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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    y    z   


ga    ge    gi    gu    

*gabi   PPH *gabi, taro: Colocasia esculenta. WMP

*gábut   PPH *gábut, to pull out or up. WMP

*gaCel   PAN *gaCel, itch, feel itchy. Formosan;  PMP *gatel, itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated. WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-gatel, itch. WMP CMP;  PEMP *ma-katel, itch. SHWNG;  PWMP *maka-gatel, itch. WMP;  PWMP *g<um>atel, to itch, begin to itch. WMP;  PWMP *gatel-en, itch. WMP

*gaduŋ   PWMP *gaduŋ, kind of tuber: Dioscorea spp.. WMP

*gae   PCMP *gae, to hook, gaff. CMP

*gagar   PMP *gagar, brave, plucky. WMP CMP

*gagu   PWMP *gagu, dumb, mute. WMP

*gakgak   PWMP *gakgak, caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people. WMP

*gala   PPH *gala, the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.). WMP

*galamáy   PPH *galamáy, finger, toe; tentacles of octopus. WMP

*gálaŋ   PPH *gálaŋ, respect, reverence. WMP;  PPH *i-gálaŋ, to show respect to. WMP;  PPH *ma-gálaŋ, respect. WMP;  PPH *galaŋ-en, to show respect for someone. WMP

*galiŋ   PWMP *galiŋ, to grind, crush by grinding. WMP

*galiŋgaŋ   PWMP *galiŋgaŋ, a tree: Cassia alata. WMP

*galu   PMP *galu, stir, mix. WMP CMP OC

*galugaʔ   PWMP *galugaʔ, a plant: Bixa orellana. WMP

*galuŋ   PWMP *galuŋ, curve. WMP

*gama   POC *gama, morning star?. OC

*gamak   PWMP *gamak, feel, hold in the hand. WMP

*gamat   PWMP *gamat, plant from which a dyestuff is obtained. WMP

*gamaʔ   PWMP *gamaʔ, catch fish or shrimp with the hands. WMP

*gambaŋ   PWMP *gambaŋ, valued metal. WMP

*gamet   PWMP *gamet, edible sea animal or plant. WMP

*gámit   PPH *gámit, to use. WMP

*gamut   PPH *gamut, poison. WMP;  PPH *gamut-en, to poison. WMP

*ganas   PMP *ganas, raw energy, animal appetite. WMP CMP

*ganti   PWMP *ganti, to replace, substitute for; to return in kind something given or done. WMP;  PWMP *ganti-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*gánut   PPH *gánut, pull up, pull out, as grass or a tooth. WMP;  PPH *ganút-en, pull up, pull out, as grass or a tooth. WMP

*gaŋa   PPH *gaŋa, to open the mouth. WMP

*gaŋgaŋ   PWMP *gaŋgaŋ, heat or dry something near a fire. WMP

*gápas   PPH *gápas, sickle; to harvest rice with a sickle. WMP

*gapgap   PMP *gapgap, stammer. WMP;  POC *kakap₂, stammer, stutter. OC

*ga(m)puŋ   PWMP *ga(m)puŋ, float. WMP

*gáqud   PPH *gáqud, oar; to row a boat. WMP

*garaŋ₁   PAN *garaŋ₁, fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper. Formosan WMP

*garaŋ₂   PMP *garaŋ₂, uneven, of edges, jagged, rough. WMP CMP;  PMP *garaŋ-gasaŋ, uneven, of edges, jagged, rough. WMP CMP

*garáw   PPH *garáw, restlessness, wild or unruly movement. WMP;  PPH *garaw-en, to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion. WMP

*gariŋ   PWMP *gariŋ, mill or grind. WMP

*garis   PMP *garis, to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line. WMP CMP;  POC *karis₂, to scratch, scrape. OC

*garit   PWMP *garit, striped, having stripes or streaks of different color. WMP

*garu   PWMP *garu, stir, mix. WMP

*garuC   PAN *garuC, comb. Formosan;  PMP *garut, rub against, scrape, scratch. WMP;  PWMP *ma-garut, to scratch. WMP;  PAN *g<um>aruC, to comb. Formosan;  PMP *g<um>arut, to rub against, scrape, scratch. WMP

*garus   PMP *garus, scratch. WMP OC

*gaRami   PWMP *gaRami, rice straw. WMP

*gaRaŋ   PAN *gaRaŋ, small edible freshwater crab. Formosan;  PMP *kaRaŋ, small edible freshwater crab. WMP

*gaRaw   PWMP *gaRaw, hoarse, raspy (of the voice). WMP

*gaRuk   PMP *gaRuk, scratch up, scrape up. WMP SHWNG

*gásaŋ   PPH *gásaŋ, coral. WMP

*gasgas   PMP *gasgas, rub, abrade. WMP;  POC *kakas-i, to scrape, abrade. OC

*gasiŋ   PWMP *gasiŋ, spinning top. WMP;  PWMP *gasiŋ-an, spinning top. WMP

*gatak   PWMP *gatak, cleave, split. WMP

*gateq   PWMP *gateq, sap, resin, sticky secretion. WMP

*gatgat   PMP *gatgat, to bite something off, to chew something up; to mince. WMP;  POC *kakat-i, to chew or bite off. OC

*ga(n)tuk   PMP *ga(n)tuk, knock against, of body parts. WMP CMP

*gatuŋ   PPH *gatuŋ, firewood. WMP

*gaut   PWMP *gaut, to scratch. WMP

*gawaŋ   PWMP *gawaŋ, gate, opening. WMP

*gaway₁   PMP *gaway₁, tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.. WMP;  POC *kawe₁, tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun. OC

*gaway₂   PWMP *gaway₂, religious feast, festivity. WMP

*gawed   PPH *gawed, betel pepper. WMP

*gayák   PPH *gayák, to plan, prepare to do something. WMP

*gayam   PMP *gayam, a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis. WMP CMP

*gayaŋ   PAN *gayaŋ, hunting spear. Formosan WMP

*gáyat   PPH *gáyat, to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables. WMP

*gayuŋ-gayuŋ   PPH *gayuŋ-gayuŋ, kind of seaweed. WMP


TOP      ga    ge    gi    gu    


*gebáq   PPH *gebáq, to destroy, demolish. WMP

*geCel   PAN *geCel, to pinch. Formosan WMP;  PMP *getel, to pinch. WMP

*gedek   PMP *gedek, sound of sob. WMP CMP

*gek   PWMP *gek, sound of a thud. WMP

*gekgek   PMP *gekgek, animal sound. WMP SHWNG;  POC *kokok, animal sound. OC

*gelaŋ   PWMP *gelaŋ, earthworm; intestinal worm. WMP

*gelap₁   PMP *gelap₁, lightning that strikes something. WMP CMP

*gelap₂   PWMP *gelap₂, storm, darkness. WMP

*gelem   PWMP *gelem, dark, overcast, cloudy. WMP

*geleŋ   PWMP *geleŋ, cut off, sever; ring a tree. WMP

*gelgél   PPH *gelgél, to cut with sawing motion. WMP

*gem   PMP *gem, hold in the fist. WMP OC

*gemel   PAN *gemel, take in the hand, clasp, grasp. Formosan WMP;  POC *gomol, squeeze, hold tight, clutch. OC

*gemes₁   PWMP *gemes₁, angry, irritated. WMP

*gemes₂   PWMP *gemes₂, want, desire. WMP

*gemgem   PAN *gemgem, fist; hold in the fist. Formosan WMP;  POC *kokom, fist; hold in the fist. OC;  POC *kokom-i, to clasp firmly. OC

*gemi   PMP *gemi, suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’. WMP CMP;  POC *komi, suckerfish, remora. OC

*gempal   PWMP *gempal, lump, clod. WMP

*geneŋ   PWMP *geneŋ, dwell, reside. WMP

*genep   PWMP *genep, complete; even (of numbers). WMP;  PWMP *pa-genep, to complete, make full, round out. WMP;  PWMP *ka-genep-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *g<um>enep, become complete. WMP;  PWMP *genep-i, to complete something. WMP

*geŋ   PMP *geŋ, dull resounding sound. WMP CMP

*gepik   PMP *gepik, smack of light smacking. WMP CMP

*gepit   PMP *gepit, pinch, squeeze between. WMP CMP

*ger   PMP *ger, sound of a grunt, etc.. WMP CMP

*geraq   PWMP *geraq, misfortune, catastrophe. WMP

*gereC   PAN *gereC, slit an animal's throat. Formosan WMP

*geret   PMP *geret, notch, groove. WMP;  POC *korot, to notch, to carve. OC

*gerger₁   PAN *gerger₁, shake, shiver, tremble. Formosan WMP CMP

*gerger₂   PWMP *gerger₂, to imprint, leave a temporary mark. WMP

*geriC   PAN *geriC, gnaw of ripping, gnawing, etc.. Formosan;  PMP *gerit, sound of scraping or scratching. WMP CMP OC

*geRuŋ   PWMP *geRuŋ, rumbling or low murmuring sound. WMP

*ges   PWMP *ges, dull sound. WMP

*gesaq   PWMP *gesaq, restless. WMP

*ge(s)ges   PMP *ge(s)ges, shiver. WMP CMP

*getak   PWMP *getak, cleave, split. WMP

*geteŋ   PWMP *geteŋ, taut. WMP

*geteq   PWMP *geteq, sap, gummy secretion. WMP

*getes   PMP *getes, to snap, break off, as a twig. WMP;  POC *kotos, to snap, break off, as a twig. OC

*getget₁   PWMP *getget₁, nibble, gnaw; moth. WMP

*getget₂   PPH *getget₂, line, groove, mark made by cutting. WMP

*getik   PMP *getik, spotted, striped. WMP;  POC *kotik, spotted. OC

*getil   PAN *getil, to pinch. Formosan WMP

*getuk   PWMP *getuk, knock, pound on. WMP

*getus   PWMP *getus, snap, break, as a string. WMP


TOP      ga    ge    gi    gu    


*giak   PWMP *giak, to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting. WMP

*gian   PWMP *gian, addicted to. WMP

*giaw   PPH *giaw, shouting; to shout. WMP

*gidgíd   PPH *gidgíd, rub something off. WMP

*gidik   PMP *gidik, to tickle. WMP;  POC *kirik, to tickle. OC

*gigil   PMP *gigil, shiver, tremble. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-gigil, to tremble or quiver. WMP

*gigir   PWMP *gigir, apprehensive, fearful. WMP

*gigut   PWMP *gigut, to bite. WMP

*gikgik   PMP *gikgik, titter, giggle. WMP CMP

*gila   PMP *gila, wild; skittish; insane. WMP CMP;  POC *kila, wild; skittish (as animals). OC;  PWMP *ma-gila, mentally disturbed. WMP;  PMP *gila-gila, wild; insane. WMP;  POC *kila-kila, wild, untamed. OC

*gilak   PMP *gilak, shine, glitter. WMP CMP

*gilaŋ   PWMP *gilaŋ, radiance. WMP

*gilap   PMP *gilap, radiance. WMP CMP;  PWMP *g<um>ilap, to flash, sparkle. WMP

*gilaw   PWMP *gilaw, gleam. WMP

*gilek   PWMP *gilek, ticklish sensation. WMP

*gílij   PPH *gílij, side, edge. WMP;  PPH *ta-gílij, tipped on the side (?). WMP

*giliŋ   PMP *giliŋ, to grind, as by rolling over. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ, to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ, a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding. WMP;  PPH *g<in>iliŋ, grind. WMP;  PWMP *g<um>iliŋ, to turn, roll over; grind up. WMP;  PWMP *giliŋ-an, grind. WMP;  PWMP *giliŋ-en, to grind, be ground up by someone. WMP

*gimbal   PWMP *gimbal, drum. WMP

*gimpis   PPH *gimpis, crush between weights; press out. WMP

*ginelaw   PWMP *ginelaw, dazzling light. WMP

*gintil   PMP *gintil, pimple. WMP CMP

*giŋgiŋ   PAN *giŋgiŋ, cold, shivering. Formosan WMP

*gipit   PMP *gipit, narrow, tight, confined. WMP CMP

*giqed   PWMP *giqed, zeal, ardor; industrious, keen. WMP

*giret   PWMP *giret, encircling article of clothing or adornment. WMP

*girgir   PWMP *girgir, shiver, tremble. WMP

*giri   PMP *giri, to tickle. WMP;  POC *kiri, to tickle. OC

*giruk   PPH *giruk, tickle; ticklish. WMP

*giRiŋ   PAN *giRiŋ, ring. Formosan WMP

*gisgis₁   PAN *gisgis₁, rub, scrape against. Formosan WMP CMP

*gisgis₂   PWMP *gisgis₂, tear off, break off. WMP

*gitgit   PWMP *gitgit, to nibble, chew at. WMP

*gi(n)tik   PMP *gi(n)tik, tap or beat lightly on. WMP;  POC *kidik, tap or beat lightly on. OC

*gitik   PWMP *gitik, to tickle. WMP

*giwaŋ   PPH *giwaŋ, gap, open space, breach. WMP

*giwaq   PWMP *giwaq, sway, shake, wiggle. WMP


TOP      ga    ge    gi    gu    


*gubát   PPH *gubát, to attack, go to war. WMP

*guCguC₁   PAN *guCguC₁, pluck, pull out. Formosan;  PMP *gutgut₂, pluck, pull out. WMP

*guCguC₂   PAN *guCguC₂, to scratch, as an itch. Formosan;  PMP *gutgut, to scratch, as an itch. WMP

*gu(n)dem   PMP *gu(n)dem, dark, darkened. WMP;  POC *kurom, dark, darkened, as the sun. OC

*gúguq   PPH *gúguq, a tree with bark that can be used as a shampoo: Ganphyllum falcatum Bl.. WMP

*guláman   PPH *guláman, gelatin, agar-agar. WMP

*gulamay   PPH *gulamay, finger, toe; tentacles of octopus. WMP

*gulay   PWMP *gulay, vegetable. WMP;  PPH *gulay-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *gulay-en, to cook vegetables. WMP

*gúlis   PPH *gúlis, line, scratch, furrow. WMP

*guluk   PWMP *guluk, kind of dagger. WMP

*gumi   PMP *gumi, moustache, beard. WMP;  POC *kumʷi, beard. OC

*gumis   PWMP *gumis, moustache, beard. WMP

*gumul   PWMP *gumul, wrestle, grapple with. WMP

*gumuN   PAN *gumuN, body hair. Formosan

*gunay   PPH *gunay, movement; to move. WMP

*guntur   PWMP *guntur, thunder. WMP

*guŋguŋ   PAN *guŋguŋ, deep resounding sound. Formosan WMP CMP

*gu(m)pit   PWMP *gu(m)pit, pinch together; narrow. WMP

*gur   PMP *gur, purr. WMP CMP

*gurat   POC *gurat, a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia. OC

*gurgur₁   PAN *gurgur₁, boil of boiling water. Formosan WMP

*gurgur₂   PWMP *gurgur₂, to shake. WMP

*guris   PAN *guris, line; scratch a line. Formosan WMP

*gurit   PMP *gurit, to scratch; sound of scratching. WMP

*guru   PMP *guru, noise, tumult. WMP OC

*gurumut   PWMP *gurumut, swarm around. WMP

*guruq   PMP *guruq, noise, tumult. WMP;  POC *guru, noise, tumult. OC

*guRiCa   PAN *guRiCa, octopus. Formosan;  PMP *kuRita, octopus. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*guRun   PMP *guRun, sword grass, Imperata cylindrica. WMP;  POC *kuRun, sword grass: Imperata cylindrica. OC

*guRuŋ   POC *guRuŋ, deep rumbling sound; thunder. OC

*gusgus   PAN *gusgus, to scrape, scratch, rub. Formosan WMP;  POC *kunji, to rub. OC

*gusi   PAN *gusi, gums. Formosan WMP

*gusut   PWMP *gusut, tangle. WMP

*guSam   PAN *guSam, a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush. Formosan;  PMP *guham, a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush. WMP;  PWMP *guam-en, have a thrush or stomatitits infection. WMP

*gut   PWMP *gut, scrape. WMP

*gutgut   PAN *gutgut₁, front teeth, incisors. Formosan;  PMP *gutgut₁, front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors. WMP

*guyaq   PWMP *guyaq, shake, sway. WMP

*guyeŋ   PWMP *guyeŋ, shake, sway. WMP

*guyud₁   PPH *guyud₁, banana sp.. WMP

*guyud₂   PPH *guyud₂, rice variety. WMP

*guyud₃   PWMP *guyud₃, pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled. WMP;  PPH *gúyud-an, drag. WMP;  PPH *gúyud-en, pull. WMP

*guyuŋ   PWMP *guyuŋ, shake, sway. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_g.htm