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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    y    z   


ma    me    mi    mo    mu    mw    

*ma-₁   PAN *ma-₁, stative prefix. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*ma-₂   PAN *ma-₂, future prefix. Formosan

*maCa   PAN *maCa, eye, focal point, center or most prominent part. Formosan;  PMP *mata, eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *ka-mata, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP;  PPH *pa-matá, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paR-mata, be awake. WMP;  PAN *m<in>aCa, eye. Formosan;  PMP *m<in>ata, eye. WMP;  PPH *mata-an, eye. WMP;  PPH *mata-en, observe closely or critically. WMP;  POC *mata ni cawa, channel between islands or islets. OC;  POC *mata muri, (gloss uncertain). OC;  POC *mata riki, fine, of the mesh of a fish net. OC;  PMP *anak nu mata, pupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’). WMP CMP;  PAN *Cau nu maCa, pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’). Formosan;  PMP *tau nu mata, pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’). WMP;  PMP *mata nu bisul, core of a boil. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *mata nu haŋin, point of the compass, direction of the wind. WMP;  POC *mata ni aŋin, point of the compass, direction. OC;  PMP *mata nu hikan, callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’). WMP CMP;  POC *mata ni ikan, callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’). OC;  PMP *mata nu kahiw, knot in wood. WMP CMP;  POC *mata ni kayu, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PMP *mata nu panaq, point of an arrow. WMP;  POC *mata ni panaq, point of an arrow. OC;  PWMP *mata nu piRsa, core of a boil. WMP;  PWMP *mata nu pisaw, blade of a knife. WMP;  PWMP *mata nu puket, mesh of a net. WMP CMP OC;  PAN *mata nu qalejaw, sun (‘ eye of the day’). Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PMP *mata nu susu, nipple of the breast. WMP CMP;  POC *mata ni susu, female breast. OC;  PMP *mata nu wahiR, spring of water, source of a river. WMP CMP;  POC *mata ni waiR, spring of water, source of a river. OC;  PMP *mata nu zalan, middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way. WMP CMP;  POC *mata ni salan, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PWMP *mata nu zaRum, eye of a needle. WMP;  PMP *mata-mata, spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *mata nu qatay, mental perception. WMP;  POC *mata qate, instinct. OC

*madaŋ   PWMP *madaŋ, a tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissimus. WMP

*madar   PCEMP *madar, ripe, overripe. CMP SHWNG;  POC *madrar, ripe. OC

*madrali   POC *madrali, slippery, as wet rocks by the shore. OC

*maga   POC *maga, stone; slingshot. OC

*mai   PMP *mai, and. WMP OC

*ma-ilah   PWMP *ma-ilah₂, wild, shy, skittish. WMP

*ma-iRaq   PMP *ma-iRaq, red. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *meRaq, red. CMP;  POC *meRaq, red. OC;  PCEMP *meRaq meRaq, red, reddish. CMP OC

*maja   PMP *maja, dry up, evaporate. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *ma-maja, dry up. WMP OC

*maka-   PWMP *maka-, verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something. WMP

*makaka   POC *makaka, to pry open slightly. OC

*makaw   PWMP *makaw, walk, go. WMP

*maket   PMP *maket, to stick, adhere to; sticky, adhesive. WMP CMP

*maki-   PPH *maki-, social prefix, indicating action together with another. WMP

*makúpa   PPH *makúpa, mountain apple: Eugenia spp.. WMP

*malai   POC *malai, withered, faded. OC

*malala   POC *malala, village square; dancing ground. OC

*malaŋ   PMP *malaŋ, misfortune, bad luck. WMP OC

*malaqe   POC *malaqe, public space in village. OC

*malaw   PCEMP *malaw, paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material. CMP SHWNG OC

*malem   PMP *malem, night, darkness. WMP OC

*males   PMP *males, become soft or weak (of things or people). WMP CMP

*mali   PMP *mali, a plant: Leea spp.. WMP CMP;  PMP *mali-mali, a plant, Leea spp.. WMP OC

*malip   PCEMP *malip, laugh, smile. CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *mali-malip, laugh. OC

*maliqi   PAN *maliqi, pregnant. Formosan WMP

*maliraŋ   PMP *maliraŋ, sulphur. WMP CMP

*malon   POC *malon, core of a breadfruit. OC

*malua   PCEMP *malua, soft, pliable. CMP OC

*maluRu   PEMP *maluRu, shade. SHWNG OC;  POC *paka-maluRu, to shelter, give shelter to. OC;  POC *maluRu maluRu, shade. OC

*mamah   PAN *mamah, father’s brother. Formosan;  PMP *mama, parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *mama, young child’s term for father. OC

*mamaq   PMP *mamaq, chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *mamaq-en, to chew a betel quid. WMP

*mamata   POC *mamata, be awake, watchful, alert. OC

*mamin₁   PMP *mamin₁, a fish: wrasse spp.. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*mamin₂   POC *mamin₂, to chew, taste. OC

*mampus   PMP *mampus, use, used up. WMP CMP

*man   PPH *man, particle expressing solidarity, concession, qualification, or emphasis. WMP

*mana   POC *mana, conjunction: and. OC

*mana₁   PWMP *mana₁, inherit, inheritance. WMP

*mana₂   POC *mana₂, power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind. OC;  POC *mana-mana, to have spiritual power. OC

*manoŋi   POC *manoŋi, fragrant, sweet-smelling. OC

*mansar   PCEMP *mansar, bandicoot, marsupialrat’. CMP;  POC *mwajar, bandicoot. OC

*mansər   PCEMP *mansər, bandicoot, marsupial ' rat'. CMP;  POC *mwajor, bandicoot. OC

*mantalaq   PMP *mantalaq, the morning ( evening) star">star: Venus. WMP OC

*manu   PAN *manu, interrogative marker: which?. Formosan WMP

*manuk   PAN *manuk, chicken. Formosan;  PMP *manuk, chicken. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *manuk, bird; any flying creature. OC;  PMP *manu(k)-manuk, bird. WMP SHWNG;  POC *manu-manuk, insect. OC;  PWMP *maR-manuk, raise chickens. WMP;  PWMP *manuk-an, place where chickens are kept. WMP;  PPh *manuk-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*manuka   POC *manuka, sea eagle. OC

*maNaŋ   PAN *maNaŋ, sharp. Formosan

*maña   PWMP *maña, inherit, inheritance. WMP

*maŋa₁   PMP *maŋa₁, prenominal marker of plurality. WMP OC

*maŋa₂   POC *maŋa₂, bifurcation, forking or branching. OC

*maŋali   PWMP *maŋali, sea fish sp.. WMP

*maŋaq   PMP *maŋaq, slit, crevice. WMP OC

*maŋaRat   PPH *maŋaRat, a fish: snapper sp.. WMP

*maŋiŋi   POC *maŋiŋi, sour, spoiled ( liquid). OC

*maŋmaŋ   PWMP *maŋmaŋ, stare, fix the eyes on. WMP

*maŋsit   PMP *maŋsit, vile smell. WMP OC

*maŋsit   PMP *maŋsit, sour, rancid. WMP OC

*mapat   POC *mapat, heavy; weighty, important. OC

*mapo   POC *mapo, to heal, as a wound. OC

*mapu₁   PMP *mapu₁, taro variety. WMP OC

*mapu₂   PMP *mapu₂, unpleasant odor. CMP OC

*mapua   POC *mapua, tomorrow. OC

*maqaw   PAN *maqaw, a plant: Litsea cubeba (Lour.). Formosan

*marapu   POC *marapu, calm, still, windless. OC

*marau   POC *marau, southeast trade winds. OC

*maruŋgay   PPH *maruŋgay, the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera. WMP

*maRai   POC *maRai, withered, faded. OC

*masaŋa   POC *masaŋa, twins. OC

*masedru   POC *masedru, to hiccup. OC

*masou   POC *masou, cinnamon. OC

*masu   PCMP *masu, smoke. CMP

*masuR   POC *masuR, satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food. SHWNG OC

*maS   PAN *maS, and. Formosan CMP SHWNG OC

*mata-án   PPH *mata-án, kind of marine fish with large eyes. WMP

*matan V   POC *matan V, sharp. OC

*matau   POC *matau, axe (?). OC

*matay   PCEMP *matay₂, money, payment, medium of commercial exchange. CMP OC

*-matek   PAN *-matek, jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.. WMP CMP;  PAN *qaNi-matek, jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.. Formosan;  PMP *qala-matek, jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.. WMP CMP;  PWMP *kali-matek, jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.. WMP;  PWMP *qali-matek, jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.. WMP;  PWMP *sali-matek, jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.. WMP

*matu   PCEMP *matu, dry coconut. SHWNG OC

*mawa   PEMP *mawa, a cleft, space between two rocks. SHWNG OC

*maya   PCEMP *maya, tongue. CMP;  POC *maya, tongue. OC

*máya   PPH *máya, rice bird, small bird found in rice fields. WMP

*mayaŋ   PWMP *mayaŋ, blossom of the areca or coconut palm. WMP

*maymay   PMP *maymay, premasticated food for infants. WMP;  POC *meme, premasticated food for infants. OC


TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu    mw    


*-meCaq   PAN *-meCaq, paddy leech. ;  PAN *qaNi-meCaq, paddy leech. Formosan;  PWMP *qali-metaq, paddy leech. WMP

*-medaw   PAN *-medaw, dizzy, giddy. Formosan WMP

*medem   PWMP *medem, dark, obscure. WMP

*mekmek   PMP *mekmek, broken to bits. WMP SHWNG OC

*meme   POC *meme, tongue. OC

*meñak   PMP *meñak, fat, grease; ointment. WMP SHWNG;  POC *moñak₂, fat; sweet, tasty. OC;  POC *moña-moñak, fat, grease; sweet taste. OC

*mepis   PMP *mepis, thin. WMP CMP

*mesmes   PAN *mesmes, grasp, grip, squeeze. Formosan WMP;  POC *momos, to squeeze. OC

*me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)   PMP *me(n)tik, ant sp. with venomous bite. WMP CMP

*metmet   PAN *metmet, to hold tightly. Formosan WMP


TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu    mw    


*mi-   PAN *mi-, prefix marking possession of some object. Formosan

*mikmik   PPH *mikmik, morsel, bit, as of food. WMP

*mimi   PMP *mimi, to urinate; urine. WMP OC

*mimis₁   PMP *mimis₁, new shoots of cogon grass ( Imperata cylindrica). WMP CMP

*mímis₂   PPH *mímis₂, type of rice. WMP

*minaŋa   PMP *minaŋa, mouth of a river, estuary. WMP CMP

*minsan   PPH *minsan, at one time. WMP

*miñak   PMP *miñak, fat, grease; ointment. WMP CMP OC

*mipis   PMP *mipis, thin, of materials. WMP CMP

*miqmiq   PMP *miqmiq, urine, urinate. WMP;  POC *mimiq, urine; urinate. OC

*misi   POC *misi, make a sucking sound, smack the lips. OC;  POC *misi-misi, make a sucking sound, smack the lips. OC

*misik   PMP *misik, sucking noise made as a signal to another person. WMP OC

*mismis₁   PWMP *mismis₁, dried mucus on the eyelid. WMP

*mismis₂   PMP *mismis₂, to suck up, suck out. WMP CMP

*miti   POC *miti, make a sucking sound, smack the lips. OC;  POC *miti-miti, make a sucking sound, smack the lips. OC


TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu    mw    


*molaŋ   PEMP *molaŋ, true, real, genuine. SHWNG OC

*mona   POC *mona, canoe type. OC

*monaki   POC *monaki, cuttlefish. OC

*mo(nñ)o   POC *mo(nñ)o, knead, squeeze. OC

*mono   POC *mono, stay, dwell in a place. OC

*moñak   POC *moñak₁, pounded taro with coconut cream. OC

*moñan   POC *moñan, brain. OC

*motus   POC *motus, broken off; islet; detached reef. OC


TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu    mw    


*-mu   PMP *-mu, 2sg. possessor and agent of passive verb. WMP CMP OC

*mu-   PAN *mu-, movement prefix. Formosan WMP

*mu(n)cuŋ   PWMP *mu(n)cuŋ, mouth (of an animal). WMP

*muda   PMP *muda, young (of fruits); immature; light (of colors). WMP CMP;  POC *mura, young (of fruits). OC

*mudaq   PAN *mudaq, young (of fruits); immature. Formosan WMP

*mudmúd   PPH *mudmúd, press down hard on something. WMP

*muhmuh   PPH *muhmuh, crumbs of food, esp. rice. WMP

*mujiŋ   PAN *mujiŋ, face (human). Formosan WMP;  PAN *mujiŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP

*muken (X + muken)   PMP *muken, omen dove. WMP CMP

*mukmuk   PWMP *mukmuk, crumbs that drop when eating rice. WMP

*muku   POC *muku, to gargle. OC

*mula   PAN *mula, to plant. Formosan WMP CMP

*mulmul   PAN *mulmul, hold in the mouth and suck. Formosan WMP CMP

*mulmúl   PPH *mulmúl, parrot fish: Scarus spp.. WMP

*mumu   PAN *mumu, Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe). Formosan

*mumuni   POC *mumuni, to hide. OC

*muno   POC *muno, caterpillar. OC

*muntay   PMP *muntay, kind of citrus tree and its fruit. WMP CMP

*munuŋ   PWMP *munuŋ, upper lip (?). WMP

*muqa   POC *muqa, first, foremost; to precede. OC

*muqmuq   PWMP *muqmuq, crumbs of food that fall on the table or floor. WMP

*muquŋ   PMP *muquŋ, fish sp.. WMP OC

*muru   POC *muru, back, posterior part. OC

*muRmuR   PAN *muRmuR, gargle, rinse the mouth. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *kali-muRmuR, gargle, rinse the mouth. WMP

*musaŋ   PMP *musaŋ, civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae. WMP CMP

*muteq   PWMP *muteq, gummy secretion of the eyes. WMP

*mutu₁   PMP *mutu₁, damsel fish. WMP OC

*mutu₂   PEMP *mutu₂, broken off, cut off. SHWNG OC


TOP      ma    me    mi    mo    mu    mw    


*mwaloq   POC *mwaloq, submerged rock or coral reef. OC

*mwamwaki   POC *mwamwaki, large cuttlefish and squid. OC

*mwanene   POC *mwanene, straight. OC

*mwanoRe   POC *mwanoRe, unicorn fish: Naso unicornis. OC

*mwaña   POC *mwaña, pandanus sp., probably Pandanus conoideus. OC

*mwapo   POC *mwapo, taro. OC

*mwaRi   POC *mwaRi, to roast, burn. OC

*mwasasi   POC *mwasasi, goatfish sp.. OC

*mwata   POC *mwata, snake. OC

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_m.htm