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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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eArosi(OC) indefinite article; used with nouns including numerals, and verbs treated as nouns (used with 1-9) POC *e

eAtchin(OC) numeral prefix (used only with 2-5) POC *e

eFijian(OC) particle used before numerals; 'there are (so many)' (Schütz 1985:101) POC *e

ʔeHawaiian(OC) different, foreign, strange, peculiar; heathen (Biblical) PCEMP *kese

eKosraean(OC) fire POC *api

eMarshallese(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

eMarshallese(OC) demonstrative: this PMP *ia₂

eMono-Alu(OC) numeral prefix (used only with 2-4) POC *e

eRarotongan(OC) indefinite article PAN *esa

eRembong(CMP) sound indicating agreement PMP *heqe

eRennellese(OC) preposed numeral marker POC *e

eSamoan(OC) particle used before numerals and certain other words referring to things which can be counted POC *e

eTongan(OC) untranslatable particle used before numerals POC *e

eTutuba(OC) numeral prefix (used only with 2-5) POC *e

eWaropen(SHWNG) foot PAN *qaqay

e/lwoSye(OC) to vomit PMP *luaq

e/maToak(OC) and PAN *maS

e/murepSye(OC) alive PMP *ma-qudip


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ʔə`əvəKanakanabu(Formosan) smoke PAN *qebel


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eaBare'e(WMP) shame, shyness PMP *heyaq

eaMussau(OC) where? POC *pea

eaHawu(CMP) turtle; turtle shell PCEMP *keRa

eaʔUma(WMP) shame PMP *heyaq

eábnogAklanon(WMP) a medicinal shrub: Ficus hauili Blanco. PPH *lab(e)nuR

eáboŋAklanon(WMP) grow steadily, multiply, expand, be prolific PWMP *labeŋ

e a boŋGilbertese(OC) it is night POC *boŋi

eábotAklanon(WMP) affair, concern, business PPH *labut

e-adaEnggano(WMP) child PMP *anak

e-aeEnggano(WMP) foot PAN *qaqay

eaeá (h)Aklanon(WMP) to weave mats PWMP *laja

e-ahSoutheast Ambrym(OC) lime (prepared from dead coral) PAN *qapuR

e aiAnuta(OC) by whom? PMP *sai

e aitua le āoaSamoan(OC) the (that) banyan-tree is haunted PEMP *qayawan

eákadAklanon(WMP) to step over (with big steps) PMP *lakaj

eakáwAklanon(WMP) to amble, go around PMP *lakaw

eákiAklanon(WMP) man, male PMP *laki₁

eakin-onAklanon(WMP) mannish PMP *laki₁

eáli(h)Aklanon(WMP) fish PMP *lajih

eámboŋAklanon(WMP) shirt; blouse; dress PPH *lambuŋ

eámonAklanon(WMP) to eat (of an animal); to eat like a pig, eat voraciously and sloppily PPH *lamun₂

eanábAklanon(WMP) to flood a little bit, overflow a little PWMP *lanab

eanábAklanon(WMP) to flood a little bit, overflow a little PPH *laq(e)nab

eanáb-eanábAklanon(WMP) to rise (said of the river’s water level) PPH *laq(e)nab

e anənMendak(OC) food POC *kanan

eánosAklanon(WMP) a somewhat old coconut PPH *lanés

eánotAklanon(WMP) abaca fiber PPH *lánut

eaŋAklanon(WMP) just, only PPH *laŋ

éaŋJavanese(WMP) grandparent PWMP *qiaŋ

eáŋawAklanon(WMP) fly (general term for this family of insects) PMP *laŋaw

eáŋitAklanon(WMP) sky, heaven PMP *laŋit

eaŋóyAklanon(WMP) to swim (after/the length of) PWMP *laŋuy

eaónAklanon(WMP) old (rice; maid); spinster, spinstress PWMP *laun

eapáwAklanon(WMP) surpass, exceed, excel PWMP *la(m)paw

eápdosAklanon(WMP) to strike with a downward motion PPH *lap(e)des

eápidAklanon(WMP) to join, unite, put together PPH *lapid

eápotAklanon(WMP) sticky, pasty PPH *lap(e)qút

eápotAklanon(WMP) sticky, pasty PPH *lap(e)qut

e-asSoutheast Ambrym(OC) smoke; cigarette PMP *qasu₃

easáwAklanon(WMP) not sticky; liquidy, watery PPH *lásaw

eásg-onAklanon(WMP) having enlarged testicles PMP *laseR

eásogAklanon(WMP) testicle PMP *laseR

eátʔasAklanon(WMP) try to get to some place by a route not ordinarily taken PWMP *la(n)t(e)qas

eátayAklanon(WMP) to cross a small bamboo bridge PPH *latay

eatay-ánAklanon(WMP) river-crossing, small bamboo bridge PPH *latay

eátiʔAklanon(WMP) field (for farming) PWMP *latiq

e-auLakalai(OC) I, me PAN *i-aku

eáwaʔAklanon(WMP) spider PMP *lawaq₂

eawáʔ-eawáʔAklanon(WMP) cobweb, spiderweb PMP *lawaq-lawaq

eáwayAklanon(WMP) to salivate, froth at the mouth PPH *láway

eawódAklanon(WMP) ocean, sea PAN *lahud

eáwʔayAklanon(WMP) to be indecent; become, get ugly PPH *law(e)qay

eayáAklanon(WMP) dry land PAN *daya

eayágAklanon(WMP) sail [of boat] PAN *layaR

eáyogAklanon(WMP) long range; high; very high; tall (as coconut trees) PPH *láyug


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ebaNgadha(CMP) carrying strap or cloth for small children; carry children on the side or in the arms with such a strap or cloth PMP *heban

ʔebaʔTiruray(WMP) mouth PMP *bahaq₁

e-bakaEnggano(WMP) eye, face, front side; most important part PMP *mata

ʔəbál-lPalauan(WMP) gray or white hair; gray-haired, white-haired PWMP *quban-en

ebánKankanaey(WMP) blanket used to carry children on the back PMP *heban

ebbésIlokano(WMP) subside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.) PPh *hebás

ebbunMadurese(WMP) dew, mist PWMP *qembun

ʔəbə-ʔabPalauan(WMP) dust (especially under house) PMP *qabu

ebebAgutaynen(WMP) to scrunch one’s body over; to curl one’s body up in a ball; for a chicken to sit in her nest with her wings curled over her body PPH *qebqeb

ʔebebTiruray(WMP) to stoop over, as in hiding or in passing under something low PPH *qebqeb

e-bebeLakalai(OC) butterfly POC *bebe

ebeceŋeSaaroa(Formosan) millet PAN *beCeŋ

ebedBalinese(WMP) wrapped up, wrapped about PWMP *embej

əbehRhade(WMP) excessive, extra PMP *lebiq

ebékKankanaey(WMP) cry and gibber; weep and jabber; weep and grumble PWMP *he(m)bek

ʔebelTiruray(WMP) smoke PAN *qebel

*əbəɭəPRuk(Formosan) smoke PAN *qebel

ebEsCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) for water to go down again after a flood PPh *hebás

ebʰaʔKelabit(WMP) water PMP *bahaq₂

ebʰarKelabit(WMP) loincloth PMP *bahaR

ebʰeŋKelabit(WMP) levee in paddy field PMP *embeŋ

ebʰukKelabit(WMP) head hair PMP *buhek

əbhukLun Dayeh (Long Semado)(WMP) head hair PMP *buhek

e-bikadIbaloy(WMP) bow-legged PPH *bikad

ʔeboʔTiruray(WMP) remove the intestines of fish (loan) PWMP *ebuq

e-boluLakalai(OC) turtle POC *poñu

e boŋGilbertese(OC) it is dark POC *e boŋi

e-boŋiKilivila(OC) it is getting dark, night is coming on POC *e boŋi

ebosIbaloy(WMP) to consume all of something PWMP *ebus

ebuʔSangir(WMP) pluck, pull out (plants, hair, etc.) PMP *hebut

ebu, epuNgadha(CMP) grandfather, ancestor PMP *empu

ebukBalinese(WMP) dust, powder PMP *ebuk

ebukBalinese(WMP) dust, powder PMP *rebuk

ʔəbú-lPalauan(WMP) its ashes PMP *qabu

ebunCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) swarm, gather (as ants on sugar, bees swarming on a person, birds gathering around drying rice to eat it) PMP *ebun

ebunJavanese(WMP) dew PWMP *qembun

ebus, embusOld Javanese(WMP) snort, breathe violently PMP *qembus

ebutBalinese(WMP) pull up (weeds), draw out PMP *hebut


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*ecaPRuk(Formosan) husk of rice PAN *qeCah


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ʔədPalauan(WMP) low tide PMP *qeti₁

edaBalinese(WMP) particle marking a negative imperative: do not PWMP *enda

edaRotinese(CMP) something used to climb up something else (Jonker 1908); ladder of house (Fox 1993) PMP *haRezan

eda-hBuruese(CMP) eat raw (as bananas) PCEMP *qentaq

eda-kRotinese(CMP) steps, ladder; clamps on a tree to make it easier to climb PMP *haRezan

e-dak-daki-anIbaloy(WMP) lesbian PMP *laki₁

ʔəda-lPalauan(WMP) person of PMP *qaRta

ʔə-dámPalauan(WMP) father (addr.) PMP *t-amax

*edamPMin(WMP) lease land, rent PMP *hezam

eda manuMolima(OC) bird taboo to our descent group POC *manuk

eda-mauwNauruan(OC) left side PEMP *mauRi

*edanPAmb(CMP) ladder PMP *ezan

edaŋSangir(WMP) borrow from someone, of objects that must themselves be returned, as opposed to objects (e.g. money) that can be returned in kind PMP *hezam

e-dawaŋIbaloy(WMP) to be spacious, roomy (as the inside of a house, a field, shoes that’s too big) PPH *rawaŋ

eddékIlokano(WMP) to moan (when evacuating the bowels, giving birth, etc.) PPh *hendek

edePohnpeian(OC) gills PEMP *asaŋ-i

edePohnpeian(OC) sharpen, put an edge on something (transitive) POC *asaq-i

ʔədə́gBontok(WMP) back of a person or animal; the hard case or shell of bamboo, as contrasted with the inner pith PWMP *edeg

edégKankanaey(WMP) back (used only in tales) PWMP *edeg

e-déiPalauan(WMP) three PAN *telu

eḍemBalinese(WMP) rest, be at rest, sleep PWMP *qendem

edEmCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) borrow PMP *hezam

edépCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) go out (of a light); extinguish, put out, blow out (a fire, lamp, candle, etc.) PWMP *qezep

edépKankanaey(WMP) to close, shut (applied to the eyes) PWMP *qezep

edʰanKelabit(WMP) notched log ladder PMP *ezan

edʰaŋKelabit(WMP) light, radiance PWMP *edaŋ

edʰeh ŋeh ratuKelabit(WMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

edʰi-ʔKelabit(WMP) term of familiarity used among females PWMP *enzi-q

edʰoKelabit(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

ediPohnpeian(OC) bile, of the liver POC *qasu₂

ʔedi-ʔTiruray(WMP) term of address used to females of the same or a younger generation by persons of either sex; it implies that their name or teknonym is not known to the speaker PWMP *enzi-q

ʔə-dilPalauan(WMP) M (addr.) PMP *t-ina

ʔədi-lPalauan(WMP) its low tide PMP *qeti₁

ʔə-dílPalauan(WMP) mother (address); uh-oh (exclamation uttered when accident occurs) PMP *qina

edim-enCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to borrow PPh *hedam-en

e-ditemIbaloy(WMP) bruised, of the dark discoloration of skin following trauma PWMP *li(n)tem

e-ditemMapun(WMP) bruised --- of the dark discoloration of skin tissue following trauma PWMP *li(n)tem

edoSangir(WMP) stop, cease, end PMP *hedaw

ʔədó-olPalauan(WMP) be thatched PWMP *qatep-an

eɗuHawu(CMP) gall PAN *qapejux

e-du-duiEnggano(WMP) thorn, spike PMP *duRi

e-du-duiEnggano(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ʔədúiPalauan(WMP) a fish, the blue-lined sea bream: Symphorus spilurus (Günther) PMP *qatulay

ʔədúk-lPalauan(WMP) paved; piled up, of stones when building something PWMP *qatuR-an

ʔədu-lPalauan(WMP) religion, belief PMP *qanitu

(ə)-duwaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) two PMP *duha


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ʔə́ʔəBontok(WMP) yes; an expression of agreement PMP *heqe

eʔeManggarai(CMP) yes, good, agreed! PMP *heqe

ʔeʔePalawan Batak(WMP) yes PMP *heqe

è eTboli(WMP) c’mon, come on! PAN *ai₃

éénChuukese(OC) the number three [used in serial counting or to name the number in the abstract, but not used as a numerical adjective] PEMP *tolu

éétChuukese(OC) smoke PMP *qasu₃

eetChuukese(OC) chin POC *qase


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efKola(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

èfakaMalagasy(WMP) anything branching like a fork PWMP *hepak

efàr-inaMalagasy(WMP) be divided into four PWMP *epat-en

éfatraMalagasy(WMP) four PMP *epat

ef-efTanga(OC) late afternoon PAN *Rabi-Rabi

ʔefeŋTiruray(WMP) a plug for a hole; to plug a hole PMP *empeŋ

ʔefiTongan(OC) hold or carry under the arm PMP *qapit

e-fiaMakatea(OC) how many? POC *pica

efi-afiTongan(OC) (to be or become) afternoon or early evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

efi-afi-aTongan(OC) (to take place) early in the evening, or earlier than usual (or than expected) PAN *Rabi-Rabi

ʔefi-hiTongan(OC) push or squeeze in between two things which are already close together; hold, grip or pick up between two things PMP *qapit

efiɁLun Dayeh(WMP) plucking (as corn from the plant) PAN *sepiq

ef-lafaBuruese(CMP) flap (wings) PMP *la(m)bak

eflawanBuruese(CMP) gold PAN *bulaw-an

eflawanTifu(CMP) gold PAN *bulaw-an

ʔefotTiruray(WMP) four PMP *epat

ef-teloBuruese(CMP) thick PCEMP *təlu

ʔefusTiruray(WMP) cigarette or cigar stub; continue up to the end of a task PMP *epus

efutLun Dayeh(WMP) a blowpipe PWMP *seput


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eɣaniManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) harvest PWMP *aRani

eɣaniManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) harvest PWMP *q<aR>anih

egapOld Javanese(WMP) gasp for breath PWMP *egap

egemMadurese(WMP) shut the mouth PMP *eŋgem

əgikCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to thresh grain PAN *Riqek

eɣ-ke-taʔuManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to know how PMP *taqu₂

eg-lina-nBuruese(CMP) clear, unclouded PMP *linaŋ

egsemPalawano(WMP) acid, sour PAN *qaRsem

e-guaNakanamanga(OC) how? in what manner? PMP *kua₁


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ehPohnpeian(OC) liver PMP *qatay

ehaErai(CMP) one, some, a certain; only, alone; other PAN *esa

ehaTugun(CMP) one PAN *esa

eha ehaErai(CMP) each one PMP *esa esa

e hatiMono-Alu(OC) four PCEMP *pat-i

*ehdoʔPMin(WMP) earthquake PPH *Riduq

ehekManggarai(CMP) sound of a cough PCEMP *qekek

ehesBalinese(WMP) shrunken, dwindled, made lower; fallen in (burnt roof) PMP *eRes

ehetEre(OC) sago grub PMP *qabatiR

ehetPapitalai(OC) sago grub PMP *qabateR

ehiHawu(CMP) one (in serial counting only; otherwise 'one' is hèhi) PAN *esa

e-hiaPileni(OC) how much/how many? POC *pica

e-hiaRapanui(OC) how much/how many? POC *pica

ehirPak(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

e-hisPaamese(OC) how many?; however many; an unknown number; how much? what price? what time? POC *pica

e-hisPaamese(OC) how many? POC *pica

e-hũkũEnggano(WMP) head louse PMP *kutu₁


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eiKisar(CMP) leg, foot PAN *qaqay

eiHawu(CMP) water PCEMP *waiR

eiWayan(OC) who? whom? (questions the identity of unnamed persons or the names of individual persons or animals) PMP *sei

ei-Laha(CMP) foot/leg PAN *qaqay

ei aviWayan(OC) in the evening, especially the period from late afternoon until darkness; tonight, this evening POC *Rapi

eiduKapingamarangi(OC) spirit; ghost; monster; ancient deities PMP *qanitu

eiduNukuoro(OC) ghost, spirit, god PMP *qanitu

eidu aiNukuoro(OC) treat as a totem, worship, treat as a supernatural being PMP *qanitu

ei huhuHawu(CMP) milk (breast water) PAN *susu₁

e-ímPalauan(WMP) five (units of time) PAN *lima

ei mada raiHawu(CMP) spring, source PMP *mata nu wahiR

ei meñiHawu(CMP) oil PMP *miñak

eimoTsou(Formosan) five PAN *lima

e-inPaamese(OC) house, home PAN *Rumaq

ei na madaHawu(CMP) tears PCEMP *waiR ni mata

eipo-psoh-iTsou(Formosan) twice PAN *puSaN

ei-rGaloli(CMP) foot/leg PAN *qaqay

e-isPohnpeian(OC) seven PAN *pitu₁

ʔe-isaDobuan(OC) how many? POC *pica

eitLoniu(OC) the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum POC *qarita

ʔeitu-matupuʔaTongan(OC) name of a certain supernatural being PMP *qanitu

ei waHawu(CMP) flood waters PCEMP *waiR baaq


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ejMarshallese(OC) formant in place names; upper; eastern PMP *atas

ejaBare'e(WMP) steps, ladder, generally made of a notched log PMP *haRezan

ejanBalinese(WMP) ladder PMP *haRezan

ejanMalay(WMP) squeezing out by pressure PMP *qezen

ejjenMadurese(WMP) press down (to defecate) PMP *qezen


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ekahOld Javanese(WMP) sigh, moan PWMP *eŋkaq

e-kaiEnggano(WMP) feces, excrement PMP *taqi

ʔəkalBontok(WMP) to empty out; to take everything out PPH *ekal

ekalIbaloy(WMP) to take something away, off; to remove something PPH *ekal

ekálPangasinan(WMP) to remove, take off, get out PPH *ekal

əkanSambal (Botolan)(WMP) to eat PAN *kaen

əkanPuyuma(Formosan) eat PAN *kaen

əkan-ayPuyuma(Formosan) to eat (locative focus) PAN *kaen-ay

ekaŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) owl PWMP *ekaŋ

e-kapoyIbaloy(WMP) weak, unable to do a certain job (as bulldozer to remove a boulder, man to do work, medicine to relieve pain) PPH *kápuy

ekar-enIbaloy(WMP) to walk somewhere, something (as a distance) PPH *lakaj-en

e-kéSangir(WMP) sword grass: Imperata cylindrica PMP *keRiq

ekebKelabit(WMP) to cover; lid, as for a basket PMP *e(ŋ)keb

ekébKankanaey(WMP) inclosed, covered, hidden (applied to the gall bladder when completely inclosed in the liver, which is considered as a good omen) PMP *e(ŋ)keb

ʔəkʔə́kBontok(WMP) to cough, of a slight cough or a dry cough PMP *qekqek

ʔək-əkanBontok(WMP) feast PAN *kaen

ekemKaro Batak(WMP) warm something by holding it between the hands, as a cold baby chick PMP *qeŋkem

ekepManggarai(CMP) brood, sit on eggs PMP *e(ŋ)keb

ekepManggarai(CMP) brood, sit on eggs; sit in hiding PMP *ekep

eketMentawai(WMP) sap, resin; to stick or adhere PWMP *eket

ekhitaBuruese(CMP) octopus PMP *kuRita

ekiRotinese(CMP) scream, shriek, shout at the top of one's voice; laugh, make noise (out of pleasure or anger); a shriek, cry, shout PMP *ekit

ekiRotinese(CMP) scream, shriek, shout at the top of one's voice; laugh, make noise (out of pleasure or anger); a shriek, cry, shout PMP *e(ŋ)kik

ĕkiHawu(CMP) tie, bind PMP *hiket

əkitaTifu(CMP) octopus PMP *kuRita

ekkékIlokano(WMP) laugh with subdued laughter PMP *e(ŋ)kek

ekkékIlokano(WMP) laugh with subdued laughter PMP *qekqek

ékoŋMalay (Brunei)(WMP) tail PMP *ikuŋ

ékorMalay(WMP) tail; tail-like extremity PAN *ikuR

ékor mataMalay(WMP) outer corner of the eye PMP *ikuR ni mata

ekoʔSalako(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ekuŋKelabit(WMP) owl PAN *qekuŋ

ʔeku ŋafaTongan(OC) fathom, six feet; but ofa is more usual in this sense POC *ŋapa₁


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elAmblong(OC) digging stick POC *kali ~ keli

elaHawu(CMP) wing PMP *qelad₂

ʔ-əl-abPalauan(WMP) had ashes put on PWMP *q<in>abu

eladKelabit(WMP) wing of a bird PMP *qelad₂

eládCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) feather; to fletch an arrow PMP *qelad₂

ʔéladPalawan Batak(WMP) wing PMP *qelad₂

eladManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a piece, referring to flat wide objects with little or no volume, such as paper, boards, plates, etc. PPh *qelad₁

ʔ-əl-ádoPalauan(WMP) condition of being thatched PWMP *q<in>atep

elakKelabit(WMP) stored in the fork of a branch PMP *elak

elakFordata(CMP) frontier, border, line of division PMP *elak

elakManggarai(CMP) alternating, spaced widely, seldom PMP *elak

elakOld Javanese(WMP) lie open, with gaping opening PMP *elak

elakRembong(CMP) alternating, at intervals; variation PMP *elak

elakYamdena(CMP) mark off a border; stretch between PMP *elak

élak, hélakMalay(WMP) dodging (a blow) PWMP *qilag

(e)-lakaSimbo(OC) basket POC *laka₂

élak-élakaMalagasy(WMP) middle, intermediate space, that between PMP *elak

élak-enKankanaey(WMP) divide between two PMP *elak

elanKamarian(CMP) ladder PMP *ezan

elanKamarian(CMP) ladder PMP *haRezan

elanaMalagasy(WMP) the middle, intermediate space or time between; a mediator, an intermediate PMP *qelaŋ

elaneBoano(WMP) ladder PMP *haRezan

elaŋAgutaynen(WMP) a room divider; walls between rooms; separated by something PMP *qelaŋ

elaŋKelabit(WMP) border, place where the jungle borders on a clearing (if one does not intend to expand the clearing) PMP *qelaŋ

elaŋKaro Batak(WMP) press between something, as in going through a crowd PMP *qelaŋ

ʔelaŋSika(CMP) firmament; strait between islands PMP *qelaŋ

elaŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) space in between; an object in between two objects PMP *qelaŋ

élapSasak(WMP) flame, light PMP *ilap₁

elarBalinese(WMP) wing of a bird PMP *qelad₂

elatPaku(WMP) wing PMP *qelad₂

èlatraMalagasy(WMP) wing PMP *qelad₂

e-latuLakalai(OC) child; child of Ego’s sibling PEMP *natu

e-lauPaulohi(CMP) far, distant PMP *zauq

elavatManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) wall; to make a wall PPH *alabat

*əlawPSan(WMP) day; sun PMP *qalejaw

eleBoano₂(CMP) to stand PMP *kedeŋ

eleLaha(CMP) to stand PMP *kedeŋ

eleHitu(CMP) stand PMP *kedeŋ

*elebePRuk(Formosan) to close PAN *qeNeb₁

eledBalinese(WMP) swallow down PWMP *qeled

eledCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) sink, submerge in water PWMP *qeled

ʔeledTiruray(WMP) sink, as a stone in the water or the sun in the sky PWMP *qeled

elekKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) sleep PPh *helek

elékKankanaey(WMP) sleep with somebody PPh *helek

ʔélekPalawan Batak(WMP) sleepy PPh *helek

ʔələ́mBontok(WMP) sheltered or surrounded, as a trail which passes through a forested place PMP *elem₁

ʔələ́mBontok(WMP) reluctant, cautious, fearful, suspicious PWMP *elem₂

elémCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) guard, keep watch (against raiders while one's companions sleep) PWMP *elem₂

elemKaro Batak(WMP) hate someone PWMP *elem₂

elem-elem atéKaro Batak(WMP) hate PWMP *elem₂

e-leŋEre(OC) up POC *laŋi₂

éléŋMalay(WMP) heel over, list to the side PWMP *iliŋ₃

eleoAmpibabo-Lauje(WMP) sun PMP *qalejaw

eleoPetapa Taje(WMP) sun PMP *qalejaw

ʔələ-ʔólPalauan(WMP) beach; sand PMP *qenay qenay

eletBalinese(WMP) hire, rent PMP *elet₁

elétPangasinan(WMP) rigor, firmness PWMP *elet₂

elétPangasinan(WMP) rigor, firmness PMP *heRet

*eletPMin(WMP) intervene, between; put between; partition PMP *qelet

ʔele(t)Sika(CMP) debt, be in debt PMP *elet₁

ʔeletTiruray(WMP) borrow, lend PMP *elet₁

ʔeletTiruray(WMP) boundary, dividing line PMP *qelet

eletTontemboan(WMP) do in between, do with intervals, insert oneself between others to do something (as in singing solo in alternation with a choir) PMP *qelet

eletManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) an object between two objects; be between two objects PMP *qelet

ʔələtBontok(WMP) to bind; to tighten; to make taut PMP *heRet

ʔelewTiruray(WMP) pestle PMP *qahelu

ʔeliHawaiian(OC) to dig, excavate PCEMP *keli

ʔeliKwaio(OC) to dig PCEMP *keli

ʔeliLau(OC) to dig PCEMP *keli

eliMalmariv(OC) digging stick POC *kali ~ keli

eliMono-Alu(OC) to dig PCEMP *keli

eli ~ eli-eliSa'a(OC) to dig, as in digging up yams or digging a grave PCEMP *keli

ʔeli-aKwaio(OC) to dig up PCEMP *keli

ʔəlídPalauan(WMP) god; deity; spirit; sacred object (about which some prohibition is made); center PMP *qanitu

eliiDampelas(WMP) house post PMP *hadiRi

ʔeli-laLau(OC) digging PCEMP *keli

elimaŋLoniu(OC) mangrove crab POC *qali-maŋo

elimoaŋPohnpeian(OC) mangrove crab PMP *qali-maŋu

eliŋBalinese(WMP) weep, wail; crying, weeping PMP *eliŋ

eliŋKelabit(WMP) species of bamboo smaller in circumference than betuŋ PWMP *qeliŋ

elísəbPalauan(WMP) yesterday PWMP *niRab

eli-watiManobo (Sarangani)(WMP) earthworm PMP *wati₁

eliwatiManobo (Sarangani)(WMP) earthworm PAN *qali-

eliy-anIsneg(WMP) neighbor, fellow citizen PMP *hili

eliy-avukManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) dust; of dust, to fly or be stirred up PMP *qabuk

ellakTae'(WMP) walk through something, step between something, as between the rows of rice plants in a paddy field PMP *elak

elleʔBuginese(WMP) intervening space (as between the fingers or toes), atmosphere, space between earth and sky PMP *qelet

əllə'tIsneg(WMP) strip of uncleared ground: a natural boundary between two rice fields PMP *qelet

elloSangir(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

ellokMadurese(WMP) curve (in a kris blade) PWMP *qeluk

elloŋBuginese(WMP) neck PMP *eluŋ

elluŋBuginese(WMP) cloud PWMP *heluŋ

elluŋSangir(WMP) shadow PWMP *heluŋ

elmaŋLeipon(OC) mangrove crab POC *qali-maŋo

(e)lokMalay(WMP) curve or bend (in a kris) PWMP *qeluk

e-lóləmPalauan(WMP) six PAN *enem

eloŋTae'(WMP) curl up, as a snake; flutter; up and down movement of a flag PMP *eluŋ

ʔəlt-ənBontok(WMP) be tied up tightly PWMP *heRet-en

elt-iPenchal(OC) to caulk POC *qarita

e-luPaamese(OC) two POC *rua

eluSeediq(Formosan) road, path (Ferrell 1969) PAN *qeNuR

eluʔSimalur(WMP) bay PWMP *qeluk

e-luaMono-Alu(OC) two POC *rua

e-lu-a-luPaamese(OC) in pairs, two by two POC *rua rua₁

elukBalinese(WMP) curve, bend; bend in a kris blade PWMP *qeluk

elukOld Javanese(WMP) bend, curve PWMP *qeluk

elukSundanese(WMP) bend, curve PWMP *qeluk

elunFordata(CMP) bent, curved PMP *eluŋ

eluŋOld Javanese(WMP) young and flexible branch, shoot (esp. of climbing plants) PMP *eluŋ

e-luoSie(OC) to vomit PMP *luaq


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-em-Kelabit(WMP) active verb infix used with intransitive bases (e.g. S nurun O = 'S lowers O', S t-em-urun O = 'S descends O') PMP *<um>

emKosraean(OC) outrigger POC *saman

-em-Malay(WMP) rare fossilized infix in a few reduplicated forms that refer to natural actions: gilaŋ g-em-ilaŋ 'scintillating', guroh g-em-uroh 'to thunder', etc. PMP *<um>

-em-Puyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) marker of actor focus PAN *<um>

emaDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) a kiss PWMP *ema₂

emaKapampangan(WMP) black-colored crab PPH *aRama

emaKaro Batak(WMP) kiss, embrace PWMP *ema₂

emaKeo(CMP) father PAN *amax

ema-ʔKomodo(CMP) mother PMP *ema-q

emaLamaholot(CMP) mother PMP *ema₁

emaManggarai(CMP) F, FB, MZH PMP *ama-q

emaManggarai(CMP) father; used in teknonyms PMP *ema₁

emaNgadha(CMP) father; favorite son PMP *ama-q

emaNgadha(CMP) father PMP *ema₁

*ema-ʔPSan(WMP) mother PMP *ema-q

ema-ʔRembong(CMP) mother; father; MZH, HF PMP *ema-q

e-maSobei(OC) to come POC *mai

(e)maSundanese(WMP) mother (address in informal speech); also a title for married women of inferior social status PMP *ema₁

emaUjir(CMP) father PAN *amax

emaYami(WMP) soft PWMP *lemaq

ema ate-n bootTetun(CMP) (lit. 'person with big liver') a brave person PMP *X₁ + qatay

ʔəmádəʔPalauan(WMP) unripe/green; (food) raw/uncooked PMP *qamataq

ema-kMalay(WMP) mother, aunt PMP *ema-q

ʔəmáŋPalauan(WMP) large sea crab PMP *qali-maŋu

emaŋTapuh(WMP) father PMP *amá-ŋ

ema rii-nTetun(CMP) an upright person, tall and straight PCEMP *adiRi

e mata piaAnuta(OC) how many tens of fish? POC *pica

e-mata-rikiLakalai(OC) square, fine-mesh net for catching small fish PMP *mata

ʔ<əm>atəɖPuyuma(Formosan) to deliver something to someone PAN *S<um>ateD

e mate laMussau(OC) he is dead POC *mate

*emayPSan(WMP) rice in the field PMP *hemay

embahBalinese(WMP) take, be taken PWMP *embaq

embahKaro Batak(WMP) bring, take, carry (as a letter) PWMP *embaq

em-balauMalay(WMP) gum-lac; shellac; also solder, sealing wax and the material used for fixing the haft of a blade in the handle. Local embalau is a gummy substance deposited by the female Coccus lacca on the twigs of certain trees, but the best embalau is imported and its exact nature is not known PWMP *balaw₂

embanBalinese(WMP) carry a child; rear, bring up (a child) PMP *heban

embanMalay(WMP) band going around the body. Of the bands supporting a porter's knapsack; also of a horse's belly-band PMP *heban

əmbawaŋIban(WMP) a wild mango PWMP *ambawaŋ

embedBalinese(WMP) band or ring which firmly closes something PWMP *embej

əmbəkBintulu(WMP) hit, as a dog with a stick PWMP *he(m)bek

em-berasDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) increase in number, of cattle PMP *beRas

embetSasak(WMP) black cord around the middle of a newborn or a sick person PWMP *embej

embetSasak(WMP) black cord around the middle of a newborn or a sick person PWMP *embet

embetTontemboan(WMP) wrap around, bind the middle (as with a belt) PWMP *embet

em-binarDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) to rise, of the moon PMP *binaR

embo-ʔRembong(CMP) grandparent/grandchild PMP *empu-q

emboSangir(WMP) what is moved on top PWMP *embaw

embuYamdena(CMP) grandparent/grandchild PMP *empu

embunKaro Batak(WMP) cloud, dew PWMP *qembun

embunMalay(WMP) dew, dewy moisture; vapor PWMP *qembun

embuŋBalinese(WMP) young bamboo shoots, eaten as a vegetable PMP *rebuŋ

emburMandar(WMP) sow, strew, scatter about PMP *ebuR

émburMandar(WMP) scatter, sow, strew PWMP *imbuR

embusKaro Batak(WMP) to blow PMP *qembus

embusTontemboan(WMP) blowing of pigs as they flee in fear PMP *qembus

embutKaro Batak(WMP) to pound, of the pulse PWMP *embut

embut-embutSasak(WMP) fontanel PWMP *embut-embut

emegBalinese(WMP) still wet, damp (as greens just picked) PWMP *emeg

eməhSa'ban(WMP) five PAN *lima

ʔeméhTiruray(WMP) sugar; sweet PMP *hemis

emekAmara(OC) bird POC *manuk

ʔəmʔə́mBontok(WMP) shut up; enclose in a small space; surround; crowd around PAN *qemqem

ememDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) hold a liquid in the mouth without swallowing it PAN *qemqem

emʔémIlokano(WMP) compress the lips PAN *qemqem

emʔémItbayaten(WMP) crush hard foodstuffs against the teeth (nuts, shells) PAN *qemqem

emʔémKankanaey(WMP) half-choked, suffocated, stifled PAN *qemqem

əməmSaisiyat (Tungho)(Formosan) fog, mist PAN *lemlem

emʔemManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) put something in the mouth PAN *qemqem

eme na paŋa-lai-lai-onToba Batak(WMP) riceplant that stands tall and beautiful like the tail feathers of a cock, but is empty of grain PWMP *lawi-lawi

emiNgadha(CMP) a small amount; small, trifling; few; insignificant PMP *emit

*emisPMin(WMP) sweet PMP *emis₁

*emisPMin(WMP) sweet PMP *hemis

*emisPSan(WMP) sweet PMP *emis₁

*emisPSan(WMP) sweet PMP *hemis

emisManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) sweet PMP *emis₁

ʔe-m-ite-kBuruese(CMP) dirty PCEMP *ma-qitem, ma-qetem

emma-ʔBuginese(WMP) mother PMP *ema-q

emmaʔMadurese(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

ĕmmeSangir(WMP) rice in the field, unhusked rice; food (in general) PMP *hemay

emmuŋSangir(WMP) save up, heap together, gather, collect; stay together, keep company PWMP *emuŋ

emniWetan(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

ʔemoSamoan(OC) blink, flash PMP *kimet

emo-enIbaloy(WMP) to tame, break, train an animal (as carabao for plowing) PPH *haq(e)muq

ɛ-monKaulong(OC) bird POC *manuk

emótCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to suffocate (as for a person under a blanket to not be able to breathe) PMP *hemut

empaʔMadurese(WMP) four PMP *epat

em-paitIbaloy(WMP) sour, bitter, salt PMP *paqit₂

empakBalinese(WMP) break, break off of itself (e.g. a branch) PWMP *epak

empakBalinese(WMP) break, break off of itself (as a branch) PWMP *hepak

empakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) cut, sever PWMP *hepak

empakKaro Batak(WMP) wood chips, wood shavings PWMP *hepak

empakSasak(WMP) cracks in the lips (from fever) PWMP *hepak

empak-empakSasak(WMP) channels or cracks in the ground PWMP *hepak

empanBalinese(WMP) bait; to bait, feed PAN *paen

empanJavanese(WMP) something used for igniting PWMP *epan

empanKaro Batak(WMP) bait PAN *paen

empan-inBalinese(WMP) be fed, be baited PAN *paen

empaŋIban(WMP) fish weir or dam of stakes and cane set upright, in which traps may be set PMP *empeŋ

empaŋMalay(WMP) blocking with a net or barrier; damming dam; barrier net; weir PMP *empeŋ

empaŋMalay(WMP) blocking with a net or barrier; dam, barrier-net; weir PMP *qempeŋ

empaŋSasak(WMP) notched, chipped (of any cutting implement) PMP *epaŋ

empapMalay(WMP) flapping against; flopping down upon; clapping the hand on; striking water with the flat of the paddle PWMP *epap

empasIban(WMP) fling down, dash down, drop (as a load) PWMP *qempas

empasKaro Batak(WMP) fall with a smack on one's posterior PWMP *qempas

empasSasak(WMP) broken off, crumbling (of a wall) PWMP *empas

empatBalinese(WMP) four PMP *epat

empatIban(WMP) four PMP *epat

empatKaro Batak(WMP) four PMP *epat

empatMalay(WMP) four PMP *epat

empatSasak(WMP) four PMP *epat

empat-anBalinese(WMP) fourth, quarter PWMP *epat-an

empat berŋī-nKaro Batak(WMP) already four nights old PAN *beRŋi-n

empat-empat-naSasak(WMP) all four PMP *epat epat

empeduIban(WMP) gall bladder PAN *qapejux

em-pekakIban(WMP) (of a hen after laying an egg) cackle PWMP *pekak

empelas kasapMalay(WMP) a plant (Tetracera assa) of which the leaves are used as sandpaper PWMP *kasep

empeŋBalinese(WMP) make confused sounds, be noisy, have a humming or roaring in the ears PMP *epeŋ

empeŋManggarai(CMP) restrain a person who wants to fight; block a stream, dam up PMP *empeŋ

empeŋManggarai(CMP) constrain, hold back (a person who wants to fight); brake a car PMP *qempeŋ

empeŋSasak(WMP) for someone to obstruct the way PMP *empeŋ

empeŋSasak(WMP) block someone's way; obstruct PMP *qempeŋ

emperitMalay(WMP) finch PWMP *ampeRij

empiʔSasak(WMP) burnt rice which adheres to the pot PMP *epiq

empiasIban(WMP) drops of driven rain (e.g. drops of rain blown onto a table by a window, drops of rain driven into a room) PWMP *ampias

empitIban(WMP) squeeze, press PAN *qepit

empitSasak(WMP) burnt rice which adheres to the pot PMP *epit₁

empoManggarai(CMP) ancestor, grandchild; grandmother (W. MGG); taboo for a given clan (as certain animals); name for calling the spirits; nickname for crocodile; refined term for male and female genitals; very old PMP *empu

empoSangir(WMP) father-in-law, mother-in-law PMP *empu-q

empokJavanese(WMP) discharge stomach gas or flatus PMP *epuk

empokSasak(WMP) bang, detonation; pop, burst out, explode PMP *epuk

empok-empokSasak(WMP) popped rice, used as an offering PMP *epuk

em-polotBuruese(CMP) sticky; faithfulness PMP *pulut

empo-nOld Javanese(WMP) distinguished person, "master", "lord" PWMP *empu-an

emposRembong(CMP) stump, fag-end of anything stiff, as a smouldering log PMP *epus

em-potiIbaloy(WMP) white; also of light hues such as yellow, pink, pastel blue and green PMP *putiq

empuBalinese(WMP) pandit, scholar, craftsman; carpenter PMP *empu

empuIban(WMP) possess, own, take as one's own PMP *empu

empuJavanese(WMP) ancient title for scholars, poets, outstanding artists, master craftsmen PMP *empu

empuKaro Batak(WMP) lord; owner PMP *empu

empuMalay(WMP) master. The title empu is associated in Malaya with old makers of krisses and is given in Java to personified krisses; it suggests a master-craftsman PMP *empu

(e)mpuOld Javanese(WMP) distinguished person, "master", "lord"; often, but by no means exclusively, of religious persons (brahmans and others) and joined to a proper or categorical noun ("sir", "lord", "master", "the honorable or reverend") PMP *empu

empuSasak(WMP) grandchild PMP *empu

empu-anMalay(WMP) lady -- in titles such as eŋku empuan, teŋku empuan (queen) PWMP *empu-an

empu-anTontemboan(WMP) title which shamans give to one another PWMP *empu-an

(em)pu-naKaro Batak(WMP) lord, master, owner of something PWMP *empu-ni-a

empu-ñaMalay(WMP) possession; to own; owner PWMP *empu-ni-a

empu-ŋKaro Batak(WMP) (vocative of empu?) Great-great-great-grandfather; ancestor of the fifth ascending generation PWMP *empú-ŋ

empu-ŋSangir(WMP) forefather, ancestor PWMP *empú-ŋ

empu-ŋTontemboan(WMP) Lord, name with which the gods were addressed in ancient times PWMP *empú-ŋ

em-rapa-tBuruese(CMP) flat PMP *da(m)paD

em-seroBuruese(CMP) hiccupy PAN *sedu

e-mtaγAnejom(OC) fear POC *matakut

ʔəmuAmis(Formosan) New Year’s cake, made of sweet sticky rice PAN *qemu

emuBalinese(WMP) have the mouth full without swallowing PMP *emuR

emumaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to show affection or good feeling for someone by taking good care of them or by welcoming them PPH *amuma

emunManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) if, when (in a declarative sense) PWMP *emun

emuŋKelabit(WMP) way of gathering PWMP *emuŋ

èmurKédang(CMP) mouth-wash, gargle PMP *emuR

e muriFijian(OC) behind, later POC *muri


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-enKelabit(WMP) non-past passive suffix; also used in imperatives PAN *-en

-enSambal (Botolan)(WMP) marker of a subject derived from an initial direct object; also used in imperatives; e.g. Paty-en nin lalaki nin koyà ya damowag The carabao will be killed with a knife by the man (Antworth 1979:39); Itap-en mo ya demek throw away the trash (Antworth 1979:49) PAN *-en

enGedaged(OC) lie, rest, sleep POC *qenop

-enIrarutu(SHWNG) to sleep PAN *qinep

-enItbayaten(WMP) direct passive suffix; also used in imperatives; e.g. Kan-en mo a tattavoh o kanen awi Eat all of the food (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983:64) PAN *-en

-enIvatan(WMP) suffix of direct passive; also used in imperatives; e.g. Pak-boal-en no tao qo danom The man is boiling the water (Reid 1966:53); Ovay-en mo pa o hovid Please untie the string (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983:59) PAN *-en

-enJavanese(WMP) passive imperative suffix; suffix for a (generally negative) bodily process or condition; e.g. Deleŋ-en Look (at it!); Dridjiné getih-en His finger bled, Mata-né walaŋ-en His eyes bulged out; bubuk wood weevil, bubuk-en crumbling (from having been eaten by weevils) PAN *-en

-enKaro Batak(WMP) verbal and nominalizing suffix; e.g. gagaŋ-en suffer from eruptions in the mouth; inum-en what is drunk, drink, beverage PAN *-en

enLakona(OC) sand POC *qone

-enMaranao(WMP) object focus; e.g. Tabas-en si Batua Batua will cut it PAN *-en

enNauna(OC) lie down POC *qenop

-enOld Javanese(WMP) non-past passive suffix used primarily with bodily afflictions; e.g. bubuh-en to suffer from a tumor PAN *-en

-enPangasinan(WMP) passive, e.g. bása-en will be read ... -en is also often used in sentences with imperative force, e.g. Tawag-en moy Pedro (will-be-called by-you + subject marker Pedro = ) (You) call Pedro (Benton 1971a:130) PAN *-en

-ənPazeh(Formosan) passive suffix; e.g. sulih-ən be baked, kan-ən be eaten, ʔutaʔ-ən be vomited, ʔalaw kan-ən inaki lia The fish was already eaten by me; (Li 1978:570) Rubaŋ-en ni saw lia ki wazuʔ The dog was already buried by some person (Li 1978:574) PAN *-en

enTanga(OC) to eat; feast POC *kani

-en-, -i-Melanau (Mukah)(WMP) (in ablauting verbs) marker of the preterite passive PAN *<in>

-enaAnsus(SHWNG) sleep PAN *qinep

e-naAnuta(OC) that, there PAN *-na

enaBuruese(CMP) sand PAN *qenay

enaKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) sand PAN *qenay

énaMoor(SHWNG) sleep PAN *qinep

-enaMunggui(SHWNG) to sleep PAN *qinep

enaNgadha(CMP) sand; grain PAN *qenay

enaPapuma(SHWNG) sleep PCEMP *qenəp

enaPom(SHWNG) sleep PCEMP *qenəp

enaHawu(CMP) six PAN *enem

enaSerui-Laut(SHWNG) sleep PCEMP *qenəp

enaWindesi(SHWNG) sleep PCEMP *qenəp

enaWoi(SHWNG) sleep PAN *qinep

enafSelaru(CMP) lie down, sleep PAN *qinep

ena-hBuruese(CMP) to scale a fish PMP *enap

ʔənáiKanakanabu(Formosan) earth, soil PAN *qenay

enak-enManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) niece, nephew; a person's relative of his child's generation PWMP *anak-en

ena-koWaropen(SHWNG) sleep PCEMP *qenəp

enamMalay(WMP) six PAN *enem

e na mata-naFijian(OC) in front of him, in his presence PMP *mata

ena-miaWindesi(SHWNG) dream PCEMP *qenəp

ena-nKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) sleep, lie down PCEMP *qenəp

e na noaFijian(OC) yesterday POC *ñoRap

ena-ŋSika(CMP) scales of a fish PMP *enap

enapiŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) cheek PWMP *anapiŋ

enatIbaloy(WMP) to pull something towards oneself (as with rope in leading an animal, extracting a nail) PPH *enat

ena-télSelaru(CMP) three PAN *telu

enat-enAgutaynen(WMP) to remove, take something off the stove PPH *enat-en

ʔənat-ənBontok(WMP) to pull back; to withdraw; to retract; to pull up or away from PPH *enat-en

enawMalay(WMP) sugar-palm: Arenga saccharifera (Java) PMP *qanahaw

enawun yafurKei(CMP) burn lime PAN *qapuR

ʔenáyPalawan Batak(WMP) stream, brook; streambed PAN *qenay

*ena(y)PAmb(CMP) sand PAN *qenay

*ənayPRuk(Formosan) sand PAN *qenay

ʔəna-ʔənauRukai (Mantauran)(Formosan) wash clothing PAN *Señaw

en-bububUbir(OC) sleep POC *qenop

enceŋManggarai(CMP) blow the nose (without a handkerchief) PMP *eseŋ

endaʔIban(WMP) not PWMP *enda

endaʔSasak(WMP) don't! (vetative) PMP *edaq

ʔendaʔTiruray(WMP) none, not any, not PMP *edaq

en-dabuhDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) to fall; to set, of the sun PWMP *dabuq

endahMalay(WMP) no, not (Brunei, Sarawak) PMP *edaq

endaŋBalinese(WMP) stopping of the rain PWMP *endaŋ

endaŋSasak(WMP) to stop (of the rain) PWMP *endaŋ

endaŋ-endaŋ-eBalinese(WMP) dry season PWMP *endaŋ endaŋ

en-dapdapDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) kind of shade tree known for its connection with the cultivation of coffee: Erythrina indica PMP *dapdap₁

eṇḍemJavanese(WMP) thing concealed; mutual ill-feelings PWMP *qendem

endemKaro Batak(WMP) overcast; clouded over, of the sun or moon PWMP *edem₁

endetSasak(WMP) lie heavily on something, press down on something PAN *qedet

en-dirKei(CMP) to stand, stand up PAN *diRi

endoTontemboan(WMP) sun; day PMP *qalejaw

*endumPSan(WMP) learn; remember; brood PWMP *qendem

enduŋSangir(WMP) learn, study PWMP *qendem

endutJavanese(WMP) bouncy, springy PWMP *endut

endutKaro Batak(WMP) elastic, resilient, springing back, of something that has been pressed down PWMP *endut

eneKédang(CMP) sand (Fox, J. n.d.) PAN *qenay

eneRotinese(CMP) submerge something in or under water, soak in water PMP *eñep

enebBalinese(WMP) roof, top of a house PMP *qeneb₁

ʔənə́bBontok(WMP) door, doorway; to shut up, to close a door PMP *qeneb₁

enébKankanaey(WMP) to shut, to close PMP *qeneb₁

enebManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) spread all over, as news, a custom, a certain plant which becomes common; of a person, to be well travelled; of a disease, to spread all over a province or all over a person's body PMP *qeneb₂

enəfNumfor(SHWNG) sleep PCEMP *qenəp

enefBiga(SHWNG) to sleep PCEMP *qenəp

ʔenekSika(CMP) press, squash PMP *qeñek

enemBalinese(WMP) six PAN *enem

enemKelabit(WMP) six PAN *enem

ənəmBintulu(WMP) six PAN *enem

ʔənə́mBontok(WMP) six PAN *enem

enémCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) six PAN *enem

enemKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) six PAN *enem

enémKankanaey(WMP) six PAN *enem

enemKaro Batak(WMP) six PAN *enem

ənəmKenyah (Long Ikang)(WMP) six PAN *enem

enemManggarai(CMP) six PAN *enem

enemOld Javanese(WMP) six PAN *enem

enemPaiwan(Formosan) six PAN *enem

ʔenemPalawan Batak(WMP) six PAN *enem

*enemPMin(WMP) six PAN *enem

enemPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) six PAN *enem

ʔenemTiruray(WMP) six PAN *enem

ənəmTonsawang(WMP) six PAN *enem

*enemePRuk(Formosan) six PAN *enem

ənəməSaaroa(Formosan) six PAN *enem

ənəmə ŋa uluSimalur(WMP) sixty PMP *ŋa

enem ŋeh puluʔKelabit(WMP) sixty PMP *enem ŋa puluq

enenW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) wind PMP *haŋin

enenW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) wind PMP *haŋin

eneŋBalinese(WMP) silent, at rest, still PMP *qeneŋ

enéŋKankanaey(WMP) quiet, still, tranquil; to stop, cease (romping, etc.) PMP *qeneŋ

enepTontemboan(WMP) one who keeps to himself, uncommunicative person PPh *enep

enepDusner(SHWNG) to sleep PAN *qinep

en-fānKei(CMP) to feed; bait a hook PCEMP *paniŋ

en-fānKei(CMP) to feed; to bait a hook PAN *paen

en-fan kenKei(CMP) to hit the mark PAN *keNa

eni-Chuukese(OC) (in compounds only) wind, blow POC *aŋin

eniLuang(CMP) sand PAN *qenay

eniMokilese(OC) demon, ghost PMP *qanitu

eniPohnpeian(OC) ghost, usually considered malicious PMP *qanitu

eniWetan(CMP) sea turtle PMP *peñu

eni aramasPohnpeian(OC) ancestral ghost PMP *qanitu

éninaMalagasy(WMP) six PAN *enem

enivuŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) any palm of the genus Oncosperma PMP *qanibuŋ

enjakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) place the foot on PWMP *enzak

enjakMalay(WMP) step, tread PWMP *enzak

enjakOld Javanese(WMP) step on PWMP *enzak

enjenSasak(WMP) press or squeeze out (in defecation or childbirth) PMP *qezen

enjepSasak(WMP) close eyes; sleep PWMP *qezep

enjiSundanese(WMP) a friendly name for girls used in address PWMP *enzi

enjokIban(WMP) proffer, hand to, give PWMP *e(n)zuk

en-kenKei(CMP) to strike, hit, affect PAN *keNa

en-leta-rKei(CMP) walk over something narrow PCMP *letay₂

en-lunKei(CMP) to pack up, wrap up PCMP *lunu₁

en-mali-tKei(CMP) laugh, laugh at PCEMP *malip

ennaSangir(WMP) thought PPh *henaq

enneʔMandar(WMP) stretch, as rubber, spring, etc. PWMP *eñat

enneʔMandar(WMP) stretch, as rubber, spring, etc. PWMP *heñat

enneSangir(WMP) sand PAN *qenay

ennemMadurese(WMP) six PAN *enem

enneŋBuginese(WMP) six PAN *enem

ennépIlokano(WMP) keep, conceal (one's feelings, esp. rancor) PPh *enep

ɛnnoWest Damar(CMP) sand PAN *qenay

ennuŋSangir(WMP) six PAN *enem

ʔenoDobuan(OC) sleep POC *qenop

enoGabadi(OC) to sleep PAN *qinep

enoKove(OC) to sleep PAN *qinep

enoPokau(OC) lie down to sleep PAN *qinep

enoLusi(OC) sleep POC *qenop

enoManam(OC) sleep, lie down POC *qenop

enoMotu(OC) lie down POC *qenop

enoRaga(OC) lie down POC *qenop

enoRotinese(CMP) way, path, road PMP *qenuR

ənoSimalur(WMP) sea turtle PMP *peñu

ʔeno bui-buiMolima(OC) roll over, of a person POC *pui pui

əno-eSimalur(WMP) to fill, as a bamboo water container PAN *peNuq

eno(eno)Sa'a(OC) lie down POC *qenop

enoh-iSa'a(OC) lie down POC *qenop

eno-ilo-ilo-inaBwaidoga/Bwaidoka(OC) (of a star) to twinkle POC *iro iro

ənomBulungan(WMP) six PAN *enem

enomBekatan(WMP) six PAN *enem

èno-ŋMoken(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-ŋ

ʔeno-ʔenoDobuan(OC) lie down POC *qenop

en-refa-kKei(CMP) to measure in fathoms PAN *depah

en-rirUbir(OC) lie down POC *qenop

en-sagapsapIbaloy(WMP) rough to the taste, tongue --- describes the unpleasant feeling some things give in the mouth (as hair on meat, bone in fish, peeling of some beans that come off, stone or husk in cooked rice) PPH *sagapsap

en-sakitIbaloy(WMP) painful PMP *sakit

ən-saliʔSangir(WMP) floor of (bamboo) laths, housefloor PMP *saleR

en-suitIban(WMP) to tip up, tilt PWMP *suqit

entaNgaju Dayak(WMP) what is eaten alone (as fish without rice or vegetables) PAN *qetaq

entaha m-urKei(CMP) hold the till or rudder PCEMP *m-udi

entakIban(WMP) drive a pile; bump down, come down with a thump, knead or beat (clothes in washing) PMP *qentek

ən-tanaSangir(WMP) earth, ground, land PMP *taneq

əntaŋMalay(WMP) towards PMP *e(n)teŋ

entasSasak(WMP) chop through (forest, hedge) PWMP *etas

en-tatakKei(CMP) to knock, tap; playing of musical instruments with keys, valves, or holes PAN *taktak₂

entebBalinese(WMP) cut off, prune, top (trees), poll PWMP *eteb

entekManggarai(CMP) go into a rage while stamping the feet PMP *qentek

entekSasak(WMP) knock, pound, beat PWMP *etek

entekSasak(WMP) knock, pound PMP *qentek

entelBalinese(WMP) thick, close, dense, solid PMP *etel

entelSasak(WMP) make something full, stamp down PMP *etel

entel-inBalinese(WMP) crammed, stuffed PMP *etel

entepMadurese(WMP) to close, shut PMP *qentep

entepManggarai(CMP) close, shut; envelope, wrapper; cover up, as with a patch PMP *qentep

enter-enterSundanese(WMP) vibrate, shake, tremble PMP *eter

entiJavanese(WMP) wait PMP *qeti₃

entipBalinese(WMP) crust of rice stuck on the bottom of a pan PWMP *etip

entipSasak(WMP) burnt rice stuck to cooking pot PWMP *etip

entuʔSimalur(WMP) knock, pound, beat PMP *etuk

əntuə̯ʔMei Lan Modang(WMP) to vomit PAN *utaq

entulJavanese(WMP) bounce up and down (on) PWMP *entul

en-tunKei(CMP) roast or stew in the fire, to bake; shoot off firearms PMP *tunu

en-turukKei(CMP) to show, demonstrate; point out, point to; teach PMP *tuzuk

entutBalinese(WMP) fart PMP *qetut

entutJavanese(WMP) flatus; slang: baloney! nuts! PMP *qetut

entutOld Javanese(WMP) fart, wind PMP *qetut

entutSasak(WMP) wind, flatus PMP *qetut

entutTontemboan(WMP) fart PMP *qetut

entut-entutSasak(WMP) a certain plant with very stinky leaves PWMP *qetut qetut

əntuʔLong Gelat Modang(WMP) to vomit PAN *utaq

e-nuAgta (Central Cagayan)(WMP) what? PAN *-nu₁

énúChuukese(OC) god, spirit, spirit of the dead, ghost PMP *qanitu

enuLeti(CMP) sea turtle PMP *peñu

enuWaiyewa(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

enugManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a path or trail in the grass or forest which is used by wild pigs, rodents, etc. PMP *qenuR

enunaŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a tree, Cordia dichotoma, the leaves of which are used in decoction for bathing a new-born child and its mother. The gelatinous substance in the fruit is used for paste. In times of famine the young leaves are dipped in honey and eaten PAN *qaNuNaŋ

énúú-n aramasChuukese(OC) spirit of a dead person that has acquired someone as a medium PMP *qanitu

eñekMadurese(WMP) step on (to crush) PMP *qeñek

eñiHawu(CMP) press under the flat hand PMP *qeñek

eñohNgaju Dayak(WMP) coconut palm and fruit PMP *niuR


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Kosraean(OC) wind; fart POC *aŋin

Mokilese(OC) air, breeze, wind POC *aŋin

əŋaRhade(WMP) sesame seed PMP *leŋa

əŋadPuyuma(Formosan) breathe PAN *Seŋad

eŋahMalay(WMP) panting PWMP *eŋaq

əŋahSundanese(WMP) open the mouth (so as to speak) PWMP *eŋaq

əŋapSundanese(WMP) gasp for breath PMP *eŋap

əŋəəŋəSaaroa(Formosan) stopper, plug PAN *seŋseŋ

eŋékMinangkabau(WMP) crying of a child PWMP *eŋik

eŋékTontemboan(WMP) peep, cheep, chirp, squeak PWMP *eŋik

eŋʔéŋIlokano(WMP) grumble, mutter, mumble; stutter, stammer; whimper, whine PPh *qeŋqeŋ

ʔeŋeŋTiruray(WMP) buzzing sound, as of flies or mosquitoes PWMP *eŋeŋ

eŋesTontemboan(WMP) breathe heavily, snore lightly PPh *eŋes

eŋgaʔIban(WMP) as far as, as much as PWMP *qeŋgah

eŋgaItbayaten(WMP) no PWMP *eŋga

eŋgaMalay(WMP) no, not (Jakarta) PWMP *eŋga

eŋgaʔSasak(WMP) merely, only, just PWMP *eŋga

əŋgao̯ʔWoq Helaq Modang(WMP) two PMP *duha

əŋgao̯ʔLong Gelat Modang(WMP) two PMP *duha

əŋgao̯ʔMei Lan Modang(WMP) two PMP *duha

eŋgékMalay(WMP) to pant PMP *egik

eŋgemSasak(WMP) carry in the closed hand PMP *eŋgem

əŋ-gigitSasak(WMP) to bite PWMP *gitgit

eŋgikJavanese(WMP) chirp of a certain beetle PMP *egik

əŋ-giliŋSasak(WMP) turn (something) around PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

eŋgokJavanese(WMP) throat PMP *e(ŋ)guk

eŋguʔSangir(WMP) make a grumbling or moaning sound PMP *e(ŋ)guk

eŋguk-eŋgukSundanese(WMP) onom. for the sound of the turtledove PMP *e(ŋ)guk

eŋguk-eŋgukSundanese(WMP) onomatopoetic for the sound of the turtledove PMP *heqeguk

eŋguŋSangir(WMP) the wings with which a hen protects her chicks PMP *eŋgem

eŋ-iKosraean(OC) break wind to, fart on (or at) POC *aŋin

eŋiʔSimalur(WMP) weep, cry (children) PWMP *eŋik

eŋieŋPohnpeian(OC) angry (honorific) POC *aŋit

eŋitManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to laugh aloud PPH *eŋit

eŋitManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to laugh aloud PPH *heŋit

eŋkabBalinese(WMP) lift up, open something by lifting a lid PWMP *e(ŋ)kab

eŋkabJavanese(WMP) peel off, break off PWMP *e(ŋ)kab

eŋkabOld Javanese(WMP) open, unfold, develop, expand PWMP *e(ŋ)kab

eŋkahBalinese(WMP) breathe out through the mouth PWMP *eŋkaq

eŋkahKaro Batak(WMP) breathe quickly, pant PWMP *eŋkaq

eŋkakJavanese(WMP) var. of small crow PMP *hekak

eŋkakMalay(WMP) a crow, Corvus enca PMP *hekak

eŋkak-eŋkakBalinese(WMP) lament continually PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

eŋkak-eŋkakSasak(WMP) gasp for breath PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

eŋkak-eŋkak-anSundanese(WMP) sputter in breathing, as someone sinking in water PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

eŋkaŋMinangkabau(WMP) walking with legs wide astretch PWMP *eŋkaŋ

éŋkaŋMinangkabau(WMP) walking with legs wide astretch PWMP *iŋkaŋ

éŋkaŋSasak(WMP) sit or stand with legs wide apart PWMP *iŋkaŋ

eŋkapKaro Batak(WMP) gasp for air, be at one's last gasp PMP *ekap

eŋkasTontemboan(WMP) unfold, develop; loosen, undo, untie, release PWMP *hekas

eŋkauMalay(WMP) thou; you; outside literature the word is used only to inferiors; in literature it occurs as an ordinary pronoun of the second person without a suggestion of disrespect PMP *i-kahu

eŋkebBalinese(WMP) hide, keep secret PMP *e(ŋ)keb

eŋkekKaro Batak(WMP) sob heavily (children) PMP *e(ŋ)kek

eŋ-kelikIban(WMP) to screech, scream (as a hawk) PWMP *kuliqik

eŋ-keloŋIban(WMP) coil around, embrace, cradle a child in the arms PWMP *keluŋ₁

eŋkemManggarai(CMP) clasp, embrace PMP *qeŋkem

eŋkemTontemboan(WMP) grip; handful PMP *qeŋkem

eŋkeŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) sound made by a sleeping person during a nightmare PMP *eŋkeŋ

eŋkerKaro Batak(WMP) snore PWMP *eŋker

eŋkerTonsea(WMP) snore (Schwarz 1908) PWMP *eŋker

eŋkerTontemboan(WMP) dull roar of flames, of (walking on) hollow ground, or the sound that accompanies an earthquake PWMP *eŋker

eŋketBalinese(WMP) bird-lime, sticky stuff, sap of trees PWMP *eket

eŋketDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) with, and, together with PWMP *eket

eŋkètJavanese(WMP) creaking sound made by a shoulder carrying-pole PMP *ekit

eŋkét-eŋkétMalay(WMP) creaking of a carrying-pole PMP *ekit

eŋ-kiakIban(WMP) to squawk, as a hen PMP *kiak

eŋkikBalinese(WMP) sound sad PMP *e(ŋ)kik

eŋkikBalinese(WMP) sound sad PWMP *re(ŋ)kik

eŋkik eŋkirBalinese(WMP) species of bird which has a mournful cry PMP *e(ŋ)kik

eŋkik eŋkirBalinese(WMP) sp. of bird which has a mournful cry PWMP *re(ŋ)kik

eŋkitSasak(WMP) squeak, chirp; hiss (snake) PMP *ekit

eŋkokSasak(WMP) retch, heave PMP *ekuk

éŋkolBalinese(WMP) rest the hand on the body with bent arm; an arm thus bent; form a corner, an angle PWMP *iŋkul

éŋkolTontemboan(WMP) bent into a curve PWMP *iŋkul

éŋkoleʔSangir(WMP) curved wooden support used in roof construction PWMP *iŋkul

eŋ-kuan atéKaro Batak(WMP) to take offense PWMP *kua-n

eŋkuasIban(WMP) large rhizomatous herb used as a spice in cooking, Alpinia spp. (esp. the white A. galanga) PWMP *laŋkuas

eŋkukBalinese(WMP) the rise and fall of the voice of the dove PMP *ekuk

eŋkuŋSundanese(WMP) hum to a child held in the arms PAN *qekuŋ

eŋkupJavanese(WMP) close up (as an umbrella) PWMP *ekup

eŋ-kuraSasak(WMP) how? PMP *kuja

eŋkusKaro Batak(WMP) snort, as a wild buffalo; pant in suffocation or anxiety PWMP *eŋkus

eŋkusSasak(WMP) sniff in or up PWMP *eŋkus

eŋkutSundanese(WMP) say "kut", of the uŋkut-uŋkut bird PMP *eŋkut

eŋkutTontemboan(WMP) sound of soft groaning or moaning PMP *eŋkut

eŋ-laMokilese(OC) very light in weight POC *aŋin

ʔəŋŋáBontok(WMP) to cry, of a newborn baby PWMP *eŋaq

eŋosTontemboan(WMP) breathe heavily, pant PPh *eŋus

e-ŋotoIbaloy(WMP) infested with lice PMP *kutu₁

éŋsutMalay(WMP) pushing away gently; edging a child off a seat; (of a wind) just making the boat move; edging towards or away PMP *isud

e-ŋusMendak(OC) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

eŋutManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) burst out into loud speech PMP *eŋut


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eoBare'e(WMP) sun, day, daylight PAN *qajaw

eoMarshallese(OC) line, fishline POC *apon

e-odiEnggano(WMP) price, value PMP *beli

éokManggarai(CMP) clucking of a chicken; cracking sound of a tree about to topple; growling of the stomach in hunger PMP *qiuk

eoŋJavanese(WMP) to meow PMP *qiuŋ₂

ʔəósPalauan(WMP) sun PMP *qalejaw


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epLehalurup(OC) fire POC *api

epáPangasinan(WMP) rice husk PWMP *qepah

əpaRhade(WMP) fathom, span of outstretched arms PAN *depah

epaʔSangir(WMP) four PMP *epat

epaHawu(CMP) four PMP *epat

əpacTonsawang(WMP) four PMP *epat

epakKelabit(WMP) split PWMP *epak

epakKelabit(WMP) what is split PWMP *hepak

épaŋManggarai(CMP) bait PAN *paen

epapKenyah(WMP) clapping of hands PWMP *epap

ʔəpásBontok(WMP) to lower; to put down, as a load one is carrying; drop, fall PWMP *qempas

epásKankanaey(WMP) alight, descend, come down; let down, set down, put down PWMP *qempas

épasPangasinan(WMP) alight from a vehicle PWMP *qempas

epatKelabit(WMP) four PMP *epat

ʔəpátBontok(WMP) four PMP *epat

epátCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) four PMP *epat

epatKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) four PMP *epat

ʔepatPalawan Batak(WMP) four PMP *epat

*epatPSan(WMP) four PMP *epat

epatTontemboan(WMP) four PMP *epat

ʔəpat-ənBontok(WMP) be divided into four PWMP *epat-en

epésCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) retract, shrink (a balloon when the air is let out, a boil when it begins to heal, a woman's stomach after giving birth) PPh *qepés

epezuManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) gall bladder PAN *qapejux

epiKamarian(CMP) burnt food which adheres to the pot PMP *epiq

epiKambera(CMP) fire PMP *hapuy

epiLoniu(OC) sago palm POC *Rabia

epiPapitalai(OC) sago palm POC *Rabia

e piaAnuta(OC) how many is it? POC *pica

epidKelabit(WMP) act of intertwining or braiding PWMP *epid

epidIbaloy(WMP) braided headstrap or tumpline that is placed at the forehead for supporting heavy loads on one’s back PWMP *epid

epitKelabit(WMP) bamboo tongs for removing something from the fire PAN *qepit

epitKelabit(WMP) bamboo tongs for removing coals from the fire PWMP *sempit

epitKamarian(CMP) burnt food which adheres to the pot PMP *epit₁

epitManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) food which has burned in cooking and has stuck to the pot PMP *epit₁

epi uyLoniu(OC) thorny sago (epi = sago) POC *ruRi

epo-ʔRembong(CMP) grandchild PMP *empu-q

e-podpodIbaloy(WMP) worn out, as the soles of one’s shoes PPH *pudpud

eppásKankanaey(WMP) drop, let fall PWMP *qempas

eppésIlokano(WMP) empty (ears of grain, words, etc. PPh *qepés

eppoBuginese(WMP) grandchild PMP *empu

e-priTsou(Formosan) to choose PAN *piliq

ep-teluhBuruese(CMP) lay an egg PMP *qateluR

epuKédang(CMP) FF, FM, MF, MM, MB, WF, WM, etc. (see Barnes 1974:266 for full listing) PMP *empu

epuHawu(CMP) grandparent/grandchild PMP *empu

epuhKeley-i(WMP) to consume something; to do away with something PMP *epus

e-puh-iJavanese(WMP) to squeeze, wring liquid from PAN *peReq

epukManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) knock the breath out of someone PMP *epuk

epu-nKelabit(WMP) grandparent of PMP *empu

epu puénKédang(CMP) mother’s brother PMP *puqun

epusManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) last embers from the fire; fig., to consume completely PMP *epus

eputKelabit(WMP) blowpipe PWMP *eput

əputKelabit(WMP) blowpipe PWMP *seput


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erEast Damar(CMP) water PMP *wahiR

erErai(CMP) water; river; place where there is water PCEMP *waiR

eraMotu(OC) turtle, shell turtle PCEMP *keRa

eraSika(CMP) turtle PCEMP *keRa

eraW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) 3pl., they, them PMP *ida

eramTontemboan(WMP) rent PMP *hezam

eram-enTontemboan(WMP) for rent PPh *hedam-en

eranFordata(CMP) turtle with prized shell PCEMP *keRan₂

eranKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) turtle PCEMP *keRan₂

eranTae'(WMP) ladder PMP *ezan

eran bala batuTae'(WMP) stairs made of stones stacked upon one another PMP *haRezan na batu

eran batuTae'(WMP) stone stairs; also a place name PMP *haRezan na batu

éraŋBalinese(WMP) ashamed, blush; be angry PWMP *iraŋ₁

éraŋMalay(WMP) dark in color; black showing a trace of some other color PWMP *qiReŋ

ʔeraŋTiruray(WMP) cheer of a crowd PWMP *qeraŋ

eraŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to cry out; a cry PWMP *qeraŋ

erat-eratBahasa Indonesia(WMP) firmly, tightly, of binding PMP *heRet

er-bageKaro Batak(WMP) sort, kind, type PWMP *bagay

er-berŋiKaro Batak(WMP) spend the night PMP *beRŋi

er-bintihKaro Batak(WMP) 'fight' with one another; wrestle; punch PMP *bintiq

er-buahKaro Batak(WMP) have fruit, bear fruit PAN *maR-buaq

er-buŋaKaro Batak(WMP) bear flowers; yield interest; welding of iron PMP *buŋa

er-butakKaro Batak(WMP) spatter with mud PWMP *butak

er-butak-butakKaro Batak(WMP) muddy from top to bottom PWMP *butak

er-dakanKaro Batak(WMP) to cook rice PMP *zakan

ere-Arosi(OC) vulva POC *keRe

*əRePSan(WMP) tall grass sp.: Imperata cylindrica L. PMP *eRiq

ʔerékTiruray(WMP) thresh by trampling PAN *Riqek

eremBalinese(WMP) at rest, lie down PWMP *qerem

éremJavanese(WMP) black and blue mark PWMP *qirem

éremJavanese(WMP) black and blue mark PWMP *qi(n)dem

eremPaiwan(Formosan) to dye PAN *edem₂

ʔeremTiruray(WMP) immerse or soak in water PAN *edem₂

erenManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of a sitting hen; to sit on eggs PWMP *eden

ereŋKelabit(WMP) a groan, a growl PMP *heReŋ

ereŋKelabit(WMP) groan, groaning PWMP *qereŋ

ereŋJavanese(WMP) keep roaring, keep moaning with pain PMP *heReŋ

ereŋJavanese(WMP) keep roaring, keep moaning with pain PWMP *qereŋ

ereŋKaro Batak(WMP) to bark PMP *heReŋ

eresManggarai(CMP) shrinkage, lessening, thinning (of the body) PMP *eRes

ərətKelabit(WMP) man’s belt PMP *heRet

eretLun Dayeh(WMP) a piece of cloth or talun (tree bark) tied around the waist, normally worn by elderly women PMP *heRet

eretManggarai(CMP) firm, tight (of a binding) PMP *heRet

er-gasiŋ(gasiŋ)Karo Batak(WMP) to spin a top PWMP *gasiŋ

eriKamarian(CMP) long grass: Imperata cylindrica L. PMP *eRiq

eriKamarian(CMP) shave, scrape off PCEMP *erit

eriKambera(CMP) younger sibling of the same sex PCEMP *waji

eriNgadha(CMP) make a stroke or line, scratch PCEMP *erit

eriWetan(CMP) a term applied to various internal organs, especially the milt; it may also mean: bile PAN *qapejux

eri-a'Āre'āre(OC) to dig, harvest; dig a hole; bury, cover with earth PCEMP *keli

e-r-jakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) step, tread on PWMP *enzak

erjakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) step, tread PMP *re(n)zak

er-jujuŋKaro Batak(WMP) carry something on the head PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

er-kayuKaro Batak(WMP) gather wood in the forest for house construction PMP *kahiw

er-kempuKaro Batak(WMP) to have grandchildren PMP *kempu

er-ke-tuduh-enKaro Batak(WMP) point to something specific; give clear directions PAN *tuzuq-en

er-kilat-kilatKaro Batak(WMP) glittering, sending out sparks PMP *kila-kilat

er-kuanKaro Batak(WMP) to speak PWMP *kua-n

er-kuanKaro Batak(WMP) to speak, to talk PWMP *kuan₂

er-kuan-kuanKaro Batak(WMP) to sit and chat comfortably about nothing in particular PWMP *kuan₂

er-lubaŋKaro Batak(WMP) have a hole, full of holes PWMP *maR-lubaŋ

er-lugaKaro Batak(WMP) to paddle (Joustra 1912) PAN *aluja

er-mamahKaro Batak(WMP) to feed, as birds feed their young PMP *mamaq

er-mbuluKaro Batak(WMP) have hair, hairy PMP *bulu₁

er-mukenBuruese(CMP) dove PMP *muken

ʔerokTiruray(WMP) the sound made by falling water; falling water PWMP *erak

éronaMalagasy(WMP) a growl, a roar PWMP *heRuŋ

érotraMalagasy(WMP) a snore PWMP *erut

er-pagi-pagiKaro Batak(WMP) in the morning PWMP *pagi

er-piak-piakKaro Batak(WMP) to cheep, of chicks PAN *piak

erreʔBuginese(WMP) tying up, fastening PMP *heRet

erremMadurese(WMP) hide oneself; sit on eggs PWMP *qerem

errésIlokano(WMP) droop, decline, languish (persons, animals, plants); to shrink, contract (wood) PMP *eRes

er-sabuŋKaro Batak(WMP) pit cocks against each other, or in general of anything that will fight, or of inanimate natural phenomena, as waves crashing together, or criss-crossing flashes of lightning PWMP *sabuŋ₁

e-r-seŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) blow the nose PMP *eseŋ

er-sinarKaro Batak(WMP) to shine, of the sun PMP *sinaR

er-sisikKaro Batak(WMP) scaled, removed, of the scales PMP *siksik₂

er-suliKaro Batak(WMP) to sprout PMP *suli₁

er-tabanKaro Batak(WMP) capture something or someone, make someone a war captive PMP *taban

er-taruhKaro Batak(WMP) to wager, place a bet PMP *taRuq

er-timbaŋKaro Batak(WMP) consider something PWMP *timbaŋ

er-tunaŋ-enKaro Batak(WMP) pledged to one another PWMP *tunaŋ

er-tuturKaro Batak(WMP) to make acquaintance with one another, introduce oneself to others PMP *tutur₁

eruLeti(CMP) gall PAN *qapejux

(e)ruMalay(WMP) a tree: Casuarina equisetifolia PMP *aRuhu

eruNgadha(CMP) bind, tie, shackle PMP *qeRut

e-ruUripiv(OC) two POC *rua

e-ruaTorau(OC) two POC *rua

e-ruaTutuba(OC) two POC *rua

e-rua-iAua(OC) two POC *rua

(e)-rua-ruaBugotu(OC) two at a time, two apiece POC *rua rua₁

e-runMendak(OC) three PEMP *tolu

e-rú-ŋPalauan(WMP) two (units of time); a few (esp. when referring to small catch of fish PMP *duha

erutManggarai(CMP) tighten a constriction; hold tightly, squeeze PMP *qeRut

*erutPMin(WMP) roar, rumble; thunder PWMP *erut

ʔerutSika(CMP) draw or bind something very tight PMP *qeRut

erutTontemboan(WMP) thunder PWMP *erut

eruʔanManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) mudfish PWMP *qaruqan


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esaAlune(CMP) one PAN *esa

ʔəsáBontok(WMP) one, be one PAN *esa

esáKankanaey(WMP) one; a, an PAN *esa

esaʔLampung(WMP) ripe PAN *qesak

esaMalay(WMP) unity, one; sa- is the usual form, but esa is used of God's unity PAN *esa

esaNgadha(CMP) unity; one (general numeral) PAN *esa

ʔesáPalawan Batak(WMP) one PAN *esa

*esaPAmb(CMP) one PAN *esa

*esaPMin(WMP) one PAN *esa

*esaPSan(WMP) one PAN *esa

esaRotinese(CMP) one (in serial counting) PAN *esa

esaSangir(WMP) one (in combinations) PAN *esa

esaSaparua(CMP) one PAN *esa

esaSundanese(WMP) one, uniqueness (of God) PAN *esa

esaTonsea(WMP) one PAN *esa

esaTontemboan(WMP) one, other, sole, only; self PAN *esa

es-aTsou(Formosan) boundary PAN *qajiS

ɛsaVaikenu(CMP) one PAN *esa

esa dimaKeo(CMP) five PAN *lima

esa esaRotinese(CMP) one by one, each in its turn PMP *esa esa

esaŋMalay(WMP) blow the nose in the Malay way (without a handkerchief) PMP *eseŋ

esapMalay(WMP) dry by dabbing with a towel PAN *qesep

əsa pusər kamiTontemboan(WMP) we are full brother and sister (‘we have one umbilical cord’) PMP *pusej

esawaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) spouse PAN *qasawa

əsáwaMalaweg(WMP) spouse PAN *qasawa

ésbuCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) urine; to urinate PAN *sibu

eseAraki(OC) chin, lower jaw (between ears) POC *qase

eseLametin(OC) one PAN *esa

ese-Mafea(OC) chin POC *qase

ʔeseSamoan(OC) other, different, foreign, alien; wrong; strange, unusual PCEMP *kese

ese-Piamatsina(OC) chin POC *qase

ese-esemTontemboan(WMP) slightly sour PWMP *esem

ʔesefTiruray(WMP) suck, sip PAN *qesep

e-seiAli(OC) who? PMP *sai

e seiMarovo(OC) who? PMP *sei

êseiRhade(WMP) cooked rice PWMP *asi₃

e seiRoviana(OC) who? PMP *sei

ʔəsə́kBontok(WMP) seed kept for planting; to plant, of vegetables PPH *hesek₁

ésekDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) tightness in breathing, e.g. of asthma PWMP *isek

e-seleeSaaroa(Formosan) bowstring, fishing line PAN *deles

ésemJavanese(WMP) to smile PWMP *isem₁

*esemPMin(WMP) sour PWMP *esem

esemTontemboan(WMP) sour, vinegary PWMP *esem

eseŋManggarai(CMP) press down to defecate; force, do with effort PMP *qezen

esepKenyah(WMP) drink PAN *qesep

esepMadurese(WMP) inhale, suck in PAN *qesep

ʔəsʔəsSaisiyat(Formosan) tight PAN *qeCqeC

ʔese-ʔese-ŋaSamoan(OC) difference PCEMP *kese-kese

e-siBonggi(WMP) who? PMP *i-sai

esiKavalan(Formosan) meat, flesh PAN *Sesi

esiNgadha(CMP) hiss at, chase off (as a dog) PMP *qisaq

*esiPSan(WMP) meat PMP *hesi

esiTontemboan(WMP) gums, flesh of the teeth PMP *hesi

ésinaMalagasy(WMP) breathe hard through the nose, sniff PMP *eseŋ

e-sisSengseng(OC) grasshopper POC *sisi(rR)

e-siwAtchin(OC) nine PMP *siwa

e-siwUripiv(OC) nine PMP *siwa

ʔəsk-ánBontok(WMP) to plant, of vegetables PPh *hesek-án

ə-smaŋe-nTifu(CMP) soul of a living person PMP *sumaŋed

ʔəssa-ʔəssaBontok(WMP) be in units of one PMP *esa esa

essoBuginese(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

essuŋMandar(WMP) mortar (of wood or stone) PMP *esuŋ

esuLikum(OC) gall, gall bladder POC *qasu₂

e-sukaLakalai(OC) the making of fire with the fire-plow; a fire-plow POC *suka₃

esunKamarian(CMP) mortar for pounding rice PMP *esuŋ

e-sunLikum(OC) to burn POC *sulu₁

ʔesuŋTiruray(WMP) vessel in which things are pounded, mortar PMP *esuŋ


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etBuli(SHWNG) raft PMP *Rakit

e-taArosi(OC) one (in counting only PAN *esa

ʔətáBontok(WMP) grains of unhusked rice left after pounding PMP *qeta

etáKankanaey(WMP) not husked grain, kernel of rice found in rice that has been pounded PMP *qeta

e-taLau(OC) one PAN *esa

etaMarau₂(OC) one PAN *isa₁

etaPaiwan(Formosan) one PAN *esa

etáPangasinan(WMP) raw, uncooked or undercooked PAN *qetaq

*etaPMin(WMP) bran, chaff PMP *qeta

etaHawu(CMP) cut, cut off PMP *qetes

etaHawu(CMP) cut, cut off PMP *hetek

ʔetaSika(CMP) to harvest, as rice PMP *qetes

etaTontemboan(WMP) bran, husk that is shaken loose in winnowing PMP *qeta

eta dueHawu(CMP) tap a lontar palm for palm wine PMP *hetek

etakAyta Abellan(WMP) machete; to use a machete PPh *eták

e-talahaLakalai(OC) kind of fish PMP *taRaqan

e tama!Rarotongan(OC) interjection, exclamation which denotes 'I say!', 'oh dear!', 'bother'; sometimes used as an exclamation of surprise or annoyance PMP *t-amax

e-tanSobei(OC) to cry PMP *taŋis

e-ta-naArosi(OC) first PAN *esa

e-ta-naLau(OC) first PAN *esa

e-tæŋLevei(OC) to weep, cry PMP *taŋis

eteKamarian(CMP) piece, lump PMP *hetek

ʔeteLau(OC) different, of another sort or kind; strange, foreign, queer, odd, curious; various; alone, apart, for oneself only; keep food for oneself PCEMP *kese

eteHawu(CMP) cut, cut off PMP *etes₁

eteHawu(CMP) stare at something PMP *e(n)teŋ

eteTanga(OC) liver or solar plexus, the seat of the emotions PMP *qatay

ʔete-aArosi(OC) different; alone PCEMP *kese

etebKelabit(WMP) act of cutting; the mark left by cutting PWMP *eteb

etedTboli(WMP) deliver PMP *hateD

eteduTonsea(WMP) egg PMP *qateluR

étéh-étékToba Batak(WMP) a small bird PAN *qitik₁

etekKelabit(WMP) popcorn PWMP *etek

etekKelabit(WMP) popcorn PMP *qentek

etekMadurese(WMP) to pound, of the pulse (in fear) PWMP *etek

ʔetekPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) cut down a tree or bamboo with a bolo PAN *Setek

étékToba Batak(WMP) small PAN *qitik₁

e-telPaamese(OC) three PEMP *tolu

etélPangasinan(WMP) constipation; difficulty or hardness in bowel movements PMP *etel

ə-təluCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) three PAN *telu

e-teŋiBuma(OC) to cry PMP *taŋis

etepInati(WMP) thatch PMP *qatep

eterJavanese(WMP) earth-shaking; causing something to tremble PMP *eter

etesDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) hack a path by felling trees and brush PMP *etes₁

etesDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) hack a path by felling trees and brush PMP *qetes

etʔət-anIlokano(WMP) to tighten PMP *qetqet

ʔete-ʔeteArosi(OC) alone PCEMP *kese-kese

ʔete-ʔeteLau(OC) various PCEMP *kese-kese

etiKambera(CMP) liver, inner self, seat of the emotions, heart PMP *qatay

etILoniu(OC) heart PMP *qatay

*etiPMin(WMP) dry up PMP *qeti₁

étiʔSimalur(WMP) wild duck PWMP *itik₂

etiSimalur(WMP) ebb PMP *qeti₁

etiTontemboan(WMP) gradually lower, dry up, as the water in cooking rice, the water level in a river, etc. PMP *qeti₁

etiManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of water, to evaporate PMP *qeti₁

e-tilRano(OC) three PEMP *tolu

eti-ŋuKambera(CMP) have concern for, intend to PMP *qatay

e-tma-Anejom(OC) father PMP *t-amax

e-tme-nSie(OC) father PMP *t-amax

e-tŋol-iSye(OC) to swallow POC *toŋol

e toko piaAnuta(OC) how many people? POC *pica

ʔetolAmis(Formosan) sexual arousal, sexual passion PAN *qeCuR

e-toleŋIbaloy(WMP) deaf, hard of hearing; (fig.) inattentive, unresponsive to criticism, advice PPH *tuleŋ

e-to-towa-naDobuan(OC) to copy, mimic, imitate POC *toa

étotraMalagasy(WMP) breaking wind downwards PMP *qetut

ettiBuginese(WMP) dry PMP *qeti₁

ettoʔBuginese(WMP) make the sound "/toʔ, toʔ/" PMP *etuk

ettuʔBuginese(WMP) fart PMP *qetut

ettutYogad(WMP) fart PMP *qetut

etuLaha(CMP) fart PMP *qetut

etuʔSangir(WMP) wind, fart PMP *qetut

etuUbir(OC) occiput POC *keju

etukKelabit(WMP) heartbeat PMP *etuk

e-tulAtchin(OC) three PEMP *tolu

ʔətu-lPalauan(WMP) its smoke, its steam PMP *qasu₃

e-tulu-luLakalai(OC) hot taro PMP *tunu

étu-nChuukese(OC) its smoke PMP *qasu₃

ʔeturTiruray(WMP) knee PMP *tuhud

etutKelabit(WMP) a fart, flatulence PMP *qetut

etútCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) expel gas from the bowels PMP *qetut

etutKamarian(CMP) break wind; fart PMP *qetut

ʔetutKavalan(Formosan) fart PAN *qetut

*etutPAmb(CMP) fart PMP *qetut

ʔetutTiruray(WMP) anal eructation; to break wind PMP *qetut

etuvaŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) in front of; stand or be in front of someone or something PPh *atúbaŋ


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euNias(WMP) wood; firewood PMP *kahiw

e-ua-guLakalai(OC) parent-in-law (woman speaking); daughter-in-law PMP *uaʔ

e-ua-guLakalai(OC) parent-in-law (woman speaking); daughter-in-law PMP *ua₂

e-ubaEnggano(WMP) house PAN *Rumaq

eubógAklanon(WMP) murky, clouded, dirty (water) PWMP *lebuR

eúbosAklanon(WMP) deep; sincere; true PPH *lubús

eudh-anAklanon(WMP) kneeler, kneeling bench PPH *luhúd

e-uduEnggano(WMP) head PMP *qulu

eúeodAklanon(WMP) shin (part of leg) PAN *luluj

eúgawAklanon(WMP) to make rice broth, cook rice porridge PPH *lúgaw

eúhaʔAklanon(WMP) teardrop PMP *luheq

euháʔAklanon(WMP) to shed tears; to water (of the eyes) PMP *luheq

eʔuhoTsou(Formosan) clouded leopard PAN *lukeNaw

euhódAklanon(WMP) to kneel PPH *luhúd

eúksaAklanon(WMP) mourning PPH *luk(e)saq

eúkso(h)Aklanon(WMP) to jump over PPH *luk(e)súh

eúktonAklanon(WMP) small locust PPH *luktun

eúktonAklanon(WMP) small locust PPH *luk(e)tún

eumó (h)Aklanon(WMP) to consider easy, find easy PWMP *lemu

eúmonAklanon(WMP) to live with or dwell with as an outsider PPH *lumun

eumósAklanon(WMP) to drown (either accidentally or intentionally) PMP *lemes

eúmotAklanon(WMP) moss, algae – growing in sea PMP *lumut

eúnudAklanon(WMP) sink, go under water PWMP *leñej

eupíʔAklanon(WMP) to get bent, crushed PWMP *lupiq

eupóʔAklanon(WMP) poisonous freshwater fish PMP *lepuq₂

ʔe-usanaDobuan(OC) load POC *ucan

eusi beuteuŋSundanese(WMP) intestines PWMP *beteŋ₂

eusoTsou(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

ʔəʔút-əlPalauan(WMP) be chewed or munched on (as sugarcane) PWMP *ququs-en

eútoʔAklanon(WMP) ripe, ready to eat (fruit); ripen, get ripe PWMP *lutuq

eutukaTsou(Formosan) rabbit, hare PAN *lutuk₁

euwásAklanon(WMP) outside; to save from [troubles, evil]; free, liberate; aside from, outside of PMP *luas₁

eúya(h)Aklanon(WMP) weak, feeble, not strong PWMP *luya₂


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evLakona(OC) fire POC *api

evaɣatManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) the strongest wind, the Northeast monsoon PMP *habaRat

e-vagu-naBwaidoga/Bwaidoka(OC) new (of everything but food); recently, newly PEMP *baqoRu

e-valua-guLakalai(OC) members of my sib POC *panua

evatedManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) corn worm PMP *qabated

e-vatiPiva(OC) four PCEMP *pat-i

e-vaunuPiva(OC) new PEMP *baqoRu

evelManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) smoke; of a fire, to smoke PAN *qebel

even tunMendak(OC) three (in answer to question) PEMP *tolu

ə-vəraəSaaroa(Formosan) husked rice PAN *beRas

evi-atePiva(OC) liver PMP *qatay

e vica wale ŋāFijian(OC) just a few POC *pica

e-viriLakalai(OC) a malevolent spirit which causes twisted limbs PMP *pirit

e-visRano(OC) how many? POC *pica

evi-suPiva(OC) female breast PAN *susu₁

évotraMalagasy(WMP) plucked up, retracted; be withdrawn, recanted PMP *hebut

evuNgadha(CMP) sawdust PMP *ebuk

evuʔManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) severe stomach cramps; to disembowel or remove the entrails PWMP *ebuq

e-vuluLakalai(OC) a constellation: the Pleiades POC *punuq₂

e-vuluLakalai(OC) a constellation: the Pleiades POC *puluq₂

e-vunu-Piva(OC) hair POC *pulu₃


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ewar-ewurSundanese(WMP) to strew PMP *ebuR

e-watiTorau(OC) four PCEMP *pat-i

ʔə́wəwBontok(WMP) thirsty; thirst PPH *hawaw

éwú-Chuukese(OC) (in compounds only) current, flow (of water) PMP *qaRus

éwút-Chuukese(OC) current (at sea), eddy PMP *qaRus


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eyi-ni-wowChuukese(OC) carrying pole POC *kayu


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əzanKavalan(Formosan) old (of things) PAN *daqaN


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e-ʔudiEnggano(WMP) skin PMP *kulit

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-w_e.htm