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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ta    te        ti    to    tu    







































































tai ñamuk





















































tali tali















































































tanduk tanduk








































































































































































tau ñamuk
























*-ta 1pl. incl. genitive suffix


PAN     *-ta 1pl. incl. genitive suffix

Kavalan -taours (inclusive); 1pl. incl. genitive pronoun
Pazeh ta-we (inclusive, genitive, hortative)
Puyuma -ta1pl. incl. genitive pronoun, our
Paiwan ta-our, we (inclusive)
Yami tawe (genitive case, inclusive)
Itbayaten taour (inclusive)
Ibatan tafirst person plural inclusive genitive or possessive pronoun
Isneg tawe two, you and I; replaces the first person singular of the possessives when followed by a personal pronoun of the second person
Itawis tawe, 1+2 person singular nominative and genitive pronoun
Bontok tafirst and second person minimal pronoun; you (singular) and I; your (singular) and my; our
Kankanaey tawe two, we both, you and I; our
Ifugaw tadual pronominal enclitic, I and you; independent form
Ifugaw (Batad) tawe two
Ibaloy tafirst person dual: we two, you and I
Bikol tawe, by us; ni class first person plural inclusive pronoun
Hanunóo tawe (inclusive); apheretic, literary form of kitá
Agutaynen taour; us; we
Cebuano ta1pl. incl. in certain constructions when followed by a second person pronoun
  ta ka, ta ikaw, ta kamuI will (do) to you, you are my (noun)
Central Tagbanwa tafirst person plural inclusive pronoun, genitive, used as nonfocused participant in verbal clauses and as possessive pronoun in possessive noun phrases where the pronoun follows the possessed noun, all of our
Maranao tawe, us
Binukid tasecond person dual nontopic pronoun: we (you and I/me); our
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tafirst person dual pronoun, nontopic
Mansaka tafirst person plural inclusive topic pronoun
Mapun tafirst person dual non-focus pronoun inclusive of speaker and hearer only: we (dual), our (dual)
Simalur -tapossessive suffix, our (incl.)
Karo Batak ta1pl. incl. possessive pronoun, our
Toba Batak ta1pl. incl. possessive suffix, our
Tontemboan ta1pl. incl. suffix
Banggai ta-we (incl.)
Bare'e taprefixed and suffixed form of the 1pl. incl. pronoun
Muna ta-1pl. excl. (realis and irrealis) subject prefix


POC     *-da₂ 1pl. incl. possessive suffix

Lau -gawe, us (1pl. incl., suffixed to some nouns and prepositions)
Arosi gafirst person plural pronoun, usually possessive, we, us, our’s
Raga -da1pl. incl. possessive suffix
Wayan -daformative in pronouns; marks first person inclusive of addressee, and occurs only after possessive marker and dual and paucal number-marking prefixes in the possessive pronouns

Note:   This is clearly a clitic form of *kita ‘we (incl.)’, but must be cited independently, given its separate identity in many languages.


*ta-₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun


PAN     *ta-₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun

Seediq ta1pl. incl. enclitic pronoun
Pazeh tawe (inclusive, hortative)
Puyuma ta-bound pronoun, 1pl incl. nominative, we
Paiwan tja-our, we (inclusive)
Yami tawe (nominative case, inclusive); hortative
Ibatan tafirst person plural inclusive nominative pronoun
Ilokano -tafirst person dual pronoun, you and I (hortative)
Pangasinan tawe two (topic pronoun; includes only speaker and single addressee)
Manggarai ta1pl. incl. hortative pronoun


POC     *-da₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun

Tawala tawe (incl.)
Fijian da1pl. incl. pronoun, we (used under government of certain conjunctions); hortative

Note:   This is clearly a clitic form of *kita ‘we (incl.)’, but must be cited independently, given its separate identity in many languages.


*ta₁ preposition with locative and possessive functions


PCEMP     *ta₁ preposition with locative and possessive functions

Anakalangu taat
Mussau tapreposition: for (benefactive)
Tolai tapreposition of location: in, at, on, from, by
Babatana tapreposition of location: in, at, on, from, by
Roviana tapreposition marking possession
Nggela tapreposition of location: from, with
Mota tapreposition: from (a place)
Raga tapreposition: from (a place)

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1973:148), and later expanded by Ross (1988:105).


*ta-₂ prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action


PMP     *ta-₂ prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action     [doublet: *taR-]

Tagalog ta-pilókto stumble or trip, thereby causing one to twist or sprain the foot or ankle (pilók ‘twisted, referring to arm, ankle or foot’)
Iban te-piloksprained, laimed (pilok ‘crooked, twisted, lame, as a foot’)
Kambera ta-prefix on non-intentional, accidental, sudden or unexpected intransitive verbs
Lakalai ta-prefix marking action that takes place of its own accord (gole ‘to pluck leaves’ : ta-gole ‘to fall off, of a tree branch’)
Nggela ta-intransitive verb prefix marking action that takes place without an agent
Arosi a-a prefix of spontaneity
Wayan ta-prefix that derives a stative verb marking an action or process that comes about accidentally or spontaneously, without a wilful agent
Fijian ta-prefix to verb indicating spontaneity (sere ‘untie’ : ta-sere ‘come untied by itself’)


*ta₂ emphatic particle


PWMP     *ta₂ emphatic particle

Central Tagbanwa taparticle of emphasis, marks a peak or an abrupt transition in a discourse
Kadazan Dusun taparticle used to express admiration, etc. (marks intensity or enthusiasm)
Old Javanese taemphatic particle
Balinese taan emphasizing particle

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*taba₁ reward, pay


POC     *taba₁ reward, pay

Manam taba-ito reward; sacrifice
Bugotu tabato pay; wages; reward; price
Nggela tambato hire, pay wages; wages, pay; a reward, prize in a race

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*taba₂ side, edge, border


POC     *taba₂ side, edge, border

Nggela ta-tambaa part, division, portion
'Āre'āre apa-apaside, part, portion, half
  ana apa maion this side
Arosi abathe half, a part, side, portion, chapter; the slope of a hill, one side of a ridge
Gilbertese tabasides, edges of passage; to deviate, go sideways
Rarotongan tapathe margin, the edge, fringe, border of anything; the brink or edge, as of a cliff; a piece, portion or slice of anything
Maori tapamargin, edge
Hawaiian kapaedge, border, boundary; side, as of a road


*taba₃ cut with a knife


PMP     *taba₃ cut with a knife     [disjunct: *tabad]

Nias ma-nabato cut off, shorten (as payment); to slaughter (by slitting the throat)
  s<in>abaa portion that is cut off


POC     *tapa cut off with a knife

Fijian tavato cut with a knife, as meat from a carcass
Tongan tafato cut into portions with a knife, carve up (e.g. a cooked pig or turtle); to lance, cut open (a boil, etc.)

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Mills (1975:843).


*tabad to cut, make an incision


PMP     *tabad to cut, make an incision

Tagalog tabádvenesection, process of bloodletting


POC     *tapar to cut, make an incision

Sa'a ahato cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising
Samoan tafa(of boil, abscess, etc.) cut open, incise


*tabák sword or sword-like appendage


PPh     *tabák sword or sword-like appendage

Pangasinan tabáka large and long variety of bolo (machete)
Tagalog tabákcutlass; a kind of bolo or large knife
Aklanon tabákswordlike beak (of a swordfish); long pin, hat pin

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Pangasinan.


*tabak knock, pound, as with a hammer


PWMP     *tabak₁ knock, pound, as with a hammer

Mongondow mo-nabakpound sago
  to-tabakkind of hammer used to pound sago out of the sago palm
Tae' tambakclean something by pounding it
Proto-South Sulawesi *ta(m)bakto hit, pound

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tabal side of the head


POC     *tabal side of the head

Bola tabalaside of the head
Arosi abahalf, part, side
Chuukese sapface (in a given direction); change direction
Puluwat hapcheek; fish gill
Woleaian tap(a)cheek, face

Note:   A version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond and Ross (2016a:117).


*tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)


PAN     *tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)

Kavalan tabanhead trophy
Amis tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war


PMP     *taban booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride

Tagalog t<um>ábanto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Bikol mag-tábanto kidnap or abduct a woman; to carry a woman off (of a man)
Aklanon tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food)
Agutaynen mag-taban-anto elope
  taban-ento carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanto run away with, to take away, to elope
Cebuano tábanelope
Maranao tabanwin, winnings; beat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavanspoils of war, loot
Mansaka tabanto plunder
Tiruray tabanthe spoils or winnings; to win in fighting or betting
Mapun tabanto snatch; grab at something
Lun Dayeh tabana kidnapping, an abduction; a person who was caught during a headhunting raid and taken back by the person who caught him/her and made a slave
  nabanto kidnap, abduct, take or carry away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit tabanrunning away with someone or something, kidnapping, elopement
Melanau (Mukah) tabanto seize, grasp, hold
  pə-tabanhold onto something
Ngaju Dayak tawanbe captured
  tawan-anwhat is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)
Malagasy (Provincial) tavanaprisoners of war
Iban tabancarry off, carry along, i.e. without leave (and so liable to fine), but with no intention of theft, and not by force; abscond or elope with, i.e. without consent of parents or tuai rumah (head of longhouse)
Malay tawantaking captive
Acehnese tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty
Karo Batak er-tabancapture something or someone, make someone a war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tabanwhat is plundered, looted or taken captive
Toba Batak tabanbooty
  par-tabanone who captures or plunders, plunderer
  tar-tabanbe captured, be taken captive
Old Javanese tawanwhat is carried off, booty, a captive
Balinese tabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
Sasak tabanbooty; to loot, take as booty
  taban sesatothe confiscation of another person’s cattle that have strayed into one’s fields and caused damage
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tawaNto capture


PWMP     *ma-naban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Agutaynen ma-nabanto elope
Kelabit nabanrun away with, kidnap, elope
Ngaju Dayak ma-nawanto catch, capture
Malay me-nawanto conquer, subdue, lead into captivity
Balinese nabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
  ta-taban-anan animal so retained


PWMP     *maR-taban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Tagalog mag-tábanhold onto something with one’s hand or hands
Bikol mag-tábankidnap or abduct a woman; carry a woman off
Agutaynen mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanrun away with, take away, elope
Cebuano mag-tábanto elope
Tausug mag-tabanto capture property, loot, plunder; (usually for many people) to strive to get a share of something
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-tabanfall into the hands of someone through plunder; capture someone from his village in a raid
Toba Batak mar-tabanto capture; plunder


PWMP     *t<in>aban be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off

Agutaynen t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat)
Tiruray t<en>aban-anone who is defeated
Old Javanese t<in>awanto carry off as captive or booty, to loot


PWMP     *taban-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tabán-anto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Javanese tawan-anan enemy captive, prisoner of war
Sasak taban-ancattle confiscated from another person as compensation for damage caused by them wandering into one’s fields


PWMP     *taban-en be kidnapped or abducted

Bikol tabán-onbe kidnapped or abducted
Hiligaynon tabán-onbe carried off, taken away, as in elopement
Lun Dayeh teban-enwill be taken away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit teban-enbe kidnapped, be carried off
Malay tawan-anprisoner; conquest
Karo Batak taban-enbooty, loot, war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taban-enwar captive

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak taban-an ‘what is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)’. The meaning of PMP *taban seems clearly to have been ‘booty, loot; what is taken by force, as in war, or elopement’. This is consistent with the more specific meaning ‘head trophy’ (trophy taken in headhunting), which is reflected in the two known Formosan reflexes (both members of the East Formosan subgroup), but it is unclear whether the meaning in PAn was as narrowly restricted as this.


*tabaŋ help, assist


PMP     *tabaŋ help, assist

Bikol ka-tábaŋaide, assistant, helper; maid, servant
  mag-tábaŋto help one another; to work together; to collaborate, cooperate
  ma-t<in>ábaŋhelpful, cooperative
  mag-tabáŋ-anto aid, assist, help; to relieve; to chip in
Aklanon tábaŋto help, assist
  pa-nábaŋprayer (imploring divine help or favor)
Cebuano tábaŋhelp, give a hand
Maranao tabaŋhelp, contribution, relief, aid, support, cooperate
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavaŋaid or help of any kind; to help; to render aid; to go and get something which has fallen
Ida'an Begak tabaŋhelp
  mə-nabaŋto help
Proto-Minahasan *tabaŋto help
Tontemboan tawaŋfoster child; servant; helper
  t<um>awaŋto help
Proto-Micronesian *tapatapa, *tapaŋ-ihelp, support, aid, benefit

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tambaɁ ‘to help’.


*tabaR tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite


PWMP     *tabaR tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite     [disjunct: *tambar]

Tboli tawala potent medicine used to remove the poison of snakebites
Kayan tavahmanufactured medicine
Punan Tuvu' tabahmedicine
Iban tabartasteless, insipid, unseasoned
  aiʔ tabarfresh water
Malay tawarwithout flavor or distinctive character, in two senses: 1. tasteless, 2. innocuous
  ayer tawarfresh water, in contrast to salt
  tawar hatito lose heart
Toba Batak tabartasteless, insipid
Old Javanese tawapowerless, weak, inefficacious, harmless
  japa tawaa formula to make poison, etc. harmless
  bañu tawafresh (tasteless) water
Balinese tabahinsipid, tasteless, watery (of food); unfeeling; insensitive
Mongondow mo-tambagtasteless, insipid; diluted, thinned out; powerless
Makassarese tambaraʔantidote

Note:   Also Sundanese tawar ‘brackish, as river water near the sea’, Sasak tawah ‘tasteless; brackish, of river water’.


*tabas₁ machete, bolo; chop with a machete


PWMP     *tabas machete, bolo; chop with a machete

Ilokano tabáskind of machete used to cut grass
  tabas-ánto clear an area of grass
  tabas-énto cut grass, trim
Itawis tabáslong machete or bolo
Casiguran Dumagat tabásto cut down, to lop off (excess plant growth or branches, by hacking with a bolo)
Ayta Abellan tabahto cut grass
Tagalog tabáscut down; lopped off
  t<um>abásto chop; to cut down; to lop off (branches, excess growth, etc.)
Hanunóo tábascutting down, clearing underbrush and small trees as in preparing a kaiŋin
Central Tagbanwa tabasto prune, to mow, to cut down excess growth
Maranao tabasMaranao bolo
Binukid tabasto cut through something flat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavasa scimitar
Balinese nabasto chop, cleave, hack (wood), chop til level
Sasak tabascut, level or smooth, cut off the top
Banggai man-tabasto hack, cut; murder
Wolio tabas-ito clear for cultivation, reclaim land

Note:   Also Ifugaw) tabas ‘a sickle bolo, a bolo with the tip curved forward, for cutting grass and other small vegetation’ (< Ilokano), Iban tawas (expected **tabas) ‘cleared, not overgrown’, Minangkabau tabas (expected **tawas) ‘cutting down small plants; in contrast to felling timber (təbaŋ)’. Evidently distinct from PWMP *tabas ‘to cut out, as a pattern’.


*tabas₂ to cut out, as a pattern


PWMP     *tabas₂ to cut out, as a pattern

Ilokano tábasstyle; cut; pattern; outline; form; look
  ma-tábasto be cut following a pattern (clothes)
  mag-tabás-ancloth cuttings
  tabás-ento cut a garment using a pattern
Casiguran Dumagat tábasto cut cloth
Ibaloy tabastrimmings, remnant, that remaining of something (as piece of cloth, galvanized sheeting) after the desirable piece has been removed; the “cut” of a person, i.e. his nature, characteristics
Pangasinan tábascut (of dress, etc.), style
Sambal (Botolan) tábahto cut cloth
Tagalog tábascut; style of apparel
  i-tábasto use something for cutting out a dress, etc., according to a pattern
  ma-tábasto be able to cut out; to be cut out
  mag-tábasto cut out cloth according to a pattern
Bikol tábascut or style of clothes; pattern
  tabás-onto cut material for clothes; to style, fashion
  an t<in>ábasremnants of cloth
Aklanon tábasto cut into shape, tailor
  pa-nábascut or style of clothing
  pa-tábasto have tailor-made, bring to a tailor
  t<in>ábasrags; clothing scraps
Agutaynen mag-tabatto cut something, as material
  s<in>abatthat which was cut, leftover material or scraps
  tabat-ento cut something, as material
Hiligaynon mag-tábasto sew, to cut cloth
Cebuano tábascut lengthwise or through something flat; make a dress
Maranao tabasto cut with scissors
  tabas-aʔboard for cutting
Mansaka tabasto cut a pattern (for clothes)
Mapun tabasto cut cloth (according to a pattern or measurement in order to make a garment)
  tabas-angarments that need to be cut out of cloth
  tabas-tabascloth scraps; the leftover pieces of cloth after cutting out a garment
Ida'an Begak tabascut pattern out of cloth


*tabayaR kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha


PPh     *tabayaR kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha

Yami tavalaytype of plant: small gourd
Itbayaten tavayaywhite squash (edible); its fruit (except rind and matured seed) is eaten
Ivatan tavayaya shell of mature white squash hollowed out and used for carrying water (Maree and Tomas 2012)
Ibatan tavayaya common gourd, upo: Lagenaria leucantha
Bikol tabáyagelongated green squash with white flesh
Hanunóo tabáyaglime container made from a gourd
Cebuano tabáyagkind of edible squash, round in shape with a knob-like protrusion at the top; the shell becomes hard when mature and is used as a container: Lagenaria leucantha var.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevayagcommon gourd or upo: Lagenaria leucantha

Note:   Also Isneg tabáyad ‘a small, white variety of bottle gourd with a very narrow neck; it is extensively cultivated and used for storing lime, and sometimes for storing rice.


*tabe hold tightly or firmly; carry close to oneself


POC     *tabe hold tightly or firmly

Tolai tabehold something so that someone else will not take it, take something from the hands of another
Nggela tambeto take hold, grasp, seize
Arosi abecarry something against the chest, as firewood
Wayan tabehold or carry a burden in the extended arms, esp. resting on both palms extended horizontally in front, as a tray (it is polite to hold a gift in this manner when presenting it)
Fijian tabehold or carry with the hands under
  i-tabea small oval basket without handles
  tabe-tabethe bringing of food in this basket
  vaka-tabe-tabe-ato test the weight of something in the hands; to life a boat out of shallow water
Tongan tapeshallow basket

Note:   Tongan tape may be a borrowing of Fijian i-tabe.


*ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct


PWMP     *ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct

Tiruray tambeŋstop a small flow of water by setting an impediment
Balinese tambeŋobstruct, block; be obstinate
  tabeŋstopper, cork
Sasak tabəŋto dam off

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.


*tabeŋ to screen, conceal, cover


PWMP     *tabeŋ to screen, conceal, cover

Tagalog tabíŋcurtain; screen; a covered frame that hides, protects, or separates; veil; anything that screens or hides
Javanese taweŋa cover
  di-taweŋ-icovered, removed from view (Pigeaud 1938)

Note:   Fijian tabo ‘to hide, conceal from sight’, included with the above forms in Blust (1972a), probably is a chance resemblance.


*tabeq fat, grease; tasty


PWMP     *tabeq fat, grease; tasty

Yami tavafat, grease
Itbayaten tavafat (organic substance); fatness; fatty portion of meat
  ka-tavastate of being fat
Ibatan tabafat of the body, substance from animals or plants used for cooking
Ilokano tabáadipose tissue, fat; grease; bacon; cream
  na-tabáfatty; greasy; fertile (soil)
Isneg tabāfat, adipose tissue
Itawis tabáfat (substance)
Bontok tabáto become fat; fatness
Ifugaw tabáfat, grease
Ifugaw (Batad) tabaanimal fat, of the body fat of an animal or person; rendered lard of an animal; coconut meat
Ibaloy tabafat on a living animal or person
Pangasinan tabáfat, grease or oil for cooking; fatness, health; become fat
Kapampangan tabáʔfat, lard, grease, butter
Tagalog tabáʔfat; a white or yellow oily substance formed in the body of animals; lard; grease; soft animal fat; fatness; obesity
Bikol tabáʔfat
Aklanon tabáʔfat, stout, plump
Cebuano tábaʔpork fat
Binukid tábaʔfat, lard
Mansaka tábaʔfat, adipose tissue; to become fat
Klata towoʔfat
Mapun tabaʔthe fat on any kind of meat or fish
Malagasy tavifatness, corpulency
Karo Batak n-tabehdelicious, of taste; fat, of meat; strong, of tobacco
  tabeh-tabehthe fat of the intestines
Toba Batak tabodelicious, tasty
  tabo-tabofat (on meat), grease
Proto-Minahasan *tabaʔfat (on animal body)
Tonsea tawaʔfat, grease
Mori Atas tabafat
Wolio tabafat
Bonerate taɓafat, grease
Muna tabhafat, grease; corpulent


PWMP     *ka-tabeq-an corpulence, obesity

Tagalog ka-tabaʔ-áncorpulence; fatness; obesity;stoutness; richness; abundant condition, as of soil
Malagasy ha-tavéz-anafatness


PWMP     *ma-tabeq fat, corpulent

Yami ma-tavavery fat (as a pig)
Itbayaten ma-tavafat, stout, obese
Itawis ma-tabábe fat, stout
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-tabafat, of a person or animal
Ibaloy ma-tebafat, stout, chubby
Kapampangan ma-tabáʔto be fat
Tagalog ma-tabáʔto be fat, fleshy
Bikol ma-tabáʔto be fat, chubby, corpulent; rich, fertile
Binukid ma-tábaʔfatty, greasy
Mapun ma-tabaʔto make something delicious
Malagasy ma-tavifat, corpulent

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat tabí ‘fat, chubby; to get fat’.


(Formosan only)

*tabi plough


PAN     *tabi plough

Kavalan tabia plough
  t<m>abito till the land
Seediq tabeplough; a very simple tool made of a stake (now iron-shod), inserted at a 60 degree angle into a long wooden frame pulled by a buffalo or a man

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution, as ploughing by Formosan aborigines probably was first acquired after contact with the Chinese. However, a loan source is yet to be identified, and Kavalan and Seediq, although geographically not distant from one another, had very little known contact during historical times.


*ta(m)bid attach, fasten


PWMP     *ta(m)bid attach, fasten

Hanunóo támbidhanging, as of a bamboo container from the rafters of a house
Aklanon tabídattach, join
Hiligaynon tabídlink together with a rope or string, attach to
Iban tambitfastening; latch, button


*tabid to twist, braid


PWMP     *tabid to twist, braid

Ilokano tabídto twist thread
Cebuano tabídbraid the hair
Mansaka tabidto twist (as rope); to wring
Tausug tabidtwisted, not straight, out of shape
  t<um>abidto twist or wring something; to wring the water out of something
  tabid-tabida rope-shaped confection made of flour or pounded cassava
Ida'an Begak tabidto hold and twist

Note:   Also Bontok tibid ‘to join two threads by winding them together’.


*tabiŋ sheltering cover


PWMP     *tabiŋ sheltering cover

Ilokano tábiŋscreen; curtain; wall cloth
  tabíŋ-anto screen, provide with a divider
Tagalog tábiŋcurtain; screen; a covered frame that hides, protects, or separates; veil; anything that screens or hides (as a veil of clouds); shade; something that shuts out light
  mag-tábiŋto screen; to shelter, protect, or hide with a screen
Old Javanese tawiŋwall, partition, screen, curtain
  a-nawiŋto hide behind a wall (partition) in order to overhear or spy
Javanese tawiŋshield, cover, esp. as protection against the elements
  nawiŋto protect, shield
Balinese tabiŋloose cover over the ridge of a roof; a partition

Note:   Also Malay tebiŋ ~ tebeŋ ‘spreading out, of the wide brim of a native sun hat, the hangings of a window, etc.’, Javanese tebeŋ ‘structure acting as a protective shelter against the elements’. Originally proposed in Blust (1970) as *(Ct)ebiŋ ‘screen’, but with an erroneous citation of Malay tebeŋ ~ tebiŋ as təbiŋ.


*tabiRa wooden food bowl


POC     *tabiRa wooden food bowl

Manam tabiradish, bowl, plate
Gedaged tabiza wooden bowl; plate
Arosi abiraa basket made of coconut leaf
Bauro abirafood bowl
Proto-Micronesian *tapiabowl; constellation Delphinus
Mokilese japiwooden bowl
Puluwat hápiybowl, calabash, wash basin, plate, dish
  hápiyá-n mwéngéfood bowl
Woleaian tapiyabowl, dish; the Delphinus star

Note:   This comparison was proposed by Osmond and Ross (1998:72). However, most of the forms that they cite as support are phonologically irregular.


*tabtab₁ to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on


PWMP     *tabtab₁ to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on

Itbayaten tabtabhacking
Ibatan tabtabto hack something with a bolo or axe
Ilokano i-tabtábto remove from the edge, trim
Casiguran Dumagat tabtabto chop, to trim with a bolo (as to trim the sides of a rice paddy dyke by chopping the edges with a bolo, or to chop the rib bones of an animal when butchering it
Kapampangan tabtabcutting (sugarcane)
Tagalog tabtábthe act of hewing or trimming wood, stone, etc.
Bikol mag-tabtábto cut bamboo or rattan, to cut the fins of fish, the wings of fowl
Aklanon tábtabto chop, cut (up)
Cebuano tabtábhack something off with several blows
Toba Batak ma-naptapto wash clothes (by pounding on a rock by the river)
Old Javanese a-natabto knock on
  t<in>atabwas knocked on
Javanese ke-tatabto bump into/against inadvertently
  natabto bump into, collide with
Proto-Minahasan *tabtabchop through, cut off


PPh     *tabtab-an to cut, to slash

Itbayaten tabtab-anto cut, to slash
Ilokano tabtab-ánto hollow out boards for putting rungs of stairs in them when making a ladder
Kapampangan tabtab-anto chop off


*tabtab₂ slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down


PAN     *tabtab₂ slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down     [doublet: *sabsab]

Kavalan tabtabto eat and make noise like a pig or dog
Thao taftafmake a loud slurping noise in eating, like a pig
Ibaloy tabtabto eat voraciously, wolf down, gulp down, devour, eat one’s food with fervor --- esp. of animals (as pigs), but also figuratively of people


*tabuD strew, scatter


PWMP     *tabuD strew, scatter     [disjunct: *tabuR]

Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface
Mongondow tabudstrew, scatter seed


*tabukul casting net for fishing


PAN     *tabukul casting net for fishing

Kavalan tbukulcasting net
  tabukulto fish with a casting net
  t<m>abukulto fish with a casting net
Puyuma tabukulfishing net; web (for some men kariɖ and tabukul are used in the sea; tiɭuɁ is used in the mountains; the tabukul is a casting net)
Ilokano tabúkolround net with cord at the center and lead sinkers around the circumference
  ma-tabukul-anto be caught in a net (fish)
  tabukol-anto cast a net
Ibaloy tabokolcast net, throw net; fishing net that is thrown and pulled back, closing the mouth of the net and trapping the fish

Note:   Also Amis tafokod ‘a draw net used in deep sea fishing’.


*tabun₁ kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand


PPh     *tabun₁ kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand

Ilokano tábona kind of bird
Bikol tabónbird species which buries its eggs deep in the sand
Cebuano tábunsmall white heron often found perching on the backs of water buffaloes, eating insects
Mansaka tabonkind of bird that when laying an egg digs a hole in the ground and lays its egg in the hole
Tausug tabuna type of quail a little smaller than a chicken, which lays eggs in sandy holes it digs

Note:   Probably the same base as *tabun₂ ‘to cover with earth’, but the distinct meaning here favors distinguishing the two.


*tabun₂ to cover with earth, sand, etc.


PMP     *tabun₂ to cover with earth, sand, etc.

Itbayaten tavoncover, covering
  ma-navonto cover (with soil, sand, gravel, ashes)
Ilokano tábonburial
  ag-tábonto be buried; to set (sun)
  i-tábonto bury, inter
  maki-tábonto attend a funeral
Bontok tábunto hide
Casiguran Dumagat tábunto fill in soil in a low place in the earth
Pangasinan maŋi-tabónto bury
Kapampangan tábundam
Tagalog tábona heap used for filling up a hole; a dyke of earth between fishponds
Bikol mag-tambónto cover with soil
Hanunóo tábuncover, covering, as of the heavy stitching over the closed portions of the seams in a man’s shirt
Cebuano tábuncover something to protect or conceal it; cover up for someone’s mistakes
Maranao tambonto cover (as with sand)
Mansaka tabonto cover
Kelabit tabuna heap or pile; covered by something that is heaped up; a heap of dead grass used by snakes to make a nest
  nabunto heap up, pile up
Punan Tuvu' tavunshut, closed
  navunto shut, close
Melanau (Mukah) tabuna cover, lid
  mə-nabunto cover
Malay tambunheaping up, piling up
Balinese tambunto heap up, pack together (things and people)
Sasak tambuna heap, pile (of sand, stones, etc.); to heap up, pile up
Proto-Sangiric *tambunheap; to cover with earth
Bare'e mon-tambuthrow something onto something else, as earth onto something
Proto-South Sulawesi *tambunheap, pile
Makassarese tambuŋheap, pile
Manggarai tambuŋto heap, fill up, as a grave with stones; to pile up


POC     *tapun₂ to cover with earth

Motu tahuni-ato cover with earth
Arosi ahuto bury; a pile, heap of firewood, mound of earth
Mota tavunto bury, conceal


PPh     *tabún-an to cover with earth, dam up

Itbayaten tavon-anto cover with soil (in planting yams)
Ilokano tabón-anto embank; fill with earth
Pangasinan tabon-ánto cover
Kapampangan tabún-anto dam up, stop up, barricade

Note:   Motu tahuni-a is assumed to be a reanalysis of tahu-nia. With root *-bun ‘heap, pile; cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*tabuna dehortative: don’t!


POC     *tabuna dehortative: don’t!

Nauna tapundon’t!
Penchal rapundon’t!
Wuvulu apunadon’t!
Aua apunadon’t!
Tanga tabunritually restricted (used in reference to the immediate environs of a funeral house of a certain clan --- only members of that clan may walk on this ground)
Bauro apunadon’t!

Note:   Also Lau abu ‘don’t --- to a child or animal’, 'Āre'āre āpu ‘sacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children’, āpu-na ‘taboo (n.)’. As the latter example indicates, it is likely that this word shares the same base with POc *tabu ‘forbidden, taboo’, but the morphological and semantic distinctness of the forms merits separate reconstructions.


*tabuni₁ placenta, afterbirth


PMP     *tabuni₁ placenta, afterbirth

Ngaju Dayak tabuniplacenta, afterbirth
  ma-nabunitake the afterbirth away
Malagasy tavónithe afterbirth, the placenta
Malay tembuniplacenta
Pendau tauniplacenta
Kulisusu towuniplacenta, afterbirth
Waiyewa tawuniafterbirth, placenta
Anakalangu tabuniafterbirth, placenta
Kambera tambiniafterbirth, placenta
  tawiniafterbirth, placenta


POC     *tapuni placenta, afterbirth

Kwaio afuniplacenta; in pagan childbirth must be buried under mother’s bed in childbirth hut to avoid supernatural danger to her
Arosi ahunito bury, cover, conceal, hide

Note:   Also Mapun tamuni ‘placenta (the placenta should be placed in a hollowed-out coconut shell and then buried by the midwife at a place where a road forks)’, Yakan temuni ‘placenta’, Tausug tamuniŋ ‘placenta; something worthless or of very little value’, Pendau tauni- ‘afterbirth’. The relationship between *tabun ‘to bury’ and *tabuni ‘placenta, afterbirth’ remains unclear’. Over much of the Austronesian world the placenta is/was regarded as the younger sibling of the newborn child, and was buried after the birth, hence the possibility that *tabuni may derive from *tabun-i 'to bury (something)'. This possibility is somewhat strengthened by the recognition that in many languages the name for the placenta is a descriptive term, as with Bontok baley ‘home; shelter; living place; any place which gives protection, as a bird nest, spider web, rat hole, water buffalo pasture or the sheath of a bolo; placenta’, Dampelas banua ŋanaʔ ‘afterbirth’ (lit. ‘house of the child’), Maranao dalem a kandaŋ ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘inside the womb’), or Pohnpeian ieŋen seri ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘companion of the child’), suggesting that there was no monomorphemic word that corresponded to the meaning of the English gloss.


*tabuni₂ to hide, hidden


PWMP     *tabuni₂ to hide, hidden

Toba Batak mar-tabunito hide oneself
  ma-nabuni-honto hide, conceal, bury
Petapa Taje me-tambunito hide


*tabuŋ a plant: Ixora sp.


PWMP     *tabuŋ a plant: Ixora sp.

Tboli taboŋ galaga plant: Ixora bartlingii Elm., Rubiaceae
Malay taboŋ buŋaflowering plants: Ixora opaca, Ixora pendula


*tabuq scoop up water; water scoop or dipper


PMP     *tabuq scoop up water; water scoop or dipper

Yami tavoto get water
Itbayaten tavoscooping out (liquid)
  ma-navoto scoop out liquid
  ta-tavoscooper (as dipper), dipper made of coconut shell
Ilokano táboscoop (originally made of bamboo)
Sambal (Botolan) i-táboʔto dip out; a dipper
Tagalog táboʔscoop or dipper made from coconut shell; any empty can used as a scoop or dipper; mug (in some areas) a drinking vessel made from coconut shell
Bikol táboʔwater dipper (traditionally made from half a coconut shell)
Central Tagbanwa ma-navoto draw water from a spring or well
  t<ar>avo-ana public water well
Malagasy tavopumpkin
Toba Batak tabupumpkin, gourd
  tabu-tabubottle gourd used as a rice container
Bare'e tambua pointed bucket made of leaf sheaths of the sago palm, used to scoop up water for the washing out of sago flour
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tambuto scoop, dip
Moronene mon-tambuto draw water


POC     *tapuq scoop up water

Mota tavto dip and take up water in a vessel

Note:   Also Javanese di-tawu ‘bailed out, scooped up, of water, as from a pond in order to catch the fish’ (Pigeaud), tawu ‘to deplete water by removing containerfuls of it’ (Horne).


*tabuqan yellowjacket wasp


PMP     *tabuqan yellowjacket wasp

Isneg tabówāna kind of large, reddish bee whose young are edible and whose nest resembles a coconut or a bow net, that is situated at the base of a tree or dangles from its branches; in this nest it constructs each year one platelike, honeyless cake, one above another
Mapun tabuwanhornet; a large black and yellow wasp with a painful sting
Yakan tabuʔana bee-like insect; it is large and black with brownish wings, and makes round nests of dirt on trees; its sting hurts very much
Iban tebuantree hornet
Bahasa Indonesia tabuhanlarge wasp that usually nests in trees
Old Javanese tawwan ~ tawonbee
Javanese tawonbee, wasp
  nawonbee-like, wasp-like
  nawon kemitwasp-waisted
  t<um>awonhumming like a swarm of bees (said of a busy marketplace)
Balinese tabuwanhornet; several different kinds are distinguished
Sasak tabuankind of wasp with yellow thorax
Bare'e tambuakind of wasp
Tae' tabuankind of wasp that makes its nest in dry wood
  tabuan balowasp with thin midsection and yellow stripes around the body, with a venomous sting
Wolio towuawasp, sp.
Lamaholot təwuãwasp
Kambera tawuaŋu ~ tawoŋularge wasp sp.

Note:   Also Bare'e tambuya ‘kind of large wasp (or fly); according to folk belief, in earlier times this insect was given the instruction to ask for fire from the gods


*tabuR₁ to strew, scatter, as seed


PMP     *tabuR₁ to strew, scatter, as seed

Iban tabursprinkle, scatter, sow broadcast (as seed rice in planting)
Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface (of sowing seed, of scattering flowers over a passing hero, of the stars scattered over the sky, etc.
Toba Batak tabursprinked, speckled, spotted (as the sky sprinkled with stars)
Javanese tawursmall coins ceremonially distributed among the poor
Sasak taburto strew, scatter (seed)
Proto-South Sulawesi *tabu(ɣ)to sow, scatter


POC     *tabuR₁ to strew, scatter, as seed

Roviana taburuto throw about, scatter, as grain

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak tawor ‘seed, what is sown; be strewed or sown’ (probably < Javanese). With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow, sprinkle’.


*tabuR₂ to drive away, shoo off


PPh     *tabuR₂ to drive away, shoo off

Casiguran Dumagat tabúga type of game drive where game is driven by dogs towards where men are waiting in ambush
Sambal (Botolan) tabóyto drive or chase away
Ayta Abellan taboyto chase or drive away
Aklanon tábogto shoo, scare away
  tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies)
  tábogto shoo, scare away
  tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies)
Hiligaynon mag-tábugto drive away, using arm gestures
Palawano tabugto repulse, drive away
Cebuano tábugto drive or send away (as a pig in the garden); throw something away to dispose of it
  tábugto drive, send away (as a pig that has gotten into one’s yard)
Maranao taogto deport, exile
Mansaka tabugto return to its customary place of living, as bees or people (after being driven off or dispersed)


*tabuRi conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRi conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRiq]

Tiruray temburia shell trumpet; to blow the temburi
Selaru fturi <Mtriton shell
Manusela tahunitrumpet
Kamarian tahuritrumpet shell
Alune tabuliconch shell trumpet
Asilulu tahuliconch shell (Strombus spp.); conch shell trumpet
Nusa Laut ʔahul-ljoconch shell trumpet
Soboyo tafuhishell, blown to call up the wind when a canoe is launched on a voyage
Kowiai/Koiwai tafurtriton shell


POC     *tapuRi conch shell trumpet

Nauna tahuyconch shell trumpet
Penchal rahuyconch shell trumpet
Pak dohuconch shell trumpet
Loniu tahconch shell trumpet
Nali drahconch shell trumpet
Ahus nhahconch shell trumpet
Kuruti drohconch shell trumpet
Likum cahconch shell trumpet
Sori dapconch shell trumpet
Wuvulu avuiconch shell trumpet
Yapese yabultype of conch shell; horn, trumpet, siren
Mendak tauconch shell trumpet
Tolai tauru <Aconch shell, Strombus epidromus, and other varieties
Vitu tavureconch shell (blown to signal new arrivals, danger, etc.)
Lusi tavurshell trumpet
Kairiru tourconch shell
Wogeo taurconch shell trumpet
Manam tauru <Aconch shell trumpet
Gedaged tauzkind of mollusk, triton
Takia toulconch shell trumpet
Gitua tavurekind of shell, particular the Pacific trumpet shell, but includes other Cymatiidae species and Bursidae species
Kilivila tauyatriton
Bugotu tavuliconch shell used as trumpet
Nggela tavulispecies of mollusc, gastropod, Charonia tritonis; a trumpet; the sound of a trumpet
Sa'a ähuriconch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people
Arosi ahuriconch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts
Proto-Micronesian *tawuitriton or trumpet shell
Pohnpeian sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet
Mokilese jowiconch shell
Chuukese sewitriton shell; trumpet made from triton shell
Puluwat hawiconch trumpet
Woleaian tawiiconch shell trumpet
Sonsorol-Tobi tauiconch shell
Sye n/tovuconch
Wayan tavuigastropod shellfish taxon; Pacific (or Triton’s) trumpet, Charonia tritonis, used as a horn; the shell of these animals
Fijian davuia large univalve shellfish, the trumpet shell or Triton, used as a horn or trumpet, chiefly on canoes

Note:   Also Cebuano tambúli ~ tambúliʔ ‘melongena, kind of conch; horn made from the horn of a water buffalo or a conch’, Malay buri ‘a trumpet’, Sangir tambuhi-ŋ ‘conch shell trumpet, blown as a signal of the departure or arrival of large boats’, Aua tauru ‘conch shell trumpet’ (expected **afui), Mbula twiiri ‘trumpet shell, Triton, a large sea shell which is blown as a horn for signalling’, Gilbertese tau ‘Triton conch, trumpet shell’, Mota tauwe ‘conch shell used as a trumpet’.

The conch shell trumpet is well-known in the Pacific, where it played an important traditional role in the launching of voyaging canoes, the calling of members of the village to ceremonies, providing an alert to imminent danger, etc. However, this reconstruction presents special problems, since its PMP status depends crucially on Tiruray (and the indirect support provided by the Palauan evidence for the doublet *tabuRiq). In addition, a number of languages in the Philippines reflect a word with irregular *R > l, as with the Cebuano form just cited or similar forms in other languages of the Philippines (see Note to *tabuRiq). These appear to be loanwords, although the usual appeal to Malay as a source language does not work well here. Given the limited set of forms that he compared, Dempwolff (1938) erroneously reconstructed *tam-buri ‘triton shell trumpet’. It is now clear that the rhotic in this form was *R, and that there is no comparative evidence for prenasalization of the medial stop. Both of these observations were first made for Proto-Oceanic *tapuRi by Ross (1988:147).

The limited pattern of survival of this form in both the Philippines and Indonesia suggests that it either disappeared among groups that moved inland to a montane environment where the conch was not easily obtained, or was replaced among lowlanders through contact-induced culture change. All in all the pattern of distribution for reflexes of PMP *tabuRi (and its doublet form *tabuRiq) suggests that survival was most strongly favored in areas of cultural conservatism, and disfavored where traditional practices either competed or conflicted with those introduced from outside, as among hispanized Filipinos, where the use of animal horns apparently came to be favored over shell trumpets, or among the peoples of western Indonesia, where overlays of Indian and Islamic cultural influence have altered many aspects of the traditional cultures of lowland groups.


*tabuRiq conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRiq conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRi]

Palauan dəbusəʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn
Watubela tuwulikconch shell


POC     *tapuRiq conch shell trumpet

Kaiwa tavulkTriton shell (Ross 1988:147)

Note:   Also Tagalog tambúliʔ ‘a native horn, bugle or trumpet made of horn’, Mapun tabuliʔ ‘a kind of horn made from any large seashell or horn of an animal’; nabuliʔ ~ tabuliʔ-an ‘to blow a shell-type horn (as to warn or summon someone)’, Yakan tabuliʔ ‘triton, a big sea shell (used as a signal instrument in old times)’, Tausug tambuliʔ ‘chambered nautilus; a trumpet made of this shell’.


*tabwa coconut growth stage 12: sprouted


POC     *tabwa coconut growth stage 12: sprouted

Ali tapu-ŋyoung drinking coconut
Gumawana taboflesh inside a coconut that has sprouted
Dobuan tabʷa(-anuwa)coconut sprouted
Anejom na-tpʷa(-nean)spongy mass inside a coconut that has started to shoot

Note:   This comparison, in a somewhat more extended form, was first proposed by Ross (2008:366).


*tada natural cockspur


PMP     *tada natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur)     [disjunct: *tara]

Iban tadanatural spur of a cock
Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Mentawai taracockspur
Proto-Sangiric *tadacockspur
Bare'e tara-manucockspur
Tae' taranatural cockspur
  buku taraanklebone
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Bimanese taracockspur
Kambera tarathorn, spine, pandanus leaf

Note:   This comparison was first recognized in print by H. Kähler (1961). Mills (1973:894) tries unconvincingly to connect Buginese tara-manuʔ ‘cockspur’ with *taRaq ‘to hew, chop (wood)’.


*tadal to look upward; face upward


POC     *tadal to look upward; face upward

Duke of York ta-tadato look or face upwards
Manam tadato look up
  tádal-ito look up to somebody, something
Gedaged tadto look (upwards)
Gitua tadasupine
Nehan tadup, upward direction
Cheke Holo tadalook up, turn face upwards
Bugotu tadato look up; up
  rei tadato lift up the eyes
  va-tadaraise up, set up, turn right way up; set one’s shield against the enemy
Nggela tandaup, upwards; face up
  tandal-agito put face up
  tanda-tandaface up; to look up


(Formosan only)

*tadaw kind of large knife


PAN     *tadaw kind of large knife

Pazeh tadawknife (for fighting, hunting)
Puyuma taɖawa large knife, single-edged knife with a wooden handle


*tadék a dance; to dance


PPh     *tadék a dance; to dance

Sambal (Botolan) taléka dance; to dance
Ayta Abellan taleka dance; to dance
Tagalog pag-talíkthe artistic movement of the hands, as in folk dancing
Bikol mag-tarókto dance
Central Tagbanwa talɨka dance

Note:   Given distinctive differences in the reflexes, I assume that PWMP *sayaw ‘to jump, leap, dance’, which has reflexes in a number of Philippine languages, referred to a men’s dance that traditionally was connected with war, and that *tadék was a folk dance that included both sexes.


*ta(n)dem remember


PWMP     *ta(n)dem remember

Maranao tademmemory; recollect, remember
Malagasy tándrinaremembered

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.


*tadra look upward


POC     *tadra look upward

Mussau tarato look
Tigak tara ~ tara-ito see
Manam tadato look up
  tádal-ito look up to somebody, something
Nehan tad(a)up, upward direction
  tada-kaito look up to, respect
Bugotu tadato look up; up
  va-tadato raise up, set up, turn right way up; to set one’s shield against an enemy
Nggela tandaup, upwards
  tandal-agito put face up
  tanda-tandaface up; to look up
Lau adato see, to look
  ada alāto look up, etc.
Arosi aadato look up, raise the eyes
  aadaʔ-ilook up to

Note:   A very similar form of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond and Pawley (2016a:494). They propose POc *ta(d,dr)aq ‘look, look up’, but the final *q is not justified by any of the languages they cite (Arosi Ɂ reflects *k, but comparative evidence supporting a final consonant is not yet available. I favor the shape *tadra on the grounds that this is one of a number of doublet forms with the meaning ‘look upward’, and in others that contain a medial stop, as *taŋada or *tiŋadaq, this stop is *d.


*tadtad chop up, mince


PWMP     *tadtad chop up, mince

Ilokano tadtádto chop up, mince
  ma-tadtádto be cut into pieces
Ifugaw (Batad) tadtádfor someone to slash down a slender-stalked plant or tree, especially sugarcane, with a single slash using a bolo; for someone to chop meat into small pieces for cooking
Casiguran Dumagat tadtádto chop up; to mince (meat); to chop into pieces the limbs of trees which have been felled in a new swidden field (in preparation for burning the field)
Ibaloy tadtadact of cutting up meat into small pieces; deadfall trap: trap for large animals in which a heavy weight is arranged to fall on and kill or disable the prey
Kapampangan ta-tadtadchop up
Tagalog tadtádchopped to pieces; minced
  pa-nadtádchopping or mincing knife
  t<um>adtádto hack; to chop roughly into small pieces (for meat, vegetables, etc.)
Bikol tadtádchopped, minced; riddled, cut in many places; tattoo
  mag-tadtádto chop, mince
Romblomanon tadtadsomething is cut into pieces by someone
Masbatenyo mag-tadtádto chop
  tadtád-anchopping board
Aklanon tádtadto hack, hit repeatedly with a blade
Waray-Waray tadtád ~ pag-tadtádthe act of cutting or chopping something into smaller pieces
Hiligaynon tádtadto chop (as meat); to mutilate
Maranao tatadhack into pieces, chop into bits
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tadtadto chop up, as of vegetables
Sangir tətadəʔto mince, chop fine
Wolio tatar-ichop up finely


PPh     *t<in>adtád dish made of chopped meat or vegetables

Ilokano t<in>adtádminced meat, chopped up fish, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat t<in>adtádwas chopped up by someone
Ibaloy t<in>adtadsmall chunks of meat
Kapampangan tidtada delicacy made of chopped pig intestines


PPh     *tadtad-án chopping block, cutting board

Ibaloy tadtar-anto finish the cutting up process
Tagalog tadtar-ánchopping block
Bikol tadtad-ánto tattoo
Aklanon tadtar-ánchopping block, cutting board


PPh     *tadtad-én be chopped up or minced

Ilokano tadtad-énbe chopped up or minced
Ibaloy tadtar-ento cut, chop something into pieces; to cut on, draw blade across something with repeated motions (as in maliciously ruining the sleeve of a jacket); to cut up meat into small pieces --- an important step in butchering
Pangasinan tadtar-énto chop up
Tagalog tadtar-ínto hack; to chop roughly into small pieces (for meat, vegetables, etc.); to mince; to chop up into very small pieces
Bikol tadtad-ónto riddle; to cut in many places
Romblomanon tadtar-unbe cut into pieces
Masbatenyo tadtad-ónbe chopped, be sliced, be slashed, be cut
  tadtád-onsomething to be chopped
Hiligaynon tadtad-únto chop; to mutilate

Note:   Also Binukid getad ‘to cut, chop up (something into pieces).


*tadu beeswax


PWMP     *tadu beeswax

Sambal (Botolan) tálotallow; beeswax
Ayta Maganchi talobeeswax
Bikol tárobee’s wax
  taró-onto wax with
Hanunóo tárubeeswax produced by the bee known as putyúkan (a honeybee, Apis sp.)
Palawan Batak tádowax
Cebuano tálutallow, the hard fat in animals, or the wax from beehives, used for making candles, soap, etc.
Binukid tadu ~ tarubeeswax, honeycomb
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tazuhoneycomb; beeswax; the preparation of beeswax and coconut oil which is put on the lips to make them shiny
Mansaka tarobeeswax
Tiruray tarewbeeswax; to apply beeswax to one’s lips, as by women to provide a base for lip dyes
Mongondow tayubeeswax
Gorontalo talubeeswax
Bare'e taruwax
Wolio tarubeeswax; candle

Note:   The form and gloss of the Cebuano word suggests borrowing, but this cannot be from Spanish, and the form and gloss in other languages suggests tht this is a native term.


*taduŋ sun hat, used to provide shade


PPh     *taduŋ sun hat, used to provide shade

Ifugaw taddóŋa large circular hat used as an umbrella, mostly by women when they are working in the rice fields, or in a sweet potato swidden
Mansaka taroŋto shade (as trees may shade plants)

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘to shelter, protect’.


*taeb high tide (?)


PWMP     *taeb high tide (?)

Tagalog táibhigh tide
Bikol táʔobhigh tide
Hanunóo táʔubhigh tide
Agutaynen tebhigh tide
Palawan Batak táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide
Cebuano táʔubhigh tide
  taʔúb-unsea at high tide
Mongondow taabflood
Pendau taabhigh tide
Palauan dáobsea, ocean, saltwater

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *ta( )eb ‘high tide; flood’.


*taga- prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups)


PPh     *taga- prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups)

Ilokano tagá-indicating origin or citizenship
Casiguran Dumagat taga-prefix meaning ‘native or resident of’; occupation
Pangasinan tagá-from (a place or point of origin)
Sambal (Botolan) taga-from a certain place, resident of
Kapampangan taga-combined with the locative deictics or place names means ‘comes from; originates in such-and-such a place’
Tagalog taga-a prefix joined to the name of the place to connote ‘native of’, ‘resident of’, ‘hails from’, ‘comes from’
Bikol tagáfrom, indigenous to, native to; to come from
Central Tagbanwa tahadenotes one’s place of origin
Maranao tagaparticle to indicatie origin or location of domicile
Mansaka taga-locational: resident of

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*tagal duration of time, time period


PWMP     *tagal duration of time, time period

Casiguran Dumagat tagalto remain a long time; to take or last for a long time; duration, perseverance, delay
Tagalog tagállength or duration of time; length (referring to time taken)
Bikol ma-tágalenduring, lasting; durable
  mag-tágalto last, endure; to hold out, persist, resist
Cebuano tagalstipulated length or period of time to do something
Iban tagayput off, postpone; linger, allow to drag on (esp. debt)
Malay sa-tagalawhile, a bit (of time)


*tagal(e)táw buoy, float


PPh     *tagal(e)táw buoy, float

Ilokano taŋgaltáwfloat, buoy
Bikol tagaltáwbuoy, float
  mag-tagaltáwto place a buoy or float on a particular body of water

Note:   With root *-taw ‘to float’.


*tágay a toast (in drinking); to offer a toast


PPh     *tágay a toast (in drinking); to offer a toast

Ilokano tágaya toast (with drinks)
Casiguran Dumagat tágayto pour liquid into glasses in order to serve drinks; to pour out a little at a time
Tagalog tágaya toast (in drinking wine)
  t<um>ágayto toast, to drink to the health of someone
  tagáy-ana wine glass
Bikol tagáya wedding ceremony in which the drinking of liquor forms part of the celebrations
  mag-tágayto offer a drink (usually liquor); to offer to pour a drink for someone
  tágayritual in which food is offered to the táwong-lipód (supernaturals) to ask for a rich harvest, a full catch, a successful hunt, or the removal of spells
Aklanon tágayto pour out (slowly)
Agutaynen mag-tagayto pour liquor into individual glasses
Hiligaynon mag-tágayto put out, to offer
Mansaka tagayto offer (as native wine)


PPh     *i-tágay to offer a drink, drink

Ilokano i-tágayto make a toast to
Ibaloy i-tagayto pass an alcoholic beverage around in a common cup, perhaps especially at feast occasions
Bikol i-tágayto offer a drink (usually liquor)

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*tag(e)bák rotten, turned rancid or mildewed


PPh     *tag(e)bák rotten, turned rancid or mildewed

Casiguran Dumagat tagbákold, rotten (of cloth, rattan)
Bikol tagbákrotten, rancid due to exposure to water or high humidity
  ma-tagbákto rot, to turn rancid
Maranao tagbakmildew


*tag(e)búq meet, encounter, happen upon


PPh     *tag(e)búq meet, encounter, happen upon

Casiguran Dumagat tagbuto go to meet someone at an agreed place
Bikol mag-tagboʔ-ánto have a meeting or a date; to rendezvous
  maki-tagbóʔto have a meeting with
Hanunóo tágbuʔmeeting (someone); encountering (something)
  ka-tágbuʔa person met
  ma-tagbuʔ-ánbe found, be encountered, as an animal or plant species

Note:   Also Tagalog maká-tagpóɁ ‘to happen to find or discover; to come upon by chance; to come across’.


*tagek sap of a tree


PPh     *tagek sap of a tree

Casiguran Dumagat təgək <Awhite, sticky sap of several species of trees and plants
Bikol tagókjuice, nectar, sap
  ma-tagókjuicy, succulent
Hanunóo tagúksap, as of a tree
Aklanon tagóksap (of tree)
Agutaynen tageksap of trees, plants; juice of fruits
  ma-tagekvery juicy and/or sticky
Cebuano tagúksticky sap of plants and fruits
Central Tagbanwa tahɨksap; blood


*tag(e)kés wrap around tightly


PPh     *tag(e)kés wrap around tightly

Sambal (Botolan) tagkéhgirdle, anything tied around the waist
Aklanon tágkosbinder, a piece of cloth wrapped around a painful part of the body, usually head or waist
Cebuano tagkúsfasten something to something with a knotted cord; tie into a loop that easily gets undone; tie something around something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tagkestether

Note:   Also Cebuano takgús (< M) ‘fasten something to something with a knotted cord’. With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*tag(e)pás cut, chop


PPh     *tag(e)pás cut, chop

Ilokano tagpásto chop, cut
Tagalog tagpásslashed; cut down (esp. referring to overhanging objects)
  tagpas-ínto slash; to cut with a slashing downstroke
Bikol mag-tagpásto cut something down with one stroke

Note:   Also Ilokano tigpás-en ‘to chop off’. Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*tageRaŋ ribcage


PAN     *tageRaŋ ribcage

Pazeh takaxaŋribs
Puyuma tageraŋchest
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tahraŋchest, breast
Yami tagzaŋspareribs; ribs
Itbayaten tagraŋrib
Bontok tadláŋthe ribs of the body
Kankanaey tadláŋrib
Ifugaw tagláŋribs; side of a human chest (what is enclosed by the ribs)
Ifugaw (Batad) tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs
Pangasinan tagláŋrib, frame
Sambal (Botolan) tagyáŋrib
Kapampangan tagyáŋrib
Hanunóo tagyáŋrib
Miri tagréŋribs
Kenyah (Long Anap) tegaaŋribs
Kiput təgəriəribs

Note:   Also Isneg taʔgāŋ ‘ribs’, Aborlan Tagbanwa takgaŋ ‘hard ribs’ (saŋgaŋɨn ‘soft ribs’), Tombonuwo tikogaŋ, Labuk-Kinabatangan Eastern Kadazan tikagaŋ, Kelabit segeraŋ ‘ribs’. The last three forms imply an etymon *tigeRaŋ, with prepenultimate *i, but this is otherwise unknown.


*tagiktik sound of ticking, rain drops falling


PPh     *tagiktik sound of ticking, rain drops falling

Ilokano tagiktíkheavy rain
Tagalog tagiktíkpatter; a series of quick taps, or the sound they make (as the patter of rain on the roof); ticking of a clock or watch
Bikol tagiktíka ticking sound
  mag-tagiktíkto tick

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution. With root *-tik₂ ‘ticking sound’.


*tagtág to distribute, pass out shares of food


PPh     *tagtág to distribute, pass out shares of food

Isneg tagtāgportions of rice and meat distributed to guests at a solemn sacrifice
Casiguran Dumagat tagtágto scatter, to toss (of the tossing of bundles of rice seedlings througout the paddy in preparation for transplanting); to pass out food from house to house
Bikol mag-tagtágto share something out; to divide an inheritance among


*tagtag to be jolted or knocked around on a rough ride


PPh     *tagtag to be jolted or knocked around on a rough ride

Ilokano t<um>agtágto walk with a heavy, jerky gait; to jerk
Bikol maka-tagtágtiring (of a long trip)
Maranao tatagto drop or shake off


PPh     *ma-tagtág to be shaken (as from having a rough ride in transport)

Ilokano ma-tagtágto be shaken, jerked
Sambal (Botolan) ma-tagtágbe shaken by riding over rough roads in a truck or carabao cart
Tagalog ma-tagtágbumpy; jolty; jerky; to be jolted or bumped around in a vehicle; to be dismissed from employment
Bikol ma-tagtágto be tired or bushed from a long journey


*tahep-i to winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₁ to winnow

Cebuano táphiwinnow it!
Malay tampito winnow
Javanese tapito winnow
Sasak tampiʔto winnow
Yamdena tafito winnow
Buruese tapi-hto winnow

Note:   For details of the development of this morphologically complex form in the languages of the central Philippines cf. Zorc (1977). It is worth noting that Sasak tampiʔ shows both secondary prenasalization and a secondary final glottal stop. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tapi ‘separate chaff from grain (= winnow)’, but there are various problems with his proposed cognate set.


*tahúl to howl, of a dog


PPh     *tahúl to howl, of a dog     [disjunct: *taqúl]

Ilokano ag-taúlto bark
  man-naulprone to barking; kind of small black bird that cries at night
  taul-anto bark at
Bikol mag-tahólto bark, bay, howl, whine (dogs)
Tboli toulthe howl or whine of a dog, as when he wants out


*tai ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tai ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tau ñamuk]

Marshallese taiṇaṃmosquito net
Tongan tainamumosquito net
Futunan tainamumosquito net
Anuta tainamumosquito net
Rarotongan tai-namuliterally means, the entangler of mosquitoes, or, that which catches mosquitoes; a mosquito net

Note:   Also Pohnpeian tein amwise, Mokilese sei, Samoan taʔinamu ‘mosquito net’.


*tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets


POC     *tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets

Loniu taycatch fish
Bipi taycatch fish with a net
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Roviana tailifishline formerly made from the bark of the pusi (Lyonsia sp.)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*taina female, of animals


PAN     *taina female, of animals

Kavalan tinafemale, of animals
Thao tainafemale, of mammals other than man


PMP     *tina female, of animals

Bare'e tinafemale, only of animals
Buruese tinafemale, of animals
Lakalai la tilafemale of the species (animal)

Note:   Also Malay betina ‘female (an insulting term when used of human beings; of animals it is correct always’). This sparsely but widely reflected term almost certainly derives from PAn *ta-ina ‘mother (ref.)’, but the two usages are semantically distinct in such diverse languages that we must assume they were treated as essentially unrelated words even in PAn.


*tájip to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices


PPh     *tájip to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices

Itbayaten taripthe pared skin (of yam and the like), peeling, skin of uncooked sweet potato, yam, etc.
  ma-naripto pare, to peel
  t<in>arip-anskinned/peeled sweet potato, yam, etc. (cooked or uncooked)
Isneg mag-táxipto pare (sweet potatoes, yams, taro rhizomes)
Bontok t<um>ágipto slice up vegetables
Kankanaey tagip-ento slice, to cut into slices
Ifugaw tágipslices of potatoes, carrots, meat, or whatever it may be
Ifugaw (Batad) tāgipfor someone to slice a vegetable, fruit, tuber into chips with the use of a knife
Ibaloy tagip-ento slice something in several parallel slices (as sweet potato, loaf of bread)
Kapampangan talípto peel, pare off skin
Bikol mag-tarípto pare; to peel carrots, sweet potatoes, cucumber, etc.
Hanunóo táripskin, peel, rind, as of fruit
Cebuano tálipslice root crops into thin strips to dry them under the sun
Mansaka tarippeelings (as of pomelo, pineapple, etc.)


PPh     *tajip-an to peel, pare

Itbayaten tarip-anto pare, as a yam
Bikol tarip-ánto pare; to peel carrots, sweet potatoes, cucumber, etc.

Note:   Also Mansaka tallip ‘to peel’.


*tak bang!


PMP     *tak bang!

Itbayaten takcrash, bang
Ngaju Dayak takticking sound
Malagasy tathe sound of the beating of a hammer or the explosion of a rifle
Malay taka smacking or whacking sound
Karo Batak takonomatopoetic for sound of banging
Toba Batak takonomatopoetic for sound of banging
Javanese takhard object striking a firm surface
Asilulu taksound of knock on door or tap on head

Note:   Despite the restriction of this cognate set to languages of western Indonesia it is not likely to be a loanword, and the parallelism with PWMP *tik ‘sound of a click, tick, or light tap’, and PWMP *tuk ‘sound of a knock’ strengthens the case for including it in the onomatopoetic vocabulary of PWMP. Dempwolff (1938) also included Tongan ‘to hit, strike, beat’, Futunan ‘to hit, strike (with a stick)’, Samoan ‘(of blow), strike, hit’ in this comparison, but together with other Polynesian forms such as Niue ‘to strike; to kill; to adze’, and Rennellese taa ‘to hit, strike, cut, kill, murder, tattoo; to carve or make, as a canoe’ these can more plausibly be attributed to PAn *taRaq ‘hewing with an adze’.


*taka hesitate, not able to act


PPh     *taka hesitate, not able to act

Ilokano takáhesitation
  ag-takáto hesitate, vacillate
Casiguran Dumagat takáto be amazed, to be astonished
Bikol mag-tákato not have the nerve to speak to someone or to appear before them
Mansaka ma-takalazy


*takad step on; leave footprint


PPh     *takad step on; leave footprint

Itbayaten takadfootprint
  om-takadto step on, tread on
  ta-takadsole of foot
  takad-an ~ takar-anto step on
Ibatan takadfootprint, track
Tagalog takádstamping of feet in anger or protest
Cebuano takádto step on a line or specific area
  takd-án-anin games, the line on which one steps at the start or any phase of the game


*takál₁ marine mollusc sp.


PPh     *takál₁ marine mollusc sp.

Casiguran Dumagat takálspecies of edible sea cockle shell, a snail: Frogum unedo
Bikol takálclam sp.


*takál₂ stud animal; to mate, of animals


PPh     *takál₂ stud animal; to mate, of animals

Ilokano takálstud animal used for breeding
  ag-takálto copulate (animals)
  takal-énto breed animals
Aklanon takáeboar, male pig; oversexed man, sex maniac
  pa-takáeto have a sow serviced
Cebuano tákalfor male pigs to mount another animal; by extension, for humans to do so (derogatory)


*tákaŋ spread wide open


PPh     *tákaŋ spread wide open

Bontok tákaŋto open one’s mouth
Kankanaey men-tákaŋto gape, to be open (applied to either earth or persons)
Ifugaw tákaŋgape, act of gaping; not used in the sense of yawning
  tákaŋ-na“its gape”, i.e. the gape between the odd and even threads through which the weaver can shoot the shuttle
Ibaloy takaŋspread apart
  tekaŋ-ento spread, force something apart to make a space between
Aklanon tákaŋto totter, half walk (said of baby only)
Cebuano tákaŋto step across; a step, stride
Mansaka takaŋto step up onto (as a ladder or a branch)
Mongondow taŋkaŋbend or curve away from one another, of legs or knees

Note:   Also Mansaka taklaŋ ‘to step onto a ladder’. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*ta(ŋ)kas₁ agile, quick, swift, energetic


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kas agile, quick, swift, energetic

Mapun taŋkasfast, faster
  pa-taŋkasto go faster, to speed up
  ka-taŋkas-anto be personally affected by the speed of something or someone; to think that something or someone is fast
Ida'an Begak takas-takashurry up
Iban taŋkasquick, quickly
Javanese taŋkasswift-moving
Ngadha tika-takanimble, agile, quick

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile, energetic’.


*takaw to retreat, run from battle


PWMP     *takaw₂ to retreat, run from battle

Maranao takawto retreat; cowardly
Kenyah takawto escape; to free
Kayan takawto be released, to be set free; to escape, to flee away


*take feces, excrement


POC     *take₂ feces, excrement     [doublet: *taki, *taqe, *taqi]

Tabar takefeces, excrement
Patpatar takefeces, excrement
Manam takefeces, excrement


*ta(ŋ)keb₁ cover, overlapping part


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)keb cover, overlapping part

Isneg takkábcover (of a vessel), lid; to cover, to put the lid over, to shut, to close
  takkáb talíŋathe small feathers that cover the ears of fowls
Agutaynen mag-taŋkebfor something to shut, close tightly, close all the way
Maranao takebeyelid
Sundanese taŋkeb-anmoveable corner of smoke-vent in roof
Javanese taŋkeboverlapping portion of a double-breasted jacket
Balinese taŋkebcover up (with a basket, etc.)

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*tak(e)bá embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans)


PPh     *tak(e)bá embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans)

Ilokano takbáto embrace from behind, hang on somebody’s neck while being carried on the back; cover; copulate on the back
Bontok takbáback basket used by men; to place something in this basket
Kankanaey takbá-anto lie upon
Ibaloy takbabackpack, pack frame --- general term for things worn on the back, esp. for carrying oads
  takba-enesp. of animal copulation, when the male mounts the female with his front feet on the females back
Pangasinan takbáto fall forward
Aklanon tákbato service, engage in intercourse (like animals, from behind rather than in front)
Cebuano takbálean forward on something or someone and cling to it; mount for copulation; for humans to have intercourse (coarse)


*takebas cut down small plants to clear a way


PWMP     *takebas cut down small plants to clear a way

Cebuano tákbassever with a swing of the bolo
Malay təbascutting down small plants (thorns, rushes, bamboos, or scrub), of clearing roads when overgrown


*takéd tie down, fasten by binding


PPh     *takéd tie down, fasten by binding

Isneg takádthe ties of the flooring; strips of rattan
Bontok takd-ənto bind, as in repairing the broken rattan rim of a basket; to secure; to fasten; anything used, as a vine or rattan for such a purpose
Casiguran Dumagat takə́da bamboo floor tied down with rattan (in contrast to being nailed down)
Ibaloy takeda tie, fastening, binding --- what is wrapped around to hold something in place
Bikol mag-takódto fasten, bind
Hanunóo takúdsomething which may be fastened or tied onto something else
Cebuano takúdto attach something to something else, put it right next to something so that it touches; harness an animal, hitch it for work


PPh     *i-takéd to bind, to fasten tightly by tying

Bontok i-takédto bind, as in repairing the broken rattan rim of a basket; to secure; to fasten; anything used, as a vine or a rattan for such a purpose
Kankanaey i-takédto bind, to fasten, to tie, to attach, to fix, to link; to strap
Bikol i-takódto fasten or bind with


*taked₁ back of leg


PWMP     *taked₁ back of leg

Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) takɨdheel
Bilaan (Sarangani) takadheel
Kelabit takedpopliteal area, back of knee
Kenyah (Long Anap) taketleg, foot

Note:   Also Rungus Dusun hakod ‘leg’, Bisaya (Limbang) akod ‘back part of heel’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *taked, *tiNked ‘heel’.


*taked₂ climb


PWMP     *taked₂ climb

Isneg taŋkād (length unexpl.)climb
Bikol tukád <Mgo uphill
Abai Sembuak nakodto climb (a tree)
Kenyah (Long Wat) takətanything used to climb
Kayan (Uma Juman) takəranything used to climb
Gorontalo taʔoduclimb

Note:   Also Bontok tíkid ‘climb a trail’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *taked ‘climb a hill’.


*takelap cover with something flat


PWMP     *takelap cover with something flat

Cebuano táklapspread, lay something flat over something so as to cover it
Malay təkapcovering with a flat surface


*tak(e)laq click with the tongue


PPh     *tak(e)laq click with the tongue

Ilokano ag-takláto click the tongue
Sambal (Botolan) ma-nakláʔto make a click with the tongue
Bikol takláʔa clicking sound make with the tongue
  mag-takláʔto make a clicking sound with the tongue
Cebuano táklaʔmake a clicking or clacking noise with the tongue; clacking of the tongue
Tausug taklaʔthe sound made by flapping the tongue against the roof of the mouth, a clicking of the tongue


*tak(e)lub to cover


PWMP     *tak(e)lub to cover

Isneg takkúbto cover
Tagalog taklóbcover; covering
Bikol taklóbshroud
Hanunóo taklúbcover, top, lid
Cebuano táklubcover something over with something enclosing it
Malay təkupcovering with the hand; catching by so covering

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat takləb ‘cover (of a pot lid, cover of a box, etc.); to cover, put the cover on something’.


*takem tightly capped


PPh     *takem tightly capped

Casiguran Dumagat takə́mtightly hooked, locked, tightly closed, snug
Bikol (Miraya dialects) mag-takómto cap, close tightly; to seal

Note:   Also Bikol mag-takdóm ‘to cap, close tightly’, Cebuano takɁúm ‘close the mouth or lips’.


*takep to fold over, double


PAN     *takep to lay something on top of another

Kavalan takepto put one thing on top of another


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kep₁ to fold over, double

Kavalan takepto put one thing on top of another
Ayta Maganchi takəpcover, lid
Kapampangan takápcover, mask
  takp-ánto cover something
Maranao takepdouble, multiply
Tiruray takefto double something, make it twice as much
Mapun taŋkopa cover; a bandage; a door; operculum of a shellfish
  t<um>aŋkopto cover something; to dress a wound
Balinese takepbe folded over, closed
Manggarai taŋkeplay something on top of, catch under a hollow

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘fold, double over’.


*ta(ŋ)kep₂ seize, catch


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kep₂ seize, catch

Ayta Abellan takepto capture
Maranao takep-antrap for eels
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) takepa weir for catching eels
Tiruray takefa kind of eel trap
Malay taŋkapgripping; clasping; capture, esp. capture in the hand
Sundanese naŋkeupencircle with ones arms (or by plants, with the roots), clasp
Balinese taŋkeparrest, seize, hold (police, etc.)
Sasak taŋkəpa drop net for catching birds; to catch or seize people
Motu taoto hold to (used in composition to mean ‘hold fast’, as in moi-atao ‘to hold by stepping on’)
Nehan takophold with hands

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.


*takere a bird, the fantail: Rhipidura sp.


POC     *takere a bird, the fantail: Rhipidura sp.

Mota tagerea bird, flycatcher
Raga tagerea bird: Rhipidura fuliginosa
Rotuman fœʔereFiji shrikebill: Clytorhynchus vitiensis

Note:   A much larger version of this comparison with many phonologically irregular forms was proposed by Clark (2011:343).


*takes₁ to wrap around; embrace, hug


PAN     *takes₁ to wrap around; embrace, hug

Amis takecto embrace, to hold in one’s arms
Sambal (Botolan) takéhto embrace, hug
Ayta Abellan takehto embrace, to hug
Mansaka takusto tie around the waist, as a bolo

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’. Possibly a convergent innovation.


*takes₂ measurement; to measure


PPh     *takes₂ measurement; to measure

Aklanon takósto measure out, allot; mete out
Agutaynen taketmeasurement; dimention; size
  mag-taketto measure something, someone using a tape measure
Maranao takesto measure; measuring tool or instrument
Binukid takesto measure out (something with a measuring vessel)


*ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to

Sasak taŋketcompanion
Bare'e takastick, adhere, cling fast to something, attach oneself to

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*takíp a cover; to cover


PPh     *takíp a cover; to cover

Ilokano tákipa cover
  pag-takíp-ento cover, unite, join; overlap
Ifugaw takípcover of a container, e.g. a basket which has a fitting cover
Tagalog takípcover; cover of any container
Cebuano takípjoin flat things one on top of the other, or at their edges
Mansaka takipcover (as of a kettle)

Note:   Also Ibaloy i-taɁkip ‘to insert, enclose something into something else (as money in a book)’.


(Formosan only)

*takis sword


PAN     *takis sword

Taokas takishsword
Paiwan tjakitlarge knife, sword; sickle (Western dialect)

Note:   Taokas material in Tsuchida (1982) is drawn from several sources, each of which is carefully labeled. The form takish was recorded by the pioneering Formosanist Naoyoshi Ogawa in 1901. Since the few relevant examples from the same source suggest that Taokas reflects *s as h before a vowel and as zero word-finally (*susu > huhu ‘breast’, *timus > timu ‘salt’), the implied change *-s > -sh in this form may indicate that it is a loan distribution, although the languages in which it is found have not been in contact within the historical period and the transfer between languages would have to have taken place before *s > -t in Paiwan.


*taktak₁ to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something


PAN     *taktak₁ to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something

Amis taktakto pour out of a container
Yami taktakto sprinkle, to water
Itbayaten taktakemptying out of contents
  ma-taktakto pour water on (as in washing)
  taktak-ento empty out the contents of something
Tagalog taktákact of shaking out the contents of a container by pounding the open mouth against some hard object
Bikol mag-taktákto tap, rap; to dislodge something by tapping or rapping
Cebuano taktákfor small things or something fastened or stuck to something to detach and drop; cause to drop; have a miscarriage
Maranao tatakto drop, fall, let fall, like fruits
Binukid taktakfor small things or something fastened or stuck to something, to detach and drop; to knock something off so that it drops
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taktakof an object or a container with a hole in it, to slam it down on something or shake it in order to dislodge something inside
Karo Batak taktakto drip, drop down
Toba Batak taktakfalling down of many things (as leaves or fruits)
Kei tatakto knock, tap, tap something out


*taktak₂ clatter, clack


PAN     *taktak₂ clatter, clack

Kavalan t<m>aktakto cut meat or vegetables (on a chopping board)
Pazeh mu-taketakto chatter, of the teeth; to make a crunching sound, of the teeth in chewing something hard
Toba Batak taktak bulua musical instrument made of bamboo
Javanese t͎<r>a t͎akmaking light, hollow tapping sounds
Balinese taktakstrike with a sword
Wolio tatacut up finely, chop; cut off
Chamorro taktakmince, chop, cut up into slices, cut by striking repeatedly with a sharp instrument; pecking sound
  t<al>aktakrattle, tapping, clicking, clacking, clink, clatter
  t<in>aktaka meat dish in which the meat is chopped into small pieces; the process of chopping or mincing meat
Kei en-tatakto knock, tap; playing of musical instruments with keys, valves, or holes

Note:   Chamorro taktak is assumed to show onomatopoetic retention of *k. With root *-tak₂ ‘sound of cracking, splitting, knocking’.


*taku₁ quick, rapid


POC     *taku₁ quick, rapid

Motu takuquickly, suddenly
  mase takuto die suddenly or without noise
  taku-taku tau-naa hasty, impulsive man, one who rushes off without waiting to hear the whole story
Nggela takuto take quick, short steps; talkative

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*taku₂ dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up


PAN     *taku₂ dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up

Kavalan taku-iscoop (imperative)
  t<m>akuto draw water, to scoop out
Thao k<m>ay takuto scoop up water, as when irrigating the fields
  ta-takuwooden dustpan-shaped water scoop used to lift water up from its source to put in the fields
Bunun takuladle, scoop, spoon
Ilokano tákodipper, scoop; section of dry bottle gourd
  ag-tákoto dip to draw liquids
Isneg tákoa dipper, used for dipping water from a jar
Toba Batak ma-nahuscoop or ladle something up; to pour over, as cold water on a patient
  tahu-tahua scoop or ladle, vessel for scooping up liquid
Sangir ma-nakuto ladle up, as water, or soup from a vat
  ta-takuladle, scoop
Kambera takuto ladle, scoop up, draw water


*takua yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares


POC     *takua yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares

Ilokano lútakmud
Nali drowyellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares
Gilbertese takuadolphin
Chuukese toku <Ayellowfin tuna, albacore (general name)
Woleaian taguw(a)yellowfin tuna
Niue takuaa fish, the bonito
Samoan taʔuo <Akind of large bonito caught by trawling from cutters
Kapingamarangi daguayellowfin tuna: Neothynnus macropterus
Nukuoro daguayellowfin tuna
Rennellese takuaa very rare kind of porpoise or fish,

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:115). The alternative meaning ‘dolphin’ in some languages probably derives from the similar habit of leaping out of the water while swimming, or alternatively from the tendency of the yellowfin tuna to swim with schools of dolphins.


*takub thin covering, eyelid


PMP     *takub thin covering, eyelid

Isneg tákubthe skin of a drum (usually deerskin, but the skin of dogs, cows and horses also serve the purpose)
  takkúbto cover
Tagalog tákoba thin covering, surface covering
Bikol takóbeyelid
Maranao takobeyelid
Tiruray tagubto enclose oneself completely inside one’s sarong, as when very cold
Kelabit takuba patch, pocket
  nakubto patch, as torn clothing
Malagasy tákotrathe lid of a cooking pot
Iban taŋkupcover with something hollow (as a plate with a basin); to match, correspond, fit
Malay taŋkupto capture under a hollow (as a dog catching flies in his mouth, a man putting a tumbler over an insect or slapping the hollow of his palm over it; also of hollow covers to apertures, as of hatch-covers in boats, and pieces over the bow and stern of a Malay canoe
  ber-taŋkupto close over; to fold over
Gorontalo taʔubucover for food
Pendau taŋkubto close or cover something


PWMP     *takub-an (gloss uncertain)

Isneg takkub-anto cover
Tiruray tagub-ana scabbard
Malagasy takóf-anabe covered with a lid


PMP     *takub-takub eyelid

Bikol takób-takóbeyelid
Fijian daku-daku ni matathe upper eyelid

Note:   Also Binukid taklub ‘cover something with a lid’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian taku ‘the hawksbill turtle and its shell’, Futunan takū ‘flat scutes of the carapace of a turtle’. However, the Fijian term appears to refer primarily to the animal, and the Futunan term has unexplained length in the last vowel. The agreement of Bikol takób-takób with Fijian daku-daku ni mata may be a product of convergence. With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*ta(ŋ)kub to close or cover up


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kub to close or cover up

Ilokano takkúbcover (usually temporary); wrapper, pillowcase
Isneg tákubthe skin of a drum
Tagalog tákoba thin covering, surface covering
Cebuano takúba cover or lid of something which has a different shape from the thing it is put over, and is not attached
Maranao takobeyelid
Tiruray tagubto enclose oneself completely inside one’s sarong, as when verb cold
  tagub-ana scabbard
Kadazan Dusun taŋkubto cover
Lun Dayeh takubpocket
Kelabit takuba patch, pocket
  nakubto patch, as torn clothing
Malay taŋkupcapture under a hollow (of a dog catching flies in his mouth; of a man putting a tumbler over an insect or slapping the hollow of his palm over it, etc.)
Sangir ma-nakubəʔto cover
Gorontalo taʔubuto cover
Pendau taŋkubto close or cover something


POC     *takup₂ covering structure

Fijian daku-daku ni matathe upper eyelid

Note:   Also Ilokano akkúb ‘cover (usually temporary); wrapper, pillowcase. With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*takup cover, enclose


PWMP     *takup₁ cover, enclose

Ilokano ag-takúpto patch; to marry a girl who is no longer a virgin
  takúpto patch, mend by patching
  na-takúppatched; false, untrue, insincere, tricky
  pag-takúppatching material
  takup-ánto patch
Hanunóo t<al>akúpdoor (sliding type)
  takúpcover, lid, top
Cebuano takúpshutter
  takʔupclose, be closed
Mansaka takupto close; to shut
Melanau (Mukah) takuplid, cover
Malay taŋkupcapture under a hollow
Karo Batak taŋkupclose together, of two halves, as the shells of shellfish
Toba Batak ma-naŋkupto seize, grip
Tae' takoʔcup the two hands together to hold something

Note:   Also Cebuano takɁúp ‘to close; be closed’. With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.


*takuRu back (anat.)


POC     *takuRu back (anat.)

Piva taghunu-back
Kokota tagru-back
Zabana taguru-back
Proto-Micronesian *takuruback (of body)
Puluwat hakúŕback (anatomical)
Woleaian tagiuriuback (anatomical)
Mota tawurbehind, the hinder place or part, back
  a tawurbehind
  a tawuru-naat his back, behind him
Baetora tagu-back
Wayan takūthe back or rear side of something; later, afterwards
Fijian dakuthe back of a person or thing

Note:   This comparison was proposed by Ross (2003:253).


*takut fear


PAN     *takut fear

Siraya takotfear
Ifugaw tákutfear; to fear; to frighten somebody
Ibaloy takotfear for one’s bodily safety
Pangasinan takótfear
  an-takotshy, timid
Kapampangan tákutfear
Tagalog tákotfear
  takótafraid, frightened, feeling fear; nervous, timid, tremulous
  takót na takótvery frightened; panic-stricken; demoralized by fear
Bikol tákotfear
Basap takutafraid
Lun Dayeh tootfear, fright
  ŋe-tootto scare or frighten someone
Kelabit taʔutfear
Kenyah (Long Ikang) takutafraid
Murik takutfear; afraid
Kayan takutbe afraid of, in fear of; be frightened by
Kayan (Uma Juman) takutfear; afraid
Paku takutafraid
Malagasy táhotrafear, dread, horror, terror
Malay takutfear
Simalur mana-taʔudto frighten
  taʔut-ito frighten
Toba Batak tahutfear, fright; dread; anxiety
Old Javanese takutfear
Balinese takutfear; to fear, be afraid of
Sasak takutbe afraid
Sangir takuʔfear, dread
Banggai takutfear
  maŋa-takutto frighten
Tae' takuʔto fear
Palauan dáktfear, awe
Bimanese dahufear; afraid
Komodo n-dahuʔafraid
Keo takufear
Lamaholot takutbe afraid
Solorese takutfear, be afraid
Waima'a thakufear


PMP     *ka-takut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ka-tákut-tákotterrible, terrifying
Old Javanese ka-takutfear; object of fear
Tae' ka-takuʔbe afraid of something
Palauan kə-dáktbe afraid of each other
Bimanese ka-dahuto frighten

Note:   Bimanese ka-dahu may reflect *paka-takut, and it is possible that the prefixed element in the other forms cited together here actually has disparate sources.


PAN     *ma-takut fearful, afraid

Siraya ma-takotfear
Ibaloy ma-tekotinclined to fear, fearful
Pangasinan ma-takótafraid
Kapampangan ma-tákutafraid
Tagalog ma-tákotafraid, scared; apprehensive, worried or anxious
Bikol ma-tákotto be afraid, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky, scared
Lun Dayeh me-tootafraid, have fear
Kelabit me-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Malagasy ma-táhotrato dread, fear, be afraid
Simalur ma-taʔudanxious, afraid
Toba Batak ma-tahutto fear, be afraid
Sangir ma-takuʔto fear, be afraid
  ma-ma-takuʔto frighten
Banggai ma-takutafraid, be afraid
Tae' ma-takuʔafraid, frightened
Palauan mə-dáktto fear, be afraid of
Bimanese dahuto fear, be afraid
Kambera mandautato fear, be afraid of
Hawu medaʔuto fear, be afraid
Galoli amdauk <Mfear
Leti mtatuto fear, be afraid
Wetan mtaatato be afraid of
Watubela ma-takutto fear, be afraid
Masiwang mtaitfear
Asilulu mataʔuto fear, be afraid
Wakasihu in-taʔufear
Soboyo mantakuto fear, be afraid
Biga mtatto fear
Minyaifuin mtaitfear, afraid
Numfor mkākto fear, be afraid
Ambai mataifear


POC     *matakut fear; fearful, afraid

Seimat ma-mataafraid
Wuvulu maʔauafraid
Yapese daguwfear
Mussau ma-matautuafraid
Amara motoufear
Lakalai matauafraid
Mbula motobe afraid, fear
  pa-motofrighten someone
Gitua mataguzi ~ mataguzato fear, be afraid
Bunama matautato fear
Pokau makauto fear, be afraid
Tawala matoutato fear, be frightened
Dobuan matautaafraid
Molima matautaafraid
Saliba mataus-ito fear
Tubetube mataus-istate of being afraid
Selau matutafraid, frightened
  asana a mat-matutperson who takes fright easily; coward
Roviana matagutuafraid, fearful
Eddystone/Mandegusu matatuto fear, be afraid
Bugotu mataguto fear, be afraid
Nggela mataguto fear, be afraid
  matagu-nito be afraid of
  matagu-poua coward
Kwaio maʔuafraid; shy
  faʔa-maʔu-ato frighten
  maʔu-niabe afraid of
Marau₂ maʔufear
Lau mouto fear, be afraid
  mou-taiafraid, afraid of
'Āre'āre maʔuto be afraid
  maʔu-niato fear, be afraid of
Sa'a mäʔuto fear, be afraid
  mäʔu-ta-the fear of (something)
Gilbertese maakufear, dread, terror, fright, dismay
Pohnpeian masakbe afraid of, to fear
Chuukese mésék(ú)to be afraid
Puluwat mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome
Woleaian metag(iu)to be afraid, scared of
Mota matagutbe afraid of
  matag-tagto fear (rare, but true Mota word)
Northeast Ambae matakufear
Raga mataxufear
Apma mtaciafraid
Avava matakafraid
Nasarian i-metaktakfear
Axamb me-raxto fear, be afraid
Nakanamanga matakufear
Anejom e-mtaγfear
Wayan matakube afraid, frightened, fearful; fear, fright
  mataku-cifear something, be afraid or frightened of something
  mata-matakube always afraid, timid, cowardly
Niue matakuto fear, be afraid
  mataku-takufear (n.); to fear, be nervous
  mataku-taku-inafeared, dreaded; frightened
Samoan mataʔuto fear, hold in awe
  mataʔu-tiabe dreadful, awful; be terrible, fearful
Tuvaluan matakuafraid
Kapingamarangi madagufear, be afraid; be shy; shyness
  madagu-dagufear, be afraid
Nukuoro madaguafraid, scared
  madagu-dagucowardly (concerning others or supernaturals)
Rennellese matakuto be afraid, cowardly; to fear
  mataku-tiato be dangerous, feared
  mataku-takuto be afraid, cowardly
Anuta matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear
Rarotongan matakufear, dread, terror; afraid, timid, struck with fear; undecided; to be afraid, timid or doubtful
  mataku-takuto be in the state or condition of being afraid, timid; to entertain fear; to be possessed of forebodings; to hesitate
Maori matakuto be afraid; fearful, afraid; inspiring fear; incompatible; averse
  mataku-riabe feared
Hawaiian makaʔufear; frightened, afraid


PWMP     *ma-nakut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ma-nákotto scare people, to intimidate, to threaten with harm
Malay me-nakutbe in a state of fear


PMP     *pa-takut to frighten, make afraid

Kelabit pe-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Sasak pe-takutcausing fear, arousing fear
Numfor fa-kakto frighten

Note:   This form of the causative prefix with *takut is clearly in competition with the causative of stative verbs, *paka-. It is possible that the Kelabit and Sasak forms given here are historically secondary reformations from *paka-takut.


PMP     *paka-takut to frighten, cause to fear

Malagasy faha-tahor-anafear, dread
Sangir ma-paka-takuʔto frighten, incite fear
Tae' paka-takuʔto frighten
Soboyo paka-takufrightened
Wayan vaka-matakube fearsome, frightening, terrifying; be dreadful, terribly bad, wicked; be dangerous; be formidable, powerful, commanding respect
Niue faka-mataku-takuto frighten
Samoan faʔa-mataʔuto frighten, threaten
Tuvaluan faka-matakudangerous
Rennellese haka-matakuto frighten, scare; to be amazing, terrifying, dangerous, surprising
Hawaiian hoʔo-makaʔuto frighten, scare, terrify, make afraid; to pretend fear


PWMP     *pa-nakut provoke fear (?)

Tagalog pa-nákotscarecrow
Malay pe-nakutcoward
Toba Batak pa-nahutprovoke fear
Sasak pe-nakutprecipitating fear


PWMP     *ka-takut-an be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry

Kapampangan ka-takut-anfear
Tagalog ka-takut-anto fear or be afraid of something or someone; a state of being afraid; fear, dread
Malagasy ha-tahor-anafear, dread
Malay ke-takut-anpanic
Bahasa Indonesia ke-takut-ana state of fear; a feeling of fear; a condition of fear; hesitation; worry; anxiety; be struck by fear
Tae' ka-ma-takur-anbe afraid; fear

Note:   The Tae' form shows that some of these constructions may have been innovated in the separate histories of the languages in which they are found, since in at least this case the circumfixation of ka- -an took place only after prefixation with ma-.


PMP     *t<um>akut become afraid

Tagalog t<um>ákotto frighten, to alarm, to scare
Kelabit t<em>aʔutto seem afraid
Acehnese t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about
Kemak t<em>autto fear


PWMP     *takut-an easily frightened, cowardly

Ibaloy tekot-anto fear something (as a current in trying to cross a river)
Bahasa Indonesia takut-takut-aneasily startled; afraid of things; shy; hesitant
Sangir takut-aŋtimid, frightened (said, for example, of a child, and thus not a scornful term)
Tae' takur-ancowardly


PWMP     *takut-en to frighten someone

Pangasinan takot-ento frighten
Tagalog takut-ínto frighten, to make afraid, to scare; to intimidate; to bluff; to threaten
Bikol ta-takt-ónafraid, fearful, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky; meek, timid
  pa-takút-onto make someone afraid, to intimidate, menace, scare, terrify
Toba Batak tahut-onto fear, be afraid
Old Javanese takut-takut-enin the grip of fear
Sasak takut-into frighten someone

Note:   Also Saisiyat tikot ‘fear’, Ibaloy taʔkot ‘fear’, me-taʔkot-an ‘to equip a ricefield with scare devices’, Sasak takut-aŋ ‘be afraid of something’, Buli tjait ‘fear’, am-tjait ‘to fear’, Manam matakur ‘to fear, be afraid of’. Siraya takot is given here as a probable base, given the attested form matakot ‘fear’, and the clear evidence for *ma-takut in many other languages. It is clear that the morpheme boundary in *ma-takut had already been lost in POc, and perhaps earlier, as suggested by nearly all known reflexes in eastern Indonesia. This raises questions about the position of Bimanese and Yapese, both of which reflect *takut as an independent base.


*talabá kind of shellfish, probably oyster


PPh     *talabá kind of shellfish, probably oyster

Yami talavatype of shellfish: Saccostrea mordax
Ilokano talabákind of large oyster
Tagalog talabáoyster
  ma-nalabáto gather oysters
  tálaba-h-anoyster bed
Bikol talabáoyster
  paŋ-talaba-óngo in search of oysters
Aklanon taeabáoyster
Cebuano talabákind of oyster
Central Tagbanwa talavaoyster
Maranao talababarnacle


*talagá truly, surely, really, in fact


PPh     *talagá truly, surely, really, in fact

Ilokano talagáreally, truly; true, in fact
Casiguran Dumagat talagácertainly, surely; intending to (but not carrying out the intention)
Pangasinan talagásurely, indeed, truly, really, certainly
Ayta Abellan talagatrue; real
Kapampangan talagáreal, really, true, in truth
  i-talagáto devote oneself to something
Tagalog talagáarrant; thoroughgoing; out-and-out; practical; engaged in actual practice or work; virtual; real; being something in effect, though not so in name; ultimate; underlying; basic; elemental; expressing surprise; resolute; determined
Bikol talagáreally, truly, honestly; virtual, virtually; that’s so
Hanunóo talagáright; really, truly
Central Tagbanwa talahaverification, truly

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*talakituk kind of marine fish


PPh     *talakituk kind of marine fish

Ilokano talakítokkind of small, speckled marine fish with dark meat, Caranx sp.
Tagalog talakitoka species of cavalla fish
Cebuano talakítukname given to jacks and other good-sized carangoid fish
Mansaka tarakitokkind of saltwater fish (white and medium-sized, 30 to 60 cm. in length and 20 cm. in width, having no scales)

Note:   Also Chamorro talakitu ‘kind of marine fish’ (data courtesy Brant Songsong).


*talaŋ₁ a tree: Diospyros spp.


PPh     *talaŋ₁ a tree: Diospyros spp.     [doublet: *tileŋ]

Ibanag talaŋa tree: Diospyros spp.
Gaddang talaŋa tree: Diospyros spp.
Tagalog tálaŋspecies of tree also known as mabolo or mabulo, having edible fruit: Diospyros spp.

Note:   Most of the material for this comparison was taken from Madulid (2001:1:695).


*talaŋ₂ toss up, throw into the air


PWMP     *talaŋ₂ toss up, throw into the air

Tagalog mag-tálaŋto playfully throw up something in the air (e.g.. a small child)
Maranao talaŋgame of flipping coins
Tausug mag-tālaŋto toss coins (for heads or tails)
Iban talaŋcast upwards and far (as a stone)


*talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel


PWMP     *talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel

Malay ikan talaŋhorse mackerel: generic for large species of Chorinemus, the small or young being seliap
Simalur talaŋ-talaŋkind of fish
Nias tala-talakind of fish
Balinese talaŋ-talaŋa sea fish
Sasak talaŋname of a sea fish
Sangir talaŋkind of fish; when smoked it can be kept for a long time
Makassarese talaŋ-talaŋmiddle growth stage of the lari (sea fish with five stripes)

Note:   Some languages support the reconstruction of a simple base *talaŋ, and others the reduplicated base *talaŋ-talaŋ. I assume that the latter was original, and has been shortened in languages that reflect the simple base.


*talaq₁ the morning (evening) star: Venus


PMP     *talaq₁ the morning (evening) star: Venus     [doublet: *mantalaq]

Tagalog tálaʔbright star, planet
Mansaka bonta-taraʔmorning star
Bimanese ntarastar
Manggarai ntalastar
Ngadha dalastar
Sika dalastar
Solorese dalastar
Lou ko-mtalMorning star/Evening star: Venus
Loniu kopo-matanthe Morning Star
Kove motalastar

Note:   Also Ifugaw talló ‘bright morning or evening star; the planet Venus’, Ngaju Dayak panala ‘moon’. Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *(t)ala(q) ‘star’, but his cognate set is weak.


*talaq₂ go for a walk


PPh     *talaq₂ go for a walk

Sambal (Botolan) t<om>álaʔto go for a walk, roam around
Cebuano tálaʔset foot in a place; step, tread on


*talas break, burst


PMP     *talas break, burst

Maranao talasbreak, burst
Buli talasburst, crack


*talátal to sway, stagger, turn this way and that


PPh     *talátal to sway, stagger, turn this way and that

Ilokano ag-talátalto revolve on an axis, turn over and over
  i-talátalto cause to spin, cause to revolve
Sambal (Botolan) mi-talátalto stagger, as a drunk person


*talaw timid, fearful; coward


PAN     *talaw timid, fearful; coward

Amis talawbe afraid, fear (generic term)
  pa-talawto threaten
Thao ka-tarawbe cool toward someone, not feel friendly impulses toward a person
  pia-tarawbehave in an unfriendly manner
Paiwan ma-tjalawto be angry
Itbayaten taxawcowardliness
  ma-taxawcoward, cowardly
Ilokano ag-tálawflee, run away, hasten off, escape
Isneg mag-tálawrun away, escape, slip off, vanish
Bikol taláwcowardly, yellow, chicken; a coward
Cebuano tálawback off, be afraid to do something for lacking nerve
Maranao talawcoward
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) talewto beat someone in a fight so that he is intimidated
Mansaka tarawcowardly
Tausug talawexcessive fear
  talaw-ancowardly, excessively fearful
Kadazan Dusun t-um-ahoubecome a coward
Moken talauashamed, shy
Tonsawang taloto fear, be afraid
Wolio taloto lost, be defeated (in battle)


PAN     *ma-talaw fearful, cowardly

Amis ma-talawafraid
Thao ma-talawbe unfriendly, cool or distant toward others
Ilokano ma-tálawsuccumb, sink down, die, grow faint
Mongondow mo-talowfaint-hearted, cowardly

Note:   Mills (1975:848) assigns Mongondow talow to PAn *talu ‘defeated, overcome’. While *talu can be attributed to PMP (Tagalog tálo ‘surpassed, defeated’, Karo Batak, Old Javanese talu ‘defeated’, Kambera talu ‘defeat’) it evidently was distinct -- both phonologically and semantically -- from *talaw.


*tales taro: Colocasia esculenta


PMP     *tales taro: Colocasia esculenta

Hanunóo tálusa taro with yellowing leaves
Palawan Batak tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53)
Palawano talestaro
Central Tagbanwa talɨttaro root
Nias talõa tuber: Caladium
Minangkabau talasa cultivated yam, Colocasia antiquorum
Rejang taleusa root crop: Colocasia antiquorum
Sundanese taleuskind of tuber
Old Javanese talestaro, Colocasia antiquorum
  pa-tales-antaro field or garden
Javanese talestaro
  naleshaving the texture of cooked taro (said of rice that is gummy from being cooked in too much water)
Palauan dáittaro (plant)
Rotinese talekind of water plant with large leaves (Jonker 1908)
  taletaro; icon for a male person (Fox 1993)
  ta-taleskind of water plant with large leaves; Dengka dialect (Jonker 1908)
Tetun talasan aroid plant with highly-prized edible tubers


POC     *talos taro: Colocasia esculenta

Motu taloa vegetable: Arum esculentum
Takuu tarotaro (general term)
Marovo talotaro
Kwaio alotaro (generic); unit of 100 taro for a feast
  alo-nataro corm
Lau alotaro
Toqabaqita alotaro (plant and corm)
'Āre'āre ārotaro (several varieties)
Arosi aroa name for taro in some names of varieties
Bauro arotaro
Pileni talotaro
V'ënen Taut tarotaro
Paamese tārotaro
Makatea tarotaro
Nakanamanga na-taletaro
Sye n/taltaro
Fijian dalothe taro plant, much used as a food, Colocasia esculenta
Tongan talotaro, kind of arum with edible tuberous root, Caladium esculentum
Niue talothe taro plant (Colocasia esculenta). Five groups are recognized, each with many varieties, the groups being distinguished according to differences in color and the marking of the petioles, or leaf stalks
Futunan talotaro (generic): Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum Schott
Samoan talotaro, a cultivated plant (Colocasia sp.), the corm of which is one of the most important sources of food
  talo-abe plentiful in taro
Tuvaluan talotaro, a cultivated plant, Colocasia esculenta
Nukuoro daloplant sp.: taro (Colocasia esculenta), also the corm of this plant
Rennellese tagotaro, Colocasia esculenta (one of the most important foods, the gift of the god Tupuimatangi)
Anuta tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta
Rarotongan taroan esculent tuber which is much cultivated for food purposes and of which there are several varieties: Colocasia esculenta
Maori taroColocasia antiquorum, a plant cultivated for food
Hawaiian kalotaro (Colocasia esculenta), a kind of aroid cultivated since ancient times for food… In Hawaii taro has been the staple from earliest times to the present, and its cultivation developed greatly, including more than 300 forms

Note:   Also Tontemboan taleʔColocasia antiquorum, used as pig fodder’, Roviana talo ‘taro: Colocasia antiquorum’ (one of the staple foods of the Roviana people, with at least 18 varieties), Rotuman tar-kura ‘kind of taro’, tar-tea ‘kind of taro’ (< Polynesian). This form has a very wide, but thin distribution, being richly attested in Sumatra and Java, the southeast Solomons, central and southern Vanuaut, and Central Pacific languages, but it is rare elsewhere. Although Colocasia species are of central importance in the diet of Polynesian peoples, it is clear that this tuber is of only marginal dietary significance in AN-speaking societies that cultivate rice. It therefore seems likely that it was also a minor food item in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian society that came to achieve greater importance in some areas once rice cultivation was lost. The Roviana form is regarded as irregular, since this language normally retains final consonants, and we would therefore expect **taloso; at the same time this raises the question whether the POc form should be *talos or *talo.


*tal(e)sík splash, spatter


PPh     *tal(e)sík splash, spatter

Pangasinan tálsiksplash
Sambal (Botolan) talhíkbe sprayed or splashed by water
Tagalog talsíksplash of liquid; sudden flight or leap or splinters, sparks, etc.; dismissal from office
Bikol mag-talsíkto get knocked away or deflected

Note:   With root *-cik ‘fly out, splash, spatter’.


*tali to bend, coil or wind up


POC     *tali₂ to bend, coil or wind up

Gedaged talito bend (straight or round), as in bending a tortoise shell into a circle
Mbula -talto coil up, wind something thick around something else (used of cane and bigger things)
  tal-talto wind up
Gitua talto coil, put around
Lau alito twine round, encircle; to surround; to coil a rope, wind a line; to curl up like a dog
Toqabaqita alibe curved into a circle; have the shape of a circle (complete or incomplete)
Arosi arito fold; to plait; to wind up, make a noose; to bend, of a string or creeper; to lie curled up like a dog or snake
Fijian talito plait, interweave


*tali tali plant sp.


PWMP     *tali tali plant sp.

Bahasa Indonesia tali taliplant with beautiful blossom: Quamaclit pennata
Sangir tali-talikind of edible sea plant


*talínum plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare


PPh     *talínum plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare

Ilokano talinúmspecies of plant eaten by goats
Sambal (Botolan) talínomplant with thick leaves that are cooked with meat; they are a bit sour
Tagalog talínuma plant: Talinum paniculatum (Madulid 2001)
Aklanon talinuman herb: Talinum triangulare
Agutaynen talinoma type of vegetable with edible leaves (it is the top, tender leaves which are cooked and eaten)
Cebuano talinumsmall shrub with thick, lanceolate, pale-green leaves, planted as an ornamental and for its leaves, which are used as a vegetable: Talinum triangulare

Note:   Also Romblomanon talínuŋ ‘shrub with leaves that are sometimes boiled and eaten as a vegetable similar to spinach: Talinum triangulare. Madulid (2001) lists this only for Tagalog, but it is considerably more widespread in Philippine languages.


*taliŋu to cheat, lead astray, get someone into trouble


PPh     *taliŋu to cheat, lead astray, get someone into trouble

Ayta Abellan taliŋoto make someone make a mistake, lead astray
Maranao taliŋocheater, wrongdoer; to bilk


*talisay a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa


PMP     *talisay a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa

Tagalog talisaya species of shade tree: Terminalia catappa
Aklanon talísaytree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa L.
Cebuano talísaykind of large tree similar to an almond tree, growing by the seashore bearing edible nuts: Terminalia catappa
Maranao talisaya shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Subanon tolisoya shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Tombonuwo tolisoya type of tree
Proto-Sangiric *talisaytree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa L.
Chamorro talisaya tree that bears edible nuts, the Indian almond: Terminalia catappa
Soboyo talisea tree with edible nuts: Canarium moluccanum


POC     *talise₁ a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa

Lou telisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Penchal ralisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Ere dalisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Leipon ndelisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Bipi dalisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Seimat talila shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Wuvulu aliea shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Mendak talizaa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Tolai taliaalmond-bearing tree: Terminalia litoralis
Vitu taðile <MTerminalia sp.
Kove talireTerminalia sp.
Wogeo selite <Ma shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Manam taile <Ma shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Roviana ta-talisea tree that bears a fine almond-like edible nut: ‘Terminalia catappa’
Eddystone/Mandegusu talisea variety of wood used in making some of the strong structural parts of a canoe
Nggela talihea tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Sa'a älitea tree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa
Arosi aritea tree of a semi-sacred character: Terminalia catappa
Tongan teliekind of tree somewhat resembling an oak in appearance, but bearing almond-like fruit: Terminalia sp.
Niue teliea large spreading tree that has autumn-tinted leaves at certain times of year: Terminalia catappa
Samoan talielarge tree growing near the coast, with strong timber used for houses, canoes, and gongs, the tropical almond: Terminalia catappa
Tuvaluan talietree species: Terminalia samoensis
Rennellese tagiea tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa L.

Note:   This comparison has an unusual distribution, being found widely in the central and southern Philippines, in Chamorro, and in Oceanic languages, but without known reflexes in insular Southeast Asia south of the Philippines. It is also noteworthy in the relatively large number of languages that show metathesis, whether of *t and *s (Wogeo, Mota), *l and *s (Vitu), or *l and *i (Manam).


*talise crab sp.


POC     *talise₂ crab sp.

Roviana ta-talisea variety of crab (dark carapace with 6 or 7 white spots)
Rennellese tagiea land crab: Cardisoma hirtipes Dana

Note:   This comparison seems clearly to be the same form as PMP *talisay, POc *talise₁ ‘a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa’. However, its distinct meaning justified a separate lexical entry.


*taliuk turn, go around


PAN     *taliuk turn, go around

Amis taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around
Cebuano taliyukturn the body around

Note:   This item may contain a fossilized prefix *ta-.


*taliwájaq middle, middling, average


PPh     *taliwájaq middle, middling, average

Ilokano taliwágaordinary, average; poor quality (cloth, etc.)
Cebuano taliwálaʔmiddle, center part; to do something to something at its center, in its middle part
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teliwazaʔthe middle of something
  teliwazen duweyan additional wife in a polygamous family, but not the most recent addition


*taltal₁ loosen by pounding


PWMP     *taltal₁ loosen by pounding

Ilokano taltal-ento crush, bray, pound in order to pulverize
Isneg mag-taltālto crush
Ibaloy taltal-ento loosen something by striking it (as pipe fitting or bolt with a hammer, peg that holds plow parts together) to strike, jar something (as house wall with hammer)
Aklanon táetaeto remove, take down
Hiligaynon mag-táltalto loosen, especially with a jackscrew or a hammer
Cebuano taltalknock off something that is attached or set (as in scraping mud off the wheels of a pushcart)
Toba Batak ma-naltalhit, beat; cut
Balinese taltalhit repeatedly


*taltal₂ quarrel


PWMP     *taltal₂ quarrel

Kapampangan taltáltalk back and forth in anger
Tagalog taltálloud dispute, verbal battle
Toba Batak ma-naltalanswer someone harshly or rudely

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taltal ‘quarrel’ (Wortstreit).


*talu₁ shout at


PWMP     *talu₁ shout at

Tagalog mag-táloto engage in debate with each other (Panganiban 1966)
Maranao talocall
Iban taloshout at or to (Scott 1956)


*talu₂ to lose, be defeated


PMP     *talu₂ to lose, be defeated

Casiguran Dumagat táloto lose in a game or contest
Pangasinan a-tálowas defeated; lost (e.g. of a bet)
  ma-táloto win; conquer, defeat
Tagalog táloa defeat; a beating; a having been beaten or overthrown; loss; upset; defeat in sports
  ka-táloantagonist; adversary or competitor in argument, debate, etc.
Bikol tálodefeated
  ma-táloto defeat
  taló-onto be defeated
Hanunóo tálucheating, beatingm as in trade; surpassed
  talú-hunbe beaten in, or cheated at trade
Gayō taluto surrender
Toba Batak talusuccumb, be defeated
  ma-nalu-honto defeat someone
Balinese taludefeated, beaten
Kambera taluconquer, overcome, be dominant

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) compared the Tagalog and Toba Batak forms given here with Samoan talusā ‘to bring trouble or bad luck’, but the latter form is more convincingly treated as unrelated to this cognate set.


*talúbuq grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy


PPh     *talúbuq grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy

Ilokano t<um>alúboto be early in development or growth
Casiguran Dumagat talúbufor a plant or person to grow much faster than others of its same age
Bikol ma-talúboʔquickly growing; healthy in growth (usually referring to humans, but applicable as well to plants and animals)
  mag-talúboʔto grow, mature; to thrive, prosper


*taluk young plant shoot


PMP     *taluk young plant shoot     [doublet: *taruk]

Casiguran Dumagat talúkwet rice seedlings
Hanunóo táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting
Manggarai talokyoung bamboo


*talukaeb eyelid


PPh     *talukaeb eyelid

Ilokano talukabeyelid; carapace of crabs
Mansaka tarokaobeyelid

Note:   Also Pangasinan talókap ‘eyelid’.


*taluki kind of fabric (silk?)


PMP     *taluki kind of fabric (silk?)

Ilokano talóki(obs.) silk of one piece
Old Javanese talukia particular kind of fabric (perhaps muslin)
Balinese talukikind of batik
Kambera talukikind of silk used as a veil

Note:   Also Sangir talukeʔ ‘kind of weaving motif’. This item may be a Chinese loan, but if so, its etymology remains unclear.


*taluktuk hummock, small rise of land


PPh     *taluktuk hummock, small rise of land

Ilokano talukátokhummock; ground over a flooded area
Mansaka taroktoksummit; top (as of a mountain)

Note:   Ilokano shows an excrescent medial vowel which bears the primary stress, as in PWMP *tawtaw ‘lost, astray’, but Ilokano mai-tawátaw ‘be lost, stray, wander’.


*taluluŋ a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica


PPh     *taluluŋ a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica

Ilokano taluloŋthe Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica
Ibanag taluloŋthe Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica
Tagalog taluloŋthe Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica

Note:   This comparison was first cited by Madulid (2001). For Ilokano, however, Rubino (2000) gives talúloŋ ‘a shrub: Cudrania javanensis’.


*taluntún follow a path


PPh     *taluntún follow a path

Ilokano taluntóninvestigation
  pa-taluntóna kind of chasing game played by young children
  talunton-énto study, investigate; follow a path
Bontok ma-naluntunto go from house to house to collect cooked rice to be eaten at the ward house during a ceremonial feast
Sambal (Botolan) talontónto follow a path
Tagalog taluntónline; row; path; rule; regulation; precept
  t<um>aluntónto trace; to follow the course or origin of; to follow a rule, precept, etc.

Note:   Possibly an Ilokano loan in Sambal (Botolan).


*tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark


PAN     *tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark     [disjunct: *tamaq₁]

Amis tamato find; to be right; to hit on target
Ilokano t<um>ámato hit with a missile; hit a target
  mai-támato happen at a convenient time; coincide
Casiguran Dumagat támaright, correct, good, accurate, exact
  məg-tamato get a good yield from a rice harvest
  pa-tama-ento make right, to correct
Ibaloy tama-anto hit on, especially of something done timely, fortuitously (as selling one’s vegetables when the price is high; or hitting on the ‘heart of the matter’); such a fortuitous happening, as with gold strikes
Agutaynen tamacorrect, right; accurate; appropriate; proper
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Old Javanese ka-tama-nstruck, hit by
Javanese ke-tama-nto get struck
  ke-tama-n larato get sick, to catch a disease
  ke-tama-n asmarato fall in love at first sight
  namato strike
Tae' si-tamaget along, be well-disposed toward one another; make peace, be reconciled
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)


*tama₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons


PMP     *tama₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons     [disjunct: *tamaq₂]

Kayan tamaʔthe act of sexual intercourse
  namaʔthe male act of sexual intercourse
Malagasy tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand
  tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’)
  mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack
  ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town
  tami-nato be attacked in front
Old Javanese tamato enter, penetrate; to have penetrated into, mastered thoroughly, accomplished in
  t<um>amato enter, set foot in, appear in; to penetrate as far as (of weapons); to hit
Balinese tamabe ready, be on hand, never be tongue-tied, be bold
Sasak tamato enter (as a ship into a harbor)
Tajio ntamato enter, go inside
Tae' tamain, into; to the east; to the west
  pa-tama-iput something in, fill with
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamato enter
Mandar tamato enter
  met-tamato enter
  pet-tama-iput something in, insert
Makassarese an-tamato enter, go inside
Sika tamato enter, go inside
Kambera tamato enter
Tetun tamato enter, to introduce, to penetrate
  tama-kimpertinent, brash, not timid
Erai tamato enter


PWMP     *ka-tama-an (gloss uncertain)

Old Javanese ka-tama-npenetrated by, affected by, moved by, full of
Tae' ka-tama-nwhere something has gone in; place where something has entered

Note:   Also Sasak tamaʔ ‘greedy, grasping’.


*tamád lazy, indolent


PPh     *tamád lazy, indolent

Casiguran Dumagat tamadto feel lazy, to not feel like working; lazy
Kapampangan ma-tamádlazy
Tagalog tamádlazy; idle; indolent; sluggish; slothful; truant; neglecting duty through laziness
  ka-tamar-ánto feel lazy about a given task, and to pay no attention to it, or do nothing about it
Bikol tamádbe reluctant or disinclined to do something
Agutaynen ma-tamadlazy; unmotivated; bored
Cebuano tamádfeel too lazy to do something


PPh     *tamad-an be lazy, feel lazy

Agutaynen tamad-anfor a person to feel lazy, tired; to be disinterested in, bored or tired of doing something
Cebuano tamar-ánbe lazy

Note:   Also Sambal (Botolan) tamlád ‘lazy, to be lazy’. Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*tamadaw kind of wild ruminant


PWMP     *tamadaw kind of wild ruminant

Aklanon tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro
Cebuano tamaráwkind of wild water buffalo
Iban temadauwild ox: Bos javanicus d'Atton (formerly Bos sondaicus)

Note:   Also Malay tembadau ‘the Borneo wild ox (a variant of Bos sondaicus); in some outlying dialects Bos mindorensis’. Kelabit temedhur, Bintulu temeɗu and similar forms that refer to the native rhinoceros in various of the indigenous languages of Borneo appear to be distinct.


*tamaji provisions, food for a journey


POC     *tamaji provisions, food for a journey

Sursurunga t<in>maspicnic lunch, food taken and eaten away from the house, or on a journey
Bariai tamadfood for a journey
Takia la-tamadfood for a journey (la = ‘move away from speaker; go around the island’)
Dawawa tamasi-nafood for travel
Teop tamariprepared food
Nggela tamandia relish with vegetable food, such as pork or fish; to eat together different sorts of food
Arosi amadibetel pepper
Bauro amasito eat two things together, use a relish, betel pepper

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Ross (2008:43), who reconstructed POc *tamaji ‘additional ingredients to accompany starchy food’. However, meanings resembling the latter are reported only from languages in the Guadalcanal-Nggelic and Cristobal-Malaitan subgroups of Southeast Solomonic, while the gloss adopted here is supported by languages in three proposed primary branches of Oceanic, namely North New Guinea, Papuan Tip, and Mesomelanesian.


*taman up to, as far as


PWMP     *taman up to, as far as

Cebuano támanuntil, up to a certain part
Maranao tamanlimit, boundary, until
Binukid tamanuntil, up to a certain point, as far as
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tamanlimit, end; until
Mansaka tamanto reach as far as; to continue on as far as
Tiruray tamanas far as, until
  taman sa tamanforever
Yakan tamanup to; until (stating the limits of objects and time; extent, limit, topping point (of objects)
  taman-anend, stopping point, limit (of actions); used also for forming superlatives of adjectives
Punan Tuvu' tamanattaining to; reaching as far as


*tamanaŋ sterile, barren, childless


PWMP     *tamanaŋ sterile, barren, childless

Tausug tamanaŋ(of people or animals) barren, sterile
  mag-tamanaŋto become sterile
Ngaju Dayak tamanaŋbarren, infertile
Toba Batak tamanaŋbloodflow
  tamanaŋ bulanmenses
Rejang temanaŋsterile, barren, childless
Bare'e tamanasterile, barren, childless, mainly of people, but also said of animals
Tae' tamanaŋsteriile, infertile, childless, of people; to fail to yield fruit, of plantings such as maize
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamanaŋbarren (of a woman)
Makassarese tamanaŋsterile, childless


*tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum


POC     *tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum

Mussau tamanukind of large-leafed Calophyllum found in the interior (cp. ŋitau 'Calophyllum of the shore')
Fijian damanua tree, very tall and straight, excellent for making canoes: Callophyllum vitense, Guttiferae
Tongan tamanutree sp.
Niue tamanua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (= fetau)
Samoan tamanularge tree (Callophyllum sp.), with timber used for canoes and furniture
Rarotongan tamanuthe native mahogany: Calophyllum inophyllum
Hawaiian kamani, kamanilarge tree (Calophyllum inophyllum, at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to eight inches long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about an inch in diameter. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes.

Note:   In POc this term evidently contrasted with *pitaquR ‘Calophyllum inophyllum’. The difference of meaning remains unclear, but may have concerned interior and coastal varieties of the tree, as reflected in Mussau.


*tamaq₁ appropriate, suitable; fit together; hit the mark


PMP     *tamaq₁ appropriate, suitable; fit together; hit the mark     [disjunct: *tama₁]

Ilokano t<um>ámato hit with a missile; hit a target
  mai-támato happen at a convenient time; coincide
Sambal (Botolan) támaʔto hit squarely; correct, right
Tagalog támaʔcorrect, right; hitting the mark
Bikol támaʔaccurate, correct, right; appropriate, fitting, suitable; adequate, ample, sufficient; moderate, temperate
  mag-támaʔto win; to hit it right; to hit the bull’s eye; usually
  ma-tamáʔ-anto get hit by something; fig. to feel the effects of something (such as a drink of liquor)
Hanunóo támaʔright, correct, true
Aklanon támaʔright, correct, enough; to hit directly, make a bullseye, hit straight on
Hiligaynon támaʔcorrect, well, extremely, excessively
Cebuano támaʔfor something to hit squarely on something; be just exactly on time; make something fit; stop doing something bad
Central Tagbanwa tamato be correct; to hit the target
Maranao tamaʔenough, alright
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)

Note:   Also Amis tama ‘to find; to be right; to hit on target’.


*tamaq₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons


PMP     *tamaq₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons     [disjunct: *tama₂]

Yakan tamaʔfor something to be penetrated or pierced (by a knife or bullet); covered with (wounds or bullet holes)
Kadazan Dusun tamaʔbrave, bold
  ka-tamaʔdare, bold, brave
Malagasy tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand
  tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’)
  mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack
  ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town
  tami-nato be attacked in front
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamaenter
Lamaholot tamato enter
Tetun tamato enter, to introduce, to penetrate
  tama-kimpertinent, brash, not timid
Vaikenu tamato go in
Erai tamato enter

Note:   Also Iban tamaʔ ‘enter, go in’, namaʔ ka bilik ‘take up residence in bilik (single-family room in longhouse) and become one of the family, especially by marrying into it’, Erai tamo ‘to enter’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tama ‘penetrate; hit the mark; correct, straight’, which appears to conflate distinct cognate sets.


*tambak₁ hit, pound on


PMP     *tambak₁ hit, pound on

Tontemboan t<um>ambakstamp with the foot
Tae' tambakclean something by pounding it
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamba(k)hit, pound
Makassarese an-nambaʔstrike with something flexible, as a whip or length of rattan
Hawu dababeat on with both hands

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up


PMP     *tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up

Ilokano tambákdam, dike, bank
  ag-tambákto build a dike
Itawis támbakdyke between rice paddies
Ibaloy i-tambakto pile, heap something up
Tagalog tambákembankment, terrace; mound; a bank or heap of earth, stones, sand, etc.; pile; a mass like a hill or mound; the piling up, e.g. of official papers not acted upon
  i-tambákto dump; to empty out or throw down so as to make a pile or heap; to dump into a place
  má-tambak-ánto be encumbered; to be filled or blocked up; to be oversupplied; to be glutted; to be overwhelmed; to be snowed under
  mag-tambákto make a heap or pile of sand, soil, stones, etc.
Bikol tambákheap, mound, pile
  tambak-ónto heap or pile up
Romblomanon tambaksomething is covered over by someone with soil, stones, the shallow ocean
Masbatenyo támbakpiled, packed tightly, chock full
  tambak-ónto pile something
Aklanon támbakpile; to pile up (one on top of another); fill (hole)
Waray-Waray tambákheap; pile; mass; mound
Agutaynen tambak-ento pile up; to fill in, such as a hole
  mag-tambakto pile or stack things up; to cover or fill in a depression in the ground; to fill in a large hole
Cebuano tambákdump a large number of things in or over something
  tambak-ándumping ground; gathering place
Maranao tambakrampart, heap
  tambak-ento heap up, as earth
Binukid tambakto cover (something) over with dirt
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambakto fill in a hole; to cover something over with some substance
Mapun tambakan orderly stacking of rocks or earth (as used for the foundation of a house on the seashore, for a wharf, for a retaining wall surrounding a grave or rice field, etc.)
  nambakto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan mag-tambakto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Tausug mag-tambakto level (a low place), fill in (ground); pile stones (often over a grave)
Ngaju Dayak tambaka burial place for those families that do not preserve the corpse and later reinter the bones in an elevated mausoleum built on wooden posts
Malay tambakbanking; filling; levelling up
  me-nambakto reclaim (low-lying land)
Acehnese s<ɨn>ambaʔdyke, dam, mound of earth, wall, rampart, parapet
Simalur tambaʔgrave; canal
Karo Batak tambaka dyke, a damming up of water; an artificial pond made by damming
  nambak-ito dam up by building a dyke
Toba Batak tambakburial mound that one properly undertakes and plants with trees
Nias tambaa filling up
  ma-nambato fill up
  fa-tambabecome equal, be even (of a number)
Sundanese tambakwhat serves to block off or divert water; also, to lie in a heap, heap up to obstruct the inflow or outflow of water
  di-tambakdammed up, held in by a dyke
  nambakto obstruct or divert (of water, with a dyke or dam)
Old Javanese tambakwall, dike, dam, fence
  tambak saya(of warriors) defence, rampart (against the enemy)
Javanese tambaka pond near the shore where certain sea fish (bandeng) are cultivated; a dike or dam for regulating water
  nambakto regulate the flow of; to tackle a problem;to overcome an obstacle
Balinese tambakdam, dyke; a pool formed from a dammed stream; fishpond; to block, obstruct, dam
Sasak tambakfishpond
Mongondow tambakburial place
Kambera tambakua dam; to dam


POC     *tabak₂ dam, dyke, embankment

Nggela ta-tambato bank up with logs or stones to keep earth from falling


PWMP     *ma-tambak heaped up, as an obstruction

Tagalog má-tambákto be put aside in some place so as to form a big heap or mound, as garbage, old papers, etc.; to be or become piled up, as official papers requiring action, or as goods, etc.
Old Javanese (m)a-tambakwith a wall, etc.; to stand like a wall or dam, tightly packed (along the way), blocking (the way); a certain functionary (inspector or dikes?)


PWMP     *ka-tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

Yakan ka-tambak-anbe affected by something that piles up on top (as a house struck by a falling tree)
Old Javanese ka-tambak-anto provide with a dam, be provided with a dam


PWMP     *t<um>ambak to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct

Tagalog t<um>umbákto accumulate or pile up
Acehnese t<ɨm>ambaʔto dam up, make a dyke; heap up earth; fill up
Old Javanese t<um>ambakto put oneself in the way


PWMP     *tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano tambak-anto build a dike across or around
Ibaloy tambak-anto pile something against, on, etc. something else
Tagalog tambák-ana dump; a dumping place
  tambak-ánto fill up a place by dumping sand, earth, stones, rubbish, etc.
Romblomanon tambāk-ana shallow-sea fish trap
Masbatenyo tambak-ándumping place, junk yard
Mapun tambak-anto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan tambak-anto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Sundanese tambak-andam, dyke

Note:   Also Manggarai tamba ‘fishpond’.


*tambal₁ to mend, patch


PMP     *tambal₁ to mend, patch

Miri tafelto mend, patch
Minangkabau tambalto patch; to paste on; to plaster; to overlay
Sundanese tambalpatch; insertion
Old Javanese t<in>ambal-anto patch (of a torn garment)
Javanese tambala mending patch
  tambal bantire patch
  nambalto have something patched; to patch for someone
  tambal-anact or way of patching; having been patched
  tambal-tambalto put on a patch
Bare'e tambaa patch
Muna tambato patch, add a surface piece to, coat
  ka-tambaa bandage, a patch
Lamaholot tabato mend, repair, patch

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak tambal ‘a patch’ (< Banjarese).


*tambal₂ to treat with medicine


PPh     *tambal₂ to treat with medicine

Ayta Abellan tambalto consult a doctor; to get a physician to cure one’s ailment
Bikol tambálantidote; snake medicine
  mag-tambálto treat someone with an antidote
Aklanon tambaemedicine --- coagulant
Cebuano tambálto treat an illness, wound
Binukid tambalmedicine; remedial measures; to treat a physical ailment with medicine

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambar ‘medicine; to treat somene with medicine’.


*tamban a fish: sardine spp.


PWMP     *tamban a fish: sardine spp.

Ilokano tambánkind of sardine
Tagalog tambánfish like a herring or sardine
Hanunóo támbandark-colored fish about 15 cm. long
Cebuano tambanname given to sardines of several species
Maranao tambanminnow, anchovy
Malay ikan tambansardine; generic for various Clupeidae
Sundanese tambanmarine fish sp.
Balinese tambankind of small sea fish
Sasak tambana sea fish, apparently the sardine


*tambáŋ ambush, surprise attack


PPh     *tambáŋ ambush, surprise attack

Ilokano ag-tambáŋto ambush; raid; attack; waylay; obstruct a voyage; hold up and rob; block one’s way
Ibaloy tambaŋambush
  me-nambaŋto set up an ambush
Tagalog tambáŋambush, an attack from an ambush; the act or condition of lying in wait; a person waiting and watching from a vantage point for wild game, or in warfare, for the enemy


PPh     *tambaŋ-an to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game

Ibaloy tambaŋ-anto lie in wait for something, esp. with the idea of killing (as enemy, animal being hunted)
Bikol tambáŋ-anto encircle, surround

Note:   The Bikol form (given as a base tambáŋan) is assumed to have a fossilized suffix, since it may occur with both an actor voice prefix (mag-tambáŋan) and a locative voice suffix (tambáŋan-an). The Ilokano form may be a loan from Tagalog, but this appears unlikely for Ibaloy, which has very few demonstrable loanwords from Tagalog.


*tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius


PWMP     *tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius

Cebuano tambaŋúŋukind of large, fleshy catfish living in river estuaries
Makassarese tambanunukind of fish, lighter-colored than barrukaŋ (barrukaŋ = kind of fish that lives in river mouths and swamps, smooth, shiny and scaleless, gray and black with barbels on the mouth and poisonous spines on the back)

Note:   I assume that Makassarese tambanunu shows irregular replacement of the rarer and more marked velar nasal with its alveolar counterpart.


*tambaq add to, increase; addition, supplement


PWMP     *tambaq add to, increase; addition, supplement

Maranao tambaʔexaggerate, superfluous
Malay tambahincrease by repetition or continuation
Karo Batak tambahreplenishment; addition, supplement
Toba Batak tambaincrease, augmentation, what is added to or given as a supplement
  ma-namba-ito augment or supplement something
Sundanese tambahto increase, become greater
Pendau tambato increase, add to
Bare'e tambaincrease, add to (said to be a Buginese or Makasarese loan)
Proto-South Sulawesi *tambaadd to, increase

Note:   Also Mapun tamba-manamba ‘to increase more and more (as with wealth, possessions)’ (< Malay)


*tambar antidote (as for snakebite)


PMP     *tambar antidote (as for snakebite)

Bikol tambálantidote; snake medicine
  mag-tambálto treat someone with an antidote
Aklanon támbaemedicine: coagulant; to stop bleeding
Hiligaynon támbalmedicine, cure, remedy
Cebuano tambáltreat an illness, wound; to reform, correct someone
  pa-nambálto practive medicine
  tambál-anfolk doctor, specializing in diseases of supernatural origin
Maranao tabalmitigate, as with medicine
Binukid tambalmedicine, remedial measures
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambarmedicine; to treat someone with medicine
Malay tambarhealing; curing
  tawarinnocuous (of a poison or charm being rendered harmless, or of disease losing its virus)
  pə-nawarantidote, countercharm
Karo Batak tambarmedicine, remedy
  nambar-igive medicine to someone, treat with medicine
Sundanese tambaantidote, means for recovering, medicine
Old Javanese tambacure, remedy, medicine
Tontemboan tambala plant with thick leaves that are used as medicine for indigestion and as a spice in cooking: Labiatea
Makassarese tambaraʔantidote
  tambaraʔ rappo-rappoa shrub with leaves that are used as medicine: Clerodendron inerme
Wolio tambamedicine against poisoning or haemoptysis; to treat with medicine, cure
Manggarai tambarvery bitter creeper with thorns, used as malaria medicine

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tavaɁ ‘antidote (against poison)’, Iban tawar ‘remedy, cure’, Old Javanese tawar ‘to make powerless, to be an antidote against’ (< Malagasyy), Balinese tamba ‘medicine (a religious word)’, tamba-nipun ‘the cure for it’.


*tambaR to advise, help someone with a problem


PPh     *tambaR to advise, help someone with a problem

Ayta Abellan tambayhelp; to help
Cebuano tambágto advise (as a doctor advising his patient how to get better); advice, counsel
Mansaka tambagadvice


*tambéd lizard fish


PPh     *tambéd lizard fish

Casiguran Dumagat tambə́dlizard fish, Saurida sp.
Cebuano tambúdlizard fish, kind of fish around six inches long, living on sandy bottoms of shallow waters


*tambej tie up, bind tightly


PWMP     *tambej tie up, bind tightly

Bikol mag-tambódto wrap (place something around); to band, bandage; to attach the spur to the foot of a fighting cock
Agutaynen i-tabed-tabedto wrap a rope around something; to tie something up
  ma-tabed-tabedto become wrapped around something; to become tangled up in something
Maranao tambedto tie; wear malong (skirt-like garment with open ends) tied around chest
Binukid tabedto wrap oneself around something; to twist, wind, wrap something repeatedly around something else
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavedto wrap a rope or string repeatedly around something
Mansaka tambudto twine (as a vine around a tree)
Malay tambattethering
  mə-nambat-kanto tie up, to fasten up (of fowls with their legs tied together, etc.)

Note:   Also Tiruray tabed ‘to wind something around something else’. With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*tambel to patch


PWMP     *tambel to patch     [doublet: *Capel]

Agutaynen i-tambelto patch a hole in clothing or fabric, using a patch or scrap of material
Malay tambalto patch; to paste on; to plaster; to overlay
Balinese tambel-inbe patched by someone


PWMP     *ma-nambel to patch

Agutaynen ma-nambelto patch a hole in clothing or fabric, using a patch or scrap of material
Balinese nambelto patch, put a patch on


*tambelaŋ kind of slender bamboo


PWMP     *tambelaŋ kind of bamboo

Murut (Timugon) tambalaŋkind of bamboo
Proto-Minahasan *tambəlaŋkind of bamboo
Tondano tabəlaŋbamboo (generic term)
Tontemboan tambəlaŋkind of bamboo
Totoli tambolaŋkind of long, not very strong bamboo
Dampelas tambalaŋkind of long, not very strong bamboo

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tamahaŋ, Central Dusun tamalaŋ ‘a type of bamboo’, Tombonuwo tumbalaŋ ‘kind of small bamboo’, Proto-Sangiric *timbəlaŋ ‘thin bamboo species’, Soboyo tomolaŋ ‘kind of bamboo that is used only as a water container and to cook’. A version of this comparison was first noted by Sneddon (1978:177).


*tambeŋ dam, obstruction of flow


PWMP     *tambeŋ dam, obstruction of flow

Bikol tambóŋfish corral
  mag-tambóŋto place fish corrals in a particular body of water
Hanunóo támbuŋdam, as in a stream
Tiruray tambeŋstop a small flow of water by setting an impediment
Old Javanese tambəŋdam, dike, wall, partition
Javanese tambeŋheadstrong, obstinate, stubborn
Balinese tambeŋto obstruct, block; be obstinate
Sasak tabəŋto dam up

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘to block, stop, dam’.


*tambiluk sea worm that attacks wood


PWMP     *tambiluk sea worm that attacks wood     [doublet: *tamiluk]

Tausug tambiluka sea worm that lives on trees, logs, and sides of wooden ships
Iban tebelokshipworm or teredo
Malay təmbeloka cirrhiped barnacle that attacks wood in sea water


*tambu forbidden, taboo


PCEMP     *tambu forbidden, taboo

Yamdena tamburestrain, prevent, forbid
Fordata tabuforbid, prevent


POC     *tabu forbidden, taboo

Tigak tapholy
Vitu va-tabu-tabu-ato forbid
Tawala tabuforbidden (said to be a Suau loan)
Molima tabu-gua food forbidden to me
Tubetube tabudon’t
Cheke Holo tabutaboo, prohibited, sacred
Roviana tabuput a taboo (under certain circumstances) on food; perhaps an introduced term
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabucharm, sacred object; forbidden, taboo
Bugotu tabusacred, forbidden, holy; a prohibition placed on use or handling of anything
Nggela tambuset apart; forbidden, taboo; dedicated; sacred, holy; a priest; abominable, hateful, immoral
Kwaio abusacred, taboo
Lau ābutaboo, holy
Toqabaqita abutaboo, not allowed, forbidden
'Āre'āre āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children
Arosi abudehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc.
Gilbertese tabuprohibition, interdiction; sacred; forbidden, prohibited (generally used with religious meaning of sacred, consecrated)
  tabu-ato forbid, prohibit, interdict
Marshallese jabwitaboo (archaic)
Woleaian tab(u)taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign); be prohibited by taboo, restricted by taboo
Proto-North-Central Vanuatu *tabusacred, forbidden, taboo
Wayan tabube forbidden, prohibited by strong communal sanction, e.g. of traditional custom, modern law; (of a place or thing) be prohibited from use; prohibition, restriction; holiness, sacredness
Fijian tabuforbidden, prohibited, implying a religious sanction, but now used also for legal prohibition, such as “no admission’; sacred, holy, unapproachable
Tongan tapuprohibited, unlawful
Niue tapusacred, prohibited to common people
  fale tapuchurch
Samoan tapube forbidden
  tapu-ibe under an interdiction or ‘taboo’
Tuvaluan tapuprohibited
Kapingamarangi dabusacred; restricted; taboo
Nukuoro dabuforbidden; awesome
Rennellese taputaboo, forbidden, sacred, hallowed, restricted; sacredness, forbidden or sacred place; to observe taboos, as on the Sabbath
Maori tapuunder religious or superstitious restriction; a condition affecting persons, places, and things, and arising from innumerable causes
  tāpu-imark to indicate claim or right to property
Hawaiian kaputaboo, prohibition


POC     *paka-tabu to forbid, make taboo

Vitu va-tabu-tabu-ato forbid
Cheke Holo fa-tabuto make taboo
Kwaio faʔa-abu-ato taboo, forbid ritually, make sacred
Lau fā-ābuconsecrate
Arosi haʔa-abuforbid
Niue faka-taputo make sacred
Samoan faʔa-tapu-laʔaset a limit to
Rennellese haka-taputo make taboo; to dedicate, as a church
Hawaiian hoʔo-kapumake taboo, prohibit, sanctify, consecrate


POC     *tabu-na taboo

Nauna tapundehortative; don’t
Penchal rat rapu-ntaboo
Loniu topu-ntaboo
Bipi drapu-ntaboo
Wuvulu ʔapu-nacommand of prohibition; taboo
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabu-nashrine, skull-house, sacred or forbidden place; sacred thing
'Āre'āre āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness)
Bauro apu-nadon’t


POC     *tabu-ni-a be tabooed

Roviana tabu-ni-aput a taboo on food
'Āre'āre āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid
Samoan tapu-inabe forbidden by someone


POC     *tapu-tapu strictly forbidden

Kwaio abu-abusacred area beside men’s house where adalo (ancestral spirits) are addressed
Tongan topu-tapusacred, holy
Niue tapu-tapustrictly prohibited
Samoan tapu-tapustrictly forbidden
Rennellese tapu-tapudiminutive of tapu; small sacredness
Maori tapu-tapucharm, incantation
Hawaiian kapu-kapudignity, regal appearance; entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity and station

Note:   Also Numfor kābus ‘taboo; tree branch or anything else placed on fruit tree or other object by its owner in order to make others afraid to approach the marked object lest ill fortune befall them’, Arosi puna ‘sacred, taboo’, puna apuro ‘a place taboo (puna) to the avenger of blood to which he comes decked in his ornaments; anyone else going there is puna from returning (apuro) alive, and is killed’. Since *t > k is regular the Numfor word initially appears to support Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian *tambus, but the long vowel is unexplained, and the final consonant fails to agree with the absence of a final consonant in the Yamdena and Fordata words.

This is one of the key cultural terms in the POc lexicon, designating a type of social control that was enforced by supernatural sanctions. Because of the nature of the sanctions the term itself often came to mean ‘sacred’ or ‘holy’. However, it evidently was also used either alone or in suffixed form as a general dehortative. It is unclear how POc *tabu differed in meaning from POc *pali, which continued PAn *paliSi ‘taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite’.


*tambúg splash in the water


PPh     *tambúg splash in the water

Sambal (Botolan) tambógjump into water, wade through water or mud
Tagalog tambógloud splash of something falling flat on water
Cebuano tambúgthrow something heavy or bulky into something deep (as the sea); fall


*tambuk bulging, as the stomach


PWMP     *tambuk bulging, as the stomach

Tagalog tambókbulge; protuberance; convexity; swelling; a swollen part
  ma-tambókbulging, convex
  ka-tambuk-anchubbiness; bulkiness
Bikol tambókbulging (as muscles), full large (as breasts), prominent (parts of the body)
Tausug tambukcorpulence, fatness, obesity, plumpness, chubbiness
Madurese tabuʔbelly
Sa'dan Toraja tambukbelly
Buginese tampuʔpregnant

Note:   The essential core of this comparison was first proposed by Mills (1981).


*tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds


PWMP     *tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds

Cebuano tambúlukthe hackles of roosters
Malay tembolokcrop (of bird)


*tamiaŋ kind of bamboo


PMP     *tamiaŋ kind of bamboo     [doublet: *amiaŋ 'generic for plants with stinging hairs or hairs that cause itchiness']

Malay bulu temiaŋthe bamboo of which blowpipes are made: Bambusa wrayi
Sundanese awi tamiaŋkind of thin bamboo (used for blowpipes and thread spools)
Old Javanese tamyaŋkind of bamboo
Kambera tamiaŋukind of thin bamboo: Schistostachyum blumei, used for spears, trail or pitfall spikes, and plaited to make walling

Note:   Also Malay tembiaŋ idem. This comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984).


*tamiluk teredo, sea worm that attacks wood


PWMP     *tamiluk teredo, sea worm that attacks wood     [doublet: *tambiluk]

Aklanon tamíloklarge edible worm found in trees
Agutaynen tamiloka type of large, edible worm; they burrow into driftwood or boat hulls to lay their eggs; the young worms, which are white and elongated and look similar to an umbilical cord, are considered a delicacy
  tamilok-onfor the hull of a boat to become full of holes made by these worms burrowing in to lay their eggs
Cebuano tamílukshipworms, edible marine mollusks that bore into wood; kind of edible insect grub, usually found in rotten logs; be infested with shipworms
Iban temilokshipworm or teredo


*tamiŋ type of shield


PMP     *tamiŋ type of shield

Aklanon tamíŋshield
Agutaynen tamiŋshield used by soldiers for protection
Hiligaynon tamíŋarmor, shield
Cebuano tamiŋshield
Maranao tamiŋshield
Subanen/Subanun tamiŋround shield (Churchill 1913)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tamiŋround shield
Malay tameŋshield, buckler (often referred to in Malayo-Javanese romance); the Javan shield is usually round, but the tameŋ is of the Indonesian long type
Kambera temiŋushield
Hawu tamishield
Buruese tami-nshield

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tamin shield (Gossens 1924), Sundanese taméŋ, Old Javanese tamyaŋ, Javanese tamèŋ, Balinese, Sasak tamiaŋ ‘round shield, buckler’, Sangir tameŋ large war shield, big enough for a man to hide behind. Round and oblong shields are distinguished terminologically in many Austronesian languages, and it seems likely from the Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Subanen/Subanun glosses, together with the glosses of the Javanese, Balinese, and Sasak variants, that *tamiŋ referred exclusively to round shields.


*tamiq to taste, try


PMP     *tamiq to taste, try     [disjunct: *tamis]

Aklanon tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger)
Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try


*tamis to taste, try


PMP     *tamis to taste, try     [disjunct: *tamiq]

Banggai tamistest, taste, sample
Bare'e me-tamitaste, try
Tae' tammiʔchew so as to enjoy the juice and reject the refuse, as when chewing sugarcane
Tetun tamisto taste, to savor (by chewing)
Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try

Note:   For an earlier discussion of this comparison see (Blust 1978a:24).


*tampar₁ flatfish, flounder


PWMP     *tampar₁ flatfish, flounder

Malay ikan tampara flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis
Chamorro tampattype of fish: Bothus mancus (Bothidae), flounder, flatfish


*tampar₂ slap, clap on the ear


PWMP     *tampar₂ slap, clap on the ear

Tagalog tampálto slap with the open hand (not so strong as sampál)
  má-tampálto be slapped
Ngaju Dayak tamparto hit with the fist
Malay tamparslap; forcible blow with the flat of the hand; cuff
  mə-nampar dadato beat the breast
Toba Batak tampara long rod with a wide end used to catch birds; also a flyswatter
Tae' tampaʔa blow; give a punch in the mouth


*tampay to see at a distance (?)


PWMP     *tampay to see at a distance (?)

Maranao tampayto see (literary)
Iban tampaysee from afar, catch sight of, make out at a distance (as in recognizing someone from a long way off)

Note:   In his gloss for the Iban form Scott (1956) adds that the active verb nampay is usually used in songs. As noted in Blust (1973), since both the Maranao and Iban words appear to be part of a special vocabulary, this comparison raises the interesting possibility that such a vocabulary was present at an earlier time.


*tampek slap, hit with open hand


PMP     *tampek slap, hit with open hand

Agutaynen t<om>ampekfor waves to hit and spray up over, or into, a boat
Balinese tampekstrike with the hand
Nggela tapoto strike with the hand, slap; to clap the hands

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tampeŋ plug or dam up


PWMP     *tampeŋ plug or dam up

Malagasy tampinastopped, corked, plugged
Sasak tampeŋdam up
Tae' tampaŋto check, stop; dam up water

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’.


*tampil attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampil attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampir]

Maranao tampilincluded with, identified with, favor one side
Iban tampiljoin, attach, tie on
  kaban tampilrelative by marriage
  nampilmarry into a family


*tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket


PPh     *tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket

Ilokano tampípikind of rectangular light bamboo trunk with flat sides, used for traveling
  i-tampípito place provisions, etc. in the tampípi
Bontok tampípikind of basket with fitting cover, for general storage (< Ilokano)
Ibaloy tampipilightweight box for keeping one’s clothes, blankets, that can be used as a travelling bag
Tagalog tampípiʔa native clothes trunk or chest made of bamboo, rattan or a certain kind of palm leaves
Bikol tampípiʔa travelling bag made of woven reeds
  tampipíʔ-onto place something into or carry in a tampípiʔ
Tausug tampípiʔa (double telescoping) basket made of coconut leaves

Note:   Also Maranao tampipi ‘double, telescoping basket’. Possibly a product of borrowing from Tagalog, Ilokano, or both.


*tampir attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampir attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampil]

Maranao tampirinclude, side with one party in controversy
Iban (Lemanak) tampirjoin, attach, tie on


*tampuk₁ clap, thud


PMP     *tampuk₁ clap, thud     [disjunct: *tampun]

Kankanaey tampókclap one's hands, applaud
Ibaloy man-tampokto clap one’s hands (as in applause)
Agutaynen man-tampokto clap one’s hands (as in applause)
Cebuano tampukbeat something with the inside of the fist (as if sticking a dagger into it)
Old Javanese tampokcoming down with a thud
Niue tapu-tapuflapping of wings; the sound made by the wings of a bird

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’’.


*tampuk₂ sacred place


PWMP     *tampuk₂ sacred place

Tagalog tampókelevated or exalted place or position; exaltation; elevation
Iban nampokperform a vigil, go to a solitary place to meet with ancestors or other beings in dream or vision, and obtain their help; tops of hills are used but any isolated place, even a cemetery, may be used

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tampuk₃ stem, stalk of a plant


PWMP     *tampuk₃ stem, stalk of a plant

Tagalog tampókstem of fruits, stalk of flowers
Iban tampokfruit stalk (picked)
Malay tampokcorolla; point where fruit and stalk meet
Balinese tampukthe calyx of a fruit
  tapukthe stalk of a fruit


*tampuŋ collect, gather


PWMP     *tampuŋ collect, gather

Maranao tampoŋgather
Malay (Java) tampoŋtap and collect latex in a cup
Bahasa Indonesia tampuŋreceive and collect together (produce from an area, excess produce, etc.)

Note:   With root *-puŋ ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tampuq sulk; feel remorse


PPh     *tampuq sulk; feel remorse

Casiguran Dumagat támpoto sulk, to have a sulky feeling, to complain of lack of attention from one expected to do better
Bikol mag-tampóʔto feel remorse over, to be hurt or brokenhearted due to something

Note:   Also Tagalog tampó ‘sulkiness; huff; peevishness; displeasure; slight anger; complaint against someone for their lack of attention’, mag-tampó ‘to sulk; to be sulky’. Possibly a Tagalog loan in Casiguran Dumagat.


*tamtam smack the lips


PAN     *tamtam smack the lips

Puyuma tamtamto taste with the lips
Paiwan tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips
Itawis mat-tántamto taste
Ibaloy tamtamto taste something
Maranao tantamtaste
Chamorro tamtamtest, try out, sip, taste
Buli camcamsmack the lips

Note:   Also Maranao taʔam ‘taste, as of food’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔam ‘taste s.t.’, Nggela tata chewed pulp. Earlier reconstructed as *(CtT)aqam (CtT)aqam ‘taste, flavor’ (Blust 1978a:24).


*tamu₁ smack the lips while eating


PCEMP     *tamu₁ smack the lips while eating

Rotinese tamumake a smacking sound while eating, as a pig does
Motu tamu-tamusmack the lips while eating
Uruava tamuto eat

Note:   Also Iban (Scott 1956) tamuʔ ‘feed up, fatten (usually animals)’.


*tamu₂ turmeric: Curcuma zedoaria


PWMP     *tamu₂ turmeric: Curcuma zedoaria     [disjunct: *temu]

Kapampangan tamua plant: Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.)
Tagalog támoa plant: Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.)
Malagasy tamu-tamuthe turmeric plant (iintroduced); the root is pounded and used as a poultice for abscesses by the Betsileo, and along with some other things for hydrophobia; the leaves are used in the form of vapor baths for malarial fever; it also affords a yellow dye
Balinese tamuturmeric; dye

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian damu ‘red, brown’, but the cognation of this form is doubtful.


*tamuhuŋ a hat, head covering


PAN     *tamuhuŋ a hat, head covering

Amis tamohoŋhat, cap
Thao tamuhunround sun hat, shaped like a shallow cone, used when working in the fields
Bunun tamuhuŋa hat

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution, but if so it is unclear whether this began in Amis or Bunun.


*tanan all


PPh     *tanan all

Tagalog tanánall; everybody; everyone
Hanunóo tanánall
  tanan-tanánall (emphatic)
Kalamian Tagbanwa tananall
Agutaynen tananall; every; the total amount or number of something
Palawan Batak tanán-anall
Cebuano tanánall, everyone; in all
Mamanwa tananall
Maranao tananall, everything, entire, every, whole
Molbog ŋo-tananall

Note:   LOTU na-tanan ‘all’ is assumed to be a loan from a Greater Central Philippines source.


*tanaŋaw malodorous insect that damages rice plants


PWMP     *tanaŋaw malodorous insect that damages rice plants

Aklanon tanaŋáwrice bug (damages rice by sucking the unripe grains)
Maranao tanaŋawrice fly, stinkbug: Leptacorisa acuta
Binukid tanaŋawkind of insect that has an unpleasant odor, stinking
Mansaka tanaŋawkind of insect that eats rice plants
Rejang tenaŋeuwa paddy stalk-borer
Proto-Sangiric *tanaŋawinsect which damages rice
Sangir tanaŋoa small, malodorous grasshopper that damages the young rice plants: Stenocoris varicordia

Note:   Also Malay cenaŋaw ‘a foul-smelling flying bug that preys on rice’.


(Formosan only)

*tanaq a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)


PAN     *tanaq a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)

Kavalan tania plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
Pazeh tanaa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
Thao ta-tanaqa tiny plant with thorny stem and dark green pointed aromatic leaves that are used both as seasoning in cooking and as medicine in the treatement of fevers, colds and respiratory problems: Aralia decaisneana
Tsou tnooa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
Kanakanabu tanaʔea plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
Saaroa tanaʔea plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
Rukai (Budai) tanaa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
Paiwan tjanaqAralia decaisneana

Note:   Also Atayal (Mayrinax), Bunun (Takituduh) tanaʔ ‘a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)’. This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).


*tanaRa to stare, look fixedly at something


PCMP     *tanaRa to stare, look fixedly at something

Tetun tanaa-tto look up at anything on a higher elevation; to look closely at someone expecting to be given something
Asilulu tanalato gaze in amazement; to stare for a long time


(Formosan only)

*tanayan bamboo sp.


PAN     *tanayan bamboo sp.

Basai tenayanbamboo, bamboo fence
Kavalan tenayanbamboo (generic)
Saisiyat tanayankind of bamboo


*tandak to stamp the feet


PWMP     *tandak to stamp the feet

Mansaka tandakto kick, stamp the feet
Old Javanese tanḍakdance (with song)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tandaq having a good memory; intelligent


PPh     *tandaq having a good memory; intelligent

Ilokano tándamemory
  manag-tanda-anto have a good memory
Casiguran Dumagat tandasign, signal, mark (as a sign left on a trail, such as a bent twig)
Ayta Abellan tandato know
Bikol ma-tandáʔbright, intelligent; possessing a good memory
Hanunóo tandáʔremembering, memorizing (something)
Aklanon tándaʔto mark; remember, commemorate
Agutaynen ma-tandato remember, recall; to keep in mind
Central Tagbanwa tandafact
  ma-tanda-anto remember or recall a factual event


PPh     *ma-tanda-an to remember, recall

Casiguran Dumagat ma-tanda-anto remember, to recollect
Central Tagbanwa ma-tanda-anto remember or recall a factual event

Note:   Some aspects of this comparison suggest that it is cognate with, or a borrowing of, Malay tanda ‘sign; token; emblem’. If so, the absence of a final -h in the Malay form is unexplained. Moreover, Ilokano distinguishes the two words as tánda ‘memory’, and tandá ‘sign, signal, quality’, with different affixation potentials, suggesting that they have distinct histories that have become entangled in some languages.


*tandes state explicitly, stipulate


PWMP     *tandes state explicitly, stipulate

Tagalog mag-tandis-anto have a definite understanding about something
  tándís-ancertain, sure, definite
Maranao tadessure, certain; assure
Malay mə-nandas-kanstate with clarity, confirm explicitly
Malay (Jakarta) nandes-into confirm, make clear


*tandiŋ compare two things


PWMP     *tandiŋ compare two things

Binukid tandiŋto line up (something to compare with something else); to compare (something with something else)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tandiŋto compare two things to see which is better
Mansaka tandiŋto exhibit; to display; to show; to sit or stand beside
Iban tandinmatching, equal, uniform; balancing match in which contestants each hold a foot with the hand and barge with the knee so bent
Malay tandiŋdivision into equal parts; proportion; share (the word implies comparison)
Old Javanese tanḍiŋequal, match, peer; matched (compared) with
Javanese tanḍiŋmatched (against); equally matched
  te-tanḍiŋ-ana match, contest
Balinese tanḍiŋset opposite to each other; compare; cause to correspond; adversary; match

Note:   Also Iban bandiŋ ‘comparison, analogy; compare, contrast’, Malay bandiŋ ‘comparing; matching; juxtaposition for comparison’.


*tanduk tanduk plant sp.


PWMP     *tanduk tanduk plant sp.

Ilokano tan-tandókGynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC.. An erect capparidaceous herb with digitate, long-petioled leaves ... and white flowers tinged with purple; it is considered a caustic
Malay tandok-tandokplants with curiously shaped flowers; Strophanthus dichotomus, Ervatamia spp.

Note:   This reconstruction may contain Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tanduk ‘horn’.


*taneq earth, soil, land


PMP     *taneq earth, soil, land

Yami tanamud, earth, soil, land (as opposed to sea)
Itbayaten tanasoil, earth, ground
  tana-enland, territory
Kalamian Tagbanwa tanɨkearth (ground)
Agutaynen tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody
  ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land
  ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed
Maranao tanaʔalight, as thing in air; go down, as from a steep thing; relevance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanaʔground; earth; land; dirt; region; to come to earth
Mapun tanaʔground, dirt; land; soil, country
Yakan tanaʔdry rice field, swidden
  mag-tanaʔto plant (or make something into) a dry rice field
Tboli tonokearth, ground, soil; land as distinguished from sea or sky
Bisaya (Lotud) tanaʔearth
Kadazan Dusun tanaʔsoil, land, earth, ground
Tombonuwo tanaʔearth, soil, dirt
Ida'an Begak tanaʔlow
Bisaya (Lotud) tanaʔearth
Bisaya (Limbang) tanəʔearth, soil
Belait tanaʔearth
Lun Dayeh tanaʔearth, soil; ground; land; the world
Kelabit tanaʔearth, soil; world
Narum tanaʔearth, soil
Kenyah tanaʔland
Kenyah (Long Anap) tanaʔearth, soil, land
Kayan tanaearth, soil, ground; floor
Wahau næʔearth, soil, land
Gaai tnae̯ʔearth, soil, land
Kelai tnæʔearth, soil, land
Woq Helaq Modang tənəa̯ʔearth, soil, land
Long Gelat Modang təneʔearth, soil, land
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanaearth, soil
Kiput tanaaʔearth
Bintulu tanəʔearth, soil
Melanau (Mukah) tanaʔearth, soil
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) tanaʔearth, land, soil
Bukat tanaʔearth, soil
Tunjung tanaaʔearth
Ngaju Dayak tanarice field
  ma-nanawork in the fields; make a rice field somewhere
Paku taneʔearth, soil
Ma'anyan taneʔearth
Malagasy taniearth, land, soil; a country, a kingdom
  i-taniout of doors
  tani-be(‘big land’) the mainland of Madagascar, a word used to distinguish the mainland from the surrounding islands
Samihim taneʔearth
Dusun Witu taneʔearth
Iban tanahearth, soil, land, ground, country
  tanah baru(‘new land’) land that is recently first cleared and still fertile
Jarai tənahearth, soil
Malay tanahland; state, country; surface of soil, especially with regard to ownership; surface of soil with regard to its character; soil itself and its character
  tanah liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tanah na(m)palmarl, edible earth
  tanah raya(‘great land’) continent
  di-tanahoutside the house;out of doors
Acehnese tanɔhground, land, earth
  tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay
  meu-tanɔhowning land
Gayō tanohearth, soil
  mu-tanohpossessing land
Karo Batak tanehearth, ground, territory, district
Toba Batak tanoearth, ground, land
  tano liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
Nias tanõearth, soil, land
Lampung tanohland
Sundanese tanɨhearth, ground; dust
Old Javanese tanahland, country
Javanese tanahland, country; parcel of land
  tuan tanahlandlord
Balinese tanahground, land, earth, soil (mainly as agricultural object, but also as building material, and as a political unit)
  tanah hampoha sort of clay eaten by pregnant women
  tanah putihchalk (‘white earth’)
Sasak tanaʔearth, soil, ground; land
Sangir ən-tanaearth, ground, land
Tontemboan tanaʔ ma-tuʔaland that has returned to bush (‘old land’)
  tanaʔ walethe space under the house
  wale tanaʔhouse on the ground, not raised on piles, with the earth as floor
Pendau tanoearth, soil
Dampelas tanoearth, soil
Banggai tanoearth, ground; world
Uma tanaʔearth, soil
Bare'e tanaground, earth, soil, land
  tana ma-puyuclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tana Morithe land of the Mori
  man-tanadig in the ground
  men-tanaof animals, hide in the mud, crawl into the ground
Tae' tanaground, earth, land; world
  tana ToraaToraja country
Makassarese tanaland, wet ricefield
Wolio tanaearth, ground, land, territory, country
  tana ikandeedible earth
Chamorro tanoʔworld, earth, land, soil, ground
Bimanese danaearth, soil, land
Manggarai tanaland, soil, earth, territory
  tana liliŋclay (‘waxy earth’)
Rembong tanaʔearth, soil
Ngadha tanaearth, soil, land; district, tract of ground
Keo tanaearth
Riung tanaearth
Sika tanaland, earth, ground
  tana ihi-ŋproducts of the land, harvest
Lamaholot tanaearth, land, district, territory
  ləwo tanavillage
Adonara tana ekaearth, soil
Lamboya pan-tanaearth
Kambera tanaland, district, territory
  tana Humbathe island of Sumba
  tana dítauplands, east Sumba; the visible world
  tana wàlowlands, west Sumba; the unseen world
Rotinese tanemud
Kei tan bulred sticky earth
  tuan tanoverseer of the common village land ‘lord of the land’)
  tana-tdistrict, land, ground, earth, black earth
Buruese tanaland
  tana Buruthe land of Buru
Kayeli tana isoearthquake (‘shaking ground’)
Waropen analand, bush, earth
Southeast Ambrym tanground, soil; direction downward


POC     *tanoq earth, soil, land; down; westward

Nauna tandown
  kan-tanearth, soil
Penchal randown
Loniu tanearth, ground, soil; down
Bipi dandown
Aua anosoil
Arop tanaearth
Biliau taʔanearth, soil
Lusi tanoearth, ground
Kove tanoearth, ground
Lakalai -talodown; westward
Gedaged tansoil, ground; land; garden, field; earth; world
Sio tonoearth, soil
Takia tanearth, soil
Gitua tanoground, earth
  tano sisiŋiared earth (= clay)
Suau tanoearth, soil
Motu tanoearth; soil; country; land
  tano aiashore; on land
  tano badathe earth; the land, as distinguished from sky and sea (‘big land’)
Mekeo (East) aŋoearth
Saliba tanoearth, soil
Bugotu tanoearth, ground
Kwaio anoland, ground
Lau anoearth, land; garden land (rarely used)
  ano-anolow, as a house
  ano-ano-alow, humble, subject to
'Āre'āre ānogarden, garden-ground
Sa'a anoground, garden ground
  siho hai anocome down to the ground
Arosi anothe ground, earth, soil, the land
  ano-iaa landslip
  ano-anolow, of shrub, tree, house, hill; lowering, of clouds; a drop of liquid left at the bottom of a vessel
Gilbertese tanosand, soil, clay, ground, land
  tano-ato cover with sand, to dirty with clay
Chuukese sɔɔn(obsolete) the earth (as distinct from heaven); level place, prepared site
Puluwat sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower
Woleaian tal(o)earth, soil, ground; west, downward
Mota tanoearth, ground
Mosina tanearth
Merig tanearth
Tolomako tanoearth
Peterara tanoearth
Northeast Ambae tanoearth
Apma tanearth
Atchin n-tanearth
Naman ne-tinearth
Avava a-tanearth
Rerep ne-tanearth
Port Sandwich na-ranearth
Axamb nə-ranearth
Maxbaxo nə ranearth
North Ambrym tanearth
Visina poro-tanoearth
Tonga na-tanearth
Nakanamanga na-tanoearth
Efate (South) na-tanearth
Kwamera tanaearth
Iaai kɔnɔearth


PPh     *t<um>aneq go overland, hike

Tboli t<m>onokto walk, hike; to be dirty from the soil
Tontemboan t<um>anaʔgo by land, go overland


PMP     *taneq pulut clay, sticky earth

Kelabit tanaʔ pulutclay (‘sticky earth’)


POC     *tanoq pulut clay, sticky earth

Mota tano pul ~ tano puluttenacious earth, red, black, volcanic earth which sticks, used in building wona (stone feasting platform) at Gaua


PMP     *taneq tumbuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Iban tanah tumbohtermite mound (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tubuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Motu tano tubuant-hill (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tanoq dusty, full of dust or dirt

'Āre'āre āno-ānodust
Gilbertese tano-tanofull of sand (food)

Note:   Also Tiruray tunaʔ ‘earth, ground, soil’, Sundanese tanah ‘land, district, estate’, Leti, Wetan tani ‘earth, ground, soil’, Kayeli tain ‘ground, earth, soil, sand’. Dempwolff (1938) posited doublets *tanah and *tanəh ‘earth, land’, assigning Ngaju Dayak tana ‘rice field’ to the first of these, and tanah ‘a land’ as in tanah Jawa ‘the land of Java’ or tanah belanda ‘Holland’ to the second. However, the basis for this distinction is shaky. Ngaju Dayak tana is a native term, while tanah is clearly a borrowing of Banjarese tanah. Many languages have merged PAn *a and *e before the reflex of word-final *q, usually after it became a glottal stop. It is the neutralization of this phonemic distinction before glottal stop that has given rise to the impression that there was a variant *tanaq, which probably never existed. In addition to the subentries cited above the recurrent pattern of a reflex of *taneq + a place name suggests that the expression *taneq + place name existed in PMP times.

Finally, in some Oceanic languages, where final consonants have been lost, the reflexes of POc *tanoq ‘earth, soil’ and *tanom ‘to plant, bury’ can be difficult to distinguish, and in fact are often combined by lexicographers or comparativists, as with Keesing (1975), who gives Kwaio ano ‘land, ground’, a clear reflex of POc *tanoq, but the subentry anom-ia ‘plant, bury’, which is just as clearly a reflex of POc *tanom, or Fox (1974), who gives Lau ano ‘earth, land’, but the subentry ano-mila ‘burying’, which exemplifies the same problem. Similarly, Bender et al (2003) posit proto-Micronesian *tano ‘ground, low’, but refer additionally to e.g. Tongan tano ‘place of burial, cemetery’, which clearly reflects POc *tanom.


*tani₁ go away from


POC     *tani₁ go away from

Motu taniaway from (prepositional verb)
Vaturanga tanimotion away from
Merlav dani-away from (prepositional verb)
Sesake deni-away from (prepositional verb)
Fijian taniaway, elsewhere
Fijian (Boumaa) taniaway (directional)

Note:   First proposed by Pawley (1972:88), and more recently by Ross (2003:282).


*tani₂ here


PMP     *tani₂ here

Kalamian Tagbanwa tanihere (closer than taa ‘here’)
Agutaynen tamohere (close to the speaker)
Punan Tuvu' tanihhere
Tolai tanihere, just here
Roviana tanihere

Note:   Possibly a convergent development based on *-ni ‘proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here, now’.


*taniq alone, in isolation, independent


PWMP     *taniq alone, in isolation, independent

Proto-Sangiric *tanito isolate oneself, be alone
Mongondow ton-taniʔby oneself, alone, on one’s own
Uma ma-taniʔalone (in a disapproving sense)
  pa-taniʔto segregate, seclude
Bare'e taniindependent, not connected with others
  n-taniother, different


*tantán lose interest in doing something (?)


PPh     *tantán lose interest in doing something (?)

Ilokano ag-tantánto delay unnecessarily
  i-tantánto postpone, put off
Ifugaw tantánprogress of a certain work which cannot be finished in one day, or even in a few days
Ibaloy i-tantanto delay something --- esp. of that done purposely or by neglect (as of someone not completing his work on time)
Pangasinan tantáncalm, become calm, slow down
Tagalog t<um>antánto stop; cease or desist
Bikol mag-tantánto do something with great caution or circumspection (as eating fish slowly so that one does not swallow a bone, or walking carefully in the dark so that one does not trip over something)
Cebuano tantánpay off a debt partially
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tantanto be immobilized by fear or surprise
Mansaka tantanto give up, to quit trying


*tánud guard, sentinel; to stand guard


PPh     *tánud guard, sentinel; to stand guard

Ilokano tánodguard
Sambal (Botolan) tánodto guard (crops), to watch for birds or wild pigs
Tagalog tánodguard, sentinel
Hanunóo tánudguard, one who watches over something, as a field
Agutaynen tanodlocal security guards or watchmen (they help the police keep peace and order by patroling the barangay at night and investigating disturbances)
Cebuano tánudkeep watch over something that needs care
Tboli tánudto take care of, to watch
Sangir tanudəʔto guard, protect, keep watch over; look after, take care of


*tanúd to thread a needle


PPh     *tanúd to thread a needle

Kankanaey tánudbamboo needle
Casiguran Dumagat tanódto thread a needle
Cebuano tanúdsewing thread; to thread a needle or sewing machine
Tboli tanulanything that serves as thread; to thread a needle
Tausug tanudthread
  t<um>anudto thread (a needle or sewing machine)

Note:   Also Ifugaw tanut ‘needle made of a bamboo splinter (without eye)’, Masbatenyo mag-tánog ‘to thread a needle’, tanug-án ‘object used for threading a needle’, Waray-Waray tánog ‘the act of threading a needle’, tanóg ‘the thread that is passed through the needle’s eye’, tanog-i ‘to thread a needle’, Maranao tanor ‘thread, twine’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon)) tanur ‘thread for a needle; to thread a needle’, Binukid tanúl ‘sewing thread; to thread a needle’, Tiruray tanul ‘a thread’. Mapun tanud ‘the thread that has been already threaded through the eye of a needle’, nanud ‘to thread (a needle or sewing machine)’, tanud-an ‘to thread (a needle or sewing machine’, although completely regular, is assumed to be a loan from a Greater Central Philippines source.


*tanum to plant, bury


POC     *tanum₂ to plant, bury     [doublet: *tanom]

Lakalai taluto put in, to plant
Tongan tanuto bury, inter; to cover with earth or fill in a hole with earth; to metal (a road)
  tanu-ato bury, inter
  tanu-makito cover with earth or bury above the ground; to earth up (a plant or tree)
  tonu-miabe covered or buried by a fall of earth or lava, etc.
Niue tanuto cover up, to bury; to surface (as a road)
  tanu-miato be covered up or buried
Futunan tanubury; be buried
  tanu-miabe buried (as a house under a landslide)
Samoan tanucover over, build up (with soil, stones, etc.); to bury (human being or animal)
  tanu-miabe covered over, be buried
Tuvaluan tanuto bury
  tanu-tanufill a hole, cover excrement with soil
Kapingamarangi danuto bury
Nukuoro danuburied; sunken from view
  danu-miabe buried
  danu-danuto bury a great many; to keep going down (so that it becomes hidden from view)
Rennellese tanuto plant, as coconuts, yams, taro, bananas, corn; to bury; to insert, as lime in grooves in an arrow; to sink, as feet in a swamp
  tanu-maŋaanything set aside for planting
Anuta tanuto bury
Rarotongan tanuthe act or art of cultivating; to plant, to put into the ground for growth, to bury underground; to set shoots in the ground; to cultivate
  tanu-kaito plant food, to cultivate food crops
  tanu-miaplanted, buried, cultivated
Maori tanuto bury, plant, smother with, lie buried
  tanu-miabe buried
Hawaiian kanuto plant, bury; planting, burial
  mea-kanucrops, plants
  hoʔo-kanuto cause to plant or bury


*tanúR loud sound; volume, loudness


PPh     *tanúR loud sound; volume, loudness

Isneg tannúgsound (of musical instruments)
Pangasinan tanólloud sound, explosion; to set off an explosion, make an exploding sound
Ayta Abellan tonoy <Asound or noise; to make noise, sound
Bikol tanóga sound, noise
  mag-tanógto sound; to emit a sound; to strike (as a clock striking the hour)
  tanog-ánto emanate from (of a sound)
Maranao tanogaudibility, loudness
Mansaka tanogsound (as of a bus or a machine); to make a sound (as a machine)
Tausug tanugthe volume (of a sound or voice); famous, well-known

Note:   Also Mapun tanug ‘the distance that sound travels’.


*tánus straight, as tree limbs


PPh     *tánus straight, as tree limbs

Ilokano tánosmain branch of a tree
  na-tánoshigh and straight-limbed
Bikol ma-tánosstraight; erect, upright
  mag-tánosto straighten something out; to make something stand straight

Note:   Also Yakan tanus ‘straight and free from knots (of a length of wood)’, assumed to be a loanword from a Greater Central Philippines language, although a source is yet to be identified.


*tanzak stamp the feet; step, leap


PWMP     *tanzak stamp the feet; step, leap

Agutaynen t<om>andakto stamp one’s foot; to stamp or stomp on something
  ta-tandak-tandakstamping the feet, as a child who is angry about being told to do something
Mansaka tandakto kick; to stamp the feet
Tausug t<um>andakto stamp one’s feet
Javanese tanjaka certain leaping move in the classical dance
Bare'e tadaplace the foot on something higher, e.g. in order to take a big step or a leap, or to reach a higher place

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.


(Formosan only)

*taNah red


PAN     *taNah red

Taokas ma-tanared
Atayal (Mayrinax) ma-tanahred
Atayal (Palŋawan) ma-tanahred
Atayal (Squliq) m-talahred
Seediq (Toŋan) ma-tanahred

Note:   Possibly an Atayalic loanword in the now extinct Taokas. Weighing against this interpretation is the observation that Atayalic languages seem to have been moving northward from central Taiwan (present Nantou county) during the past several centuries, indicating that there probably was greater distance between them and the Taokas during the time period when borrowing might have occurred.


*taNaS village; place of residence


PAN     *taNaS village; place of residence

Tsou hos-avillage
Saaroa taɬa:village
Siraya (Gravius) talaxhouse
Siraya (Utrecht ms.) talaxhouse


PMP     *tahan abode, place of residence

Tagalog i-tahánto take someone to reside with oneself in a certain place
  pag-tahánact of residing, living or dwelling in a place
  tahán-anhome; dwelling; abode

Note:   With the recurrent *S metathesis that distinguishes Formosan from Malayo-Polynesian cognates that originally ended in *S (Blust 1993a). This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:216).


*taNek to cook anything but rice


PAN     *taNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice)
Paiwan tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey)


PMP     *tanek to cook

Ifugaw tanókto boil something a long time because what must be boiled is too hard and thick (e.g. the hide of a water buffalo, a cow); it is also applied to an overcooking of vegetables by lack of attention so that they happen to be half-spoiled
Cebuano tanukto boil starchy foods, but not rice: ears of corn, root crops, bananas
Binukid tanekto steam (immature unpounded rice to harden the grains so it can be dried and pounded)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanekto steam immature unpounded rice in order to harden the grains so that it may be pounded and cooked
Lun Dayeh tanekboiling of something
  ne-tanekboiled by mistake
Kelabit tanekboiling of water, cooking vegetables, cook meat
Kayan tanekcooked in water, boiled (as maize)
Punan Tuvu' tanokcooked
  nanokto cook
Malagasy mi-tanikato boil, to cook
Iban tanakto cook (usually not rice)
Salako tanakto cook
Malay tanakboiling (rice)
  ber-tanak nasito boil rice
Old Javanese pa-tanek-ankitchen
Totoli ma-tanokboiled, cooked
Mandar tanaʔboil, cook
Makassarese tanaʔcoconut milk from which oil is boiled out; smelting of tin or lead


PWMP     *ma-nanek to boil, to cook

Lun Dayeh nanekto boil something
Kelabit nanekto boil water, cook
Bahasa Indonesia me-nanakto boil rice in a pot
Totoli ma-nanokto boil, to cook


PWMP     *maR-tanek to boil, to cook

Bikol mag-tanókto parboil rice
Masbatenyo mag-tanókto boil food
Malay ber-tanakto boil rice
Mandar mat-tanaʔto boil, to cook


PAN     *t<in>aNek boiled foods other than rice?

Puyuma t<in>aləkcooked rice
Paiwan (Western) tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general


PMP     *t<in>anek boiled foods other than rice

Cebuano t<in>anúkcooked root crops, bananas, or corn
Lun Dayeh t<in>anekboiled by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anekto cook, to boil


PAN     *t<um>aNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice)


PMP     *t<um>anek to cook anything but rice

Old Javanese t<um>anekto cook, boil


PAN     *taNek-en to be cooked

Pazeh talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked


PMP     *tanek-en to be cooked

Bikol tanok-ónto parboil rice
Masbatenyo tanuk-ónto boil food (as jackfruit seeds)
Malagasy taneh-inato be boiled, to be cooked


*taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)


PAN     *taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)

Tsou tahzucumulberry tree and fruit
Kanakanabu taníucumulberry tree and fruit
Saaroa talhiusumulberry tree and fruit
Rukai (Budai) taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit
Yami (Imorod) tanyodmulberry tree and fruit
Itbayaten tañoda species of tree, mulberry: Morus alba Linn., with white flowers and edible fruit

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:141).


*tañam try, taste


PAN     *tañam try, taste

Saisiyat talamto try
  ʃan-talamto taste
Atayal talamto try, to taste; to ask about the future, to tell the future
Pazeh mu-talamto try, taste
  talamto taste
  xi-talamto taste
Amis tanamto try to do something; to taste
Thao tazamto taste, to try
  mashin-tazamto weigh something on a hand balance
  pu-tazamto try or test something
Bunun tanamto try, taste
Tsou oo-thom-əto taste
Kanakanabu ku-a-tanáməto taste
Saaroa m-aku-a-talhaməto taste
Puyuma talamtry; participate; taste in swallowing
Ayta Abellan tanamfeeling (psychological); to feel something emotionally
Maranao tanampleasant, comfortable

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-a-talam ‘to try’, Kavalan talam ‘taste’, talam ‘to taste something’, Bintulu ñam ‘taste’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty, taste’.


*tañipa sardine, anchovy


POC     *tañipa sardine, anchovy

Pak denihsardine
Loniu tenihsardine
Seimat tanihlargest kind of unicorn fish
Proto-Micronesian *tañifaa small fish
Puluwat hánifanchovy
Fijian danivasmall fish like the sardine, sp. Sardinella

Note:   Polynesian forms such as Samoan tanifa ‘kind of large man-eating shark’ are formally comparable, but appear to be unrelated.


*taŋ sound of a clang or bang


PMP     *taŋ sound of a clang or bang

Tboli taŋbass gong, a large gong emitting a deep, somber sound (used for transmitting calls to someone in the field, or calling a meeting)
Malay taŋa bang or clang; the sound of metal falling heavily
Asilulu taŋsound of metallic crash or gunshot


*taŋa₁ to open wide


PAN     *taŋa₂ to open

Basai taŋato open
Pazeh pa-taŋato open (a door, case)
  saa-pa-taŋaa key
Thao tanaopen
  kun-tanaopen suddenly or spontaneously


PMP     *taŋa to gape stupidly, gawk

Ilokano nag-taŋástupid, ignorant
Tagalog taŋádolt; a dull, stupid person; blockhead; gawk; an awkward, stupid person
  ma-taŋáto stare or gape at; to look at with amazement
  naka-taŋáopen-mouthed; gaping with a somewhat stupid look
  t<um>aŋá-taŋáto gawk; to look around stupidly in a gawking manner
Aklanon taŋáscatter-brained, absent-minded, foolish, gullible
Malagasy tána-tánawidth of space
  a-tána-tánato be made wide open (of a door, the mouth, etc.)
  mi-tána-tána vavato wait idly about; to be struck with amazement (lit. ‘to have the mouth wide open’)
Tongan taŋamouth, or mouth and throat: but only in the language of abuse


PAN     *ma-taŋa will open?

Pazeh ma-taŋato open (a door, case)
Thao ma-tanawill open

Note:   Also Lun Dayeh taŋaɁ ‘a door, doorway’. With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*taŋa₂ netbag, sack, pocket


POC     *taŋa₂ netbag, sack, pocket

Gedaged taŋa netbag used by women; chorion, membrane enveloping the fetus of mammals; afterbirth; the uterus
  taŋe (<taŋa-i)put into a netbag
Gitua taŋanetbag, basket
Nggela taŋaa bag, cloth bag
Lau aŋaa bag
Arosi aŋato have in a bag
  aŋa-aŋato have a bag, to carry in a bag
  aŋa(-na)a plaited bag with string handles, hung over the shoulder, or from the head in carrying burdens
Mota taŋaa bag, deep basket
Fijian taŋaa bag, pocket, sack
  taŋa-naput into a bag; fish with hand-nets
Niue taŋabag, bale, sack
Samoan taŋabag, sack; pocket; pillow case; door mat; stomach (of a shark)
Tuvaluan taŋabag, pocket
Rennellese taŋaa container of any kind: basket, bag, suitcase, pocket; to put into a container


*taŋa₃ a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria


POC     *taŋa₃ a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria

Kara taŋaa shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria
Tolai taŋa-tataa shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria
Sye na-toŋa shrub with edible figs: Ficus granatum
Anejom na-teŋa shrub or tree with medicinal uses: Ficus adenosperma

Note:   This comparison was proposed by Ross (2008:308-309).


*taŋa₄ a tree: Prunus sp.


PPh     *taŋa₄ a tree: Prunus sp.

Ilokano taŋaa fruit tree: Prunus marsupialis Kalkm. Rosaceae
Bikol taŋaa fruit tree: Prunus grisea (C. Muell.) Kalkm. Rosaceae

Note:   Apparently distinct from POc *taŋa₃ ‘a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria’. This comparison is taken from Madulid (2001).


*taŋad look upward


PMP     *taŋad look upward     [doublet: *tiŋadaq]

Ilokano ag-taŋ-táŋadto walk with the head up; to be looking up
  i-táŋadto turn upward
  t<um>áŋadto look upward, raise the eyes
Isneg mag-táŋadto look up, to raise the eyes; to lift up the face, the eyes
Bontok táŋadto look up, to respect, look up to
Kankanaey men-táŋadto look up, to hold up one’s head to look; to have nothing to do
  na-táŋadlazy; idle; slothful; sluggish
Ifugaw táŋadto look upward
  tāŋada location above something; for someone to look up at something
Casiguran Dumagat taŋádto look up (as at fruit in a tree)
Bikol taŋádto look upward


POC     *taŋar look upward

Lakalai taŋato look up(ward)

Note:   Also Itbayaten taŋar ‘of acclivity’, i-taŋar ‘to transport by going up an acclivity’, taŋar ‘to climb an acclivity, to climb up’, Bikol tiŋág ‘to look upward’, Hiligaynon taŋáɁ ‘to look up; to look stupid, to have a blank stare’, Palauan me-láŋes ‘look up at’, d<el>áŋes ‘looked up at’, Motu tada ‘to look up’.


*taŋada to look upward


PMP     *taŋada to look upward     [doublet: *tiŋadaq]

Yami taŋaralook up
  taŋara-enlook up
Itbayaten ma-naŋarato look up
  taŋara-enbe looked up at
Kambera taŋaralook upward toward something (as in gazing at the moon)

Note:   Also Hiligaynon mag-taŋláɁ ‘to look up’, Tetun tanaat ‘to look up at (anything on a higher elevation); to look closely at someone, expecting to be given something’. Probably *taŋadaq, with final *q like its doublet *tiŋadaq, but none of the languages cited here preserves this segment.


*taŋah stupid, silly, ignorant


PPh     *taŋah stupid, silly, ignorant     [doublet: *taŋaq₁]

Ilokano nag-taŋástupid, ignorant
Ayta Abellan taŋahsilly; fool; foolish; to act foolishly
Tagalog taŋádolt; a dull, stupid person; blockhead; to gawk; an awkward, stupid person; dumb; stupid; dull; asinine; silly


*taŋan finger, toe


PMP     *taŋan finger, toe

Ilokano taŋánthumb, great toe
Pangasinan taŋánthumb, big toe
Belait ŋanhand
Ma'anyan taŋanhand
Malagasy tánanahand, foreleg of quadrupeds
Malay taŋanhand
Selaru taŋafinger, toe
Sekar taga-nfinger, toe


POC     *taŋan finger, toe

Seimat taŋa lapthumb (‘big finger’)
  taŋa kolpinky (‘little finger’)

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *taŋan ‘hand’, but forms with this or clearly related meanings are confined to WMP languages. His inclusion of Fijian taŋa ‘sack’ and similar forms in other Oceanic languages (e.g., Gedaged taŋ ‘net bag used by women’) appears to confuse distinct cognate sets.


*taŋan-taŋan the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis


PWMP     *taŋan-taŋan the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis

Ibaloy taŋankind of tree, probably purging nut: Jatropha curcas
Tagalog taŋan-taŋancastor oil plant
Bikol taŋán-taŋánthe castor oil plant: Ricinis communis
Hanunóo taŋan-táŋana species of tree: Jatropha curcas Linn.; two types or varieties are known, one reddish, one white
Cebuano taŋan-táŋancastor oil plant, the seeds of which produce castor oil: Ricinis communis
Makassarese taŋaŋ-taŋaŋRicinis communis; the fruits yield castor oil; two varieties occur, one purple, the other white

Note:   Also Ibaloy taŋan ‘kind of tree, probably purging nut: Jatropha curcas; its parts are traditionally used medicinally’.


*taŋaŋaq open the mouth wide, gape


PWMP     *taŋaŋaq open the mouth wide, gape

Ibaloy me-taŋaŋato be so overwhelmed by something that one does not know what course to take
Kelabit təŋaŋaʔopen the mouth wide, gape

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*taŋapa wrasse, Cheilinus spp.


POC     *taŋapa wrasse, Cheilinus spp.

Andra draŋahwrasse
Vera'a ʔaŋavaCheilinus undulata
Tongan taŋafakind of fish
Samoan taŋafaname give to fishes of genus Cheilinus when three feet long or more
Rennellese taŋahaa large deep-sea fish

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:93).


*taŋaq₁ incapable, incompetent


PPh     *taŋaq₁ incapable, incompetent

Pangasinan taŋástupid
Cebuano táŋaʔinattentive, doing even simple things incompetently; consider someone incompetent
Maranao taŋaʔabsentminded, slow person
Tausug taŋaʔ(of speech) stammering

Note:   Apparently distinct from PPh *taŋah ‘stupid, silly, ignorant’, as both the Ayta Abellan and Tagalog reflexes of this form are inconsistent with *taŋaq.


*taŋaq₂ look upward


PWMP     *taŋaq₂ look upward     [doublet: *taŋád]

Aklanon taŋáʔto look upward
Rejang taŋeaʔto look up, to lift one’s head


*taŋaq₃ destructive insect


PWMP     *taŋaq₃ destructive insect

Tagalog táŋaʔpotato bug or worm; clothes moth a small insect that destroys clothes
Simalur taŋaʔbug; wall louse
Toba Batak taŋabug; wall louse

Note:   Also Cebuano táŋa ‘scorpion; cockroach’.


*taŋaq₄ middle, center


PWMP     *taŋaq₄ middle, center     [doublet: *teŋaq]

Kadazan Dusun taŋaʔmiddle; among, center
  in-taŋaʔto be at the middle, among
Punan Tuvu' taŋaʔhalf
Wolio taŋamiddle, center; waist; space in between; room in the middle of a house
Muna taŋahalf, middle, in the process of


*taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope with a single woman


PPh     *taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope with a single woman

Sambal (Botolan) i-taŋáyto take, run away with
Ayta Abellan taŋayto take something and go away with it (as a cat stealing a fish that people are planning to cook)
Aklanon táŋagto elope with
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋagto take something of someone else’s without permission and leave with it
Mansaka taŋagto abduct; to carry away (as a woman)
Tiruray taŋarto elope when both persons are single
Proto-Gorontalic *taŋagomarry by elopement
Mongondow taŋagabduct, elope with, carry off, plunder
  mo-naŋagto elope with an unmarried girl (elopement with a married woman is moŋ-agow)

Note:   PPh evidently made a lexical distinction between ‘to elope with a single woman’ and ‘to elope with a married woman’, since both Tiruray and Mongondow specify the former sense in connection with this term. A reconstruction for the latter sense does not yet exist.


*taŋaR to seize with the teeth, hold by biting


PMP     *taŋaR to seize with the teeth, hold by biting

Bontok ʔi-taŋálto bite on; to hold between the teeth, as a pipe, or in the beak, as a bird
Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
  mag-taŋághold on by biting
Vitu taŋato bite, hold with the teeth

Note:   Also Ilokano taŋál ‘to carry in the teeth’, Ibaloy i-taŋal ‘put something in the mouth so that a part of it protrudes (as pencil, large sweet potato, thermometer)’, Tausug mag-taŋaɁ ‘to carry (something) with the mouth, dangling from the mouth (as a cat carrying a dead rat)’, Kadazan Dusun taŋaw ‘to seize and carry off in the mouth (as a dog, bird)’.


*taŋay₁ to look upward


PPh     *taŋay₁ to look upward     [doublet: *taŋad, *taŋada, *tiŋadaq]

Yami taŋaybefore one’s eyes, in front of
  mi-ta-taŋayto lie or sleep on one’s back
Itbayaten taŋaylying face up
Ibatan taŋaylook up at something
  ta-taŋaylie flat on the back
Pangasinan on-taŋáyto look up at
  man-taŋáystand outside a person’s house shouting insults, etc.


*taŋay₂ be carried away by someone or something


PPh     *taŋay₂ be carried away by someone or something     [doublet: *taŋaR]

Ibaloy man-taŋayto seek to collect a debt
Ayta Abellan taŋayto take something and go away with it
Tagalog taŋáycarried away by wind, current, bird of prey, animal or by emotion


PPh     *taŋay-en to carry away

Ibaloy teŋay-ento try to collect from someone
Tagalog taŋay-ínto sweep away, to remove with a sweeping motion; to carry off; to snatch and bear away


*taŋeb lid, cover


PMP     *taŋeb lid, cover

Bontok taŋəbto cover, as a pot or vat
Kankanaey taŋébto cover
Ibaloy taŋeblid, cover (as of pot, coffin, can)
  i-taŋebto put something in place, as a lid or cover
  taŋeb-anto provide something with a lid or cover
  taŋeb-ento cover something
Maranao taŋebclose door or window
Ida'an Begak taŋobclose door, cover food; lid, cover
Palauan dáŋəblid, cover
Kambera taŋalid, cover


PWMP     *ma-naŋeb to close, as a door; cover

Ibaloy ma-naŋebto close, lock oneself inside a house
Ida'an Begak m-ənaŋobto close a door, cover food
Palauan mə-láŋəbto cover


*taŋ(e)buq₁ kind of coarse grass


PPh     *taŋ(e)buq₁ kind of coarse grass

Sambal (Botolan) tambóʔvery tall flowering grass with wide blade (blooms in Oct. and Nov.)
Tagalog tambóʔkind of tall grass with a hollow stalk that grows in wet places, and is used in making brooms
Bikol tambóʔcoarse reed used for making brooms:
Cebuano támbuʔ ~ táŋbuʔkind of coarse grass of swamps with a hollow stem, used for the manufacture of brooms and hats: Phragmites vulgaris

Note:   Also Maranao tamboʔo ‘a herb: Hyptis brevipes Poir.’. Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*taŋ(e)buq₂ bamboo shoot


PPh     *taŋ(e)buq₂ bamboo shoot

Ayta Abellan tambobamboo shoot
Hanunóo táŋbuʔoffshoot, sucker, referring to bamboo


*taŋ(e)dan payment for services


PPh     *taŋ(e)dan payment for services     [doublet: *tendan]

Yami taŋdangiving compensation to the midwife (in a topping off ceremony, after the blessing, the child’s father will carry the compensation to the midwife’s house)
Itbayaten taŋdansalary, pay, wage
  mach-taŋdanto earn money
  ma- naŋdanto give salary, wages
Ilokano taŋdánsalary, wages; stipend; pay
  taŋdan-ánto give salary to, pay for work done
Isneg taŋdānwages, salary, fee
Bontok taŋdánto pay for work performed
Bikol mag-taŋdánto make amends for; to pay compensation to; to compensate, recompense
Hanunóo táŋdandirect payment of beads to a seer for his services

Note:   There is no basis for considering this a loanword, and it is therefore most plausible to interpret it as a term that preceded the existence of a money economy. Under these earlier conditions payment was made in goods for services done, as by a midwife or a shaman, as reflected in the glosses for the Yami and Hanunóo forms.


*taŋén wedge, piece used to stabilize surfaces


PPh     *taŋén wedge, piece used to stabilize surfaces

Yami taŋenpillow
Itbayaten taŋenraising support for leveling effect (as to unbalanced table, etc.)
  taŋena wedge under something to stop if from rolling
Bontok taŋə́nsomething placed under an object to raise it higher or to keep it from resting on the ground
Bikol i-taŋónto insert a wedge, a wad of paper, etc. (so as to keep a window from rattling, a cupboard door from opening, etc.)


*taŋ(e)paq to pay for in advance


PPh     *taŋ(e)paq to pay for in advance

Ibaloy taŋpa-ento pay for an animal when it is newborn or in utero, at a low price, taking it when it is weaned (if it dies the buyer loses, so it is a gamble)
Aklanon táŋpaʔto pay tax for


*taŋepi edge, bank, shore


PWMP     *taŋepi edge, bank, shore

Cebuano táŋpi ~ támpibank of a body of water, edge of a surface
Malay təpiedge, brink


*taŋga₁ rung of a ladder; runged ladder


PMP     *taŋga₁ rung of a ladder; runged ladder

Bikol táŋgastep, stair; rung of a ladder
  mag-táŋgato make steps on
Iban taŋgaʔstair, steps, ladder
Malay taŋgahouse ladder; staircase; a numeral coefficient for any aid to climbing of the ‘ladder’ type
  rumah taŋgahome; (fig.) wife, wife and family
Karo Batak taŋgarung of a ladder; also family, household (Malayism?)
Toba Batak taŋgaladder
Kambera taŋgastep of a ladder, tied to the stem of a lontar palm to facilitate climbing it

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) included Ngaju Dayak taŋga ‘steps, ladder’, and Fijian taŋga ‘to lay one thing on top of another’, but the first of these appears to be a Banjarese loan, and the second seems far-fetched. Given PMP *haRezan ‘notched log ladder’ as an extremely well-supported reconstruction, it appears most likely that *taŋga referred instead to a runged ladder, or more particularly to the rungs on a runged ladder.


*taŋga₂ the Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis


PMP     *taŋga₂ the Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis

Tagalog ta-taŋga-nthe Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis
Buginese ka-taŋkathe Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis
Makassarese ka-taŋkaa tree with wood from which very straight planks are made: Millingtonia hortensis
Bimanese taŋgathe Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis
Manggarai taŋgathe Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis

Note:   This comparison was first pointed out by Verheijen (1990).


*taŋgal unfastened, detached


PWMP     *taŋgal unfastened, detached

Tagalog taŋgálunfastened; dismantled; detached; dismissed from employment
Bikol mag-taŋgálto detach, disconnect; to pull out (as a plug from the wall)
Cebuano taŋgáldetach, remove something from where it is held firmly
Malay taŋgaldropping; falling off (of things that seem to fall spontaneously, as leaves in autumn, of skin cast by a snake; to shed one’s garments, disrobe, etc.)
Toba Batak taŋgaldetached, unravelled, become loose or free


*taŋgap receive, accept


PWMP     *taŋgap receive, accept

Kapampangan taŋgapreceive, accept
Tagalog taŋgápaccepted, admitted, received
Tiruray taŋgafreceive, accept
Old Javanese taŋgapaccept, take, receive (also with person as object)
Balinese taŋgaptake into the hand, accept, receive

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taŋgap ‘seize, hold firmly’.


*taŋgiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.


PWMP     *taŋgiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.     [doublet: *taŋiRi]

Ibatan taŋgigia kind of fish resembling a barracuda
Ilokano taŋgígikind of marine fish, usually eaten raw in kilawen (a raw meat dish), Spanish mackerel
Tagalog taŋgíŋgiSpanish mackerel
Bikol taŋgígiSpanish mackerel
Masbatenyo taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish
Waray-Waray taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish
Iban teŋgíriScombroid marine fish, Cybium spp., mackerel
Malay təŋgíriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Minangkabau taŋgíriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Sundanese taŋgiriname of a seafish, the mackerel

Note:   Tagalog taŋgíŋgi is unusual in showing secondary prenasalization of *R after its change to a voiced velar stop.


*taŋgul defend oneself, parry a blow


PWMP     *taŋgul defend oneself, parry a blow

Kapampangan taŋgulto protect
Tagalog taŋgóldefense; act of defending
  mag-taŋgólto defend; to stand up for; to take the part of; to support
Toba Batak taŋgulthat which one uses to defend himself against a blow
Sundanese taŋguldyke in a rice paddy
Old Javanese taŋgulparrying, defense
  a-taŋgulto parry, fend off
Javanese taŋgulearth dam built in rice paddies to control the flow of water
Balinese taŋgulbuild a dyke, a dam


*taŋguŋ carry on a shoulder pole


PWMP     *taŋguŋ carry on a shoulder pole

Sambal (Botolan) mi-taŋgóŋto pick up and carry
Ayta Abellan taŋgoŋto carry in the arms
Central Tagbanwa taŋgoŋto carry on one’s shoulder
Tboli taŋguŋto use a pole to carry water or something very heavy
Kadazan Dusun taŋguŋcarry over the shoulder with a long stick
Ida'an Begak taŋguŋyoke; carry with yoke
Malay taŋgoŋsupporting (on the shoulder); bearing up a heavy weight from below; (fig.) bearing up under trouble or misfortune; standing security for another
Old Javanese taŋguŋcarrying, bearing, burden, load
  a-naŋguŋto carry, bear
  t<in>aŋguŋto carry, bear
Javanese taŋguŋto vouch for, accept responsibility for; security, pledge (e.g. for a loan); responsibility, obligation
  naŋguŋcarry over the shoulder on a shoulder pole so that the weight is balanced fore and aft
Balinese naŋguŋcarry something on a pole on the shoulders of two men
Sasak taŋguŋvouch for, be responsible for
Proto-South Sulawesi *taŋguŋto carry, be responsible for


PWMP     *ka-taŋguŋ bearable, able to be carried

Kadazan Dusun ka-taŋguŋcan carry something on the shoulder with a long stick
Sundanese ka-taŋguŋbearable, able to be carried

Note:   Also Dampelas taŋkuaŋ, Tanampedagi Taje taŋguaŋ ‘carry on the shoulder with a stick’. These forms raise the possibility that the reconstruction was *taŋguaŋ, with reduction of the vowel sequence in all languages outside the Tomini-Tolitoli group.


*taŋíl wedge


PPh     *taŋíl wedge

Casiguran Dumagat taŋílput sticks under something to cause it to rest on them (as in storing lumber, to put posts under the lumber so the lumber won’t rest directly on the ground)
Bikol táŋila wedge; a jack, lever
  mag- táŋilto place a wedge, jack, lever under; to jack something up; to prop something up (as the head with a pillow)
Aklanon taŋílshim, something used to level off an unbalanced table or chair that is wobbling


*taŋíliq a tree: Shorea polysperma


PPh     *taŋíliq a tree: Shorea polysperma

Ilokano taŋílea species of native hardwood
Ayta Abellan taŋilikind of tree with fruit that cannot be eaten
Kapampangan taŋléa tree whose leaves are eaten boiled with fish
Tagalog taŋíliʔspecies of Philippine mahogany
Aklanon taŋíliʔa tree: mahogany

Note:   Madulid (2001:1:708) gives both tangile and tangili (many languages) ‘Shorea polysperma (Blco.) Merr. Dipterocarpaceae’, but he explicitly mentions only Central Philippine languages, leaving the remaining “many languages” unspecified. I have been able to find the data cited here in primary sources, but none of these indicate that the referent is the Shorea polysperma, although the tree popularly known as the ‘Philippine mahogany’ is said to be in the Shorea genus’.


*taŋiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.


PMP     *taŋiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.     [doublet: *taŋgiRi]

Aklanon taŋígilarge, delicious fish
Cebuano taŋígikind of Spanish mackerel, silvery white and black color, with no scales, popularly eaten raw: Scomberomorus commersoni and guttatus, and others
Maranao taŋigiSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus commersoni Lacepède
Malay təŋiriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Acehnese taŋirɔεkind of sea fish
Sasak təŋiria seafish that lacks scales, the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus Cybium
Sangir taŋihikind of fish, the large growth stage of the pangaluang
Komodo taŋiria fish: Scomberomorus guttatus
Kambera taŋirikind of large sea fish: Scomberomorus Cybium
Fordata tnirikind of large fish
Kairiru taŋirmackerel (two types)
Wogeo taŋira sea fish, Spanish mackerel
Manam taŋirikind of fish
Gedaged taŋiza white marine fish about 30 inches long, like a mackerel
Gitua taŋirmackerel, wahoo
Numbami taŋilimarlin, sailfish
Roviana taŋiria fish generally got by trolling, a species of kingfish
'Āre'āre aniria fish
Proto-Micronesian *taŋirituna
Gilbertese taŋiiyellowfin tuna (Bender et al. 2003)
Chuukese seŋiryellowtail tuna fish
Puluwat háŋiryellowfin tuna, sometimes more than a fathom in length
Woleaian taŋir(i)king-size tuna fish
Samoan taŋīkind of fish
Nukuoro daŋiifish sp.

Note:   Also Tagalog tanigiʔ ‘Spanish mackerel’, Yakan taŋīʔ ~ taŋiŋiʔ ‘Spanish mackerel, family Scombridae’, Javanese teŋiri ‘a certain ocean fish’ (< Malay). Lou, , Penchal taŋini, Titan taŋili, Wuvulu tanixi ‘Spanish mackerel’, Sa'a aaŋili ‘kingfish’. All reflexes of this word in the Admiralty islands appear to be loans from a still unidentified source distinct from Tok Pisin taŋir.


*taŋkal coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs


PPh     *taŋkal coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs

Ifugaw taŋkála provisional basketlike container which is roughly made by using reeds and grass
Ibaloy taŋkal-anto put a concave object over something --- perhaps esp. something to catch a chicken
Tagalog taŋkálcoop; hencoop; chicken coop
Bikol taŋkálpigpen, pig sty
  mag-taŋkálto pen up pigs; to place pigs in a pigpen
Hanunóo taŋkálpig basket or cage
Agutaynen taŋkalpigpen or chicken coop made of bamboo
Maranao taŋkalbarn, cage; to encase, place

Note:   Also Chamorro taŋkat ‘cage (used only for small animals, such as birds)’, almost certainly a Tagalog loan stemming from the Spanish colonial era in both the Philippines and the Marianas Islands.


*taŋkas loosen, untie


PMP     *taŋkas loosen, untie     [doublet: *beŋkas, *ka(s)kas]

Bikol taŋkásremove (as a necktie, a cover), take off (as a necktie), pull out (as a plug), disconnect
  mag-taŋkásto remove an article of clothing, jewelry; to take off, doff; to pull out (as a plug); to disconnect
  ma-taŋkásto come off, fall out, get pulled out
Agutaynen t<om>akasto escape from prison
Cebuano taŋkásrip open the seam, rip off hinges and the like
Binukid taŋkasto take apart, undo, rip off (something tied); rip out stitches
Kadazan Dusun taŋkasunbolt, loosen things, fittings
Uma taŋkaʔset free, release; remove something that clings fast


POC     *takas loosen, untie, set free

Tongan taka(of animals) to be at large, to wander about freely; (of persons) to go about, walk round, wander round
Samoan taʔa(of animals, etc.) run freely, be loose, be at large; (of woman) be loose, unchaste, wanton
  faʔa-taʔaset loose, let loose
  ma-taʔacome loose, come off; (of mist, etc.) clear, lift

Note:   Also Palauan meŋe-dóked ‘untie, unfasten’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.


*taŋkay stem of a plant, stalk


PMP     *taŋkay stem of a plant, stalk

Ilokano taŋkáystem of a plant
Mansaka taŋkayhandle (as of a vessel)
Tausug taŋkaya stem, stalk (of a plant); handle (of a ladle, cup, pan, etc.)
  mag-taŋkayto provide a handle
Iban taŋkaystalk of fruit; come into ear, pick with the stalk
Malay taŋkaystalk; haulm; stem; in composite flowers or fruits taŋkay is the stalk of each item, while kaki or tandan is that of the cluster


POC     *take₁ stem of a plant, stalk

Sa'a ake-aketwig, sprig


*taŋkeb₂ fall face downward


PWMP     *taŋkeb fall face downward

Tagalog taŋkabto fall, hurting one's lip or chin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taŋkepface downward; to fall face downward

Note:   With root *-keb₂ ‘face downward’. Adelaar (1981) maintains that Northern Batak reflects final voiced stops as the homorganic nasal, while Southern Batak reflects them as the homorganic voiceless stop. Although this is normally true, both Karo Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak occasionally exhibit a voiceless final stop from an earlier voiced stop, as with *ruqag ‘wide, spacious’ > Karo Batak ruhak ‘spacious, wide, of an opening’ (Blust 1983-1984).


*taŋkep catch, as by covering


PMP     *taŋkep catch, as by covering

Mapun taŋkopa cover; a bandage; a door; operculum of a shellfish
  t<um>aŋkopto cover something; to dress a wound
Malay taŋkapgripping; clasping; capture, esp. capture in the hand
Old Javanese a-taŋkəpclosing together
  a-naŋkəpto close (fit) together
  ka-taŋkəp-anto close in on, assail
Sasak taŋkəpa dropnet used to catch birds; to catch people
  naŋkəpto catch with a dropnet
Wolio takoto catch (falling drops)
Manggarai taŋkepcovering, catching by covering with the hand; to lay one thing on top of another; to cover under a hollow

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘cover, fold over’.


*taŋkir addition, annex to a building


PWMP     *taŋkir addition, annex to a building

Tagalog taŋkílannex to a building with its own roofing; roofing put on the frame of a building before the walls are constructed; a small barn or granary (in some areas)
Iban taŋkirfix next to, add to, extend; extension (as to a garden), supplement


*taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside


PWMP     *taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside

Maranao taŋkisparry, fence, dodge, ward off
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋkisto fend off a blow with one’s hands or arm
Tiruray taŋkisto parry, to turn something aside
Tboli taŋkisdenial; to deny, as charges made against one; to be dissenting
Ngaju Dayak taŋkisparrying; what is parried (blow, thrust, etc.)
  ma-naŋkisto parry
  pa-naŋkiswhat is often or always parried
  tara-taŋkisable to be parried
Malay taŋkisparrying by striking aside (used of fencers or duelists)
  taŋkis-kanto ward off
Old Javanese takis ~ taŋkisrepelling, warding off; defense; clash, collision; shield?, weapon of defence?
Javanese taŋkisflood control dike along a riverbank; shield, breastplate
  naŋkisto ward off
  pe-naŋkisact of holding against attack
Balinese taŋkiswarding off, parrying
  naŋkisto ward off, parry (blows)
Sasak taŋkisto ward off, parry
Makassarese a-naŋkisiʔward off a blow, parry

Note:   Also Sasak taŋklis ‘to ward off, parry’. Much of this distribution may be due to borrowing from Malay.


*taŋkuŋ an edible plant, swamp cabbage: Ipomoea aquatica


PPh     *taŋkuŋ an edible plant, swamp cabbage: Ipomoea aquatica     [doublet: *kaŋkuŋ]

Agutaynen taŋkoŋa plant with leaves and stalks like spinach, used as a vegetable
Tboli taŋkuŋ ~ tlaŋkuŋswamp cabbage, a smooth, widely-spreading vine with stems trailing on mud or floating on stagnant pools; young leaves and stems are eaten as a leafy vegetable: Ipomoea aquatica


*taŋop take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand


POC     *taŋop take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand

Sio taŋotouch, place hand or fingers on
Motu taoto draw after one, to hold to
Bugotu taŋoto perform, do, work; deeds
  taŋo-lito take, to hold, handle, receive
Nggela taŋorarely used alone, but incompounds with the meanings: do, touch, be in contact
  taŋo-lito hold, touch
Tikopia taŋograb
  taŋof-i-ahave hands laid upon
Mota taŋoto touch with the hand
  taŋo-vto grope, lay hand upon
Samoan taŋotake, get hold of; touch and feel with the hand
  taŋof-i-abe touched
Maori taŋotake up, take hold of, take in the hand; take possession of
  ta-taŋosnatch one from another
  taŋo-taŋohandle, have recourse to, use

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first noted by Osmond and Pawley (2016a:514-515).


*taŋtáŋ₁ clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals


PPh     *taŋtáŋ₁ clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals

Yami taŋtaŋbeat or smash with a stone or metal tools
Ibatan taŋtaŋto hammer metal to flatten it (from the sound “tangtang” that is produced)
Ilokano taŋtáŋsound of metal being beaten (bells)
Ibaloy taŋtaŋ-ento ring a bell (spoken of large bells (as at school, church)
Bikol taŋtáŋthe clanging sound of a bell
  mag-taŋtáŋto toll a bell, to clang


PPh     *taŋtaŋ-én to beat metals

Yami taŋtaŋ-ento mash, beat (as in forging metal tools)
Ilokano taŋtaŋ-énto beat metals


*taŋtáŋ₂ to remove, take off


PPh     *taŋtáŋ₂ to remove, take off

Bontok taŋtáŋ-anto use a wooden mallet in a granary for removing or striking home the locking bar; the wooden mallet used for such a purpose
Cebuano taŋtáŋto take off, remove something fastened or tied (as a pig working itself loose from the place where it was tied); to pay off debts, free from obligation
Maranao taŋtaŋto take off, remove
Tausug t<um>aŋtaŋto take off, remove (something from something else, as buttons or other detachable objects); take something apart
  ma-taŋtaŋto come part, be dismantled, come off or out of something

Note:   Also Mapun tantaŋ ‘to be naked; take someone’s clothes off; to undress someone; to take off one’s own clothes’, ka-tantaŋ-an ‘for one’s clothes to accidentally fall down or come off’, Yakan tantaŋ ‘to have come apart (of things), parts of something having come loose’, mag-tantaŋ ‘to take something apart, disassemble something; for someone to go naked’ mag-tantaŋ-an ‘to take off someone’s clothes’.


*taŋuq to nod the head, as in agreement


PPh     *taŋuq to nod the head, as in agreement

Yami taŋoraise the head, hold the head up
  naŋo-taŋoto nod (as when listening to someone speak)
Itbayaten taŋoa nod
  om-taŋo-taŋoto nod repeatedly
  taŋo-ento nod
Ayta Abellan taŋonod, nodding or bowing of the head as a sign of assent; agree or assent
  taŋo-taŋonodding of one’s head
Kapampangan taŋóʔto receive an affirmative answer, esp. in courting
Tagalog taŋóʔnod, nodding or bowing of the head as a sign of assent
  i-taŋóʔto cause the head to nod
  mapa-taŋóʔto happen to nod the head; to be forced to nod the head
Bikol i-taŋóʔto nod the head in agreement
  taŋoʔ-ánto nod at


*táŋus pointed or prominent, of the nose


PPh     *táŋus pointed or prominent, of the nose

Ilokano na-táŋoshigh-nosed
Sambal (Botolan) táŋoslong and pointed, of a nose
Tagalog táŋoscape; promontory; peninsula; physical prominence, e.g. of forehead or pointedness of nose
  ma-táŋospointed; prominent (referring to the nose)


*taŋuy to swim


PWMP     *taŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy₂]

Sambal (Botolan) taŋuyto swim
Ngaju Dayak taŋoyswimming
  ha-naŋoyto swim

Note:   Possibly a back-formation from a prefixed form in which n- was assumed to result from nasal substitution.


*tapa₁ incise, make an incision in flesh


POC     *tapa₂ incise, make an incision in flesh

Sa'a ahato cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising, to cross the ‘t’ in writing
  aha-siŋemaking incisions in
Samoan tafa(of boil, abscess, etc.) cut open, incise
Anuta tapato cut the stomach of a fish in order to remove the gut; to circumcise
Maori tapato cut, split

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tapa₂ to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey


POC     *tapa₃ to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey

Halia tapato fly
Cheke Holo tavato glide, soar with wings spread, hover
Simbo ta-tapato fly
Tolo avato hover or glide
Rarotongan taʔathe act of floating, soaring, skimming or flocking, as birds in the air with outstretched wings, soaring and dipping
Hawaiian kahato swoop, as a kite; to be poised, soar, as a bird

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Clark (2011:281), who proposed POc *tap(ʷ)a ‘glide, soar’.


*ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand


PWMP     *ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand

Bontok tapákto slap the face; a slap on the face
Kankanaey tampákslap in the face; box the ears
Bikol mag-tapákto hit, strike or slap the face or body with force using the open hand
Maranao tampakdash or hit, as wave hits shore
Ngaju Dayak tapakstruck with the flat of the hand
Nias ma-nafato strike with the open hand, slap

Note:   Also Bontok tadpák ‘to slap’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*tapak₁ palm of the hand, sole of the foot


PWMP     *tapak₁ palm of the hand, sole of the foot

Pangasinan tapákto step on, tread on; go barefoot
  tapak-ánslippers, sandals
Kapampangan maka-tapakbarefoot
  tapak-ansole of the foot, footprint; shoe
Tagalog tápakfootstep; tread of feet
  i-tápakto set or put one’s foot down on something
  mag-tapákto walk barefoot
  maká-tápakto happen to step on
  pa-tápakto allow oneself to be stepped on by someone
  tapak-ántreadle; a lever worked by the foot to impart motion to a machine
Malay tapakpalm of hand, sole of foot; footstep as a measure of length
  mə-napakto track (by footprints)
  kə-tapak-anplace where one sets one’s foot, i.e. threshold or lintel
Karo Batak tapakimprint; trace of the foot or hand
  napak-ifollow the tracks of an animal in pursuing game
  tapak-tapakthe palm of the hand or sole of the foot
Toba Batak tapaksandal
  tapak ni patsole of the foot
  tapak ni taŋanpalm of the hand
Balinese tampak limapalm of the hand
  tampak batissole of the foot

Note:   PMP *palaj₁ is firmly reconstructible in the meaning ‘palm of hand, sole of foot’, and the semantic distinction between it and *tapak remains to be worked out. Overall, reflexes of *tapak appear to refer more consistently to the sole of the foot, and it is possible that *palaj was ‘palm of the hand’ and *tapak ‘sole of the foot’, although both meanings appear with reflexes of both forms.


*tapak₂ visible


PMP     *tapak₂ visible

Iban tampakvisible, obvious; light, clear, shining
Malay tampakto be visible
  tampak-kanto see
Javanese tampakopen, unobscured
Samoan tafa(of light and shade effect) be visible, discernible

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tapal a patch, as on clothing; poultice, as over a wound


PWMP     *tapal a patch, as on clothing     [doublet: *Capel]

Ilokano tápalcataplasm, poultice, plaster, patch
Bontok tápalreinforce; strengthen by binding a piece of wood to a weak or broken section; to bind a split to a broken limb
Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tápalpatch, pocket
  mag-tápalto sew this type of pocket
Hanunóo tápalplaster, poultice
Agutaynen mag-tapalto apply something to a surface, as leaves to a wound or sore area
Cebuano tápallay something over a small area and stick it (as in placing a medicinal plaster on the body)
  tampaloverlay a patch on clothing at places of great wear to add strength
Mansaka tompalto patch (as a garment)
Iban tapala poultice
  tampalpatch, cover; hence replant failed patches, e.g. in padi (rice in the field)
Malay tampalposting up; patching; plastering (of putting colored paper patterns on a kite, posting a notice on a wall, putting sticking plaster on a sore, etc.


*tapaŋ bold, rude; brave


PPh     *tapaŋ₂ bold, rude; brave

Casiguran Dumagat tapaŋcourageous, brave; fierce, mean, bold
Kapampangan ma-tápaŋbrave
Tagalog ma-tápaŋbrave; gallant; audacious; chivalrous; daring; fearless; courageous; bold; manly; plucky; spirited
  ka-tapáŋ-anbravery; courage; valor
Bikol ka-tápaŋone who speaks uncivilly or impolitely

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*ta(m)pas lop off, cut off


PWMP     *ta(m)pas lop off, cut off

Casiguran Dumagat tapasto cut the stalk of the heart of the coconut or nipa palm (in order to collect the sap for wine); to cut a hole in a coconut (in order to drink the juice from it)
Tagalog tápasdehusking of coconuts; lopping of trees
  tapáslopped or cut off evenly
  tapas-ánto cut off the husk of a coconut; to lop or cut off the top evenly
Cebuano tapáscut sugarcane and clean it of its leaves
Maranao tapasto cut
Iban tampasto trim, shave or shape (with adze or axe)
Malay tampaslopping off (a projecting point); smoothing; flattening with a knife or chopper (of whittling knobs off a stick; also of the practice of lopping off the end of a young coconut, of which the milk is to be drunk)


*tapay rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake


PWMP     *tapay rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake

Itbayaten tapayboiled cake; there are four kinds depending upon its ingredients: 1. sweet potato, coconut milk, sugar/banana, 2. fine corn grits, banana/grated sweet potato, sugar, 3. fine corn grits, banana, grated sweet potato, sugar, 4. fine corn grits, grated sweet potato
Ilokano tápeykind of fermented drink made by the Igorots (mountain people)
Bontok tápəyrice beer
Ibaloy tapeyrice wine, rice beer (made from traditional kintoman rice; a necessary part of almost all ritual and festive gatherings)
  me-nepeyto make rice wine
Pangasinan tápayto knead dough
Tagalog tápaydough
  t<in>ápaybread of any kind
Bikol tápaydough
  mag-tápayto make bread
  t<in>ápaybread, buns, rolls
  tapáy-ana large earthen jar
Hanunóo tápayfinely pounded rice flour added to sugarcane juice to aid in making fermented wine
Aklanon tápayyeast
Maranao tapayyeast
Binukid tapayyeast (for making rice wine)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapeyyeast for making rice wine; it is prepared from powdered rice, sugarcane juice, chili pepper, along with various other ingredients
Mapun tapayan indigenous confection made of rice and spices, seldom made nowadays (procedure: cook the rice, then mix spices with it, wrap the mixture in a big leaf and keep overnight; it’s ready to eat in the morning)
Kayan tapeya wrapped parcel or bundle, especially cooked rice
Ngaju Dayak tapayrice with yeast, sourdough cooked and then left to ferment for three days; it is then very sweet and somewhat intoxicating and is eaten with pleasure
Iban tapayfermented rice
Malay tapayyeast; leavened cake; fermented drink; fermenting mixture made of boiled rice and yeast (used most commonly as yeast for making leavened cakes; in literature it occurs rather in the sense of fermented drink
Karo Batak tapefermented rice; an intoxicating dish
Old Javanese tapefermented glutinous rice
Javanese tapea sweet food made from fermented sticky rice or cassava
Balinese tapea sort of fermenting agent, yeast; fermented cassava
  tape bahasfermented rice
Makassarese tapesteamed and then fermented stick rice
Wolio tapeglutinous rice, boiled and fermented


PWMP     *tapay-an large jar used to store rice wine

Ibaloy tapj-anto have rice wine go along with an animal butchered
Tagalog tapáy-ana large earthenware jar (generally used for water)
Hanunóo tapáy-ana large earthenware pot used in making sugarcane wine
Iban tepayanlarge earthenware jar
Malay tempayanwater jar; etymologically a fermenting jar; now used loosely of any large jar
Javanese tempayanlarge earthenware bowl or jar


*tape₁ to flow, run, of water


POC     *tape₁ to flow, run, of water

Nggela taveto flow, of liquids, air; current, tide; a freshet, flood
  tave-tito flow over
Kwaio afeflow, drip, run down, dissolve, current
  afe-siacarry away, of wave, current or stream; slip away from
Toqabaqita afecurrent in the ocean
  afe-lautrample grass, vegetation when walking on or through it
  afe-rakoqaof flood water, high water in a stream, river (after heavy rains): subside, go down
'Āre'āre ʔahesurf, flooded river, current caused by tide, wind, rain; tidal-rip; to flow; a current, stream; to drip quickly
  ʔahe-tahato flow
  ahe-ta ni waia dry river bed
  ʔahe-siato drift away, to be carried away by the current
Sa'a ahesurf, currents from wind or tide, tide-rip; to flow; to melt away, to waste, to disappear
  ahes-ito cause to drift
Arosi aheto flow, as a current; to float gently along in water or air; to dissolve into liquid; to be in flood, to come down in a freshet
  ahe-aurua waterfall (auru = ‘down’)
  ahe-siacarried away to sea
Fijian daveto flow, of liquids in a small stream (drōdrō is stronger, and dobui the strongest word); commonly of the flow of blood
  dave-kakathe sound of a rushing violent stream
  dave-nabe carried away by a flood
  dave-taan opening in a reef that a canoe ma