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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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ŋa    ŋe    ŋg    ŋh    ŋi    ŋk    ŋl    ŋo    ŋr    ŋu    ŋw    

Cèmuhî(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

Koro(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

Lenkau(OC) 1sg possessive suffix; my POC *-gu

Lou(OC) 1sg possessive suffix; my POC *-gu

Mbula(OC) 1sg genitive suffix that occurs on inalienable nouns POC *-gu

Mendak(OC) 1sg possessive suffix; my POC *-gu

Namakir(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

Nyelâyu(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

Vinmavis(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

ŋaBonerate(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋāFijian(OC) the grey duck PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaGedaged(OC) 1sg.: I, me POC *ŋau₂

ŋaGitua(OC) I (subject prefix): yau ŋa geno 'I slept' POC *ŋau₂

ŋaKosraean(OC) 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋaLamogai(OC) 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋaLamogai(OC) 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋaLou(OC) 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋāMaori(OC) breathe, take breath PMP *ŋaŋ

ŋaʔMaranao(WMP) moo, baa PWMP *eŋaq

ŋaMarshallese(OC) absolute pronoun, 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋaMentawai(WMP) ‘suffix’ for numerals PMP *ŋa

ŋaPopalia(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋāRotuman(OC) squeal, squawk; neigh PMP *ŋak

ŋaSeimat(OC) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋaSengseng(OC) 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋaTolai(OC) gasp, breathe with difficulty PMP *ŋaŋ

ŋāTongan(OC) (of a small child) to bawl, cry loudly PMP *ŋak

ŋa:lanKalagan(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaaGilbertese(OC) fathom (Bender et al 2003) POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaaSio(OC) name POC *ŋacan

ŋaafChuukese(OC) fathom (distance from fingertip to fingertip of outstretched hands and arms) POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaafPuluwat(OC) fathom POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaanBunun(Formosan) name (given name) PAN *ŋajan

ŋáanGaddang(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaanKadazan Dusun(WMP) name; reputation PMP *ŋajan

ŋaʔa-nLoniu(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

ŋaa-nTifu(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaan-anKadazan Dusun(WMP) to be named PWMP *ŋajan-an

-ŋaʔaneTongan(OC) (in composition) male POC *maRuqane

ŋaañSoboyo(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

*ŋaa-ŋaaPMic(OC) sea bird, duck PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaapMokilese(OC) fathom; to measure with outstretched arms POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaapPohnpeian(OC) fathom, the distance between outstretched arms, approximately six feet POC *ŋapa₁

ŋa-aviKadazan Dusun(WMP) all, every, everything PWMP *qabiq

ŋa-balagbagSundanese(WMP) bind the outstretched arms of someone (as a criminal) along a length of bamboo in order to hinder his movements PWMP *balagbag

ŋa-balukSundanese(WMP) carry on the business of a baluk PMP *baluk₂

ŋa-bantahSundanese(WMP) oppose, contradict someone PWMP *bantaq

ŋa-bantiŋSundanese(WMP) collide or smack against something or someone; slap clothes against a stone in washing them PMP *bantiŋ

ŋ-abaŋBalinese(WMP) make a gutter or channel PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ

ŋ-abaŋKelabit(WMP) make a ditch PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ

ŋ-abaŋKelabit(WMP) to ambush someone PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

ŋ-abaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) lay an ambush, lay in wait for an enemy or animal; block, guard (soccer) PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

ŋa-baŋunSundanese(WMP) to found, establish, build, bring into existence; lay down (as a garden) PMP *baŋun₂

ŋ-abetKelabit(WMP) to tie PWMP *ambet

ŋ-abiKelabit(WMP) to finish PWMP *qabis

ŋ-abinKaro Batak(WMP) hold or carry in the lap PWMP *meŋ-qabin

ŋa-bintihSundanese(WMP) strike with the wings (as a cock) or with the talons (as an eagle) PMP *bintiq

ŋabŋabBontok(WMP) eat corn on the cob PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋabŋábIfugaw(WMP) bite off a mouthful out of something edible, e.g. a piece of meat, a cake PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋabŋábKankanaey(WMP) bite from, take a bite from PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋabŋábTagalog(WMP) bite off (meat from bones) PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋábŋabAgta (Eastern)(WMP) crunching sound of chewing on something hard PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋabŋábIlokano(WMP) to devour foods noisily (pigs) PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋabŋab-anIbaloy(WMP) to bite off the surface of something (as skin of guava, dog’s bite that takes a little skin, bulldozer skims only surface) PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋa-buaŋSundanese(WMP) banish, exile PMP *buqaŋ

ŋ-abuhKelabit(WMP) make dusty, cover with ashes or dust PWMP *maŋ-qabu

ŋa-buruk-anSundanese(WMP) to wear out, consume, use up PAN *buRuk

ŋ-acem-iKaro Batak(WMP) make food sour PWMP *qalesem

ŋadaArosi(OC) the gums POC *ŋadasₐ

ŋadahMalay(WMP) looking upwards PWMP *ŋadaq

ŋadanBalinese(WMP) to name, give a name to PMP *ŋajan

ŋadanKelabit(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋadanBasap(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋādanIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) a name by which something or someone is identified (people, spirits, geographical divisions, flora and fauna); what?, when?, where?, who? PMP *ŋajan

ŋádanBontok(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋádanIfugaw(WMP) proper name of a person, also the particular name of a village, a mountain, a forest, a group of rice terraces, and so forth PMP *ŋajan

ŋadanManobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)(WMP) name; what? PMP *ŋajan

ŋádanKankanaey(WMP) name; appelation, denomination, title PMP *ŋajan

ŋadanKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋadanMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋadánPaiwan(Formosan) a name PAN *ŋajan

ŋadán-anIfugaw(WMP) to give a name to somebody or something PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋadan-inBalinese(WMP) to call by name; regard someone as being; accuse someone of PMP *ŋajan

ŋadasAgta (Eastern)(WMP) palate PMP *ŋadas

ŋádasIlokano(WMP) palate, roof of the mouth; the rice that cleaves to the upper half of the jar in which it is cooked; the concave side of a jar or pot PMP *ŋadas

ŋadasAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) gums PMP *ŋadas

ŋadəLun Dayeh(WMP) blunt PWMP *ŋazel

ŋ-adekBalinese(WMP) to smell (something) PWMP *meŋ-hajek

ŋadəlKelabit(WMP) dull, blunt PWMP *ŋazel

ŋa-depaKenyah(WMP) to measure in fathoms PAN *depah

ŋádərPalauan(WMP) gift of food accompanying bride when she is brought to prospective husband's family PMP *hateD

ŋa-deupaSundanese(WMP) to measure in fathoms PAN *depah

ŋadiPaku(WMP) to dig PMP *kali₂

ŋadinArta(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋadjayPaiwan(Formosan) saliva, drivel PAN *ŋajay

ŋ-aduBalinese(WMP) to fight PWMP *maŋ-adu

ŋ-aduKaro Batak(WMP) complain PWMP *maŋ-adu

ŋ-aduSasak(WMP) compete with others PWMP *maŋ-adu

ŋ-aduSundanese(WMP) fight, confront, argue PWMP *maŋ-adu

ŋa-duaSundanese(WMP) ride a horse with a partner PMP *duha

ŋ-aḍuhJavanese(WMP) to exclaim in pain, etc. PWMP *maŋ-aduq

ŋ-adu-kenKaro Batak(WMP) complain about someone PWMP *maŋ-aduq

ŋ-adu-kenKaro Batak(WMP) complain about someone PWMP *maŋ-adu

ŋáeanAklanon(WMP) name (one’s personal name); give a name to PMP *ŋajan

ŋáeŋaeAklanon(WMP) to cry, whimper PPH *ŋalŋál

ŋafaRaga(OC) long POC *ŋapa₂

ŋafaSamoan(OC) fathom POC *ŋapa₁

ŋafaTongan(OC) length or section of tapa cloth POC *ŋapa₁

ŋafaTuvaluan(OC) a fathom; distance encompassed by outstretched arms POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaf(a)Woleaian(OC) fathom, the distance from one fingertip to another when the arms are outstretched POC *ŋapa₁

ŋafŋafAmis(Formosan) eat grass, as a cow does PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋ-afuhLun Dayeh(WMP) to sweep with a broom PMP *sapu

ŋa-fuluNias(WMP) ten (in plural forms?) PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq

ŋa-fuluNias(WMP) ten PMP *ŋa

ŋ-agagKelabit(WMP) to sift (esp. rice that has already been husked through pounding) PWMP *maŋ-agag

ŋáganAtta (Pamplona)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáganIbanag(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaganMentawai(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáganYogad(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáganMalaweg(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋa-gaŋgaŋSundanese(WMP) roast or toast briefly over a fire (somewhat further from the fire than paŋgaŋ) PWMP *gaŋgaŋ

ŋagapKenyah(WMP) grope in the dark PAN *kapkap

ŋa-g<ar>ugutSundanese(WMP) gnaw off, nibble off PMP *gutgut₁

ŋa-gəgətSundanese(WMP) to gnaw; cut a bird’s tongue to teach it to imitate speech PWMP *getget₁

ŋ-agemBukat(WMP) to hold PWMP *agem₁

ŋa-geretSundanese(WMP) make a notch, incision or groove in something PMP *geret

ŋa-giliŋSundanese(WMP) to grind, to mill; to crush (as sugarcane) PMP *giliŋ

ŋaguRennellese(OC) wave; to form waves POC *ŋalu

ŋa-gugutSundanese(WMP) (of an animal or person) to bite PMP *gutgut₁

ŋahBipi(OC) lime POC *ŋapa₃

ŋahLeipon(OC) lime POC *ŋapa₃

ŋahLoniu(OC) fathom POC *ŋapa₁

ŋahLoniu(OC) lime POC *ŋapa₃

ŋahNali(OC) fathom POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaha-Lenkau(OC) name POC *ŋacan

ŋahaʔChamorro(WMP) look up, with head tilted back PWMP *ŋadaq

ŋahabCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) sharp edge (of the sharp edge of a mountain, or the sharpened edge of a bolo or arrowhead) PPH *ŋarab

ŋahanKola(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋa-hasɨm-anSundanese(WMP) make something sour or sourer PWMP *qalesem

ŋahayIvatan (Isamorong)(WMP) drivel, drool PAN *ŋajay

ŋahayYami (Imorod)(WMP) drivel, drool PAN *ŋajay

ŋahenCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋahesCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) gums (inside the mouth) PPH *ŋajes

ŋahin-anCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to name, give the name of something or someone PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋa hue ʔakuʔeSa'a(OC) an areca nut for me to eat POC *puaq

ŋa-humaSundanese(WMP) make a swidden, clear land for a swidden PWMP *maŋ-quma

ŋa-huruMaori(OC) ten PMP *ŋa

ŋaiMota(OC) canarium almond POC *kaŋaRi

ŋaiToak(OC) canarium almond POC *kaŋaRi

ŋa-iʔanChamorro(WMP) when? PMP *ŋa-ijan

ŋa-iraGilbertese(OC) us PAN *k-ita

ŋa-isaMota(OC) time when POC *ana<ŋa>ican

ŋa-isaMota(OC) time when PMP *ŋa-ijan

ŋaitIban(WMP) to hook (as a thorn hooking the clothes of a passer-by) PWMP *ma-ŋawit

ŋajaŋJavanese(WMP) to make a dried palm leaf roof PMP *kazaŋ₂

ŋa-jariŋSundanese(WMP) fish with a dragnet PMP *zariŋ

ŋajənKenyah(WMP) blunt PWMP *ŋazel

ŋajənKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) dull, of a blade (not of a point) PWMP *ŋazel

ŋajənMurik(WMP) dull, blunt PWMP *ŋazel

ŋa-juŋjuŋSundanese(WMP) lift up, raise; also to raise in function or dignity PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

ŋakJavanese(WMP) honking of a goose PMP *ŋak

ŋakKankanaey(WMP) screech, shriek, scream PMP *ŋak

ŋakKaro Batak(WMP) smack; make a smacking sound PMP *ŋak

ŋakManggarai(CMP) row, disturbance, argument PMP *ŋak

ŋakPalauan(WMP) 1sg. emphatic subject and object pronoun: I, me PAN *aku

ŋ-akaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) open the legs to step forward, step over something PMP *sakaŋ

ŋ-akaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) open the legs to step forward, step over something PWMP *akaŋ

ŋ-akitKenyah(WMP) to contruct a raft PMP *Rakit

ŋaklPalauan(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋákŋakAklanon(WMP) babble, sing or say meaningless syllables PMP *ŋakŋak

ŋakŋakItbayaten(WMP) sound of eagles PMP *ŋakŋak

ŋakŋakJavanese(WMP) honking of geese PMP *ŋakŋak

ŋakŋákKankanaey(WMP) howl, yell, as dogs do PMP *ŋakŋak

ŋakŋakKaro Batak(WMP) howl, set up a wail PMP *ŋakŋak

ŋakŋákIfugaw(WMP) howling of dogs PMP *ŋakŋak

ŋ-akoMadurese(WMP) admit, confess PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋ-akotSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) carry a child in a cloth PWMP *maŋ-hakut

ŋ-akuBalinese(WMP) claim as one's own, say 'mine'; acknowledge (a child) PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋ-akuʔIban(WMP) treat as, acknowledge; claim, admit, confess, own (as if owning up to the paternity of a child) PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋ-akuJavanese(WMP) acknowledge, claim or acknowledge as one's own; claim falsely PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋ-akuKaro Batak(WMP) admit, confess PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋ-akuSasak(WMP) admit, confess PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋ-akuSundanese(WMP) admit, confess; to receive (a guest) PWMP *maŋ-aku

ŋalPalauan(WMP) termite; termite-ridden PAN *aNay

ŋalaHalia(OC) to cry POC *ŋara

ŋalaHelong(CMP) name, kind; descent group PMP *ŋajan

ŋalaIbaloy(WMP) kind of wild duck PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋ-alaʔUma(WMP) take, fetch, get PWMP *maŋ-alaq₁

ŋalaHelong(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋalaʔ ateMadurese(WMP) (lit. 'fetch the liver') win someone's affection PMP *qalap qatay

ŋālabIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) the thin edge of the blade of an axe, bolo, or knife PPH *ŋarab

ŋalábIfugaw(WMP) the sharp and whetted side of the blade of a knife PPH *ŋarab

ŋ-alahBalinese(WMP) destroy, defeat, abandon PWMP *maŋ-alaq₂

ŋa-lahaʔYakan(WMP) to bleed PAN *daRaq

ŋala hateSundanese(WMP) (lit. 'fetch the liver') win someone's affection PMP *qalap qatay

ŋa-lakkuʔMapun(WMP) to bend something sharply at an angle PAN *lekuq₁

ŋa-la-laŋkah-anSundanese(WMP) place or exalt oneself over someone; look down on someone with an attitude of superiority PMP *laŋkaq₁

ŋa-lamudMoken(WMP) to mix ingredients together in cooking PWMP *ŋa-lamuj

ŋa-lamukSundanese(WMP) appear vaguely in the distance PWMP *lamuk₁

ŋálanHiligaynon(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋálanKalinga (Guinaang)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋala-nNali(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

ŋálanTagalog(WMP) name; reputation; denomination, a name, especially for a class of things PMP *ŋajan

ŋalanTonsawang(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋalanTotoli(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋalanUmiray Dumaget(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋala-nLele(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

ŋalán-anTagalog(WMP) to name, give someone or something a name PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋa-lancahSundanese(WMP) do as a spider does (not work, wait around expecting that the means of subsistence will arrive on their own) PMP *lawaq₂

ŋ-alaŋJavanese(WMP) to impede, obstruct PWMP *qalaŋ

ŋa-laŋiBalinese(WMP) make something swim PWMP *laŋuy

ŋa-laŋkahSundanese(WMP) step over something with big strides; step through or over; step across; transgress PMP *laŋkaq₁

ŋ-alapKelabit(WMP) take, get, fetch PWMP *maŋ-alap

ŋalatKayan(WMP) pull with a heavy rope PWMP *kalat

ŋa-layuMapun(WMP) become wilted or withered PAN *layu

ŋalehYami (Imorod)(WMP) dull PWMP *ŋazel

ŋáləkPalauan(WMP) child; baby; anyone younger than speaker; sweetheart; fiance(e) PMP *anak

ŋáləkPalauan(WMP) pinkie; small finger PMP *anak i lima

ŋálək ər a orəoməlraəlPalauan(WMP) bastard PMP *anak

ŋa-leputKenyah(WMP) use the blowpipe PMP *leput

ŋaliBukat(WMP) to dig PMP *kali₂

ŋaliIban(WMP) to dig, dig up or out PMP *ma-ŋali

ŋaliNggela(OC) canarium almond POC *kaŋaRi

ŋaliʔSasak(WMP) to dig PMP *ma-ŋali

ŋaliSundanese(WMP) to dig, dig up PMP *ma-ŋali

ŋali-anSundanese(WMP) to dig up, dig for something; dig or root something up PMP *kali₂

ŋa-liaŋSundanese(WMP) to make a hole PMP *liaŋ

ŋa-limasBalinese(WMP) look like a boat PWMP *maŋa-limas

ŋa-lindoŋKenyah(WMP) to shelter PAN *liduŋ

ŋa-lipətSundanese(WMP) to make a fold in something; to fold PAN *lipet

ŋálŋalPalawan Batak(WMP) pain PPH *ŋalŋál

ŋalŋálPangasinan(WMP) crush something hard or brittle with the teeth; chew PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋalŋalTombulu(WMP) to groan, moan (with pain) PPH *ŋalŋál

ŋalŋalIbaloy(WMP) to chew, perhaps especially to chew something for a long time PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋalŋálIfugaw(WMP) mastication, but not applied to betel nut chewing PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋalŋálPangasinan(WMP) bellowing of a carabao or bull PPH *ŋalŋál

*ŋalŋalPMin(WMP) to groan, moan (with pain) PPH *ŋalŋál

ŋalŋálTagalog(WMP) prone to grumble and sob; wailing; loudly lamenting; weeping aloud PPH *ŋalŋál

ŋalŋal-ənBontok(WMP) to chew meat PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋalŋal-enIbaloy(WMP) to chew on something for a long time, with the jaws working hard and perhaps noisily (as dog chewing on bone) PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋalŋal-enIlokano(WMP) to masticate, chew on PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋaloTongan(OC) to sink (e.g. into one’s flesh); so submerge, to disappear or pass completely under the surface (e.g. of a diver or a submarine); to disappear from sight POC *mwaloq

ŋalolBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) dull, blunt PWMP *ŋazel

ŋ-alotKiput(WMP) paddle a canoe PWMP *alud

ŋaluSamoan(OC) wave, breaker; (of the sea) be rough POC *ŋalu

ŋaluTongan(OC) wave (when rolling in), breaker or surf POC *ŋalu

ŋaluTuvaluan(OC) a wave; rough (of sea); raised part of canoe foredeck designed to prevent entry of waves POC *ŋalu

ŋaluVitu(OC) tide POC *ŋalu

ŋa-luahSundanese(WMP) to spit out betel saliva PMP *luaq

ŋ-aludKelabit(WMP) carry things in a boat PWMP *alud

ŋa-lukatBalinese(WMP) conduct a purification ceremony for someone who is ritually unclean PWMP *lukat₁

ŋa-lulunSundanese(WMP) roll something between the hands PMP *lulun

ŋa-lumaʔ-anMapun(WMP) to go from house to house PAN *Rumaq

ŋa-lumutMapun(WMP) to begin to get moss or algae on something PWMP *ŋa-lumut

ŋ-alunIban(WMP) overwhelm, roll over, drive back, rush furiously (as a wave overwhelming a boat) PWMP *maŋ-qalun

ŋ-alunSundanese(WMP) swim with the waves, drift on the waves PWMP *maŋ-qalun

ŋ-alurBalinese(WMP) have a strong current (river) PWMP *maŋ-qaluR

ŋ-alurJavanese(WMP) recount events PWMP *maŋ-qaluR

ŋa-luraʔMapun(WMP) to spit PMP *ludaq

ŋa-luraʔYakan(WMP) to spit PMP *ludaq

ŋa maatuaaAnuta(OC) parents POC *matuqa

ŋa-mati-kenSundanese(WMP) kill PMP *m-atay

ŋ-ambaŋ-iKaro Batak(WMP) to restrain or hold back PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

ŋ-ambaŋ-inBalinese(WMP) to hinder, interfere with PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

ŋ-amonSungai Seguliud(WMP) 1pl ex oblique PAN *amen

ŋ-amparSundanese(WMP) to spread out (as a mat) PMP *hampaR

ŋ-ampenKaro Batak(WMP) tie something with a slipknot, as a fishhook to the fishline PMP *hapen

ŋ-ampulSundanese(WMP) heave upward (of a swell at sea) PWMP *hampul

ŋ-ampuŋSasak(WMP) suspended from something PMP *apuŋ

ŋ-amukSundanese(WMP) furiously attack and fight, fight like a madman PMP *hamuk

ŋ-amuk-(amuk)Javanese(WMP) go on a rampage PMP *hamuk

ŋamu-ŋaMekeo (East)(OC) root PMP *Ramut₁

ŋanBelait(WMP) hand PMP *taŋan

ŋānTausug(WMP) a name (of something) PMP *ŋajan

ŋ-anaʔLampung(WMP) have children PWMP *maŋ-anak

ŋ-anakJavanese(WMP) call someone or regard someone as one's own child PWMP *maŋ-anak

ŋ-anakSasak(WMP) give birth, bear a child PWMP *maŋ-anak

ŋ-anak-iKaro Batak(WMP) yield interest; play the small gong (peŋ-anak) PWMP *maŋ-anak-i

ŋān-anTausug(WMP) to name something PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋ-anayKenyah(WMP) numerous as white ants PAN *aNay

ŋaniAgutaynen(WMP) indeed; really; very PPH *ŋani

ŋaniAnakalangu(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy

ŋániʔBinukid(WMP) used to express an extreme case or an unlikely instance; even, at least PPH *ŋaniq

ŋaniBontok(WMP) nearly, almost PPH *ŋaniq

ŋaniCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) indeed, precisely, really, truly, actually (used as an interjection expressing the certainty or truthfulness of a statement) PPH *ŋani

ŋaniCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) indeed, precisely, really, actually PPH *ŋaniq

ŋaniItbayaten(WMP) even PPH *ŋaniq

ŋaniKodi(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy

ŋaniKodi(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy

ŋaniManobo (Agusan)(WMP) even PPH *ŋaniq

ŋániʔCebuano(WMP) even (as in ‘I don’t even have a peso’) PPH *ŋaniq

ŋániHanunóo(WMP) indeed (asserting validity, as in ‘This is alright, isn’t it? Yes, indeed!’) PPH *ŋani

ŋ-anitKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) to skin, flay PMP *qanit

ŋani tenuNgadha(CMP) loom PAN *tenun

ŋan-ŋaniIlokano(WMP) nearly, almost, a little short PPH *ŋaniq

ŋa-nuIfugaw (Bayninan)(WMP) what? PAN *-nu₁

ŋ-anupPaku(WMP) to hunt PWMP *maŋ-qanup

ŋ-anupSiang(WMP) to hunt PWMP *maŋ-qanup

ŋ-añamMadurese(WMP) to plait or braid PWMP *maŋ-añam

ŋ-añamSundanese(WMP) plait a mat PWMP *maŋ-añam

ŋa-ñawaʔ-anSundanese(WMP) to inspire PMP *nihawa

ŋaŋJavanese(WMP) whine of an engine PMP *ŋaŋ

ŋaŋKankanaey(WMP) to gnarl, snarl, growl PMP *ŋaŋ

ŋaŋaArosi(OC) to eat PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋaŋaBare'e(WMP) mouth cavity; voice PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋáŋaBikol(WMP) open (the mouth) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaMongondow(WMP) opening or entrance of an elongated object, as a bamboo internode used in cooking, or a long passage; can also be used for opening of the mouth or the entrance to the gullet PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋáBontok(WMP) to be astounded; to be surprised; to be open-mouthed with surprise PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaʔChamorro(WMP) duck (fowl) PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaŋaMelanau Dalat(WMP) mouth of a bubəw (bamboo basket trap for fish) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaFijian(OC) bitter, sour, poisonous POC *ŋaŋa₁

ŋaŋaGilbertese(OC) food poisoning (esp. by fish); suffer from poisoning POC *ŋaŋa₁

ŋaŋaGitua(OC) carry off in the mouth (as a dog taking food away) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋáŋaHanunóo(WMP) open-mouthed PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋáIfugaw(WMP) big fissure in a piece of wood, e.g. in a board, a beam PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋáIsinay(WMP) open-mouthed, gaping PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaKambera(CMP) opening of the mouth; also: mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaKaro Batak(WMP) wide open, gaping, of a hole or the mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaKoroni(WMP) mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaMansaka(WMP) open (as mouth); to open (as one’s mouth) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋāŋāMaori(OC) make a hoarse, harsh noise, screech, as a bird PCEMP *ŋaŋak

ŋaŋāMaori(OC) breathe heavily or with difficulty PCEMP *ŋaŋaŋ

ŋaŋaMelanau (Matu)(WMP) bucktoothed, sticking out, of the teeth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaManggarai(CMP) agape; opened wide (as a gaping wound) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaNgadha(CMP) opening; open the mouth; open the rim of a container wide in order to insert things PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋáŋaPangasinan(WMP) open mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaRembong(CMP) mouth; chatter PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaTboli(WMP) to open one’s mouth wide PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋāTolai(OC) breathe heavily, draw a long and deep breath; heave the chest in breathing PCEMP *ŋaŋaŋ

ŋāŋāTongan(OC) (of a small child) to bawl, cry loudly PCEMP *ŋaŋak

ŋaŋaTontemboan(WMP) open, opened, of the mouth; gaping, of living things, of a sack, a basket, etc. PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaUma(WMP) mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaWawonii(WMP) mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋaWayan(OC) be poisonous, toxic; bitter or sour in taste, astringent; pungent, hot in taste; poison, toxic quality; bitterness POC *ŋaŋa₁

ŋaŋaʔSasak(WMP) open the mouth, gape (in astonishment) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋáŋa ~ ŋaŋáCebuano(WMP) open the mouth; be unable to speak, usually for not knowing what to say; for things that have edges to gape (as a wound, overfull suitcase) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋa bhoaNgadha(CMP) open the mouth wide; call loud and long (with open mouth) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋáŋa(h)Aklanon(WMP) to open up (as the mouth) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋa-ŋahaRennellese(OC) to measure distance in approximate fathoms (distance between fingertips, arms extended) POC *ŋapa₁

ŋaŋa-kan mulutMalay(WMP) to open the mouth wide PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋa-ŋaliTolai(OC) gesticulate, especially as a result of anger, to stamp the foot POC *ŋali-ŋali

ŋa-ŋaluSamoan(OC) (of the sea) be rippled, ruffled POC *ŋalu

ŋa-ŋaluTongan(OC) (of the sea) to show a track where a fish has just been swimming near the surface POC *ŋalu

ŋaŋanAmis(Formosan) name, title, designation; character, reputation PAN *ŋajan

ŋaŋanSakizaya(Formosan) name PAN *ŋajan

ŋaŋa-n waeʔRembong(CMP) mouth of a river, estuary PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋáŋKankanaey(WMP) pronouncing inarticulate sounds, as mute persons PMP *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

ŋaŋapMinangkabau(WMP) snap at flies, of a dog PAN *ŋabŋab

ŋaŋarManggarai(CMP) crack, split; in pieces, cracked (of soil, earthenware pot, wood) PCEMP *ŋaŋar

ŋa-ŋaraTolai(OC) to cry, scream, squeal, as a pig (applied to a person who laughs) POC *ŋara

ŋa-ŋaran-anSundanese(WMP) give a name to someone or something PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋaŋasChamorro(WMP) chew PMP *ŋasŋas

ŋaŋasChamorro(WMP) chew, masticate, grind with the teeth PMP *ŋasŋas

ŋaŋas-iUlawa(OC) to chew, to roll about in the mouth PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋaŋátIsneg(WMP) to masticate, to chew PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋáŋatItawis(WMP) chewing tobacco PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋáŋatItawis(WMP) chewing tobacco PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋaŋayKavalan(Formosan) saliva, drivel PAN *ŋajay

ŋaŋaʔLun Dayeh(WMP) wide open PWMP *ŋaqŋaq₁

ŋáŋaʔTagalog(WMP) prepared buyo or betel nut ready for chewing PPH *ŋaqŋaq₂

ŋaŋəhKelabit(WMP) mouth of a bubuh (bamboo basket trap for fish) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋ-gamutMapun(WMP) to take root; to develop roots; to become established PMP *Ramut₁

ŋ-aŋinJavanese(WMP) get some fresh air PMP *haŋin

ŋ-aŋinKaro Batak(WMP) winnow rice by pouring it slowly from a height so that the chaff is blown away by the wind PMP *haŋin

ŋ-aŋin-anSundanese(WMP) carry away with the wind PMP *haŋin

ŋ-aŋin-(aŋin)-akéJavanese(WMP) dry something in the wind PMP *haŋin

ŋ-aŋkatBalinese(WMP) set off, march to war, depart PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat

ŋ-aŋkatKaro Batak(WMP) lift up, raise PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat

ŋ-aŋkatSundanese(WMP) open festivities; lift, raise; appoint PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat

ŋ-aŋkat-(i)Javanese(WMP) lift, raise PWMP *aŋkat

ŋaŋŋaŋJavanese(WMP) whine of an engine PMP *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

ŋaŋŋaŋKaro Batak(WMP) snarl; have a "big mouth", quarrel PMP *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

ŋaŋŋarKavalan(Formosan) move one’s mouth as one chews PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋ-aŋsegJavanese(WMP) press forward PWMP *haseg

ŋapaEmira(OC) betel nut lime pot (Chinnery 1927) POC *ŋapa₃

ŋ-apaJavanese(WMP) to (be) doing what? why? PWMP *maŋ-apa

ŋ-apiIban(WMP) make a fire flare up; cook with a fire PWMP *maŋ-hapuy

ŋapiMekeo (East)(OC) night POC *Rapi

ŋ-apitBalinese(WMP) place between two things, shut in on both sides PWMP *maŋ-hapit

ŋ-apitKaro Batak(WMP) pinch or squeeze something; lie between PWMP *maŋ-hapit

ŋ-apitSasak(WMP) squeeze in PWMP *maŋ-hapit

ŋ-apoy-eMadurese(WMP) apply fire to, heat with fire PWMP *maŋ-hapuy-i

ŋaputBalinese(WMP) wind round, wrap round PWMP *ma-ŋaput

ŋaputSundanese(WMP) to sew PWMP *ma-ŋaput

ŋarPatpatar(OC) canarium almond: Canarium indicum POC *kaŋaRi

ŋaraAnakalangu(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraArosi(OC) to cry POC *ŋara

ŋaraBimanese(CMP) kind of small duck that lays numerous eggs PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaraBimanese(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraBugotu(OC) to rail, shout at, threaten POC *ŋara

ŋaraDhao/Ndao(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraEnde(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraKodi(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraLamboya(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraLau(OC) to creak, of trees rubbing together POC *ŋara

ŋaraManam(OC) to swim POC *ŋaraŋara

ŋaraManggarai(CMP) wild duck PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaraMota(OC) spider shell PMP *Raŋa

ŋaraMuna(WMP) palate PMP *ŋadas

ŋaraPalu'e(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

*ŋaraPBun(WMP) palate PMP *ŋadas

ŋaraRoviana(OC) the wild duck PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaraʔSasak(WMP) wild duck PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋaraHawu(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraWolio(WMP) palate PMP *ŋadas

ŋara(a)Nali(OC) hole POC *ŋata

ŋárabIsneg(WMP) the edge of a cutting instrument PPH *ŋarab

ŋarabItbayaten(WMP) blade, cutting edge PPH *ŋarab

ŋara i suʔuArosi(OC) a duck (suʔu = swamp) PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋ-arakKelabit(WMP) to guide, as a blind man PWMP *maŋ-aRak

ŋ-arakJavanese(WMP) take something around in public PWMP *maŋ-aRak

ŋ-arakKaro Batak(WMP) "accompany" a prince PWMP *maŋ-aRak

ŋ-arakSundanese(WMP) parade ceremoniously (as a bridal couple or a newly circumcized boy), hold a procession PWMP *maŋ-aRak

ŋ-arak-kenKaro Batak(WMP) walk behind someone PWMP *maŋ-aRak

ŋ-arak-ŋ-arakKaro Batak(WMP) follow, come behind or after someone; drive cattle before one PWMP *maŋ-aRak

ŋa-ramɨsSundanese(WMP) knead with the hand or hands; also lustfully massage with the hand, as a woman’s breast PAN *Rames

ŋaranMelanau (Balingian)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

(ŋ)aranBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáranBikol(WMP) a name, title; noun PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranBinukid(WMP) name; to give a name to someone or something; to call someone by a specified name PMP *ŋajan

ŋara-nBuruese(CMP) roof of the mouth; throat, larynx; the inside of the mouth and throat PMP *ŋadas

ŋáranHanunóo(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranIbaloy(WMP) name (as of person, town); also, what a thing is called PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranInati(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranItbayaten(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranKatingan(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranMa'anyan(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranMansaka(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranMaranao(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáranMasbatenyo(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranMinokok(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranOld Javanese(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaránPangasinan(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranSebop(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáranRemontado(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranSundanese(WMP) name; also, to name, call the name of PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranTombonuwo(WMP) reputation PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranTonsea(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranTontemboan(WMP) name; position, function PMP *ŋajan

ŋáranWaray-Waray(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranYami(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranKenyah (Long San)(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋara-nLou(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

ŋaranPaku(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaranSupan(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáran-anBikol(WMP) to name, christen; to call someone by name PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋaran-anItbayaten(WMP) give a name to PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋarán-anMasbatenyo(WMP) be named PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋaran-anYami(WMP) give a name to, call by a name PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋaraŋKomodo(CMP) a name; to name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaraŋarPazeh(Formosan) to bite little by little PAN *ŋalŋal

ŋaraŋarWogeo(OC) to swim POC *ŋaraŋara

ŋara-ŋaraArosi(OC) to cry POC *ŋara

ŋara-siArosi(OC) to cry for POC *ŋara

ŋareYamdena(CMP) name; namesake PMP *ŋajan

ŋ-arekLahanan(WMP) sniff, smell PWMP *meŋ-hajek

ŋaremLun Dayeh(WMP) cause a boat to capsize PWMP *ma-ŋaRem

ŋa-rəŋəwBisaya(WMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

ŋaresIbatan(WMP) gums (of the teeth) PPH *ŋajes

ŋaresItbayaten(WMP) gums (of the teeth) PPH *ŋajes

ŋaresYami(WMP) gums PPH *ŋajes

ŋarexItbayaten(WMP) dull PWMP *ŋazel

ŋariBimanese(CMP) to dig PMP *ma-ŋali

ŋ<ar>ikŋikIlokano(WMP) high-pitched, shrieking laughter (said of females; ungik is used for pigs) PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋarinW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋarinW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋari-ŋari-aArosi(OC) move about, annoy by change of position POC *ŋali-ŋali

ŋarisIban(WMP) to mark out land by drawing boundary lines PMP *garis

ŋarŋarToba Batak(WMP) fragment, shard PMP *ŋarŋar

ŋ-aroKelabit(WMP) to snatch PWMP *maŋ-qaRaw

ŋaroKelabit(WMP) to scratch an itch PAN *kaRaw₁

(ŋa)-roŋoAnuta(OC) news POC *roŋoR

ŋaruAnuta(OC) breakers, surf (rarely: wave) POC *ŋalu

ŋaruMaori(OC) wave of the sea; corrugation POC *ŋalu

ŋaruRarotongan(OC) wave, ocean swell POC *ŋalu

ŋaru ŋaŋaKambera(CMP) wide open mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaru-ŋaruMaori(OC) rough with waves POC *ŋalu

ŋ-arurKelabit(WMP) follow along a stream or river PWMP *maŋ-qaluR

ŋ-arurKelabit(WMP) to follow a path along a stream or river PWMP *saluR

ŋ-arurLun Dayeh(WMP) to walk up towards the source of a river PWMP *saluR

ŋárusHanunóo(WMP) palate PPH *ŋajes

ŋasLabel(OC) chew PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋasPalauan(WMP) ironwood PMP *aRuhu

ŋasSoutheast Ambrym(OC) to chew, bite, sting PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋ-asaʔSasak(WMP) whet, sharpen PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

ŋ-asahJavanese(WMP) sharpen, hone PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

ŋ-asahKaro Batak(WMP) whet, sharpen PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

ŋ-asahSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) sharpen PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

ŋ-asahSundanese(WMP) whet, sharpen PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

ŋasanBuli(SHWNG) name; rank; occupation; function PMP *ŋajan

ŋasaŋManggarai(CMP) a name; to name; named; kind, type PMP *ŋajan

ŋ-asaŋTunjung(WMP) breathe PWMP *qaseŋ

ŋ-asekTaboyan(WMP) to dibble PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

ŋ-asemBalinese(WMP) make something sour PWMP *qalesem

ŋasənKenyah (Long Dunin)(WMP) blunt PWMP *ŋazel

ŋas-iArosi(OC) to chew, as sugarcane PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋas-iNggela(OC) suck, as sugarcane; bite; husk with the teeth, of coconuts PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋäs-iSa'a(OC) to chew PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋasi-enSoutheast Ambrym(OC) chewing, biting, stinging PCEMP *ŋaŋas

ŋ-asihKelabit(WMP) ignore PWMP *asih

ŋ-asihJavanese(WMP) to love PMP *qasiq

ŋ-asɨkSundanese(WMP) make a hole or holes in the ground for planting; to plant PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

ŋ-asinJavanese(WMP) treat foods by a salting process; to salt foods PWMP *maŋ-qasin

ŋ-asinSundanese(WMP) lick salty ground (animals) PWMP *maŋ-qasin

ŋ-asin ŋ-asinSundanese(WMP) pack foods in salt; pickle PWMP *maŋ-qasin

ŋasŋasCebuano(WMP) damage by scraping PMP *ŋasŋas

ŋasŋásKankanaey(WMP) to crunch, craunch; sound produced by chewing half-cooked camotes, etc. PMP *ŋasŋas

ŋasŋasKaro Batak(WMP) of goats, nibble all over the bushes PMP *ŋasŋas

ŋasŋasAgta (Eastern)(WMP) chew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) PMP *ŋasŋas

ŋ-asokDusun Deyah(WMP) to dibble PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

ŋ-asuIban(WMP) to hunt, go hunting PWMP *maŋ-asu

ŋataFijian(OC) snake, viper POC *mwata

ŋataMaori(OC) snail, slug, leech POC *mwata

ŋataNiue(OC) snake POC *mwata

ŋataRennellese(OC) Pacific boa: Enygrus carinatus (Schneider); general name for snakes, loathed and considered the embodient of non-worshipped deities POC *mwata

ŋataSamoan(OC) snake (rare in Samoa) POC *mwata

ŋataTonga(OC) snake (there are no snakes in Tonga) POC *mwata

ŋataTongan(OC) snake, serpent (there are no snakes in Tonga) POC *mwata

ŋ-ataʔKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) pick fruit before it is ripe PWMP *maŋ-hataq

ŋ-ataKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) pick fruit before it is ripe PWMP *maŋ-qataq

ŋat(a)Woleaian(OC) hole, hollow, concavity POC *ŋata

ŋ-atadTarakan(WMP) send PWMP *maŋ-hateD

ŋ-atahKaro Batak(WMP) eat raw flesh PWMP *maŋ-hataq

ŋ-ataŋKelabit(WMP) carry on a pole between two people PWMP *ataŋ₂

ŋ-ateKelabit(WMP) kill PMP *atay

ŋ-ateLun Dayeh(WMP) kill PMP *atay

ŋatelJavanese(WMP) to cause itching PMP *gatel

ŋ-atepJavanese(WMP) equip with a thatched roof PWMP *maŋ-qatep

ŋatn-anIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) for someone to name someone or something PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋátŋatAgta (Eastern)(WMP) chew food, betel nut, gum, etc. PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋátŋatCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to chew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋatŋátIlokano(WMP) to gnaw, tear with the teeth PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋatŋatKaro Batak(WMP) to chew, bite PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋatŋat-iKaro Batak(WMP) chew on something PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋátuBontok(WMP) above, up PPH *ŋatu

ŋátoIlokano(WMP) height; upstairs PPH *ŋatu

ŋátoIsneg(WMP) height PPH *ŋatu

ŋatoYami(WMP) upgrade, on top, above PPH *ŋatu

ŋ-a-tosJavanese(WMP) to make something hard PMP *teRas

ŋauAnuta(OC) to chew POC *ŋau₁

ŋauArosi(OC) to eat food POC *ŋau₁

ŋauArosi(OC) to beat, strike POC *ŋau₃

ŋauGilbertese(OC) gluttony, voracity; gluttonous POC *ŋau₁

ŋauGitua(OC) pre-masticate food for an infant POC *ŋau₁

ŋauKapingamarangi(OC) to chew POC *ŋau₁

ŋauManam(OC) 1sg.: I POC *ŋau₂

ŋauMaori(OC) bite, gnaw POC *ŋau₁

ŋauMota(OC) gnaw, champ, bite POC *ŋau₁

ŋauNiue(OC) to chew, as sugarcane POC *ŋau₁

ŋauNukuoro(OC) chew (to suck juice out) POC *ŋau₁

ŋáuPalauan(WMP) fire PMP *hapuy

ŋauRennellese(OC) to chew, as pandanus, sugarcane, betel husks; to bite POC *ŋau₁

ŋäuSa'a(OC) to eat POC *ŋau₁

ŋauSamoan(OC) to chew, as sugarcane POC *ŋau₁

ŋauTolai(OC) strike with a stick in the ŋauŋau ceremony POC *ŋau₃

ŋauTongan(OC) gnaw, chew, as sugarcane, in order to appropriate the juice only POC *ŋau₁

ŋauTuvaluan(OC) chew (but not swallow, as of sugarcane) POC *ŋau₁

ŋäu-heSa'a(OC) a feast; food POC *ŋau₁

ŋa-unGilbertese(OC) ten; tens PMP *ŋa

ŋau-ŋauArosi(OC) to eat; a meal POC *ŋau-ŋau

ŋau-ŋauGilbertese(OC) very gluttonous; to gulp down, cram, devour POC *ŋau-ŋau

ŋau-ŋauNiue(OC) to bite POC *ŋau-ŋau

ŋau-ŋau-raaArosi(OC) gluttonous; a glutton POC *ŋau₁

ŋäu-ŋeuSa'a(OC) to eat POC *ŋau-ŋau

ŋavaBabatana(OC) long POC *ŋapa₂

ŋavaEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) a measure of distance, fathom POC *ŋapa₁

ŋavaRoviana(OC) fathom POC *ŋapa₁

ŋava- ŋavaEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) a long distance POC *ŋapa₁

ŋa-vəlVaghua(OC) ten PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq

ŋa-visAxamb(OC) how much/how many? POC *pica

ŋa-wakacYabem(OC) its root PMP *wakat

ŋawalJavanese(WMP) to guard, escort PWMP *kabal₂

ŋ-awaŋ-awaŋSasak(WMP) float or flutter in the air (of things) PMP *awaŋ

ŋ-awe(awe)Javanese(WMP) wave to or at PMP *away₁

ŋawiMapun(WMP) to fish with a pole PWMP *ma-ŋawil

ŋawilLampung(WMP) to go fishing PWMP *ma-ŋawil

ŋawŋawIlokano(WMP) mouth (of a river), gorge; entrance to throat PAN *ŋawŋaw

ŋawŋawItbayaten(WMP) cat sound PAN *ŋawŋaw

ŋawŋawPazeh(Formosan) sound of a bird, insect; voice PAN *ŋawŋaw

ŋawŋawTausug(WMP) a muttering, mumbling, grumbling; low unintelligible sound in the throat PAN *ŋawŋaw

ŋ-awuJavanese(WMP) scatter ashes onto PWMP *maŋ-qabu

*-ŋawuluPMic(OC) unit of ten, in counting PMP *ŋa

ŋayKuruti(OC) ducklike wildfowl with webbed feet PMP *ŋaRaq

ŋayaBare'e(WMP) kind, type, sort PMP *ŋajan

ŋ-ayakJavanese(WMP) strain or screen something PWMP *maŋ-ayak

ŋ-ayakSundanese(WMP) sift, winnow PWMP *maŋ-ayak

ŋ-ayamIban(WMP) play with (as a toy): game, play PWMP *qayam₃

ŋayanBantuqanon(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋáyanBuhid(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋ-ayatSasak(WMP) to threaten PWMP *ayat

ŋāyawIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) for a group of men … to go on a headhunting raid (a raiding party traditionally consisted of about five to ten men, usually from a single clan) PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋayawIban(WMP) make war on PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋayawKenyah(WMP) go headhunting PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋayawPuyuma(Formosan) headhunting PAN *ŋayaw

ŋayawTboli(WMP) (of people) to raid at night, to kill and take things PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋayɔCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) raider; a killing raid; to attack a house or village for the purpose of killing PMP *kayaw

ŋayoKayan(WMP) go headhunting PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋáyo, ŋáyawIfugaw(WMP) headhunting raid, revenge expedition PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋayuMapun(WMP) to use wood, coconut shells, etc. as fuel in cooking; to add wood to a fire PWMP *ma-ŋahiw

ŋ-ayunJavanese(WMP) to swing something PWMP *hayun

ŋazaNgadha(CMP) name; reputation; fame, renown PMP *ŋajan

ŋazanManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a name; to name something or use someone’s name PMP *ŋajan

ŋaʔŋaTonsawang(WMP) to chew betel nut PPH *ŋaqŋaq₂

ŋaʔŋaAyta Abellan(WMP) to chew PPH *ŋaqŋaq₂

ŋaʔŋalTontemboan(WMP) a moan, groan (in pain, difficulty, or when sleeping) PPH *ŋalŋál

*ŋaʔŋaʔPMin(WMP) to chew PPH *ŋaqŋaq₂

ŋaʔŋaʔChamorro(WMP) open-mouthed while staring blankly; look up with mouth open; gape PWMP *ŋaqŋaq₁


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ŋēLau(OC) to cry, utter, voice POC *ŋek₂

ŋéakMinangkabau(WMP) whine or cry complainingly -- of a very young child PWMP *ŋiak

*ŋeaNPBun(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋə-bahKayan (Busang)(WMP) wear a loincloth PMP *bahaR

ŋə-bahKayan(WMP) wear a loincloth PMP *bahaR

ŋəbárdPalauan(WMP) west, west wind PMP *habaRat

ŋəbok-lPalauan(WMP) drooling PWMP *ibeR-en

ŋe-buaKayan(WMP) to fruit, bear fruit PWMP *maŋ-buaq

ŋe-buriŋKayan(WMP) make a pattern, as on bamboo PWMP *budiŋ

ŋə-dalawKiput(WMP) to be angry at or jealous of someone PWMP *dalu₂

ŋe-dalemKelabit(WMP) to deepen PMP *dalem

ŋe-dalemLun Dayeh(WMP) to deepen (as knowledge) PMP *dalem

ŋe-datahKayan(WMP) to make level or flat PWMP *maŋ-dataR

ŋe-dedhemKelabit(WMP) to wait for nightfall PAN *demdem₂

ŋedip-ŋedipMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) to blink, keep blinking PAN *kedip

ŋe-dohJavanese(WMP) keep something at a distance PMP *zauq

ŋe-domJavanese(WMP) insert a needle/pin into PAN *zaRum

ŋe-dusJavanese(WMP) to bathe someone POC *riRus

ŋeeBungku(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋeePadoe(WMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋeeToqabaqita(OC) used to call pigs for feeding POC *ŋek₂

ŋeenUjir(CMP) name PMP *ŋajan

ŋ-efutLun Dayeh(WMP) shoot with a blowpipe PWMP *ma-ñeput

ŋe-hawaʔKayan(WMP) marry, wed PWMP *maŋ-qasawa

ŋ-ejéNgadha(CMP) press or squeeze out from the body (excrement, or a child in childbirth) PMP *maŋ-qezen

ŋèkJavanese(WMP) a baby's crying PWMP *ŋiak

ŋekKankanaey(WMP) to grunt, as a hog when hungry PMP *ŋek

ŋekTolai(OC) to squeal, as a pig POC *ŋek₂

ŋekebLun Dayeh(WMP) to put a cover or lid on PMP *kebkeb₁

ŋəkəbKelabit(WMP) to cover, put a lid on PMP *kebkeb₁

ŋekeŋLun Dayeh (Kemaloh)(WMP) to shorten (like a leech shortens itself) PMP *keŋkeŋ₂

ŋekepJavanese(WMP) to hug, embrace, clasp PMP *kepkep

ŋəkŋəkBontok(WMP) indicate one's disapproval of what is being said by acting as though one doesn't hear, or by mumbling one's objections PMP *ŋekŋek

ŋékŋékCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to cry, to yelp (of the cry of pain or fear of a dog) PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋekŋékKankanaey(WMP) to resound, clatter, rattle, bang, as when many people cleave wood PMP *ŋekŋek

ŋe-labuhJavanese(WMP) to fling into the sea as appeasement to the deities PWMP *labuq₁

ŋe-lakiJavanese(WMP) to mate or breed (of animals) PMP *laki₁

ŋe-laklak-iKaro Batak(WMP) to peel; strip bark from a tree PWMP *laklak

ŋə-laluJavanese(WMP) to commit suicide PMP *lalu₁

ŋə-lamudKelabit(WMP) to mix PWMP *ŋa-lamuj

ŋə-lamudLun Dayeh(WMP) to make lamud PWMP *ŋa-lamuj

ŋə-lantiŋKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) to float PWMP *lantiŋ

ŋə-laŋkahJavanese(WMP) to step over something (as sleeping people); to skip, bypass; to marry ahead of an older sibling PMP *laŋkaq₁

ŋe-laŋkah-iKaro Batak(WMP) step over someone; slip between two people without asking permission PMP *laŋkaq₁

ŋe-lapahKaro Batak(WMP) cut open a sacrificial animal; cut into a tumor; to operate on PAN *lapaq

ŋe-lapah-iKaro Batak(WMP) cut a sacrificial animal into pieces PAN *lapaq

ŋe-lapar-iKaro Batak(WMP) to make a child go hungry (as a punishment) PMP *lapaR₁

ŋə-laraŋJavanese(WMP) to prohibit, forbid PAN *laRaŋ

ŋə-lasauʔKiput(WMP) to heat; to boil water PAN *lasuq₁

ŋe-lawanJavanese(WMP) to fight PMP *laban₂

ŋe-layuKelabit(WMP) to make something wither, as by putting it close to the fire PAN *layu

ŋe-lebhaLun Dayeh(WMP) to undress someone PWMP *lebas

ŋe-lebih-iKaro Batak(WMP) give more than the (standard) measure PMP *lebiq

ŋe-lebih-inBalinese(WMP) to exceed, be more PMP *lebiq

ŋe-lemah diriʔIban(WMP) to tire oneself out (as by physical exercise) PWMP *lemeq

ŋe-lempitKaro Batak(WMP) to fold over PMP *lepit₂

ŋə-lεŋJavanese(WMP) to live in or enter, a hole, cave, etc.; to make a hole; in a hole or hollow PMP *liaŋ

ŋə-lεŋ-iJavanese(WMP) to make a hole in PMP *liaŋ

ŋe-lepasBalinese(WMP) to die (High Balinese) PWMP *lepas

ŋe-lepasJavanese(WMP) to let loose, release, let fly; to shoot many missiles or shoot missiles repeatedly; to hit something with a missile PWMP *lepas

ŋə-ləpasSasak(WMP) to loosen PWMP *lepas

ŋe-lesuJavanese(WMP) to lie down to rest PWMP *lesu₃

ŋe-liaŋ lahat-kenKaro Batak(WMP) place a corpse in a coffin (a hollowed-out log), where the lid is sealed shut PMP *liaŋ

ŋe-libutLun Dayeh(WMP) surround game with people and dogs PWMP *libut

ŋə-likamBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) to open PWMP *likab

ŋəliliŋIban(WMP) to go around something (as in circling a house) PMP *kuliliŋ

ŋəliliŋSasak(WMP) to go around, walk around PMP *kuliliŋ

ŋə-lilitJavanese(WMP) to twist, wind around PAN *litlit

ŋə-lilitKaro Batak(WMP) wind something around something else PAN *litlit

ŋə-limaKenyah(WMP) bail out a canoe PWMP *maŋa-limas

ŋə-limasSasak(WMP) bail out water; catch fish by bailing water out of an enclosed area PWMP *maŋa-limas

ŋe-limunKaro Batak(WMP) try to make oneself invisible PMP *limun

ŋe-liŋaBerawan (Batu Belah)(WMP) hear PWMP *liŋa₂

ŋe-liŋaKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) listen PWMP *liŋa₂

ŋəlipNarum(WMP) to blink PAN *kelip

ŋé-liriYamdena(CMP) uproar, clamor PCMP *liRi

ŋe-liwatSasak(WMP) convey or transport something across PWMP *qaliwat

ŋə-loboŋAbai Sembuak(WMP) to bury PAN *lebeŋ₁

ŋe-luahIban(WMP) to be or put outside PWMP *luqaq

ŋe-lubaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) to drill or make a hole PMP *lubaŋ₁

ŋe-ludahIban(WMP) to spit, spit at PMP *ludaq

ŋe-lukJavanese(WMP) to curve PWMP *qeluk

ŋe-luludLun Dayeh(WMP) hurt another person with your shin PAN *luluj

ŋe-lulunKelabit(WMP) to roll up (mat, tobacco leaf, etc.) PMP *lulun

ŋe-lulunLun Dayeh(WMP) to roll a sheet of something PMP *lulun

ŋe-lumbarKaro Batak(WMP) to pay out a rope PWMP *lumbaR

ŋe-lumutJavanese(WMP) mossy PWMP *ŋa-lumut

ŋe-lupiKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) to dream PWMP *lupi

ŋe-luwaŋJavanese(WMP) to dig a hole in PMP *lubaŋ₁

ŋe-mataIban(WMP) watch over, look after, be caretaker or manager of, keep an eye on PMP *mata

ŋemelBalinese(WMP) to hold in the fist, crush in the hand PAN *gemel

ŋemel-ŋemelBalinese(WMP) to knead well PAN *gemel

ŋ-empelasIban(WMP) to polish, smooth something PWMP *maŋ-qa(m)pelas

ŋempitJavanese(WMP) to hold or carry under the arm or between the thighs PMP *kepit

ŋ-emuŋKelabit(WMP) collect, gather, bring together PWMP *maŋ-emuŋ

ŋenaJavanese(WMP) to aim at, try to hit; to impose something on someone; to hit, touch, reach PWMP *ma-ŋena

ŋe-nalamIban(WMP) to deepen, make deeper PMP *dalem

ŋeniKambera(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy

ŋeniLampung(WMP) to give (Krui dialect) PMP *ŋeni

ŋeniMaranao(WMP) beg, ask for (as money) PMP *ŋeni

ŋe-nipéhBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) to dream PMP *h<in>ipi

ŋ-enjenSasak(WMP) press or squeeze out (in defecation or childbirth) PMP *maŋ-qezen

ŋən-tañaBasap(WMP) to ask PMP *kutaña

ŋ-entekSasak(WMP) knock, pound, beat PWMP *ŋ-etek

ŋ-entutBalinese(WMP) to fart PWMP *maŋ-qetut

ŋ-entutSasak(WMP) to break wind PWMP *maŋ-qetut

ŋ-entut-inBalinese(WMP) fart at someone PMP *qetut

ŋeŋJavanese(WMP) hum, buzz (of gnats, midges, etc.) PMP *ŋeŋ

ŋeŋKankanaey(WMP) hum noisily PMP *ŋeŋ

ŋeŋManggarai(CMP) hum PMP *ŋeŋ

ŋéŋSundanese(WMP) buzzing or rushing sound in the ear PMP *ŋiŋ

ŋəŋapMalay(WMP) panting, gasping for breath PMP *ŋepŋep

ŋeŋatMalay(WMP) moth PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋeŋatMalay(WMP) moth PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋeŋeKwaio(OC) strongly, argumentatively POC *ŋeŋe

ŋeŋeLau(OC) to dispute, contradict, disobey, argue with; to creak by rubbing against POC *ŋeŋe

ŋeŋeTolai(OC) to shout POC *ŋeŋe

ŋeŋe-ʔaKwaio(OC) to growl, of a dog or stomach POC *ŋeŋe

ŋéŋékMinangkabau(WMP) to fret, of little children, whine continuously PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋeŋéŋKankanaey(WMP) talk through the nose PMP *ŋeŋeŋ

ŋeŋerLun Dayeh(WMP) growl, snarl (dog) PAN *ŋerŋer

ŋeŋerMaranao(WMP) growl, howl, grunt PAN *ŋerŋer

ŋeŋetMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) chewed up PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋəŋətMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) chewed up PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋeŋŋeŋJavanese(WMP) hum, buzz (of gnats, midges, etc.) PMP *ŋeŋeŋ

ŋéŋŋéŋ-anSundanese(WMP) buzzing or rushing sound in the ear PMP *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ

ŋ-epakKelabit(WMP) to split PWMP *hepak

ŋe-patSasak(WMP) to chisel PMP *paqet

ŋəpəlJavanese(WMP) to make the hand into a fist PWMP *kepel

ŋəpənYami (Imorod)(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋ-epidKelabit(WMP) to braid, intertwine PWMP *epid

ŋ-əpitKelabit(WMP) pick up something with tongs PWMP *sempit

ŋe-puk-epukJavanese(WMP) to keep patting (as someone’s back); to keep thudding/plopping PMP *puk₂

ŋəpuŋSundanese(WMP) to encircle, close in on, beleaguer PWMP *kepuŋ

ŋ-eputKelabit(WMP) shoot with a blowpipe PWMP *eput

ŋ-əputKelabit(WMP) shoot with a blowpipe PWMP *ma-ñeput

ŋe-ragemLun Dayeh(WMP) hold something tightly in the palm PWMP *maŋ-Ragem

ŋe-ragemSasak(WMP) hold something tightly in the fist PWMP *maŋ-Ragem

ŋə-raʔitKelabit(WMP) to travel by raft PMP *Rakit

ŋe-rataLun Dayeh(WMP) to feed or give milk to an infant PMP *Ratas₂

ŋə-rayəhLun Dayeh(WMP) make something big; celebrate; promote PAN *Raya

ŋ-ereŋKelabit(WMP) to groan (as a sick person or a ghost), to growl (dogs) PWMP *maŋ-heReŋ

ŋ-ərətKelabit(WMP) to tighten by constriction, as a belt PMP *heRet

ŋ-ərətKelabit(WMP) tighten by constriction, as a belt PWMP *maŋ-heRet

ŋe-riJavanese(WMP) resembling a fish bone PMP *duRi

ŋ-erikKaro Batak(WMP) trample rice ears with the feet PWMP *maŋ-Riqek

ŋerŋerPuyuma(Formosan) growl of a dog PAN *ŋerŋer

ŋerŋérIlokano(WMP) growling sound; sound of sawing PAN *ŋerŋer

ŋerŋer-anIlokano(WMP) to growl at PAN *ŋerŋer

ŋərudKelabit(WMP) to scrape something PWMP *kerud

ŋe-rumah-iKaro Batak(WMP) to diagnose an illness PAN *Rumaq

ŋesapIban(WMP) to blink, to wink PWMP *kesap

ŋ-eseŋManggarai(CMP) press down and hold the breath while defecating PMP *maŋ-qezen

ŋeshan-anIbaloy(WMP) to give someone or a place a name PWMP *ŋajan-an

ŋəsŋə́sBontok(WMP) to stop in order to get one’s breath; to get relief from panting PAN *ŋesŋes

ŋesŋésIlokano(WMP) to have difficulty when breathing through the nose (as a person with sinusitis) PAN *ŋesŋes

ŋəsŋəsPuyuma(Formosan) breathless; to pant PAN *ŋesŋes

ŋesŋes-enIlokano(WMP) breathe with difficulty PAN *ŋesŋes

ŋe-solJavanese(WMP) to uproot; to push aside PMP *sual

ŋ-etekKelabit(WMP) make popcorn PWMP *ŋ-etek

ŋetepNias(WMP) bite off something with the incisors, gnaw on PMP *ketep₁

ŋe-tlohKayan(WMP) lay an egg PWMP *mag-qiteluR

ŋətŋətBontok(WMP) to rip with the teeth, as tough meat; to chew on, as rats on sugarcane PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋétŋetCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to chew (of the chewing of food, betel nut, or chewing gum) PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋətŋətCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to chew (of the chewing of food, betel nut, or chewing gum) PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋetŋetItbayaten(WMP) idea of mastication PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋetŋetKaro Batak(WMP) clothes moth; harbor a grudge PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋetŋetKaro Batak(WMP) clothes moth PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋətŋətPuyuma(Formosan) gnash one’s teeth; bite without letting go PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋətŋətBontok(WMP) to rip with the teeth, as tough meat; to chew on, as rats on sugarcane PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋetŋétIlokano(WMP) to tear with the teeth PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋetŋetItbayaten(WMP) idea of mastication PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋetŋet-enIlokano(WMP) to tear with the teeth; tear off PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋetŋet-énIlokano(WMP) to tear with the teeth PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋetŋet-enItbayaten(WMP) to gnaw, to chew, to nibble PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋetŋet-enItbayaten(WMP) to gnaw, to chew, to nibble PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋeTŋeT-iPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) to bite severely PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋe-tohJavanese(WMP) to bet something, i.e. use something as a gambling stake PMP *taRuq

ŋe-tomJavanese(WMP) to plant indigo trees PMP *taRum

ŋe-tootLun Dayeh(WMP) to scare or frighten someone PAN *takut

ŋe-tudoLun Dayeh(WMP) to make to sit or settle down PWMP *tujaw

ŋətukKayan (Long Atip)(WMP) pound something into very small pieces PMP *ketuk

ŋ-etutKelabit(WMP) to fart PWMP *maŋ-qetut

ŋ-etutKayan(WMP) to pass wind PWMP *maŋ-qetut

ŋeukeup-anSundanese(WMP) lie next to someone with the arm over him/her PMP *kepkep


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ŋgaVano(OC) and PAN *ka₁

ŋgaWayan(OC) and PAN *ka₁

ŋgabuEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) mist; dust, dirt; rain-cloud, nimbus POC *kaput₂

ŋgaduBimanese(CMP) send PMP *katu

ŋga faŋaGeser(CMP) to eat PWMP *pa-ŋaen

ŋgakaFijian (Eastern)(OC) mangrove crab PMP *kaRakap

ŋgamLametin(OC) you (pl.) PMP *kamu₂

ŋgamaŋAbai Sembuak(WMP) to crawl PWMP *kamaŋ

-ŋgamuKambera(CMP) suffixed form of the 2pl. personal pronoun PMP *kamu₂

ŋga-ŋgaraniWailengi(OC) near POC *karani

ŋ-garaŋBalinese(WMP) to attack with many others, scramble PAN *garaŋ₁

ŋgaruNggela(OC) to scratch PMP *garus

ŋgaru-siNggela(OC) to scratch something; to slice, scrape PMP *garus

ŋgavuNggela(OC) haze, mist; hazy, misty POC *kaput₂

ŋ-geget untuJavanese(WMP) grit the teeth together (in order to endure pain) PWMP *getget₁

ŋ-genepBalinese(WMP) to complete, fill, finish PWMP *genep

ŋ-gənəp-iKaro Batak(WMP) to complete something PWMP *genep-i

ŋgepikManggarai(CMP) smacking sound, sound of a pig eating PMP *gepik

ŋgepitManggarai(CMP) pincers; to nip, catch between pincers PMP *gepit

ŋ-getelBalinese(WMP) pinch, break off with the fingers, pluck off leaves PMP *getel

ŋ-getget-iKaro Batak(WMP) damage something slightly by scratching, cutting or chopping it PWMP *getget₁

ŋ-giboMaranao(WMP) thousand PMP *Ribu

ŋ-gigikJavanese(WMP) snigger, giggle, titter PMP *gikgik

ŋ-gigitBalinese(WMP) eat the opium that remains stuck to the pipe PWMP *gitgit

ŋgilelaFaulili(OC) to know PAN *kilala

ŋ-giliŋBalinese(WMP) to turn or roll PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

ŋ-giliŋKaro Batak(WMP) rub something fine, as in a mortar; grind up into a fine powder; pulverize medicinal substances PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

ŋgolaNggela(OC) scorched, sunburnt; withered, shrivelled, of leaf POC *koRaŋ₁

ŋgolèki liŋsa sumlempitJavanese(WMP) to criticize, carp, find fault PMP *lisehaq, liseqah

ŋgoroArosi(OC) to cut up, as for planting PMP *keleŋ₁

ŋgoviNggela(OC) dent PMP *kepik

ŋgovuNggela(OC) finished PMP *ke(m)pus

-ŋguBanggai(WMP) 1sg possessive pronoun after vowels (suffixed to the possessum for directly possessed nouns such as body parts, but to the determiner ko for indirectly possessed nouns): ko mata-ŋgu ‘my eye’, but ko-ŋgu bonua ‘my house’ PMP *ni-ku

-ŋguFijian(OC) 1sg possessive pronoun: my, mine; added to some nouns and the possessive roots no-, ke-, me- POC *-gu

-ŋguGitua(OC) 1sg possessive pronoun: my POC *-gu

-ŋguKambera(CMP) 1sg possessive suffix: my PAN *-ku

-ŋguPeterara(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

-ŋguRoviana(OC) 1sg possessive suffix; my POC *-gu

-ŋguSesake(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

-ŋguTolai(OC) 1sg possessive suffix, used with all nouns of a personal nature, i.e. parts of the body, relatives, etc. POC *-gu

-ŋguWailengi(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

-ŋguWayan(OC) 1sg possessive pronoun, directly preposed to head noun, marking part-possession POC *-gu

-ŋguBugotu(OC) suffixed pronoun of possession: my POC *-gu

ŋ-gugutKaro Batak(WMP) to gnaw off, bite off with the front teeth, as ripe, raw rice grains PMP *gutgut₁

ŋgukManggarai(CMP) sound of water being swallowed PMP *e(ŋ)guk

ŋgumuNggela(OC) to rinse out the mouth, to gargle; liquid held in mouth; red spittle from betel chewing PMP *kumuR

ŋ-gupitJavanese(WMP) narrow (of a path, alley) PWMP *gu(m)pit

ŋgururuLengo(OC) thunder POC *kururu₁

ŋ-gutgutBalinese(WMP) to bite (men and animals); snap, nibble, gnaw PMP *gutgut₁


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ŋ-harat-iKaro Batak (Kembaren)(WMP) to bite on something PMP *kaRat

ŋ-hoʔəTsou(Formosan) pregnant PAN *aNak


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ŋīFijian(OC) to squeak, as a bat, squeal, as a pig PMP *ŋik

ŋīFijian(OC) buzz, as a mosquito PMP *ŋiŋ

ŋīRotuman(OC) whimper PMP *ŋik

ŋīTongan(OC) whimper PMP *ŋik

ŋíakKankanaey(WMP) cry, weep loudly PWMP *ŋiak

ŋiakToba Batak(WMP) grunt, squeal PWMP *ŋiak

ŋiaŋMalay(WMP) (onom.) whine complainingly PWMP *ŋiaŋ

ŋia(ŋ)-ŋiaŋMongondow(WMP) kind of cricket PWMP *ŋiaŋ

ŋ-iapBukat(WMP) to count PMP *ihap

ŋiáwIlokano(WMP) meow of a cat PWMP *ŋiaw

ŋiawMongondow(WMP) the sound of a cat PWMP *ŋiaw

ŋíbəsPalauan(WMP) drooling saliva PMP *ibeR

ŋicŋicBunun(Formosan) lip PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋidPalauan(WMP) 1st person plural inclusive; us PAN *ita₁

ŋídamBikol(WMP) pregnant PWMP *ŋidam

ŋiḍamJavanese(WMP) feel cravings (of a pregnant woman) PWMP *ŋidam

ŋídəʔPalauan(WMP) climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum (Burm.f.); large food basket made from ŋídech plant PWMP *ituq₁

ŋɨ-dɨkɨt-ɨnSundanese(WMP) bring something near PWMP *deket-en

ŋidre-nLeipon(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

ŋiduŋSasak(WMP) to sing PWMP *kiduŋ

ŋiékJavanese(WMP) scream (of an animal) PWMP *ŋiqik

ŋifunBuhid(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋigitJavanese(WMP) to bite (on), bite (down) on PWMP *gitgit

ŋigit untuJavanese(WMP) clench the teeth PWMP *gitgit

ŋihPohnpeian(OC) tooth POC *ŋipon

ŋ-ihaNggela(OC) how many? how much? when? PMP *ŋa-ijan

ŋihoLuangiua(OC) tooth POC *nipon

ŋíiPalauan(WMP) 3sg. (emphatic) PAN *ia₁

ŋiiRennellese(OC) to peep, squeak, squeal; be hoarse PMP *ŋik

ŋiiWoleaian(OC) tooth POC *ŋipon

ŋíʔikBontok(WMP) squeal, of a piglet PWMP *ŋiqik

ŋiʔiŋiʔiRukai (Mantauran)(Formosan) beard PAN *ŋiSŋiS

ŋikJavanese(WMP) sound of labored breathing; bowing of a stringed instrument PMP *ŋik

ŋikKankanaey(WMP) to grunt, as young pigs do PMP *ŋik

ŋ-ikatIban(WMP) tie something together PWMP *maŋ-hiket

ŋíkəlPalauan(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

ŋikəl əl bubPalauan(WMP) fish caught with a trap PAN *bubu₂

ŋ-iketBalinese(WMP) tie, bind PWMP *maŋ-hiket

ŋ-iketKaro Batak(WMP) tie up, take prisoner PWMP *maŋ-hiket

ŋ-iketSasak(WMP) bind with a rope PWMP *maŋ-hiket

ŋikiKelabit(WMP) to shave off hair PAN *kiskis

ŋ-ikitDusun Deyah(WMP) bite PWMP *i(ŋ)kit

ŋ-ikitMa'anyan(WMP) bite PWMP *i(ŋ)kit

ŋɨkɨtTaboyan(WMP) to bite PWMP *ketket

ŋikŋikBontok(WMP) to chirrup; the chirruping of rice birds PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋikŋíkKankanaey(WMP) to chirp, screech, shriek, scream, squeal, squeak; creak PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋ-ikutKaro Batak(WMP) to follow, accompany, connect oneself with a person or party PMP *ikut₁

ŋilaleYakan(WMP) to know PWMP *ma-ŋilala

ŋilawKiput(WMP) unbearable feeling, as when hearing someone scratch his fingernails on a blackboard, or a strange sensation in the teeth, as when eating something very sour PAN *ŋilu

ŋ-ilekLun Dayeh(WMP) carry something by means of putting it under the arm PWMP *ilek

ŋiliŋJavanese(WMP) to grind, to mill PMP *giliŋ

ŋiliŋMapun(WMP) to grind something, as coffee or corn; to turn something (on an axis) PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

ŋiloAgta (Eastern)(WMP) sensitive teeth PAN *ŋilu

ŋíloBikol(WMP) describing the sensation one gets in the teeth from a screeching noise, or from eating something sour or very cold PAN *ŋilu

ŋiloMaranao(WMP) rasping sensation PAN *ŋilu

ŋilóMasbatenyo(WMP) painfully sensitive. This usually results from eating something sour or tart, or from a shrill sound PAN *ŋilu

ŋilóWaray-Waray(WMP) having intense or giggling sensation felt at the tooth edge PAN *ŋilu

ŋiló(h)Aklanon(WMP) very sour, acrid, caustic PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluBalinese(WMP) feeble, dead; on edge (teeth) PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluBinukid(WMP) for sour fruit to cause a tingling sensation in one’s teeth, to set one’s teeth on edge; for a scratching or shrill sound to cause one’s spine to tingle PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluBuginese(WMP) painful sensation, as of arthritis in one’s knee PAN *ŋilu

ŋilúCebuano(WMP) setting the teeth on edge, causing the spine to tingle (said of eating sour things, as unripe mangoes, shrill noises, having teeth filed) PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluKaro Batak(WMP) feel cold ‘in one’s bones’; on edge, of the teeth, as when coming into contact with something very cold PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluKomodo(CMP) tart, sour PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluMalay(WMP) nerve-pain or discomfort (neuralgia, nervous headache, teeth on edge) PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluPaiwan(Formosan) pain, tartness PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluTausug(WMP) the uncomfortable feeling at the edge of one’s teeth felt when hearing a scratchy sound, eating something sour PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluToba Batak(WMP) on edge, of the teeth when coming into contact with something very sour PAN *ŋilu

ŋiluTontemboan(WMP) on edge, of the teeth; also the unpleasant feeling one gets on hearing a scratching or grating sound PAN *ŋilu

ŋilu-anBikol(WMP) to have the feeling that one gets in the teeth from a screeching noise, or from eating something sour or very cold; to get a shiver down one’s spine PWMP *ŋilu-an

ŋilu-anToba Batak(WMP) have a cold sensation in the teeth, as when hearing a scratching sound PWMP *ŋilu-an

ŋ-imitJavanese(WMP) conserve, consume sparingly PWMP *imit

ŋ-impiJavanese(WMP) to dream PWMP *maŋ-hipi

ŋ-impiSundanese(WMP) to dream PWMP *maŋ-hipi

ŋinKaulong(OC) tooth POC *ŋipon

ŋin³³Tsat(WMP) wind PMP *haŋin

ŋínaIlokano(WMP) price; cost; worth; value PPH *ŋina

ŋinaYami(WMP) price, worth PPH *ŋina

ŋiná-anIlokano(WMP) to pay PPH *ŋina

ŋina-nawaYami(WMP) dangerous PPH *ŋina

ŋina-ŋina-enYami(WMP) want to buy PPH *ŋina

ŋ-inatKelabit(WMP) to pull, tug PWMP *iñat

ŋ-inawa-(ji)Yami(WMP) to breathe PMP *nihawa

ŋ-incepKaro Batak(WMP) to drink (of animals), suck, slurp PWMP *maŋ-qisep

ŋinciWolio(WMP) tooth, hook, sting PMP *ŋisi

ŋindaŋIban(WMP) to soar, hover over (as a hawk hovering over fowls before attacking) PWMP *kindaŋ-kindaŋ

ŋ-injɨmSundanese(WMP) borrow PWMP *maŋ-hinzam

ŋ-ɨntɨŋSundanese(WMP) look in a mirror PMP *e(n)teŋ

ŋ-inuElat(CMP) to drink PMP *maŋ-inum

ŋ-inuHawu(CMP) to drink PMP *maŋ-inum

ŋ-inuUma(WMP) to drink PMP *maŋ-inum

ŋ-inumJavanese(WMP) to drink PMP *maŋ-inum

ŋ-inumSundanese(WMP) to drink PMP *maŋ-inum

ŋiŋKaro Batak(WMP) sound of a mosquito in the ear PMP *ŋiŋ

ŋiŋətMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) was gnawed, chewed on PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋiŋiKove(OC) to laugh POC *ŋiŋis

ŋiŋiMaranao(WMP) angle of the mouth PWMP *ŋiŋi

ŋiŋi-Mengen(OC) tooth POC *ŋiŋis

ŋiŋiNggela(OC) cry quietly PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋiŋiNggela(OC) buzz, as a mosquito POC *ŋiŋiŋ

ŋiŋiSichule(WMP) gums PWMP *ŋiŋi

ŋiŋiToba Batak(WMP) tooth PWMP *ŋiŋi

ŋīŋī (length unexplained)Tongan(OC) whimper PMP *ŋikŋik

ŋiŋi-ŋaŋaŋManggarai(CMP) stutter, become confused, be unable to reply PCEMP *ŋaŋaŋ

ŋí-ŋipón-onBikol(WMP) describing someone with large or prominent teeth PAN *ŋipen

ŋiŋisManggarai(CMP) grin, show teeth PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋiŋisYamdena(CMP) gums PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋiŋisiRoviana(OC) to grin POC *ŋiŋis

ŋ-iŋkemJavanese(WMP) to close one's mouth PWMP *maŋ-iŋkem

ŋipanAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipanGaddang(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋípanIsneg(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋípanItawis(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipenBinukid(WMP) tooth (of person, animal); tooth of a saw, gear and the like PAN *ŋipen

ŋipənCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipənIlokano(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipənMaranao(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipénPangasinan(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipenSakizaya(Formosan) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipenManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋ-ipeyLampung(WMP) to dream PWMP *maŋ-hipi

ŋ-ipiSasak(WMP) to dream PWMP *maŋ-hipi

ŋipɨnSambal (Botolan)(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋípinTagalog(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipɨnManobo (Tigwa)(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋípn-anCebuano(WMP) having serrations or teeth; litter born with teeth PAN *ŋipen

ŋipoLolak(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋíponAklanon(WMP) tooth, teeth PAN *ŋipen

ŋíponBikol(WMP) tooth, teeth PAN *ŋipen

ŋiponMongondow(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋíponMasbatenyo(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋíponWaray-Waray(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋíponKalinga (Guinaang)(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ŋípunCebuano(WMP) teeth; teeth of saws, gears, and the like PAN *ŋipen

ŋípunHanunóo(WMP) tooth, teeth PAN *ŋipen

ŋípunHiligaynon(WMP) tooth, teeth PAN *ŋipen

ŋira-nEre(OC) his/her name POC *ŋacan

ŋi-raŋahSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) open (of a fruit) PMP *laŋaq₁

ŋ-iriŋSasak(WMP) to follow PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

ŋ-iriŋ capiIban(WMP) to herd cattle PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

ŋ-irisSasak(WMP) cut into strips or slices PWMP *maŋ-qiris

ŋ<ir>ísi-hanBikol(WMP) laughter PMP *ŋisi

ŋ-iritIban(WMP) to draw, drag, haul PWMP *ŋ-irid

ŋ-iritSasak(WMP) to pull, drag PWMP *ŋ-irid

ŋiroBare'e(WMP) toothless (also of things, as a saw that has lost ‘teeth’) PAN *ŋidaw

ŋiroUma(WMP) toothless PAN *ŋidaw

ŋiroŋMaranao(WMP) nose PMP *ŋijuŋ

ŋirtPalauan(WMP) mucus (from nose only) PMP *idus

ŋiruŋ, ŋiuŋMongondow(WMP) nose PMP *ŋijuŋ

ŋ-irupKelabit(WMP) to drink PWMP *maŋ-hiRup

ŋ-irupIban(WMP) to drink PWMP *maŋ-hiRup

ŋisa-Sursurunga(OC) name POC *ŋisa

ŋ-isaTangoa(OC) when? PMP *ŋa-ijan

ŋisaaKanakanabu(Formosan) breath PAN *NiSawa

ŋ-isapIban(WMP) to suck, sip PWMP *maŋ-qisep

ŋ-isepSasak(WMP) porous, absorbent (as blotting paper) PWMP *maŋ-qisep

ŋísiBikol(WMP) a laugh, smile PMP *ŋisi

ŋísiCebuano(WMP) to grin PMP *ŋisi

ŋ-isiJavanese(WMP) to fill, put something into PWMP *maŋ-isi

ŋ-isiKaro Batak(WMP) to fill PWMP *maŋ-isi

ŋísiMakassarese(WMP) to grin, snigger (in anger, while laughing); lie open, of a wound; to whinny loudly, of a horse (thought of as the raising of the upper lip of a whinnying horse) PMP *ŋisi

ŋisiMori Atas(WMP) tooth PMP *ŋisi

ŋisiMoronene(WMP) tooth PMP *ŋisi

ŋísiNgadha(CMP) keep the mouth open showing the teeth, as in laughing PMP *ŋisi

ŋisiPetapa Taje(WMP) tooth PMP *ŋisi

ŋísiTagalog(WMP) a grin, snicker, giggle, grimace, snigger, smirk; a broad smile PMP *ŋisi

ŋisiWawonii(WMP) tooth PMP *ŋisi

ŋisi-nTifu(CMP) tooth PMP *ŋisi

ŋisi-naPapapana(OC) tooth PMP *ŋisi

ŋisiŋisiRukai (Tona)(Formosan) beard PAN *ŋiSŋiS

ŋiskisBalinese(WMP) to weed with a hoe PAN *kiskis

ŋísŋisAklanon(WMP) to giggle, snicker PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋísŋisAklanon(WMP) to giggle, snicker PPH *ŋisŋis₂

ŋisŋisAmis(Formosan) beard PAN *ŋiSŋiS

ŋisŋisBinukid(WMP) to have to laugh PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋisŋisBinukid(WMP) to have to laugh PPH *ŋisŋis₂

ŋisŋisBunun(Formosan) beard PAN *ŋiSŋiS

ŋisŋísIlokano(WMP) corner of the mouth PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋisŋisPaiwan(Formosan) beard PAN *ŋiSŋiS

ŋisŋisPuyuma(Formosan) beard PAN *ŋiSŋiS

ŋisŋísTagalog(WMP) continued opening of the mouth in grinning, showing teeth PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋisŋisManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a person who cannot control his laughter, i.e. he laughs at any provocation; to laugh continually PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋisŋisManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a person who cannot control his laughter; to laugh his laughter; to laugh his laughter; to laugh continually PPH *ŋisŋis₂

ŋisŋisKapampangan(WMP) show teeth, especially upper teeth PMP *ŋisŋis₁

ŋitJarai(WMP) sky PMP *laŋit

ŋitMota(OC) to bite POC *ŋiŋit-i

ŋitaMapun(WMP) to see something; to be able to see something PAN *kita₂

ŋi-taiwIlongot (Kakiduge:n)(WMP) sell PAN *saliw

ŋitiTolai(OC) husk a coconut with the teeth POC *ŋiŋit-i

ŋ-itikSasak(WMP) to drip, dribble PWMP *itik₁

ŋitíŋitKankanaey(WMP) dark; sombre; black; pitchy; inky (as deep ponds, shaded caves) PPH *ŋitŋit₃

ŋitŋitAmis(Formosan) to gnaw (on bones or wood) PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋítBikol(WMP) descriptive of the darkness of night PPH *ŋitŋit₃

ŋítŋitAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) food stuck between the teeth PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋitKaro Batak(WMP) moth (that eats holes in clothing) PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋitPuyuma(Formosan) bite slowly with the front teeth; gnaw (as rats do) PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋítTagalog(WMP) rage; fury; suppressed rage or fury; intensity PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋitŋitToba Batak(WMP) moth PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋítPangasinan(WMP) annoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger) PMP *ŋitŋit₂

ŋitŋítTagalog(WMP) rage, fury; suppressed rage or fury; intensity PMP *ŋitŋit₂

ŋitŋítPangasinan(WMP) annoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger) PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋit-anIbaloy(WMP) to nibble at something (as fish to bait, dog eating last scraps on bone); also, to grasp something in the teeth (as in picking up a coin in a contest, or a hangnail) PAN *ŋitŋit₁

ŋitŋít na dulómBikol(WMP) pitch dark PPH *ŋitŋit₃

ŋ-iuhKelabit(WMP) to elbow, knock with the elbow PAN *sikux

ŋ-iupKelabit(WMP) blow, blow on PWMP *maŋ-heyup

ŋ-iwiJavanese(WMP) to grimace at (Horne 1974) PWMP *hiwiʔ

ŋiyMarshallese(OC) tooth POC *ŋipon

ŋizaŋaBali (Uneapa)(OC) when? PMP *ŋa-ijan

ŋizuNgadha(CMP) nose PMP *ŋijuŋ

ŋizuŋRiung(CMP) nose PMP *ŋijuŋ


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-ŋkNaman(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

-ŋkSeke(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

ŋ-kair-iKaro Batak(WMP) to rake PWMP *kahir

ŋ-kaliKaro Batak(WMP) to dig, dig up PMP *kali₂

ŋ-kaŋManggarai(CMP) to bark, of a dog PMP *kaŋ

ŋ-karatKaro Batak (Kembaren)(WMP) to bite PMP *kaRat

ŋ-karatKaro Batak(WMP) to bite PWMP *ma-ŋaRat

ŋ-kawilKaro Batak(WMP) to fish with hook and line PAN *kawil₁

ŋ-kayo-iKaro Batak(WMP) attack someone, plunder a conquered village PMP *kayaw

ŋ-kayu-iKaro Batak(WMP) bring wood for a house construction party PMP *kahiw

ŋkekManggarai(CMP) imitation of the sound of a fart PMP *e(ŋ)kek

ŋke-mataKaro Batak(WMP) counting classifier for counting grains of rice PMP *mata

ŋkeŋManggarai(CMP) hum, howl (as the wind) PMP *eŋkeŋ

ŋ-k<er>ubu-iKaro Batak(WMP) to surround and attack PMP *kubu

ŋ klou a ʔədəŋal əl ʔadPalauan(WMP) (lit. 'the man has a big liver') He's a brave man PMP *X₁ + qatay

-ŋkuDampelas(WMP) 1sg possessive suffix PMP *ni-ku

-ŋkuGayō(WMP) 1sg non-subject actor and possessive pronoun (after vowel-final bases) PMP *ni-ku

-ŋkuKaro Batak(WMP) 1sg suffixed possessive pronoun: my, mine (after vowel-final bases) PMP *ni-ku

-ŋkuMakassarese(WMP) 1sg possessive suffix: my PAN *-ku

-ŋkuNarango(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

-ŋkuNgaju Dayak(WMP) suffixed 1sg personal or possessive pronoun, I, my (after vowel-final bases) PMP *ni-ku

-ŋkuOld Javanese(WMP) suffix for the first person (after bases that end with n, or a vowel) PMP *ni-ku

-ŋkuSangil(WMP) 1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (after vowel-final bases) PMP *ni-ku

-ŋkuTae'(WMP) 1sg possessive suffix: my PAN *-ku

ŋ-kuan-iKaro Batak(WMP) to talk to someone PWMP *kuan₂

ŋ-kubuKaro Batak(WMP) to surround PMP *kubu

ŋ-kuitKaro Batak(WMP) to touch something PWMP *kuhit

ŋ-kukurKaro Batak(WMP) to grate or rasp PMP *kuDkuD

ŋ-kulit-iKaro Batak(WMP) to peel a fruit PMP *kulit

ŋ-kuniŋ-iKaro Batak(WMP) rub turmeric into something PMP *kunij

ŋ-kuruŋKaro Batak(WMP) shut up chickens in a pen PWMP *kuruŋ


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ŋ-laŋiJavanese(WMP) to swim PWMP *laŋuy

ŋ-limaJavanese(WMP) to form a group of five; to hold a ceremony for a woman in the fifth month of pregnancy PWMP *maŋ-lima

ŋ-lipetBalinese(WMP) to return, turn back, turn round; reflect; echo PAN *lipet

ŋ-luarFordata(CMP) wide, spacious PMP *luqaR

ŋ-lulunFordata(CMP) to roll up (a sail, mat, etc.) PMP *lulun

ŋ-luwar-iBalinese(WMP) to exile, drive out PMP *luqar


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ŋōMaori(OC) cry, grunt, make any articulate sound POC *ŋok

ŋōMaori(OC) to cry, grunt, make any inarticulate sound POC *ŋoRo

ŋōNiue(OC) noise, tumult; make a noise, to clamor POC *ŋok

ŋo-anLeipon(OC) yellow POC *aŋo

ŋodroFijian(OC) to grunt, as a pig; of a person, to moan in pain; a grunt, a moaning sound POC *ŋodro

ŋ-ogaMadurese(WMP) to shake, make something shake or wobble PWMP *ugaq

ŋ-ohcuTsou(Formosan) adrift PAN *qañud

ŋohoyItbayaten(WMP) nasal mucus PMP *ŋuhuR

ŋok-ŋakMalay (Perak)(WMP) babble of noise PMP *ŋuk

ŋokŋokChamorro(WMP) unclear speech, sometimes a temporary condition resulting from accident PMP *ŋukŋuk

ŋokŋókKankanaey(WMP) to bay, bark, of many dogs together PMP *ŋukŋuk

ŋoluKapingamarangi(OC) large wave POC *ŋalu

ŋo-mæčMaxbaxo(OC) dead POC *mate

ŋom-p-atoySiang(WMP) kill PMP *p-atay

ŋ-oncoBimanese(CMP) sour PMP *ma-qe(n)sem

ŋoniArosi(OC) ask for, beg POC *ŋoni

ŋoŋkoŋBalinese(WMP) to bark, bark at (dogs) PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

ŋoŋoTolai(OC) breathe; difficulty in breathing POC *ŋoŋok

ŋoŋoTolai(OC) to have difficulty in breathing POC *ŋoŋop

ŋoŋō (length unexplained)Lau(OC) to hoot, of an owl POC *ŋoŋoŋ

ŋo-ŋoraSa'a(OC) to snore, to growl at, of a dog, to snort, of a pig POC *ŋodra

ŋooMussau(OC) to snore POC *ŋoRo

ŋorLou(OC) to grunt (as a pig), to growl (as a dog), to snore POC *ŋodra

ŋorLou(OC) to grunt (as a pig), to growl (as a dog), to snore POC *ŋodro

ŋoraArosi(OC) to snore POC *ŋodra

ŋoraMota(OC) to grunt, snort, snore POC *ŋodra

ŋoraNggela(OC) to bark, of a dog POC *ŋodra

ŋorapaBali (Uneapa)(OC) yesterday POC *ñoRap

ŋ-orasSasak(WMP) to clean, to wash (of objects, not of clothes) PWMP *maŋ-huRas

ŋo-remMaxbaxo(OC) five PAN *lima

ŋor-ŋorTolai(OC) to snore POC *ŋodro

ŋoroMaori(OC) to snore POC *ŋodro

ŋoroRarotongan(OC) snore, noisy breathing in sleep; to snore, to breathe roughly and hoarsely in sleep POC *ŋodro

ŋo-rœrMaxbaxo(OC) three PEMP *tolu

ŋo-ruMaxbaxo(OC) two POC *rua

ŋosŋósPangasinan(WMP) the jumping up and squealing etc. of dogs greeting their master; noises made by very young children wanting food or attention PAN *ŋusŋus

ŋosoʔAmis(Formosan) nose PAN *ŋusuq

ŋosoItbayaten(WMP) bad smell of the mouth; inner part of the mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋosoYami(WMP) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋ-otaʔMadurese(WMP) to vomit PWMP *maŋ-utaq

ŋo-tananMolbog(WMP) all PPH *tanan

ŋot-iNggela(OC) gnaw, nibble (Blust 1977a:6) POC *ŋoŋot-i

ŋotiNggela(OC) to gnaw, nibble POC *ŋoti

ŋutŋutBontok(WMP) a corn cob after the kernels have been removed PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋotŋotIbatan(WMP) bite and chew on a piece of fruit, corn, etc. PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋotŋótWaray-Waray(WMP) the act of feeling or suffering from severe, sharp, smarting pain PMP *ŋutŋut₂

ŋotŋotItbayaten(WMP) leftover food, partly-eaten (yams, foodstuffs), by rats, other animal, person PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋutŋut-anBontok(WMP) to eat corn on the cob; to gnaw, of rats PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋotŋot-anYami(WMP) to gnaw on bones PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋo-vačMaxbaxo(OC) four PCEMP *pat-i

ŋoyʔáIlokano(WMP) agony, death struggle PWMP *ŋuy(e)qa

ŋo-yawNali(OC) spiderweb PMP *lawaq₂

ŋo-yawLele(OC) spall spider PMP *lawaq₂

ŋoyŋóyIlokano(WMP) whimper importunately (said of children) PPH *ŋuyŋuy

ŋozGedaged(OC) to grunt (pig), rumble, grumble (man) POC *ŋodra

ŋozGedaged(OC) to grunt (pig), rumble, grumble (man) POC *ŋodro

ŋoz-iTsou(Formosan) leave, depart PAN *aŋay


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ŋ-rataJavanese(WMP) to smooth, to make even (as in dividing portions) PWMP *maŋ-dataR

ŋriye bali-nYamdena(CMP) enemy, opponent; opposed party PCEMP *bali₈


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ŋūFutunan(OC) to speak POC *ŋuRuR

-ŋuKomodo(CMP) 1sg possessive suffix: my PAN *-ku

ŋūLau(OC) hum, chant, sing PMP *ŋuŋ

-ŋuLelepa(OC) 1sg possessive suffix: my POC *-gu

ŋūMaori(OC) moan, groan POC *ŋuRuR

ŋūNiue(OC) to moan, grunt, roar POC *ŋuRuR

ŋūRotuman(OC) grumble, complain, grunt PMP *ŋuk

ŋūSamoan(OC) growl PMP *ŋuk

ŋūSamoan(OC) to growl, as a dog POC *ŋuRuR

-ŋʔuSimalur(WMP) 1sg suffixed possessive pronoun after vowel-final bases) PMP *ni-ku

ŋūTongan(OC) grunt, make a grunting noise PMP *ŋuk

ŋūTongan(OC) to grunt, make a grunting noise POC *ŋuRuR

ŋūTuvaluan(OC) grunt, coo POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuaMekeo (East)(OC) two POC *rua

ŋ-uabKelabit(WMP) to yawn PWMP *maŋ-huab

ŋ-uaŋKelabit(WMP) to howl, of a dog PWMP *maŋ-quaŋ

ŋucu-Papitalai(OC) lip PAN *ŋusuq

ŋudaBalinese(WMP) young, youthful, undeveloped, fresh PMP *ŋuda

ŋudaKaro Batak(WMP) tender, young PMP *ŋuda

*ŋudaPSan(WMP) young PMP *ŋuda

ŋuda-hanBalinese(WMP) younger, too young; premature (of a birth) PMP *ŋuda

ŋ-udan-iJavanese(WMP) to rain (objects) onto PMP *quzan-i

ŋudeYamdena(CMP) young, of children, fruit, wood, bamboo PMP *ŋuda

ŋudehKelabit(WMP) why? PWMP *ma-ŋuja

ŋudəhLun Dayeh(WMP) what? PWMP *ma-ŋuja

ŋudruWayan(OC) (of a pig or dog) growl; make a deep, throaty sound that continues for some seconds POC *ŋuru

ŋuduKapingamarangi(OC) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋuduNukuoro(OC) mouth; mouth of, rim of PAN *ŋusuq

ŋudu-Takia(OC) nose PAN *ŋusuq

ŋudu aiNukuoro(OC) act as an interpreter PAN *ŋusuq

ŋudu daaloKapingamarangi(OC) spear foreshaft PAN *ŋusuq

ŋudu di wagaKapingamarangi(OC) prow of canoe PAN *ŋusuq

ŋ-udutSasak(WMP) to smoke (cigarettes) PWMP *qudud

ŋugutJavanese(WMP) to kill lice by pressing them against the front teeth PMP *gutgut₁

ŋuhedManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of a plant or a person, immature physically PPH *ŋuhed

ŋuhódBikol(WMP) the youngest child in the family; the last born PPH *ŋuhed

ŋ-u-íbəsPalauan(WMP) have desires for, lust after PMP *ibeR

ŋuí-lPalauan(WMP) labor pains PMP *hapuy

ŋuisPalauan(WMP) Palau tree snake: Dendrelaphis lineolatus PMP *hulaR

ŋ-ujanIban(WMP) to rain PWMP *maŋ-quzan

ŋuju-Tabar(OC) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋukPetats(OC) pig grunt POC *ŋuŋuk

ŋukTolai(OC) whine, murmur, cry PMP *ŋuk

ŋ-ukabKelabit(WMP) to open, as a door PWMP *maŋ-hukab

ŋ-ukirJavanese(WMP) carve decoratively PWMP *maŋ-ukir

ŋ-ukirSasak(WMP) carve wood PWMP *maŋ-ukir

ŋuk-ŋukGedaged(OC) stutter; catch one's breath (when crying) PMP *ŋuk

ŋukŋúkHanunóo(WMP) noise made by monkeys, often referred to in ambáhan (chanted verse) PMP *ŋukŋuk

ŋ-ukopSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) to sit (of a hen) PMP *ekep

ŋukuhJavanese(WMP) to adhere to; to defend PMP *kukuq

ŋukukJavanese(WMP) of laughter, loud and jeering PWMP *kukkuk

ŋ-ukulKelabit(WMP) poke into a hole with a finger, stick, etc. PWMP *suŋkul

ŋukurJavanese(WMP) to scratch something PMP *kuDkuD

ŋukurSundanese(WMP) to grate, as a coconut or young papaya PMP *kuDkuD

ŋukusSasak(WMP) to steam, as rice PWMP *kukus

ŋukusSundanese(WMP) to smoke something with incense or other redolent substance (as a sarong, etc.) PWMP *kuskus₁

ŋukusSasak(WMP) to steam PWMP *kuskus₁

ŋ-ulakSundanese(WMP) to wind thread in weaving PWMP *ulak

ŋulatIban(WMP) to collect edible fungus, go mushrooming PMP *kulat₂

ŋ-ulauIban(WMP) cause dim sight PAN *ulaw

ŋ-uliKayan(WMP) return an article; return to its former shape (as a bent board that has been straightened) PWMP *maŋ-uliq

ŋ-ulihJavanese(WMP) return someone to his home or place of origin; return a borrowed item PWMP *maŋ-uliq

ŋ-uliŋIban(WMP) to steer PMP *quliŋ

ŋulitKelabit(WMP) to skin (fruits, small trees, bamboo) PWMP *ma-ŋulit

ŋulŋulCebuano(WMP) deep-seated pain over a wide area PMP *ŋulŋul₁

ŋulŋúlIfugaw(WMP) lamentations performed in a more or less chanting tune by one or several women (but not in unison) in front of a dead person sitting on a death chair PWMP *ŋulŋul₂

ŋulŋulIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) for someone to wail in crying, especially in grief PWMP *ŋulŋul₂

ŋ-ulohKayan(WMP) cause an object to descend a slope, with or without control by a rope; lower a person down PWMP *maŋ-huluR

ŋ-uluIban(WMP) go at the head of, lead, guide PWMP *maŋ-qulu

ŋuluNggela(OC) death rattle in throat POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuluNiue(OC) to growl (as a dog with a bone) POC *ŋuru

ŋuluSa'a(OC) to roar, of surf POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuluSamoan(OC) make a hollow sound POC *ŋuru

ŋuluTuvaluan(OC) rhythmic grunting (as of gong-beaters at a dance) POC *ŋuru

ŋulubJavanese(WMP) to boil vegetables briefly PWMP *kulub₂

ŋulubSundanese(WMP) cook something whole (eggs, beans, tubers, etc.) PWMP *kulub₂

ŋulutCebuano(WMP) growling in defiance or complaint (of dogs) PMP *ŋurut

ŋ<um>aŋaTontemboan(WMP) to open the mouth; open the mouth of a sack PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋ<um>aŋaŋaSangir(WMP) to gape, keep the mouth open PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ŋ<um>aranTontemboan(WMP) give a name to someone PMP *ŋajan

ŋ<um>atŋátTagalog(WMP) to gnaw; to bite and wear away PWMP *ŋatŋat

ŋ<um>átoIlokano(WMP) to rise; attain a better position; go up PPH *ŋatu

ŋ-um-āyawIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) waylay an enemy … for the purpose of taking a head in revenge PMP *ma-ŋayaw

ŋ<um>iluTausug(WMP) (for one’s teeth) to have such feeling PAN *ŋilu

ŋ<um>ínaIlokano(WMP) to go up in price PPH *ŋina

ŋ-umpanIban(WMP) catch with bait, hence entice (as a chicken with food) PWMP *maŋ-umpan

ŋ-umpanSasak(WMP) to feed PWMP *maŋ-umpan

ŋumpoMapun(WMP) to gather things together in a pile (as coconuts); to save (as money) PWMP *kumpul

ŋ-umpukJavanese(WMP) to pile PWMP *umpuk

ŋumpulJavanese(WMP) to gather, form a group PWMP *kumpul

ŋ-umpunSasak(WMP) form masses (as clouds of smoke, ants) PMP *upun₁

ŋ-unaʔKayan(WMP) forestall another, precede someone PMP *unah

ŋunsu-Maxbaxo(OC) nose PAN *ŋusuq

ŋ-unuŋuKambera(CMP) to drink PMP *maŋ-inum

ŋ-unuŋuKambera(CMP) to drink PCEMP *unum

ŋ-unusSasak(WMP) to draw something from a sheath PMP *hunus

ŋuñahIban(WMP) to chew PWMP *ŋuyaq

ŋuŋJavanese(WMP) whine of an engine PMP *ŋuŋ

ŋuŋKaro Batak(WMP) onomatopoetic for a sound that is deeper and duller than that represented by ŋiŋ PMP *ŋuŋ

ŋuŋSundanese(WMP) sound in the ear (deeper and duller than ŋéŋ) PMP *ŋuŋ

ŋuŋətMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) to gnaw, chew on PAN *ŋeCŋeC

ŋuŋetMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) to gnaw, chew on PAN *ŋetŋet

ŋ-uŋkabJavanese(WMP) to uncover, open PWMP *maŋ-hukab

ŋuŋkuŋSundanese(WMP) (of women and children, animals, etc.) to support, maintain, look after PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄

ŋuŋkuŋJavanese(WMP) to confine, incarcerate PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄

ŋuŋkuŋSundanese(WMP) produce a clear echoing sound PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

ŋuŋ-ŋiŋMalay(WMP) the hum of bumble-bees PMP *ŋiŋ

ŋuŋ-ŋiŋMalay(WMP) the hum of bumble-bees PMP *ŋuŋ

ŋuŋŋuŋJavanese(WMP) whine of an engine PMP *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ

ŋuŋuNiue(OC) rheumatism POC *ŋuŋul

ŋú-ŋuRukai (Maga)(Formosan) type of mushroom PAN *quSuŋ

ŋuŋuSamoan(OC) name given to a number of complaints, including rheumatism, gout, arthritis, etc. POC *ŋuŋul

ŋūŋūTongan(OC) to hum PCEMP *ŋuŋuŋ

ŋū-ŋūKapingamarangi(OC) to mumble, mutter, talk softly (in a low voice) POC *ŋuRuR

ŋū-ŋūRennellese(OC) speak quietly, hum POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuŋu-nBuruese(CMP) buzz, hum PCEMP *ŋuŋuŋ

ŋu-ŋusóʔ-onBikol(WMP) describing someone with a large mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋuŋutIban(WMP) (of pain) ‘murmur’ or throb PMP *ŋutŋut₂

ŋuŋutIban(WMP) to smoulder, set light to PWMP *ŋutŋut₃

ŋuŋutTolai (Nodup)(OC) pain; painful; to pain POC *ŋuŋut₁

ŋuŋutTolai(OC) to keep gnawing or nibbling POC *ŋuŋut₂

ŋuraSangir(WMP) young forest, low scrub PMP *ŋuda

ŋ-uratKelabit(WMP) to wound (someone, something) PWMP *suRat

ŋ-uratLun Dayeh(WMP) to cut, wound, or injure someone PWMP *suRat

ŋurdPalauan(WMP) vein, artery PMP *uRat

ŋurŋurMbula(OC) growling (of a dog); grunt at, growl at (used of pigs and dogs) POC *ŋuru

ŋuruArosi(OC) to growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or chorus POC *ŋuru

ŋuruArosi(OC) to growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuruNggela(OC) to roar, rumble, as thunder; to growl, as a dog; groan; to grunt in a dance POC *ŋuru

ŋuruRarotongan(OC) a murmuring, snarling sound, as of an angry dog or other animal; the rumbling of thunder; a deep moaning sound of distress; a sound showing disapprobation; groaning, as a deep moan of pain; to rumble, snarl, growl POC *ŋuru

ŋuru ~ ŋu-ŋuruSa'a(OC) to growl or roar, of animals; to mumble or groan, of persons POC *ŋuru

ŋuruŋBalinese(WMP) to cover over, put a basket over, put under a basket (esp. a game cock); to shut someone in PWMP *kuruŋ

ŋuruŋJavanese(WMP) to enclose, pen up; to put in parentheses PWMP *kuruŋ

ŋuru-ŋekManggarai(CMP) disturbance, commotion (of piglets) PMP *ŋek

ŋ-ururKelabit(WMP) lower something slowly by rope PWMP *maŋ-huluR

ŋ-urutIban(WMP) to massage PWMP *maŋ-quRut

ŋ-urutSasak(WMP) to massage PWMP *maŋ-quRut

ŋurutKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) whimper constantly, asking for things (of a child) PMP *ŋurut

ŋ-usir-anSundanese(WMP) drive away PWMP *maŋ-usiR

ŋuskusBalinese(WMP) to cook rice in steam PWMP *kuskus₁

ŋusŋúsCebuano(WMP) to scour, rub hard to remove something PPH *ŋusŋús

ŋúsŋusAklanon(WMP) to whine, whimper; purr PAN *ŋusŋus

ŋusŋus-ə́nBontok(WMP) to grate, as fresh corn or sweet potato; a grater PPH *ŋusŋús

ŋúsoʔBikol(WMP) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusoSaaroa(Formosan) mouth, lips PAN *ŋusuq

ŋúsoʔTagalog(WMP) the snout of animals; muzzle; the nose, mouth and jaws of an animal; the trunk of an elephant; the snout of a pig; by extension, the part that stands out, especially the bow of a ship or boat PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusuApma(OC) nose PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusuArosi(OC) to spit POC *aŋusu

ŋusu-Fijian(OC) the mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusúʔKapampangan(WMP) upper lip PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusu-Loniu(OC) lips PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusu-Lou(OC) lips PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusuMori Bawah(WMP) exterior mouth area, snout (Mbib>Mead 1998) PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusuMussau(OC) nose PAN *ŋusuq

*ŋusuPBun(WMP) snout PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusuPopalia(WMP) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋ-usuSiang(WMP) rub, wipe PMP *usuq

ŋusuTolaki(WMP) phlegm (Mead 1998) PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusuWayan(OC) mouth of an animal; external mouth or lips of a person, fish, etc, beak (of bird or turtle); snout or muzzle of a dog, pig, etc.; entrance or opening to certain objects with cylindrical or long narrow passage behind (bottle, kettle, teapot, river; spout or nozzle of pipe, hose, etc.; spokesman or voice PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusu-Nali(OC) lips PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusúʔ-anTagalog(WMP) to express dislike of someone by pursing the lips PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusulʸPaiwan(Formosan) blood from the nose; nosebleed PAN *ŋuSuN

ŋusulSeediq(Formosan) nasal mucus PAN *ŋuSuR

ŋusu-nLele(OC) his/her lip PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusu ni maŋanaFijian(OC) the labia pudenda PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusúŋosIlokano(WMP) to growl (said of animals whose food is being taken away) PAN *ŋusŋus

ŋusu-ŋusuArosi(OC) spittle, poison of snakes POC *aŋusu

ŋusu-ŋusu cāFijian(OC) foul-mouthed PAN *ŋusuq

ŋusut-akeJavanese(WMP) in turmoil, in a chaotic state PWMP *kusut

ŋusw-ánKapampangan(WMP) stick upper lip out at someone PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutIban(WMP) grunt, grunting (pigs) PMP *eŋut

ŋutMendak(OC) kill lice by biting POC *ŋutu

ŋutTigak(OC) louse POC *ŋutu

ŋutTolai(OC) to gnaw, nibble, esp. at the fingernails POC *ŋuŋut₂

ŋ-utaʔKelabit(WMP) to vomit PWMP *maŋ-utaq

ŋ-utaLawangan(WMP) to vomit PWMP *maŋ-utaq

ŋ-utaʔSasak(WMP) to vomit PWMP *maŋ-utaq

ŋ-utahBalinese(WMP) to vomit PWMP *maŋ-utaq

ŋ-utah-kɨnSundanese(WMP) to vomit, throw up PWMP *maŋ-utaq

ŋ-utaŋJavanese(WMP) lend to PWMP *maŋ-qutaŋ

ŋ-utaŋSasak(WMP) be indebted to someone PWMP *maŋ-qutaŋ

ŋutŋótTagalog(WMP) whimper PWMP *ŋutŋut₁

ŋutŋótTagalog(WMP) noise of gnawing such as that made by mice or rats PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋutŋótIlokano(WMP) to gnaw at something PMP *ŋutŋut₄

ŋutŋot-ónBikol(WMP) to chew or gnaw on tough or fibrous things (as a water buffalo chewing on its tethering rope) PPh *ŋutŋut-en

ŋutŋútCebuano(WMP) pulsating, throbbing pain, as of a boil; emotional pain, as when jilted PMP *ŋutŋut₂

ŋutŋutKaro Batak(WMP) mumble, murmur PWMP *ŋutŋut₁

ŋutŋut apiKaro Batak(WMP) to smoulder, of a fire PWMP *ŋutŋut₃

ŋutŋut-énIlokano(WMP) to gnaw at something PPh *ŋutŋut-en

ŋutuAnuta(OC) mouth; cutting edge (of knife, scissors, axe, adze, etc.) or the striking edge of a club or point of a spear PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuFutunan(OC) mouth, beak, muzzle; orifice, neck (of a bottle) PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuGhari(OC) louse POC *ŋutu

ŋutuMaori(OC) lip; beak; rim of a vessel, mouthpiece of a calabash; mouth, entrance, of a cave, river, etc.; talk, gossip PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuNiue(OC) mouth, entrance (e.g. of cave, channel in reef); beak of pipefish PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuPileni(OC) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuRennellese(OC) mouth, beak, breath PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuSamoan(OC) mouth; beak PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuTalise(OC) louse POC *ŋutu

ŋutuTongan(OC) mouth (but the mouth of a river is its muivai); beak; orifice; mouthpiece; brim; opening or hollow (of a canoe); mouth (muzzle) or barrel of a gun; orally, by word of mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuTuvaluan(OC) mouth; beak PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutuRarotongan(OC) lip, rim, edge, entrance, orifice PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu-aRennellese(OC) to be heard of; to spread, as news or fame PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu agaRennellese(OC) side of a trail, roadside PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu areRarotongan(OC) a household, members of a family; a doorway PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu avaRarotongan(OC) the entrace of a harbor PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu-avaSamoan(OC) mouth of a channel or passage in the reef PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu korekoreAnuta(OC) to curse someone or shout in anger PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu loaNiue(OC) long-tongued person, gossip, busybody PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu-ŋutu uaTongan(OC) double-tongued PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu pāRarotongan(OC) a door, the entrance to a house, gateway PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu roaMaori(OC) a name for the kiwi PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu roaRarotongan(OC) symbolically, the turtle; in the ancient chants the turtle was seldom referred to or spoken of as ‘onu, but as ŋutu roa PAN *ŋusuq

ŋutu-valeSamoan(OC) use indecent language PAN *ŋusuq

ŋuuAnuta(OC) a hum or soft groan; to utter such a sound POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuuArosi(OC) hum PMP *ŋuŋ

ŋuuNukuoro(OC) a faint sound, like humming POC *ŋuRuR

ŋuuŋuu (length unexplained)Rennellese(OC) speak quietly; hum PCEMP *ŋuŋuŋ

ŋ-uwabJavanese(WMP) boil off, evaporate PWMP *huab₁

ŋuwedTiruray(WMP) young PPH *ŋuhed

ŋuyáʔTagalog(WMP) chewing, masticating PWMP *ŋuyaq

ŋuyaʔ-ínTagalog(WMP) to chew, to masticate PWMP *ŋuyaq

ŋuya(-ŋuya)Javanese(WMP) vex, nag, tease, pester PWMP *ŋuy(e)qa

ŋuyŋóyTagalog(WMP) prolonged sulky weeping of a child; crying of a child with the tantrums PPH *ŋuyŋuy

ŋuyŋuyAklanon(WMP) whimper, cry, simper (in the fashion of a spoiled child trying to get its way) PPH *ŋuyŋuy

ŋuyŋúy, da-ŋuyŋúyCebuano(WMP) wail, cry with deep sorrow PPH *ŋuyŋuy

ŋuzuHoava(OC) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋuzuRoviana(OC) mouth PAN *ŋusuq

ŋuzuzGedaged(OC) to grumble (in discontent) POC *ŋuRuR


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ŋwacaFijian (Namosi)(OC) large rat POC *mwajar

ŋwacoFijian (Naitāsiri)(OC) large rat POC *mwajor

ŋwacoFijian (Waidina)(OC) large rat POC *mwajor

ŋʷalalaWayan(OC) be vacant, unoccupied, empty, free (of a place); be free, at liberty, without restrictions (of a person); POC *malala

ŋʷatLehalurup(OC) snake POC *mwata

ŋwatMerig(OC) snake POC *mwata

ŋʷataNgwatua(OC) snake POC *mwata

ŋwataWayan(OC) snake (generic) POC *mwata

ŋʷatua-Ngwatua(OC) right hand PMP *ma-taqu₂

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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