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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    y    z   


Ra    Re    Ri    Ru    

*Rabak   PWMP *Rabak, tear, in tatters. WMP

*Rabat   PPH *Rabat, driftwood; flotsam. WMP

*Ra(m)bej   PWMP *Ra(m)bej, wind around. WMP

*Rab(e)qun   PWMP *Rab(e)qun, cover with earth. WMP

*Rabiqi   PAN *Rabiqi, late afternoon, evening; evening meal. Formosan;  PMP *Rabiqi, late afternoon, evening; evening meal; yesterday. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *Rapi, afternoon, evening; yesterday. SHWNG OC;  PMP *ka-Rabiqi, last night. WMP;  POC *ka-Rabiqi, evening (?). OC;  PMP *paka-Rabiqi, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *paka-Rapiqi, afternoon, evening. OC;  PAN *ka-Rabi-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PPH *ma-Rabi-an, be overcome by darkness, be benighted. WMP;  PPH *R<in>abiqi, every night, happening every night. WMP;  PPH *R<um>abiqi, become night, turn into night. WMP;  PAN *Rabi-an, evening, night. Formosan;  PPH *Rabi-en, taking place at night. WMP;  PAN *Rabi-Rabi, every night, happening every night. Formosan WMP OC

*RabiS   PAN *RabiS, small knife. Formosan

*RabuC   PAN *RabuC, uproot, pull out by the roots. Formosan;  PMP *Rabut, uproot, pull out by the roots. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *Raput, uproot, pull out by the roots. OC

*Rabuk   PMP *Rabuk, decaying wood; dust, powder. WMP CMP;  POC *Rapuk, worn out, decaying. OC

*Rabun   PMP *Rabun, drizzling rain, mist; fog. WMP CMP;  POC *Rapun, mist. OC;  PMP *ma-Rabun, mist. WMP;  POC *ma-Rapun, mist. OC

*RaCus   PAN *RaCus, hundred. Formosan;  PMP *Ratus, hundred. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-Ratus, one hundred. WMP;  PMP *sa-ŋa-Ratus, one hundred. WMP OC;  PWMP *Ratus-an, by hundreds, hundreds at a time. WMP

*Radut   PMP *Radut, pluck, pull out. WMP CMP

*Ragem   PWMP *Ragem, clench. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-Ragem, hold something tightly in the fist. WMP

*Rahap   PAN *Rahap, seeds for sowing. Formosan;  PAN *R<um>ahap, to sow seeds. Formosan

*Rakéd   PPH *Rakéd, to hitch, tie two things together. WMP

*Rakep   PWMP *Rakep, seize, grasp, wrap around. WMP

*Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ   PWMP *Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ, spread the legs. WMP

*Rakit   PMP *Rakit, lay long objects side by side; raft. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PWMP *paR-Rakit, bound together (?). WMP;  PWMP *Rakit-an, (gloss unclear). WMP

*Rakut   PMP *Rakut, tie together. WMP CMP OC

*Rambaŋ   PWMP *Rambaŋ, casting net; spread out, as a casting net. WMP

*Rambat   PWMP *Rambat, casting net. WMP

*Rambia   PMP *Rambia, sago palm. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *Rabia, sago palm. OC

*RameC   PAN *RameC, root. Formosan

*Rames   PAN *Rames, squeeze, knead. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG

*RamiS   PAN *RamiS, root. Formosan

*Rámit   PPH *Rámit, to use. WMP

*Rampaŋ   PWMP *Rampaŋ, passionate, quick-tempered. WMP

*Rampas   PWMP *Rampas, rob, plunder. WMP

*Rampis   PWMP *Rampis, thin, thin layer. WMP

*Ramut₁   PMP *Ramut₁, fibrous roots, as of grass. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *maka-Ramut, to take root, grow roots. WMP

*Ramut₂   PPH *Ramut₂, a charm used to control someone magically. WMP

*Ranebut   PWMP *Ranebut, pluck out. WMP

*Rantaŋ   PMP *Rantaŋ, carry. WMP CMP

*Raŋa₁   PMP *Raŋa₁, open the mouth wide. WMP CMP

*Raŋa₂   PMP *Raŋa, the spider conch: Lambis lambis. WMP CMP OC

*Raŋak   PMP *Raŋak, the spider conch: Lambis lambis. WMP OC

*RaŋaR   PMP *RaŋaR, the spider conch: Lambis lambis. WMP OC

*Raŋaw₁   PPH *Raŋaw₁, new shoot of vines or creepers. WMP

*Raŋaw₂   PCEMP *Raŋaw₂, to dry up, wither. CMP SHWNG OC

*Raŋkay   PWMP *Raŋkay, dry. WMP

*Raŋkep   PWMP *raŋkep₁, crawl. WMP

*Raŋkub   PWMP *Raŋkub, to cover">cover. WMP

*Raŋu   PMP *Raŋu, dry. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *ma-Raŋu, dry. CMP SHWNG OC

*Rapiq   PWMP *Rapiq, crumble. WMP

*Rapuq₁   PWMP *Rapuq₁, rotten, crumbling. WMP

*Rapuq₂   PPH *Rapuq₂, branches carried along and deposited by water. WMP

*Rapus   PMP *Rapus, to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope. WMP CMP;  PWMP *R<in>apus, tie. WMP;  PWMP *Rapus-en, to bind, tie the hands or feet. WMP

*Raqan   PMP *Raqan, lightness (weight). WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-Raqan, light in weight. WMP CMP SHWNG

*Raqup   PMP *Raqup, cup the hands. WMP CMP OC

*RaRaŋ   PPH *RaRaŋ, large marine mollusk: Turbo marmoratus. WMP

*RasRas   PPH *RasRas, to rub vigorously, scour. WMP

*RaSuŋ   PAN *RaSuŋ, ambush, attack from concealment. Formosan;  PMP *Rahuŋ, ambush, attack from concealment. WMP

*Rataq   PMP *Rataq, coconut milk. WMP OC

*Ratas₁   PMP *Ratas₁, sever, tear. WMP CMP

*Ratas₂   PMP *Ratas₂, milk. WMP OC

*RauS   PAN *RauS, scoop net. Formosan;  PAN *Ra-RauS, a dip net. Formosan

*Rawaŋ   PWMP *Rawaŋ, gap, full of gaps. WMP

*Rawed   PWMP *Rawed, betel pepper. WMP

*Raya   PAN *Raya, big, large. Formosan WMP CMP


TOP      Ra    Re    Ri    Ru    


*Rebaq   PWMP *Rebaq, felling of trees to make a swidden. WMP;  PPH *ma-Rebaq, destroyed, demolished. WMP;  PPH *Rebaq-en, to destroy, demolish. WMP

*Rebek   PMP *Rebek, to fly. WMP SHWNG;  POC *Ropok, to fly. OC;  POC *Ropo-Ropok, fly. OC

*Rebut   PWMP *Rebut, pull out, extract. WMP

*Re(ŋ)kem   PMP *Re(ŋ)kem, grasp in the fist. WMP CMP

*Reken   PAN *Reken, coil. Formosan WMP

*Re(ŋ)keŋ   PMP *Re(ŋ)keŋ, shrink, contract. WMP;  POC *Rokoŋ, shrink, contract. OC

*Remek   PMP *Remek, crush, pulverize; crumble. WMP CMP

*Reneg   PMP *Reneg, press down. WMP CMP

*Renek   PWMP *Renek, silent, taciturn. WMP

*ReŋeC   PAN *ReŋeC, angry, annoyed. Formosan;  PMP *Reŋet, angry, annoyed. WMP CMP

*Repak   PMP *Repak, break to pieces. WMP;  POC *Ropak, to break something brittle. OC

*Repik   PWMP *Repik, break to pieces. WMP

*Re(m)puk   PMP *Re(m)puk, crumbling, of wood. WMP CMP

*Resaq   PWMP *Resaq, restless, fidgeting. WMP

*Retak   PWMP *Retak, split, crack (intr.). WMP

*Retaq   PPH *Retaq, crack, cleft. WMP

*Retas   PWMP *Retas, to separate gently, as in weaning. WMP

*Retiq   PWMP *Retiq, popped rice. WMP


TOP      Ra    Re    Ri    Ru    


*Riak   PWMP *Riak, shout, shouting. WMP;  PWMP *R<um>iak, to shout, talk loudly. WMP

*Riaq   PAN *Riaq, sword grass: Imperata cylindrica. Formosan WMP

*Riaw   PWMP *Riaw, cry out, clamor. WMP

*RibaS   PAN *RibaS, demolish. Formosan WMP

*Ribawa   PAN *Ribawa, swell; swelling, tumor. Formosan

*Ribu   PMP *Ribu, thousand. WMP CMP

*Ri(m)bun   PWMP *Ri(m)bun, heap up. WMP

*Riduq   PPH *Riduq, to shake, as the ground in an earthquake. WMP

*Rihuq   PWMP *Rihuq, tree sp.. WMP

*Ri(ŋ)kas   PWMP *Ri(ŋ)kas, trim, cut off excess. WMP

*Riken   PWMP *Riken, coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head. WMP

*Rimeja   PAN *Rimeja, sword grass: Imperata cylindrica. Formosan

*Rimukud   PPH *Rimukud, soul. WMP

*Rinu   PAN *Rinu, winnowing basket. Formosan;  PMP *niRu, winnowing basket. WMP

*RiNaS   PAN *RiNaS, long feathers used for personal adornment. Formosan;  PAN *RiNaS-an, the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant. Formosan

*RiNuk   PAN *RiNuk, the Japanese raspberry: Rubus parvifolius (Linn.), Rubus taiwanianus (Matsum.). Formosan

*Riŋaw   PWMP *Riŋaw, fish sp.. WMP

*Ripak   PWMP *Ripak, split, crack. WMP

*Ri(m)pit   PMP *Ri(m)pit, squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers. WMP CMP

*Riqek   PAN *Riqek, thresh grain by trampling. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-Riqek, thresh grain with the feet. WMP;  PWMP *R<um>iqek, to thresh by trampling. WMP

*Risi   PMP *Risi, tear, split, cut. WMP OC

*Risiq   PMP *Risiq, tear, split, cut. WMP OC

*Ritu   PAN *Ritu, loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa. Formosan


TOP      Ra    Re    Ri    Ru    


*Ruab   PMP *Ruab, high tide, tidal flow. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *Ruap, high tide, tidal flow. OC

*Ruaq   PWMP *Ruaq, empty out. WMP

*Rubu   PAN *Rubu, nest, lair. Formosan

*Rudaŋ   PAN *Rudaŋ, old, of people. Formosan WMP

*Rujan   PMP *Rujan, cargo, load (on a boat). WMP;  POC *Rucan, to load, as cargo on a boat. OC

*Rukib   PPH *Rukib, cave. WMP

*Rumaq   PAN *Rumaq, house. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*Rumbia   PMP *Rumbia, sago palm. WMP CMP

*Rumek   PPH *Rumek, to crush, smash. WMP

*Runaw   PWMP *Runaw, melt, liquefy. WMP

*Runut   PMP *Runut, plant fibers. WMP CMP

*Ruŋkeb   PMP *Ruŋkeb, cover over, cover up. WMP CMP

*Rupas   POC *Rupas, loosen, untie. OC

*Ruqa   POC *Ruqa, neck. OC

*RuqaNay   PAN *RuqaNay, male. Formosan;  PMP *Ruqanay, male. WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-Ruqanay, male. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *maRuqane, male. OC

*Ruqaŋ   PWMP *Ruqaŋ, hole, pit. WMP;  PWMP *Ruqaŋ-an, spacious room or area. WMP

*Rusuk   PAN *Rusuk, ribcage. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-Rusuk, thin, skinny (?). WMP;  PPH *maka-Rusuk, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*RuSRuS   PAN *RuSRuS, to scrape smooth, to plane a surface. Formosan

*Ruyag   PWMP *Ruyag, shake, wobble. WMP

*Ruyuŋ   PWMP *Ruyuŋ, shake, sway, stagger. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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