Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    ñ    n    ñ    n    ñ    n    ñ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    x    y    z    ʔ   


ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    

caAmis(Formosan) nominative case marker for plural personal names PAN *sa₁

*-caPMic(OC) 1pl. incl. possessive pronoun; of us, our POC *da₂

caahSundanese(WMP) high water, flood PMP *bahaq₂

caánəKanakanabu(Formosan) road, path PAN *zalan

caʔaŋ bulanSundanese(WMP) moonlight PMP *bulan₃

cabaŋMalay(WMP) branch, prong, bifurcation PWMP *cabaŋ

cabaŋIban(WMP) fork (of tree, road) PWMP *cabaŋ

cabitManggarai(CMP) reaping hook, sickle PMP *saqebit

cabutIban(WMP) take out, pull out or up (as grass); withdraw, subtract PMP *cabut

cabutMalay(WMP) extraction by force (but not with needless violence), of rooting up plants, pulling teeth, drawing a ring off a finger, or pulling a card out of a pack PMP *cabut

cacaFijian(OC) a fern: Acrostichum aureum, Pteridaceae POC *asam

cacaFijian(OC) a fern: Acrostichum aureum, Pteridaceae POC *qasam

caʔcaʔMakassarese(WMP) gecko, house lizard PWMP *cekcek

cacakSalako(WMP) kind of small house lizard PWMP *cekcek

cacakMinangkabau(WMP) common house lizard PWMP *cekcek

ca-capuThao(Formosan) broom made of bamboo PAN *Ca-Capuh

ca-capuhAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) broom (women’s speech) PAN *Ca-Capuh

ca-cawaThao(Formosan) laugh PAN *Ca-Cawa

caciŋMalay(WMP) worm, including: caciŋ aŋin ‘Filaria loa’, caciŋ asal ‘intestinal worm, the passing of which in stools is believed to presage death; caciŋ bəsar ‘large white worm passed in stools’, caciŋ gərumit ‘pinworms, nematodes’, etc. PWMP *caciŋ

caciŋMurung(WMP) worm PWMP *caciŋ

caciŋTaboyan(WMP) worm PWMP *caciŋ

caciŋ pipehMalay(WMP) tapeworm PWMP *pipiq

cadasSundanese(WMP) pulverized sandstone ground; rocky ground PMP *badas

cadiwAmis(Formosan) to sharpen PAN *saNiw

cafayAmis(Formosan) companion to do something PAN *sabay₁

cahBipi(OC) what? PMP *sapa

cahLikum(OC) conch shell trumpet POC *tapuRi

cahLoniu(OC) what? PMP *sapa

cahNauna(OC) what? PMP *sapa

cahTitan(OC) what? PMP *sapa

cah atoKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

cahdalAmis(Formosan) the condition when the sun comes out for a moment between rain showers PAN *saheNaR

cah libuTring(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

caiFijian(OC) have sexual intercourse with: trans. cai-tá POC *qait

caiFijian(OC) to have sexual intercourse with POC *qait

caiSundanese(WMP) liquid, sap, juice; wet; water; river PMP *wahiR

caʔiTsou(Formosan) dirty PAN *daki

ca ibuKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

cailhiSaaroa(Formosan) year PAN *CawiN

cain-án-aKanakanabu(Formosan) year PAN *CawiN

cai susu ~ ci susuSundanese(WMP) milk (breast water) PAN *susu₁

cait-aFijian(OC) to have sexual intercourse with POC *qait

ʔcakAmis(Formosan) ripe, edible; cooked, done PAN *qesak

cakNarum(WMP) housepost PMP *esek₂

cakahIban(WMP) contradict, dispute with, oppose PWMP *cakaq

cakalAmis(Formosan) muzzle for ox, water buffalo PAN *sakal

caka-manaWayan(OC) something done by magic or supernatural force; a miracle, magic POC *mana₂

cakar balarMalay(WMP) scratches and scars all over a body PMP *balar

cakatAmis(Formosan) arise, go up PAN *sakat

cakauFijian(OC) reef PMP *sakaRu

cakawThao(Formosan) greed; you are greedy! PAN *Cakaw

cakcakAmis(Formosan) cut into pieces with a machete, as sweet potatoes; hoe ground until it is well tilled PAN *saksak₁

cakeFijian(OC) upwards, above POC *sake

cakeWayan(OC) climb up or on, mount PMP *sakay₁

cakeWayan(OC) climb, ascend, climb up or on, mount; climb up for something, esp. fruit; have intercourse with (vulgar) POC *sake

cakə́l si búlanBontok(WMP) full moon PPH *dakél

cakepManggarai(CMP) catch (something falling), seize by a swift movement PMP *sakep

cakep-anBalinese(WMP) a Balinese book, written on palm leaves and enclosed between two boards PWMP *cakep

cakep-aŋBalinese(WMP) to cause to be enclosed, be shut in by someone PWMP *cakep

cakeseKanakanabu(Formosan) camphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora PAN *dakeS

caketManggarai(CMP) stick to; viscous; clayey PCEMP *saket

caketOld Javanese(WMP) close by, not letting go, (holding) tightly PMP *ca(ŋ)ket

cakiRukai(Formosan) excrement (Tona) PAN *Caki

calAhus(OC) path, road POC *jalan

calAndra(OC) path, road POC *jalan

calLeipon(OC) sea urchin POC *salaŋ

calLeipon(OC) path, way, road POC *jalan

calMondropolon(OC) slitgong POC *drali

calNauna(OC) sea urchin POC *salaŋ

calNauna(OC) path, way, road POC *jalan

calPapitalai(OC) path, road POC *jalan

calaFijian(OC) to err, be in error, to miss a mark; as adjective erroneous, or adverb immediately after the verb, erroneously, by mistake PMP *salaq₁

calaWayan(OC) be wrong, incorrect; make a mistake or error; wrongly, mistakenly, in error; miss a target, go astray; do wrong, transgress; wrongdoing, sin, transgression of moral principle PMP *salaq₁

cala-baiBuginese(WMP) transvestite PMP *bahi

caleŋAmis(Formosan) pine tree or wood PAN *saleŋ

caliŋaRukai (Budai)(Formosan) ear PAN *Caliŋa

caliŋaRukai (Mantauran)(Formosan) ear PAN *Caliŋa

caliŋaSaaroa(Formosan) ear PAN *Caliŋa

caliŋciŋSundanese(WMP) kind of tree with sour fruit PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

cálisiRukai(Formosan) rope (Budai) PAN *CaliS

caliwAmis(Formosan) borrow, lend PAN *saliw

callaRoma(CMP) path, road PMP *zalan

caluUlithian(OC) water source POC *ranum

camLoniu(OC) outrigger float POC *saman

camaManggarai(CMP) alike, similar to; the same; together with PWMP *sama

camakLikum(OC) person, human being PMP *tau-mata

camcamBuli(SHWNG) smack the lips PAN *tamtam

camolAmis(Formosan) mixture PAN *samuR

campur baurMalay(WMP) much mixed up PWMP *bahuR

*camwaPMic(OC) forehad, brow POC *damwa

canLoniu(OC) sea urchin POC *salaŋ

canLoniu(OC) path, way, road POC *jalan

canLikum(OC) slitgong POC *drali

canda-lawNauna(OC) spider PMP *lawaq₂

cani-Loniu(OC) to clear, cut down bush or sugarcane POC *sani

canitThao(Formosan) to cry PAN *Caŋis

canit-anThao(Formosan) be mourned, be wept over PAN *Caŋis-an

čanuWusi-Mana(OC) fresh water POC *ranum

canúmuKanakanabu(Formosan) water PAN *daNum

canu-n matNauna(OC) tears (water-of eye) POC *ranum

caŋaFijian(OC) a span or stretch of the fingers POC *saŋa₁

caŋacaŋNauna(OC) starfish PMP *saŋa-saŋa

caŋacaŋTitan(OC) starfish PMP *saŋa-saŋa

caŋiFijian(OC) wind, air, atmosphere POC *aŋin

caŋiSa'a(OC) day POC *draŋi

caŋi-naFijian(OC) be blown about by the wind POC *aŋin

caŋkuduSundanese(WMP) name of a shrub (the bark of the roots yields a light red dye): Morinda spp. PWMP *baŋkudu

caŋoFijian(OC) the turmeric plant, Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae; whites use the roots to prepare a curry; natives prepare rerega from it, used as food, but chiefly to daub over women at childbirth, and over newly born babes POC *aŋo

caŋo layaFijian(OC) ginger (caŋo = ‘turmeric’) PMP *laqia

caŋrayAmis(Formosan) to lean back against something PAN *saŋeday

ca-ŋ-uruDhao/Ndao(CMP) ten PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq

ca-ŋ-uruDhao/Ndao(CMP) ten PMP *ŋa

capakMalay(WMP) smack lips while eating PWMP *ca(m)pak

capakManggarai(CMP) tear off; amputate; split PMP *sapak

capetAmis(Formosan) to grab with the hand; catch PAN *sapet

capitMalay(WMP) pincers PWMP *ca(R)pit

caputManggarai(CMP) to close, cover up PMP *saput₁

caqiThao(Formosan) feces, excrement PAN *Caqi

caraʔəKanakanabu(Formosan) blood PAN *daRaq

caraʔəSaaroa(Formosan) blood PAN *daRaq

ča sa-ŋ-atuTalise(OC) one hundred PMP *sa-ŋa-Ratus

ca suaManggarai(CMP) the day after tomorrow PMP *duha

cataŋ kaiSundanese(WMP) tree trunk, fallen log PMP *bataŋ

cauBimanese(CMP) comb PMP *saRu₁

cauFijian(OC) kind of ironwood tree: Casuarina nodiflora POC *aRu

cau batuSundanese(WMP) k.o. banana PMP *batu

cau buhayaSundanese(WMP) kind of banana PMP *buqaya

caura-vouFijian(OC) a youth, young man of marriageable age PEMP *baqoRu

cau susuSundanese(WMP) name of a tasty kind of banana PMP *susu

cautManggarai(CMP) comb PMP *saut

cavāFijian(OC) a hurricane, storm of wind PMP *habaRat

cavaFijian(OC) interrogative pronoun and adjective, what?, which? PMP *sapa

*caviliPRuk(Formosan) year PAN *CawiN

cavoFijian(OC) to fish with a rod POC *apon

cavu i-vuvu-takaFijian(OC) to root up entirely POC *puput

cavu-taFijian(OC) to pull up, eradicate POC *saput

cawThao(Formosan) person, human being PAN *Cau

cāwakiFijian(OC) kind of sea urchin, black or white, round and edible; it has short spikes POC *saRawaki

cāwakiWayan(OC) generic for urchins with very short spines and brittle shell, black or white in color; found in sandy bottom under seaweeds; eaten POC *saRawaki

cawaŋMalay(WMP) branching off; bifurcating; main bough of a tree PWMP *cabaŋ

cayNauna(OC) blood POC *draRaq


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


ccaPuluwat(OC) blood; red; be bloody POC *draRaq


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


cebuManggarai(CMP) douse, cover (with ashes, etc.); scatter, strew, pour out PMP *sebuh

cebuSakizaya(Formosan) bladder (as of a water buffalo) PAN *sebu

ce-buniKaro Batak(WMP) conceal oneself PMP *buni₁

cebusSakizaya(Formosan) to water, sprinkle water on (as plants) PAN *sebuS

cecakMalay(WMP) common house lizard PWMP *cekcek

cecekMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) common house lizard PWMP *cekcek

cecekManggarai(CMP) to stuff, fill up PAN *seksek₁

cecekOld Javanese(WMP) house-lizard PWMP *cekcek

cecetChamorro(WMP) hiss, call by hissing sound, call attention to PMP *zitzit

cəfəTsou(Formosan) deadfall trap to catch rats PAN *qaCeb

ce gikkəwBerawan (Long Jegan)(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

cegukJavanese(WMP) a hiccup PWMP *ceguk

cegukBalinese(WMP) to make the sound ‘guk’ PWMP *ceguk

ceguk-enJavanese(WMP) to have the hiccups PWMP *ceguk

cehepManggarai(CMP) hide, seek cover of shelter PMP *sekep

ceh ratawNarum(WMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

ceiFijian(OC) interrogative pronoun, who? PMP *sei

cei-ŋManggarai(CMP) who? PMP *sei

cekalIban(WMP) throttle, strangle PMP *cekel

cekalMalay(WMP) grip PMP *cekel

cekapMalay(WMP) grip PMP *cekep

cekasMalay(WMP) nimble, agile, quick PMP *cekas

cekcekAmis(Formosan) to press, crowd together, shake down (of people, grain, etc.) PAN *seksek₁

cekcekBalinese(WMP) gecko, lizard PWMP *cekcek

cekeʔeRukai (Mantauran)(Formosan) thin bamboo sp. PAN *CekeS

cəkekMalay(WMP) seizing the neck; throttling; (fig.) choking with food or guzzling PWMP *cekig

cekelOld Javanese(WMP) seize, clutch PMP *cekel

cekelSundanese(WMP) strike, seize, hold firmly with the hand PMP *cekel

ceke-reŋetManggarai(CMP) grumble, complain, make a sour face PMP *reŋet

ceke-reŋetManggarai(CMP) grumble, complain; make a sour face PMP *Reŋet

cəlaʔTunjung(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

célakMalay(WMP) shining, glistening PMP *cilak

celapaʔIban(WMP) brass betel box PWMP *calapaʔ

celapaMalay (Brunei)(WMP) oblong betel box PWMP *calapaʔ

celapaMalay (Sarawak)(WMP) oblong betel box PWMP *calapaʔ

celcelAmis(Formosan) slip through a crowded place PAN *selsel₁

celebBalinese(WMP) dip in water, baptize PMP *celeb

celemAmis(Formosan) to sink into (as setting sun); dive into the water PAN *selem₁

celepMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) steep, soak, dye PWMP *celep

celukBalinese(WMP) bay, bight PWMP *celuk

cemBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) sour PWMP *esem

čemRano(OC) outrigger POC *saman

ce-marLeipon(OC) to dry up, as rice in a pot that has been boiling too long PMP *maja

cem-buruMalay(WMP) suspicion; esp. jealous suspicion PMP *buRehuʔ

cəm-buruMalay(WMP) suspicion; esp. jealous suspicion PMP *buR(e)hu

*cənəkəPRuk(Formosan) thorn PAN *Cenek

ceŋapMalay(WMP) catch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath PMP *ceŋap

ceŋápMalay(WMP) catch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath PWMP *ciŋap

ceŋapManggarai(CMP) pounce on, catch in the mouth PCEMP *seŋap

ceŋetAmis (Kiwit)(Formosan) tick (insect) PAN *seŋet₂

ceŋgerManggarai(CMP) feel fit; be full of life PMP *se(ŋ)ger

ceŋisMalay(WMP) odor that "puts one off", odor that spoils the appetite PWMP *ceŋis

céŋkokOld Javanese(WMP) concave PMP *ci(ŋ)kuk

cepakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) snap, break off PMP *cep(e)qak

cepakIban(WMP) slapping, lapping (as water under a boat) PMP *cep(e)qak

cepaŋManggarai(CMP) a tree: Caesalpinia sappan PMP *sepaŋ

cepcepAmis(Formosan) to suck (as a mosquito sucking blood) PAN *sepsep

cepetManggarai(CMP) close off (the flow of water) PMP *sepet₂

cépetManggarai(CMP) plug, stop, cork, shut off PMP *si(m)pet

cepokIban(WMP) noise of movement in water PMP *cepuk

cepokMalay(WMP) dull sound, as when a dhoby strikes cloth against a stone PMP *cepuk

cepukManggarai(CMP) break (teeth, tubers), crunch (corn cob) PCEMP *sepuk

ceraiMalay(WMP) sundering; parting; divorce PWMP *ceray

cerepManggarai(CMP) duck, immerse in liquid PMP *serep

ceretMalay(WMP) looseness of the bowels; diarrhoea PWMP *cirit

ceretMalay(WMP) looseness of the bowels; diarrhoea PWMP *ciderit

cərhəTsou(Formosan) bone PAN *CuqelaN

cerikManggarai(CMP) scream shrilly PCEMP *serik

cerik-cerikIban(WMP) talk in a shrill voice PMP *cerik

ce-r-nemKaro Batak(WMP) on the point of sinking out of view, of the sun; momentarily submerge, as carabaos in a watering hole PWMP *ceñeb

cernemKaro Batak(WMP) on the point of setting (of the sun), momentarily submerged, of buffaloes in a watering hole PWMP *ce(R)neb


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


cfosAmis(Formosan) to splash liquid or water on something PAN *sebuS

cfuʔoTsou(Formosan) stomach PAN *biCuka


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


chaWoleaian(OC) blood; red; bloody POC *draRaq

chaanChuukese(OC) liquid, juice; fresh water POC *ranum

chagoʔChamorro(WMP) far, afar, distant PMP *zauq

chagoʔ-ñaChamorro(WMP) further, more distant PMP *zauq

chahanChamorro(WMP) cook in an underground pit; underground pit oven PMP *zakan

chalanChamorro(WMP) road, highway, street, path PMP *zalan

charinaFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) ear PAN *Caliŋa

chchaChuukese(OC) blood; bloody; bleed; menstruate POC *draRaq

chééChuukese(OC) leaf; sheet; width, breadth (of flat objects only) PEMP *raun

chénún maasChuukese(OC) tears POC *ranum

cheroll (< *qezen-en)Palauan(WMP) birth; birthday PMP *qezen

chidchir-enItbayaten(WMP) to scrape off the dirty part PMP *kiDkiD

chimitItbayaten(WMP) idea of winking; wink of the eye PPH *kimit

ch<in>anItbayaten(WMP) ate, eaten; eaten part; the one eaten, something eaten PAN *k<in>aen

ch<in>an-an ~Itbayaten(WMP) leavings at the table, leftover food PAN *k<in>aen

chipohoIbatan(WMP) kind of breadfruit tree: Artocarpus altilis PPH *qatipulu

chirayItbayaten(WMP) eyebrow PWMP *kiray

chiro-chiromoBali (Uneapa)(OC) oyster POC *tiRom

chischisItbayaten(WMP) bald haircut PAN *kiskis

chischis-anItbayaten(WMP) to make into bald haircut PPH *kiskis-an

chiwchiwItbayaten(WMP) stir it! PPH *kiwkiw₂

chiwchiw-enItbayaten(WMP) to stir liquid or mixture with liquid; to stir up PPH *kiwkiw-en

chomaFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) the Formosan black bear PAN *Cumay

chugoʔChamorro(WMP) sap, juice (as from an orange); pus; semen PMP *zuRuq

chumuTsou(Formosan) water PAN *daNum


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


ciAmis(Formosan) proper name prefix PAN *si₁

ciApma(OC) sugarcane POC *na topu

ciAua(OC) a shrub: Cordyline, Dracaena PMP *siRi

Fijian(OC) to break wind POC *si₂

ciTitan(OC) to fart POC *si₂

ciTitan(OC) to fart POC *siki

ciakMalay(WMP) twitter of small bird; bird that tweets or twitters; a generic name for birds like sparrows and finches PWMP *ciak

ciapIban(WMP) cheep, cheeping (as chicks) PWMP *ciap

ciapMalay(WMP) to twitter (of birds); to squeak (of mice) PWMP *ciap

ciʔáuKanakanabu(Formosan) kind of tasty river fish PAN *Ciqaw

cibal mak mer-bekasDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) located somewhere without leaving a trace PMP *bekas₃

ci-belahKaro Batak(WMP) the part in the hair PAN *belaq

cibitIban(WMP) pinch between thumb and forefinger knuckle PWMP *cibit

cicaʔBuginese(WMP) house lizard PWMP *cikcek

ciʔcakDuri(WMP) house lizard PWMP *cikcek

cicakMalay(WMP) house lizard, Hemidactylus spp., esp. H. frenatus PWMP *cikcek

cicéʔChamorro(WMP) grin (showing teeth); smile (toothy), gritting teeth PMP *ziziq

ciciBimanese(CMP) fill by stuffing forcefully in (as in pressing kapok into a pillow) PAN *seksek₁

ciciFijian(OC) to separate the pulp of a coconut, or the flesh of a fish from its shell with the point of a knife PMP *siksik₂

cici-aFijian(OC) to separate the pulp of a coconut, or the flesh of a fish from its shell with the point of a knife PCEMP *sisi₃

cicikManggarai(CMP) strip off the bark, skin PMP *siksik₂

ci-cimitYami(WMP) eyelashes PPH *kimit

cicitMalay(WMP) squeak (of mouse); tweet or cheep (of small bird); creak (of door) PWMP *citcit

c-icuThao(Formosan) 3sg; he, she, it PAN *i-Cu

cidalAmis(Formosan) sun PAN *siNaR

cihiLoniu(OC) cockatoo sp. POC *sipiri

cihiŋDrehet(OC) cockatoo sp. POC *sipiri

cihirLeipon(OC) cockatoo sp. POC *sipiri

cihirPapitalai(OC) cockatoo sp. POC *sipiri

cikMalay(WMP) exclamation for driving away dogs PWMP *cik

cikapMalay(WMP) chopsticks PMP *cikep

cikepKaro Batak(WMP) hold something in the hand PMP *cikep

ciketManggarai(CMP) sticky, adhesive PMP *si(ŋ)ket

cikoAmis(Formosan) elbow; intersection, corner PAN *sikux

cikoTabar(OC) grasshopper POC *siko₁

cikuManggarai(CMP) elbow; an ell, distance from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow PAN *sikux

cikuɬasBunun(Formosan) a bird, the bamboo partridge PAN *tikuRas

ciku-naMarovo(OC) tail POC *siku

cilAhus(OC) topstick of the sail POC *jila

cilNauna(OC) bamboo on sail POC *jila

cilaFijian(OC) to shine, of the heavenly bodies POC *silak

cilaFijian(OC) to shine, of heavenly bodies PMP *silaq

cilaFijian(OC) to shine, of the heavenly bodies PMP *silak₁

cilaFijian(OC) to shine, of heavenly bodies PMP *sila₁

cila-cilaAmis (Kiwit)(Formosan) frequently PAN *siRa₁

cilapManggarai(CMP) dazzle the eyes PMP *silap

cila satoAmis (Kiwit)(Formosan) next day PAN *siRa₁

cilatItbayaten(WMP) lightning, thunderbolt PMP *kilat₁

cileŋManggarai(CMP) narrow (of the eyes) PMP *sileŋ

cili-celapManggarai(CMP) dazzled by glare; sparkle, flash, shine PMP *sili

ci-losaʔAmis(Formosan) to have tears PAN *luSeq

cimaBasai(Formosan) five PAN *lima

c-imaAmis(Formosan) who? PAN *si-ima

c-ima c-imaAmis(Formosan) whoever PAN *si-ima

c-ima c-ima-anAmis(Formosan) to whomever PAN *si-ima

ci-mataAmis(Formosan) able to see; to wear glasses PAN *maCa

cimitYami(WMP) blink PPH *kimit

cimoyYami(WMP) rain PMP *timuR

cimuAtayal(Formosan) salt PAN *timu

ciːnNarum(WMP) notched log ladder PMP *ezan

cɨnNauna(OC) fresh water POC *ranum

cinaFijian(OC) a lamp or torch PMP *sinaR

cinduŋSundanese(WMP) anything used to cover the head or the head and face (as against the sun, or to conceal it from sight) PWMP *ci(n)duŋ

cineApma(OC) guts PMP *t<in>aqi

c<in>inonYami(WMP) woven clothes or men’s thongs; Yami traditional dress PAN *tinun

cinonYami(WMP) loom, weave PAN *tinun

cinunAtayal(Formosan) weaving PAN *tinun

ciŋanaFijian(OC) whitebait POC *jiŋana

ciŋaŋSasak(WMP) harelip PMP *ciŋaŋ

ciŋasBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) food particles caught between the teeth PAN *CiŋaS

ciŋiFijian(OC) fill up a crevice or push a thing into it, as into a leak in a canoe; stop a gap in a fence PMP *siŋ(e)qit

cipan kalahNauna(OC) rain cloud (lit. ‘piece of cloud’) POC *kadapuR

cipooYami(WMP) type of breadfruit tree PPH *qatipulu

cirakManggarai(CMP) pour out light, radiate, shine PMP *sirak₁

cirat-ciritJavanese(WMP) emerging little by little (of feces) PWMP *cirit

ciritIban(WMP) diarrhoea, have diarrhoea PWMP *cirit

ciritJavanese(WMP) feces PWMP *cirit

ciritMinangkabau(WMP) diarrhoea PWMP *cirit

ciritMinangkabau(WMP) looseness of the bowels; diarrhoea PWMP *ciderit

ci-taFijian(OC) break wind (on something) POC *si₂

citaYami(WMP) to see, look at PAN *kita₂

cita-cita-enYami(WMP) constantly see PAN *kita₂

cita-enYami(WMP) see, look PAN *kita-en

cita-iYami(WMP) look! (imperative) PAN *kita₂

cita-nYami(WMP) see, look PAN *kita₂

ci-tiyad-to cigraAmis(Formosan) she has a belly (i.e. she is pregnant) PAN *tiaN

citoYami(WMP) dog PMP *titu

ciuFijian(OC) to steam, of steam that finds its way out of an oven that is badly covered, or air from a punctured tire POC *siul

ciul-akaFijian(OC) to steam in this manner POC *siul

civiBimanese(CMP) nine PMP *siwa

civiriAua(OC) cockatoo sp. POC *sipiri

civoWayan(OC) down, downwards POC *sipo

civúkaKanakanabu(Formosan) stomach PAN *biCuka

civukaSaaroa(Formosan) belly PAN *biCuka

ciwaFijian(OC) nine PMP *siwa

ciwaWayan(OC) nine PMP *siwa

ciwciwAmis(Formosan) baby chick, baby bird PAN *siwsiw

ciwciwIvatan(WMP) stir PPH *kiwkiw₂

ciwciw-enIvatan(WMP) be stirred up PPH *kiwkiw-en


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


ckeeRukai(Formosan) excrement (Maga) PAN *Caki

ckelAmis(Formosan) bow the head PAN *sekel


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


c<m>anitThao(Formosan) to cry, to mourn PAN *C<um>aŋis

c<m>apuThao(Formosan) sweep PAN *C<um>apu

cmoiTsou(Formosan) the Formosan black bear PAN *Cumay

c<m>uhuTsou(Formosan) to roast right on the fire PAN *CuNuh


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    

cŋiraRukai(Formosan) ear (Maga) PAN *Caŋila


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


coʔKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) far PMP *zauq

coTring(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

coboFijian(OC) clap the hands crosswise so as to make a hollow sound PMP *se(m)bek

cobosoRukai (Tona)(Formosan) sugarcane PAN *CebuS

cocNauna(OC) dark POC *rodrom₁

cocoAmis(Formosan) breast of a female; udder; teat PAN *susu₁

cocolMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) dip (food into sauces, etc.) PMP *cu(l)cul

co-cvoTsou(Formosan) laugh; to laugh PAN *Ca-Cawa

cokaFijian(OC) to pierce, usually with a spear; diarrhoea POC *soka

cokcokAmis(Formosan) to lock PAN *suksuk

cokerAmis(Formosan) to prop up, support, help, as the cross pole in the hitch of a wagon PAN *suked

cokoFijian(OC) be caught, as a rat in a trap POC *sogo

cokoWayan(OC) be caught, netted, trapped by something which envelops the victim, as a fish in a net or a person ambushed or surrounded POC *sogo

cokorAmis(Formosan) walking stick, cane PAN *sukud

coledAmis(Formosan) insert; push inside a slot or opening; put into a handbag or basket PAN *suleN

coliAmis(Formosan) return, retort PAN *suli₂

coloFijian(OC) the inland country, mountain country; of anything on a shelf above the head POC *solos

coloWayan(OC) the high inland country of a mountainous land, mountain country, the interior POC *solos

comayPRuk(Formosan) the Formosan black bear PAN *Cumay

conLikum(OC) canoe POC *tola

con e muhLikum(OC) stern of a canoe POC *muri

coŋLevei(OC) slitgong POC *drali

coŋTitan(OC) hungry POC *soŋe

cooɭaleRukai (Budai)(Formosan) bone PAN *CuqelaN

copcopAmis(Formosan) to suck (as a mosquito sucking blood) PAN *supsup

corékMalay(WMP) grain in wood; veining; long parallel lines (broken or otherwise) in cloth patterns PWMP *curik

corétMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) mark PWMP *curit

corétSundanese(WMP) draw a line through something PWMP *curit

cʔosəTsou(Formosan) camphor laurel: Cinnamomum Camphora PAN *dakeS

couMarovo(OC) Egretta sacra POC *sou

couTsou(Formosan) person, human being PAN *Cau

covhiTsou(Formosan) far PAN *dawiN

cowiɁAmis(Formosan) a bird, Common Sandpiper (appears at sunset with its call) PAN *suiq


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


cronəTsou(Formosan) road PAN *zalan


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


cuLikum(OC) dugong POC *ruyuŋ₂

čuaBonkovia(OC) two POC *rua

cuaFijian(OC) the stick or bamboo by which a fish net is lifted up PMP *sual

cu-a-lʸivPaiwan(Formosan) place where there are many caves (or rock overhangs) PAN *Nihib

cubitMalay(WMP) pinching; pressure between finger and thumb PWMP *cubit

cucokMalay(WMP) pricking; stabbing; driving a point into anything PMP *cukcuk

cucuManggarai(CMP) female breast PAN *susu₁

cucʔuTsou(Formosan) ginger: Zingiber officinale PAN *dukduk₁

cucuWayan(OC) fish of the snapper family, possibly Lethrinus variegatus or Lethrinella sp. POC *susul₁

cucu-Wuvulu(OC) female breast PAN *susu₁

cu-cuhirAhus(OC) small cockatoo POC *supiri

cu-cumá-iniKanakanabu(Formosan) other people PAN *duma

cucupMinangkabau(WMP) suck (e.g. the blood from a wound) PMP *cupcup

cucupOld Javanese(WMP) drink or suck in big gulps PMP *cupcup

cucuʔSakizaya(Formosan) female breast PAN *susu₁

cuhLevei(OC) sugarcane POC *na topu

cui-Likum(OC) bone POC *ruRi

cukaManggarai (West)(CMP) kind of tree: Gnetum gnemon L. PMP *suka₁

cukcukBalinese(WMP) pick up with the beak; poke repeatedly, peck at PMP *cukcuk

cukiFijian(OC) to root, dig up or loosen the ground with a stick, to dig the surface only; fig. to force information from a person PMP *suksuk-i

cukiFijian(OC) to root, dig up or loosen the ground with a stick, to dig the surface only; fig. to force information from a person PMP *suŋkit

cukit-aFijian(OC) to root, dig up (trans.) PMP *suŋkit

cukupBalinese(WMP) to close (umbrella, book) PWMP *cu(ŋ)kup

culNauna(OC) torch PMP *suluq

culaFijian(OC) to pierce, to let blood, to vaccinate, to sew PMP *sulam

culalhəSaaroa(Formosan) bone PAN *CuqelaN

culiKulisusu(WMP) earwax PMP *tuli₁

culiManggarai(CMP) shoot, sprout (of banana plant) PMP *suli₁

culuManggarai(CMP) torch (made of twigs, bamboo, etc.) PMP *suluq

cumWayan(OC) fish taxon, includes many (Balistidae) and leatherjacket (Aluteridae) species POC *sumu

*c<um>abuPAty(Formosan) to wrap PAN *C<um>abu

c<um>a-calhəməSaaroa(Formosan) to cover with earth PAN *CaNem

c<um>a-cuɬuSaaroa(Formosan) to roast right on the fire PAN *CuNuh

c<um>á-cunuKanakanabu(Formosan) to roast right on the fire PAN *CuNuh

cumáiKanakanabu(Formosan) the Formosan black bear PAN *Cumay

*c-um-apaŋPAty(Formosan) to patch PAN *Capaŋ

c<um>apuhAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) to sweep (women’s speech) PAN *C<um>apu

cumayThao(Formosan) the Formosan black bear: Selenarctos thibetanus formosanus (Swinhoe) PAN *Cumay

cumiʔiSaaroa(Formosan) the Formosan black bear PAN *Cumay

cumuFijian(OC) a small diamond-shaped fish, file or trigger fish, Balistes sp; also the name of a Fijian constellation POC *sumu

cunCham (Eastern)(WMP) to descend; to set, of the sun PMP *tuRun₁

cunLoniu(OC) dried coconut frond PMP *suluq

cunLoniu(OC) cook fish on wood or coconut leaf placed on the fire POC *sulu₁

cunMondropolon(OC) freshwater (river) eel PMP *tuna

cuŋBerawan (Long Teru)(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

cuŋNauna(OC) hungry POC *soŋe

cuŋPenchal(OC) hungry POC *soŋe

cuŋap-caŋipMalay(WMP) puffing and blowing; panting; blown and breathless PWMP *cuŋ(e)qab

cuŋkapManggarai(CMP) lever up, tunnel under (a fence) with the snout, root or grub up the earth PMP *su(ŋ)kab

cuŋkubBalinese(WMP) one of the places where offerings are made, worship offered PWMP *cuŋkub

cuŋkubJavanese(WMP) roofed shelter erected over a grave PWMP *cuŋkub

cuŋkupMalay(WMP) over-arching cover, e.g. a dish cover PWMP *cuŋkub

cuŋkupMalay (Java)(WMP) over-arching cover, e.g. a dish cover PWMP *cu(ŋ)kup

cupitBalinese(WMP) narrow (space) PWMP *cupit

cupitSasak(WMP) narrow PWMP *cupit

cupuManggarai(CMP) boundary, border PMP *supu

curikKaro Batak(WMP) covered with fine speckles PWMP *curik

curuFijian(OC) enter PMP *surup₁

curuWayan(OC) go into seclusion for any ritual purpose; enter an institution for a period, e.g. be admitted to a hospital; (of a spirit, demonic force, mood) get into a person, possess someone PMP *surup₁

curu(bian)Lihir(OC) a fish: Lethrinus harak POC *surup₂

ʔcuuTsou(Formosan) louse (of head) PAN *kuCux

cuʔúanəKanakanabu(Formosan) bone PAN *CuqelaN

cuúsaKanakanabu(Formosan) two (serial counting) PAN *duSa

cuvúŋ-unuKanakanabu(Formosan) confluence of rivers PAN *Cebuŋ

cuvuʔuKanakanabu(Formosan) bamboo shoot PAN *Cubuq

cuvuʔuSaaroa(Formosan) bamboo shoot PAN *Cubuq

cuweleKulisusu(WMP) a vining plant, derris, and esp. the root, from which a fish poison is obtained PWMP *tub(e)liq

cuxa-cuxaWuvulu(OC) comb PEMP *sura

cuyLoniu(OC) soup POC *suRuq₁

cuyNauna(OC) soup POC *suRuq₁


TOP      ca    cc    ce    cf    ch    ci    ck    cm        co    cr    cu    cz    


czouTsou(Formosan) kind of tasty river fish PAN *Ciqaw

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    ñ    n    ñ    n    ñ    n    ñ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    x    y    z    ʔ   

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-w_c.htm