarolength, long
Rungus Dusun anarulong (of objects)
Gayō narulong
Bimanese narulong (of objects)
Tetun naru-klong, lengthy; tall, lofty
Kola narlong
Ujir narlong
Nuaulu naulong; deep
Proto-Ambon *nadulong (of objects)

Note:   Also Saisiyat inaroɁ (of objects)’, Alune nanu ‘long’.


*anam a plant: Glochidion spp.


PPh     *anam a plant: Glochidion spp.

Yami anama plant: Glochidion rubrum
Ilokano anáma plant: Glochidion philippicum


*ananay₁ exclamation of pain; ouch!


PPh     *ananay₁ exclamation of pain; ouch!

Yami ananayshriek (of pain), moan
Itbayaten ananayouch!
Ibatan ananayouch! An exclamation of pain, esp. from a fall or cut
  machi-ananayto cry out in pain
Ilokano ananáyan interjection expressing pain
  ag-ananáyto moan from pain
Ifugaw (Batad) ananayan exclamation expressing pain, either superficial or severe

Note:   Also Bontok anána ‘sickness; hurt; pain’ (used in talking to small children).


*ananay₂ go or do something slowly, take one’s time


PPh     *ananay₂ go or do something slowly, take one’s time

Kankanaey anáneyto go, to do, etc. slowly; remissly; tardily; little by little
Aklanon ananáyto go slowly, work carefully, do gradually


*anaŋ dehortatory exclamation


PWMP     *anaŋ dehortatory exclamation

Hanunóo ʔanaŋanáŋan exclamation expressing a threat or boast, somewhat in the sense of 'you'll see!'
Iban anaŋin prohibitions: don't; you must, don't fail to


*anapiŋ cheek


PWMP     *anapiŋ cheek

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) enapiŋcheek
Manobo (Ilianen) napiŋcheek
Singhi Land Dayak paniŋ <Mcheek

Note:   Also Cebuano ápiŋ ‘cheek’. The direction of metathesis assumed in this comparison is arbitrary, but is motivated in part by the observation that nominal bases with a reflex of initial *n are less common than nominal bases with a reflex of initial *p in most of the languages of Indonesia and the Philippines.


*anayup beautyberry: Callicarpa spp.


PPh     *anayup beautyberry: Callicarpa spp.

Yami anayoptype of plant, beautyberry
Itbayaten anayopan herb in pasture lands; shrub in woods with violet fruit: Viburnum; bush at base of hills, with pink flower: Callicarpa; this plant is laid at the entrance of a house in the rainy season for removing mud
Kankanaey anayúpa verbaceous bush with pink flowers: Callicarpus caudata Maxim

Note:   Also Ilokano anuyop ‘a plant: Callicarpa cana, Callicarpa formosana.


*andap phosphorescent centipede (?)


PWMP     *andap phosphorescent centipede (?)

Itbayaten andapidea of emitting light; sp. of fungus
  om-andapto flare or flicker, emit light
Ilokano andápopalescence, luminescence, phosphorescence
Casiguran Dumagat ándepspecies of plant (shines in the dark)
Pangasinan andapto flicker
Tagalog andáptwinkling (of light); spurt of low flame before extinction
Ngaju Dayak andapsmall brown insect, similar in shape to a millipede; when touched it phosphoresces brightly
Tae' andaʔkind of phosphorescent millipede
Buginese anreʔkind of phosphorescent millipede

Note:   Also Sasak andam andam ‘glowworm’. None of the known Philippine reflexes refers specifically to a phosphorescent millipede, but two considerations favor the gloss I have given. First, the semantic reflexes in Ngaju Dayak and the South Sulawesi languages agree closely in referring to such an insect. Second, on the whole semantic extensions proceed by generalizing properites of the concrete objects of experience rather than by concretizing a priori general properties. I thus consider it unlikely that *andap referred to phosphorescence as such. It is probable that some still undeterminded morpheme which was marked by the *qali/kali- prefix also meant ‘luminous millipede’ (Banjarese halimañar ‘luminous millipede’, Malay kelemayar ‘luminous millipede’, Karo Batak katikeran ‘phosphorescent millipede’, Toba Batak hatitioran ‘phosphorescent millipede’, Ambai halimontan ‘phosphorescent light of luminous millipede or toadstool’, Malay (Jakarta) kalimayah ‘luminous millipede’, Tae' andaʔ kalamoyan ‘phosphorescent millipede’).

David Mead (email of January 18, 2015) informs me that “in all of Southeast Asia there are only two described luminous centipede species, of which only the first one listed below -- because of its wide distribution -- could have been the reference of *andap.

1. Orphnaeus brevilabiatus (Newport 1845), a small soil centipede, thread-like body about 3 cm long, 1 mm in diameter with 67 to 81 pairs of legs, known from Africa through Hawaii and the Galapagos Islands, a widely distributed "tropical tramp species"
2. Otostigmus aculeatus (Haase 1887) a small tropical centipede with a dark grey body (with prototypical centipede body shape); known distribution includes "China; Indonesia (Java); Laos; Taiwan; Vietnam.

The confusion of O. brevilabiatus with millipedes has two sources. First, the small size, elongated body shape and numerous leg pairs have caused non-specialists to confuse it with (true) millipedes -- and probably even more so when seen at night under dim lighting conditions. Second, the Dutch term duizenpoot, which can refer to both millipedes and centipedes, has probably added another layer of complexity when Dutch sources have been (mis)translated. There is no confusion on the part of myriapodologists, but, sadly, it must be laid at the feet of linguists and lexicographers. Thus, for example, Smith and Schmidgall-Tellings include in their Comprehensive Indonesian-English Dictionary the self-contradictory entry: "kelemayar luminous millipede, glow-worm, Orphnaeus brevilabiatus." And for a quarter-century in Sulawesi we employed a word list which asked for, as one of its items, the local word for ‘luminescent millipede’!”


*anduŋ ancestors


PMP     *anduŋ ancestors

Nias aduidol
  adu zatuaancestor figure
Minangkabau andoŋancestor; grandfather
Manggarai anduŋancestors


*aniŋal echo


PMP     *aniŋal echo

Hanunóo ʔaniŋálecho
Asilulu ninalecho

Note:   Also Bikol aniniŋál ‘echo, reverberation’. Possibly *qani-niŋal, with a variant of the *qali/kali- prefix, and haplology both in Hanunóo and in Asilulu.


*anipa large snake sp.


PMP     *anipa large snake sp.

Isneg annípaan exceedingly dangerous, very large, dark green, venomous snake with a big head
Remontado anípasnake
Murut (Tagol) nipopython
Narum nipahsnake
Kenyah (Long Wat) nipahsnake
Murik ñipaʔsnake
Bintulu ñipasnake
Tunjung nipaʔsnake
Siang ñipoʔsnake
Ma'anyan anipesnake
Ngadha nipakind of large snake

Note:   Also Lun Dayeh menipeh ‘snake’, Kelabit menipeh ‘generic for poisonous snakes’, Kiput lipah ‘snake’, Berawan (Long Terawan) lipeh ‘snake’, Miri ñipah ‘snake’, Melanau (Mukah) dipa ‘snake’, Paku adipe ‘snake’, Samihim undipe ‘snake’, Kapuas handipeʔ ‘snake’. Ngadha nipa may reflect PMP *nipay ‘snake’.


*ansaw roam about


PWMP     *ansaw roam about

Kadazan Dusun ansauroam about, go astray
Iban ansaulook about in search of anything
Toba Batak ansoroam or rove about; idle around with nothing to do
Bare'e ancoforce one's way through grass and bushes; wander in the wilderness


*antábay stay with, accompany


PPh     *antábay stay with, accompany

Ilokano antábayside; unison (of voices, strings, etc.); stand side by side; sing in unison
Pangasinan antábayto guide, assist in learning a skill
Ayta Abellan antabayto put a hand on someone’s shoulder
Tagalog antabáyslowing down in order to wait
Bikol antábayaccompany, escort, stay with; stay tuned to a particular radio station or television channel
Aklanon antábaywait for
  antabáy-anwait for one another
Agutaynen antabay-ento assist, support someone in walking somewhere by holding their arm; to lead someone by the hand or arm

Note:   Also Bikol aŋtábay ‘accompany, escort, stay with; stay tuned to a particular radio station or television channel’.


*antad open, spacious


PPh     *antad open, spacious

Aklanon ántadgap, distance, space
Tontemboan ataropen and spacious terrain


*antap guess, suspect


PPh     *antap guess, suspect

Bontok ʔátapto suspect, to guess (as a person's guilt)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) antapto guess something, predict something

Note:   Also Sangir antibeʔ ‘suppose, suspect’, Gorontalo wantobu ‘guess, suspicion’.


*anteŋ still, calm, quiet


PWMP     *anteŋ still, calm, quiet

Malay (Jakarta) anteŋgentle; quiet. Of children who play without disturbing their elders
Sundanese anteŋcalm, peaceful, still, quiet, sweet (as a child, or a woman)
Old Javanese anteŋquiet, calm, working steadily
Madurese anteŋstill, calm, quiet (not speaking much)
Makassarese antaŋbe still, keep quiet; remain, reside

Note:   Also Bare'e onto ‘stop; keep quiet; remain’, anta ‘(priestly language) stop; keep quiet; remain’. If Makassarese antaŋ is connected with the latter form this comparison will be invalidated. Wilkinson (1959) erroneously gives Malay (Jakarta) antéŋ, with last-syllable mid-front vowel rather than shwa. The correct form appears in Chaer (1976). Possibly with root *-teŋ₂ ‘stare, look fixedly at’.


*ántiŋ hear at a distance


PPh     *ántiŋ hear at a distance

Casiguran Dumagat ateŋhear the sound of wild game while hunting
Aklanon ántiŋkeen, good, sharp (of hearing)


*anzak stamp the feet


PWMP     *anzak stamp the feet

Tausug tag-andakstamp the feet
Karo Batak anjaktrot (of a horse), hop happily around (of children)
Toba Batak anjakleap, dance
Tae' andakstamp the feet

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.

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*aNak child, offspring; son, daughter


PAN     *aNak child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan

Saisiyat (Tungho) ʔalakbaby
Hoanya ada ~ alachild
Tsou me-ahʔogive birth
Siraya alakchild
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) alakchild, son, daughter
  la-lakplural of alak
Paiwan (Western) alʸakchild; interest on deposit


PMP     *anak child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan

Yami anakchild
Itbayaten anakone's child (daughter or son), as reference and a vocative term, offspring (of person or animal)
Ilokano anákchild, son, daughter; interest
Isneg anáʔchild, son, daughter
Itawis anákchild
Kalinga (Guinaang) anákchild, offspring
Bontok ʔanákrelative at the first generation level below ego; child; nephew; niece; son; daughter
  ʔanʔákoffspring (plural)
Kankanaey anákchild, infant, offspring; son, daughter; boy, lad, girl, lass; young, whelp, pup, cub; shoot, sprout, young plant
Ifugaw anákson, daughter; sibling; may sometimes be used in the sense of nephew or niece
Casiguran Dumagat anákbaby, child, son, daughter, offspring
Pangasinan anákchild, offspring
Kapampangan anákchild
Tagalog anákoffspring; son, daughter
  anák sa lígawbastard
Buhid anákchild
Hanunóo ʔanákchild, offspring, i.e., son or daughter; with all such kinship whenever one wishes to be specific as to sex; e.g. anák laláki 'son'; young, youthful, referring to persons
Bantuqanon anakchild
Aklanon anákgodchild; become a godparent, be a godparent
Hiligaynon anákchild
Palawan Batak ʔanákchild, young person; offspring, i.e., son or daughter
  ʔanák ka babáygirl, young female (not daughter)
  ʔanák ka lalákiboy, young male (not son)
Cebuano anákson, daughter; give birth; happen to have for a child
  anák sa gawásillegitimate child
Maranao anakoffspring, brood
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) anakoffspring
Manobo (Tigwa) anakchild, offspring
Mansaka anákchild; offspring
Tiruray ʔonokoffspring, egg, fruit; all consanguineal relatives in descending generations
  ʔonok kayewfruit of a tree
  ʔonok manukchicken egg
Molbog anakchild
Bisaya (Lotud) anakchild
Kadazan Dusun anakchild
Minokok tanakchild
Bulungan aneʔchild
Tabun anakchild
Kelabit anakchild, baby
  anak n-alapadopted child
Berawan (Long Terawan) anaʔchild
Berawan (Long Teru) anakchild
Kenyah anakchild
Kayan anakchild; the young of plants, animals, etc.
  anak amuŋadopted child
  anak heduŋstepchild
Bintulu anakchild; dependent part
Melanau (Mukah) anakchild, offspring
  anak layson
  anak mahewdaughter
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) anakchild
Bukat anakchild
Bekatan anakchild
Ngaju Dayak anakchild, offspring (human or animal)
  anak rearinterest on a loan (rear = 'money')
  anak sarauillegitimate child
Malagasy ánakachild, the young of anything; anyone treated with affection; affectionate and respectful mode of address
  anak-anakaan allowance made for a loan or debt
  ának-andríanapetty princes among the various tribes
Banjarese anakchild
Iban anakchild, son, daughter, offspring, youngster, junior; small, a little, young
  anak ambuʔadopted child
  anak ampaŋbastard
  anak duitinterest on money
  anak patuorphan (with neither parent)
  anak tiriʔstepchild
  tunjok anaklittle finger
Maloh anakchild
  anak ambuadopted child
  anak biuorphan
  anak lawanbastard
Singhi Land Dayak anakchild
  bir-anakgive birth
Tsat naʔ²⁴child
Jarai anaʔchild
Rhade anakdaughter, son; nephew, niece: one's brother's child
Moken anaːtoffspring, child
Malay anakchild; young (of animal); native (of a country); one (of a party, set or series); important component part; smaller of two
  anak aŋkatadopted child
  anak anjiŋlower part of calf-muscle
  anak gentaclapper of a bell
  anak lidahuvula
  anak piatuorphan
  anak rajaprince
  anak tiristepchild
  anak uaŋinterest on money
Talaud anaʔachild
Bahasa Indonesia anakoffspring; young person or animal; person who originates from or was born in (a given country, area, etc.); person belonging to a certain occupation (family, etc.), as anak kapal 'crewmember of a ship'; small part of some larger thing, as anak baju 'undershirt', anak bukit 'small hill (at foot of mountain)', anak air 'small tributary stream'
  anak gampaŋillegitimate child
Acehnese anɨʔchild; young shoot; pit, stone, kernel, seed; constituent part of something
  anɨʔ gɨntaclapper of a bell
  anɨʔ gɨtuëŋadopted child
  anɨʔ titclitoris
  anɨʔ uystepchild
Gayō anakchild
Simalur anaʔchild, boy
Karo Batak anakchild; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); young of animals; sprout of a plant; descendant; inhabitant; figuratively of things that are small for their kind, in contrast with induŋ for things that are large for their kind
Dairi-Pakpak Batak anakson; young of an animal
  anak rajasaid to persons whose behavior is praiseworthy
Toba Batak anakson, of man or animal; BS (m.s.), ZS (w.s.); son of all other same generation lineage mates; interest from money
  i-anak-honchild in general without regard to sex
Nias onochild, children; boys; calf; suckling pig; plant shoot
  ono dorosiclapper of a bell
  ono fõnastepchild
  ono ganaʔainterest on a loan
  ono horõillegitimate child
Rejang anoʔchild, offspring
  anoʔ apaŋillegitimate child, bastard
  ʌnoʔ Dalamroyal family and dynasty of Bencoolen before British occupation in 1685
Enggano e-adachild
Lampung anaʔchild, offspring
Old Javanese anakchild; smaller of two things (as a small mountain at the foot of a bigger one)
Javanese anakoffspring; nephew, niece; young plant sprout
  anak kuwalonstepchild
Madurese anaʔchild
Balinese anakperson, human individual; the word originally meant 'child' as in Malay ...; it is the widest word for 'human being', and needs to be qualified with other nouns or with adjectives to give it content; alone it may even be used with nouns indicating animals (bémasé ento anak 'those goldfish'), and with personal pronouns
Sasak anakchild (in contrast with adults); young of animals; sometimes child in general; smaller part of something larger, of small for its kind
  anak akonadopted child who does not have the right to succession
  anak iwoʔorphan
  anak jentikclitoris
  anak liruvula
  anak ora oraillegitimate child
  anak perasadopted child who has the right to succession
Proto-Sangiric *anakchild
Sangir anaʔchild (in contrast with adults; otherwise one uses darioʔ
Proto-Minahasan *anakoffspring, child (of someone)
Tontemboan anakchild, in relation to adults, hence 'offspring'; used as a vocative term
Gorontalo walaʔochild
  walaʔa wuwatoʔostepchild
Kaidipang anakochild
Balantak anakchild
Uma anaʔchild
Bare'e anachild, young one (always as a qualifier of another noun); sometimes also used of a part of some larger thing
  ana ntausomeone else's child
  ana iluorphan
  ana ndaratastepchild
  ana ŋkadoeillegitimate child
Ampana anachild
Mori anachild
Mori Atas anachild
Mori Bawah anachild
Padoe anachild
Bungku anachild
Wawonii anachild
Mandar anaʔchild, offspring'
Buginese anaʔchild, offspring'
Makassarese anaʔchild; son, daughter; young of animals, young plant; smaller part of a larger thing
  anaʔ aostepchild
  anaʔ buniillegitimate child
  anaʔ keraeŋprince's children
Wolio anachild, offspring', young (of animals), small and separate part of a whole
  ana awostepchild
  ana maeluorphan
  ana-na baluwu o peropacrown prince
Muna anachild
Palauan ŋáləkchild; baby; anyone younger than speaker; sweetheart; fiance(e)
  ŋálək ər a orəoməlraəlbastard
Bimanese anachild; anything that is small
  ana cempeadopted child
Donggo anachild
Komodo anaʔchild; young; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); son, daughter; give birth, breed
Manggarai anakchild; part of something; give birth, bear a child; young, small (of animals)
  anak keraéŋnobility (Makasarese loan)
  anak tinuorphan
Rembong anakchild; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); sprout of plant; interest
Ngadha anachild; person, human being; disciple, follower, member; inhabitant, resident; protege'; ward (person); title of distinction; young, small
Li'o anachild
Sika ʔanaksmall, of animals
Lamaholot ana-nchild
Solorese anakchild
Kédang anaʔchild
Kodi anachild
Kambera anachild; young; small
  ana tau wihicalf of the leg
Hawu anachild
Dhao/Ndao anachild
Rotinese anachild, in comparison with adult; young of animals; small (used as both predicate and attributive adjective
  na-anahave a child; accept or consider as a child; develop shoots, of a plant
  na-ana-kcall someone 'child'
  ma-anasmall, become smaller
Atoni anaxchild
Vaikenu anasmall
Erai ana-(n)little, small; child
Tugun anachild
Roma ana-child
East Damar ana-child
Leti anachild; small
  an-walifamily, consanguineal relative
Moa anachild; small; bear children
Selaru analineage; child of; offspring
Yamdena anakchild in the sense of offspring; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.)
Kei yana-nchild (in relation to adults); young; component part of something; small (for its kind)
  yana-n sosalôkillegitimate child
Kola ana-child
Dobel anachild
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) anachild
Elat anakochild
Masiwang yanachild
Teluti ana-nchild
Kamarian anachild
Paulohi anachild
Saparua ana-heichild
Laha anachild
Hitu anachild
Nusa Laut ana-i-lyoung
Larike anachild
Morella wanachild
Buruese anachild
  ana-nchild; small, baby
Soboyo anaʔchild
  baka-anaʔbear children, give birth
  anak katuaʔorphan
  anak makañstepchild
  anak unaadopted child
Sekar kuk-anakchild


PWMP     *a-anak-an doll

Ilokano a-anak-ánwomb, uterus, matrix
Casiguran Dumagat a-anáktoy doll
Banjarese a-anak-andoll


PAN     *aN-aNak child

Thao az-azakchild


PMP     *an-anak child

Ilokano an-anákdoll
Isneg an-anáʔchild, son, daughter
Bontok ʔan-ʔannakdoll
  ʔan-ʔanakchild, one who has not yet entered puberty
Watubela an-anakchild


PWMP     *daŋ-sa-anak relatives

Kelabit deŋ-anakbrothers and sisters
Malay daŋsanakrelatives


PPh     *hin-anak-an brood, flock, lots of children

Kankanaey in-anak-ánhaving young ones, having a child. Applied to animals and to unmarried women who have a natural child
[Gaddang in-an-anakbilateral personal kindred (formerly the effective units in revenge and wergild (Lebar 1975:101)]
Cebuano hin-aŋk-anhen that has raised a brood
Mongondow in-anak-anfamily, lineage


PPh     *i-anak give birth

Bontok ʔiy-anákgive birth, bear a child
  ʔiy-anáknephew, niece
Casiguran Dumagat i-yenakbe born
Tagalog i-anákgive birth to (an offspring)
Tontemboan i-anakpiece that is placed in or on something else


PMP     *ka-anak have a child

Bahasa Indonesia k-anak k-anaksmall child (usually below seven years of age)
Sasak k-anakchild, young person
Mandar ke-anaʔhave a child
Rotinese ka-anakhave a child


PAN     *ma-anak (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan ma-alʸakbe disturbed by (too many) children


PMP     *ma-anak bear children,