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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    y    z   


na    ne    ni    no    nu    

*na₁   PMP *na₁, common noun article. WMP CMP OC

*na₂   PAN *na₂, linker marking emphatic attribution. Formosan WMP

*na₃   PAN *na₃, genitive of plural personal names. Formosan WMP OC

*-na   PAN *-na, distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PMP *i-na, that, there. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *sa-na, there. WMP

*nabuq   PMP *nabuq, to fall. WMP CMP

*nadi   POC *nadi, hard stone used to make tools. OC

*nago   POC *nago, face; front; prow of canoe. OC

*nai   POC *nai, woman’s grass skirt. OC

*najam   PAN *najam, accustomed to, familiar with; tame. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-najam, accustomed to, familiar with; tame. Formosan WMP;  POC *ma-nacam, tame, docile. OC

*nakaw   PMP *nakaw, steal. WMP CMP

*nákem   PPH *nákem, will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind. WMP;  PPH *ma-nákem, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*namaw   PMP *namaw, sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon. WMP CMP;  POC *namo, lagoon. OC

*namut   PMP *namut, an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L.. WMP CMP

*namut-namut   PMP *namut-namut, a tree: Cynometra spp.. WMP CMP

*-nan   PWMP *-nan, that. WMP;  PWMP *a-nan, that. WMP

*nana₁   POC *nana₁, that, those. OC

*nana₂   PPH *nana₂, term of address for older female relative. WMP

*nanaw   PPH *nanaw, look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place. WMP

*naNaq   PAN *naNaq, pus. Formosan;  PMP *nanaq, pus. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *maR-nanaq, to suppurate, ooze pus. WMP;  PWMP *nanaq-an, having pus. WMP;  PWMP *nanaq-en, to suppurate, of a wound. WMP

*naŋa₁   PMP *naŋa₁, estuary, mouth of a river. WMP CMP

*naŋa₂   PMP *naŋa₂, kind of thick rattan. WMP CMP

*nara   PMP *nara, a tree: Pterocarpus indica. WMP CMP

*naRa   PAN *naRa, to wait. Formosan WMP

*naRah   PMP *naRah, a tree: Pterocarpus indica. WMP CMP OC

*nasi   PWMP *nasi, fermented rice. WMP

*nasuk   PAN *nasuk, cook by boiling. Formosan WMP OC

*natek   PWMP *natek, palm flour. WMP

*nati   PMP *nati, young of animals. WMP OC

*natu   PEMP *natu, child, offspring. SHWNG OC

*natuq   PMP *natuq, ovary of an an oviparous animal. WMP CMP OC

*nau   PPH *nau, to teach, show someone how to do something. WMP

*nawnáw   PPH *nawnáw, to dissolve something in water; swish around in water. WMP

*nay   PAN *nay, deictic particle: this. Formosan


TOP      na    ne    ni    no    nu    


*neknek   PMP *neknek, gnat, sandfly, fruit fly. WMP;  POC *nonok, gnat, fly">sandfly. OC

*nema   PAN *nema, what thing?. Formosan

*nemnem   PAN *nemnem, think. Formosan WMP;  POC *nonom, to think. OC

*nepuq   PMP *nepuq, stonefish. WMP SHWNG;  POC *nopuq, stonefish. OC


TOP      na    ne    ni    no    nu    


*-ni   PAN *-ni, proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PAN *di-ni, here. Formosan WMP;  PAN *i-ni, this, here. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PAN *ia-ni, this; here. Formosan WMP OC;  PWMP *ka-i-ni, now (?). WMP;  PAN *qa-ni, this; here. Formosan WMP OC;  PWMP *si-ni, here. WMP

*ni   PAN *ni, genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb. Formosan WMP OC

*niket   PMP *niket, sticky, adhesive. WMP CMP

*nilaw   PMP *nilaw, bright light. WMP CMP

*nilu   PMP *nilu, intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge. WMP CMP

*nimas   PAN *nimas, bailer in a canoe. Formosan WMP;  POC *nimas, bailer; to bail water from a canoe. OC

*ninih   PMP *ninih, shake, tremble, rock. WMP;  PCEMP *nini, shake, tremble, rock. CMP OC

*niniq₁   PMP *niniq₁, plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets. WMP CMP OC

*niniq₂   PMP *niniq₂, sandfly. WMP CMP SHWNG

*niŋal   PMP *niŋal, echo. WMP CMP

*niŋniŋ   PMP *niŋniŋ, clear, of water. WMP;  PCEMP *niniŋ, clear, of water. CMP

*nipaq   PMP *nipaq, a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans. WMP OC

*nipay   PMP *nipay, snake. WMP CMP;  POC *nipe, snake. OC

*nipen   PAN *nipen, tooth. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *nipon, tooth. OC

*niRab   PWMP *niRab, yesterday. WMP

*nisnís   PPH *nisnís, to wipe, rub, scrub. WMP;  PPH *nisnis-an, to wipe away, wipe off. WMP

*nituq   PMP *nituq, a fern: Lygodium spp.. WMP CMP

*niuR   PMP *niuR, coconut. WMP CMP SHWNG OC


TOP      na    ne    ni    no    nu    


*nofo   POC *nofo, sit; stay or stop moving; reside. OC

*noku   POC *noku, bend, fold. OC

*nopo-nopo   POC *nopo-nopo, to fear, be intimidated by. OC


TOP      na    ne    ni    no    nu    


*nu-   PAN *nu-, future marker with words for days. Formosan WMP

*nu₁   PAN *nu₁, if, when (in future). Formosan WMP

*nu₂   PWMP *nu₂, 2sg.; you. WMP

*nu₃   PAN *nu₃, genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni). Formosan WMP

*-nu₁   PAN *-nu₁, marker of uncertainty. Formosan WMP;  PMP *a-nu, thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what?. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *anu, thing whose name is unknown. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-anu, do such-and-such (action unspecified). WMP;  PWMP *sa-anu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *i-anu, si-anu, person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so. WMP;  PMP *sanu, person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so. WMP OC;  PWMP *in-anu, to have had something done with it. WMP;  PMP *a-nu-ku, my unnamed thing: mine. WMP OC;  PMP *a-nu-mu, your unnamed thing: yours. WMP OC;  PMP *a-nu-ni a, his/her unnamed thing: his/hers. WMP;  POC *anu-ña, his/her unnamed thing: his/hers. OC;  PAN *i-nu, place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where?. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ka-nu₁, interrogative; probably 'when?'. Formosan;  PMP *ka-nu₂, when?. WMP;  PAN *na-nu, what(?). Formosan WMP;  PPh *si-nu, person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who?. WMP;  PPh *anu-en, how? In what way?. WMP;  PWMP *anu-anu, thing of uncertainty. WMP

*-nu₂   PAN *-nu₂, 2sg possessor and non-subject agent. Formosan WMP

*nues   PMP *nues, squid. WMP CMP

*nuka   PAN *nuka, to make hemp yarn. Formosan

*numa   PAN *numa, how?. Formosan

*numi   POC *numi, to fold. OC

*nunu₁   POC *nunu₁, earthquake. OC;  POC *nu-nunu, earthquake. OC

*nunu₂   POC *nunu₂, to slough, shed the skin, as a snake. OC

*nunuh   PAN *nunuh, female breast. Formosan WMP;  POC *nunu₃, female breast. OC

*nunuk   PMP *nunuk, a tree: the banyan or strangler fig. WMP CMP OC

*nuŋnuŋ   PWMP *nuŋnuŋ, stare, look fixedly. WMP

*nupi   PWMP *nupi, dream. WMP

*nuRuq   PMP *nuRuq, luck. WMP;  PMP *ma-nuRuq, luck. WMP OC

*nus   PMP *nus, squid, cuttlefish. WMP CMP

*nusa₁   PMP *nusa₁, island. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *a-nusa, small island, islet. OC

*nusa₂   POC *nusa₂, smaller types of reef squid. OC

*nuse   POC *nuse, smaller types of reef squid. OC

*nuso   POC *nuso, smaller types of reef squid. OC

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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