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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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um        uS    


*uka₂ negative existential: there is none


PAN     *uka₁ negative existential: there is none

Seediq ukanot exist
Saisiyat ʔokaempty
Thao ukanegative existential: not have, not exist; so as not to
  maka-ukalose something one cannot find
  m-ukahave nothing
  mut-ukabe less, be reduced in amount
Bunun ukadon’t have, without

Note:   Also Saisiyat okak, Tsou ukʔa, Saaroa ukaʔa ‘not exist’.

TOP      um        uS    



*umaS to pickle, preserve meat or fish


PAN     *umaS to pickle, preserve meat or fish

Pazeh in-umaspickled; pickles
  ma-umasto pickle; to rub and crumble
Kavalan umasto preserve (meat)
  m-umasto preserve (meat)
  ni-umas-anpickled meat or fish

TOP      um        uS    


*uŋay ritually sacrificed monkey?


PAN     *uŋay ritually sacrificed monkey?

Atayal yuŋaymonkey; substitute for girl whose real name is tabooed; to become a monkey
Taokas yuŋaymonkey
Puyuma uŋaythe monkey-friend (the monkey killed at the annual festival maŋayaw is called uŋay. Everyday term is ɭuʈung); cf. Kaʈipul dialect uŋay ‘monkey’
Paiwan p-uŋay-anmonkey’s lair

Note:   This is an intriguing comparison. PAn *luCuŋ clearly referred to the Formosan rock monkey, the only species of monkey on the island, leaving *uŋay without a clear referent. Since Puyuma has reflexes of both terms, and distinguishes uŋay as a monkey killed at an annual (headhunting) festival, it seems likely that some such distinction between the ordinary term for the animal and a ritual term for monkeys that perhaps were ritually sacrificed in connection with headhunting was made in PAn. The initial palatal glide in Atayal and Taokas is initially puzzling, but many Taokas nouns have a non-etymological y- or yV- (usually ya-), as in yabali < *bali ‘wind’, yabatu < *batu ‘stone’, yatiat < *tiaN ‘belly, abdomen’, or yautat ~ yottat < *quzaN ‘rain’, and this may have been an article. The palatal onset of the Atayal form is more difficult to explain, but this word could be a loan from the now-extinct Taokas.

TOP      um        uS    



*uSa go


PAN     *uSa go

Atayal usago
Seediq usago
Pazeh usago!
  ma-usa-yto go, to leave
  muk-usato leave
Thao ushago
  mapa-ushaleave, go (of many at once)
Hoanya usago, leave
Favorlang/Babuza usago, leave
Amis osaapproach
  mi-osato approach a person
Puyuma uago


PAN     *pa-uSa to send away

Seediq p-usato send, dispatch; dismiss
Thao p-ushato let go; send away
Amis pa-osatake food to someone, as to workers in a field


PAN     *um-uSa to go, to walk

Atayal m-usato go
Seediq m-usato go
Thao m-ushato go, walk away
Favorlang/Babuza mosa <Mto walk
Taokas m-uhato go, leave
Favorlang/Babuza m-usato go, leave

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)