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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak
Dalat - Kampung Kekan Melanau
Dalat - Kampung Teh Melanau
Dalat Melanau
Damar (West)
Daui Suau

Deli Malay
Dibabawon Manobo
Dixon Reef II

Duhtu Tsou
Duke of York
Dumagat (Polillo)
Dupanigan Agta

Dusun (Kadazan)
Dusun (Kimaragang)
Dusun (Talantang)
Dusun (Tambunan)
Dusun (Tobilung)
Dusun Dejah
Dusun Deyah
Dusun Malang
Dusun Witu

136. Dairi-Pakpak Batak (398) WMP (Manik 1977) [btd] (Batak Dairi) Indonesia (Sumatra)

abakwaist, hips (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

abanatmosphere, the firmament (PWMP: *hawan)

abaŋ-abaŋfly about in the air like a bird (PWMP: *qabaŋ qabaŋ) *qabaŋ₂

abirto edge away, move aside (ROOT)

abitsarong (PMP: *habit) *Sabit

acemsour, sour taste of fruits, especially lime juice (PWMP: *qalesem)

adepbreast (PMP: *qadep)

agakapproximately; more-or-less (LOAN)

ageŋcharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

alketviscous (PMP: *la(ŋ)ket)

alketviscous (ROOT)

ambalaŋ, arimbalaŋsling, catapult (NOISE)

amparnearly, almost (NOISE)

ampar-amparalmost ready (NOISE)

ampassomething that is thrown away (LOAN)

ampenfishline (PMP: *hapen)

anakson; young of an animal (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak anakchild, without regard to sex (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anak céurarrow (PMP: *anak i panaq) *aNak

anak embarababy, suckling, newborn (lit. 'red child') (PMP: *anak a ma-iRaq) *aNak

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (20 / 398)

anak hambasaid to a person whose conduct is rude (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

anak rajasaid to persons whose behavior is praiseworthy (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anceŋstench of sweaty armpits (PWMP: *aŋ(e)ceŋ)

ane anewhite ant (PAN: *aNay)

aŋinwind, breeze (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋin-aŋinrumor (PMP: *haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

aŋkupsmall pincers used for plucking (PMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

apa-apaempty rice husk (PWMP: *qapah qapah) *qapah

apa-iinterrogative of person: who? (PMP: *apa-i) *apa₁

apa-i-nawhich? which part? (PMP: *apa-i) *apa₁

arageneric for banyans: Ficus benjamina and F. retusa (PMP: *qaRa₁)

a-r-makmat that is not rolled up (PWMP: *hamak)

arsamkind of upright fern (PMP: *aResam)

arsamkind of upright fern (PMP: *qaRsam)

asahwhet, sharpen something on a heavy whetstone or touchstone; stone used to test the purity of gold (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asakfill a gun, stuff or cram something in; press against (PWMP: *qasak)

asalorigin; provided that (LOAN)

asihpity, compassion, mercy (PMP: *qasiq)

asuŋincite, spur to action (PMP: *asuŋ)

atiexclamation used to attract someone's attention from what he is saying (NOISE)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (40 / 398)

auŋto howl, of a dog (PAN: *qauŋ)

aweface (PWMP: *away₂)

baboshallow (as a river) (PWMP: *babaw₂)

bagahsay, announce something; introduce (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bagah bagahpromise (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bagah-ensomeone who may be summoned, like a servant (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

baksound of a large object falling on a wooden floor (PMP: *bak₁)

balak-balakmenses (NOISE)

balaŋgrasshopper (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

baleŋboundary between two rice fields (PWMP: *balej)

balieasily repaid, of a debt; same, identical (PWMP: *bali₂)

baliŋbent, as a board (PWMP: *baliŋ₂)

bantunfetch something in the entirety, take all (PMP: *bantun)

baŋgallarge, of inanimate things (PMP: *bagal)

baŋun-ena gift, usually consisting of a plot of land given by a father to his child when the latter marries (PWMP: *baŋun-en) *baŋuN

baŋun-en ni atésweetheart (PWMP: *baŋun-en) *baŋuN

barared (PMP: *baRah)

bara-baramenses (NOISE)

baraŋor; some; whoever, whatever (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baraŋanturpentine fruit (PWMP: *baraŋan₂)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (60 / 398)

baratathwart or across (as a barrier) (PAN: *baRat₁)

barohabscess, swelling (PAN: *baReq)

basbasflowering of the rice plant before the grain appears (NOISE)

bataŋtree trunk; casket, container for corpse (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ-iirrigation canal for paddy field (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ laériver (laé = water, river) (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batbathit with something hard (PWMP: *batbat)

bebekbundle of firewood (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bedilrifle, weapon (LOAN)

bekasplit in two (PMP: *beka)

bekasplace into which something can enter (as a box), time in which something takes place (PMP: *bekas₃)

bekellife-support needed while on a journey (PWMP: *bekel)

belaperson who must be killed as a sacrifice in blood revenge (LOAN)

belag-enmat, sleeping mat (PWMP: *bekelaj-en) *bekelaj

belaŋwide, extensive (PMP: *bekelaj)

-belassuffix in empat-belas'fourteen' (LOAN)

belatpartition in a room (PMP: *belat₁)

belbeldull sound (PMP: *belbel₁)

belgukswallow (ROOT)

benabeginning, largest part at the base of a tree (PMP: *bena)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (80 / 398)

benaŋthread, fishnet thread (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benaŋ benalukind of cotton thread (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

bendabelongings, property (LOAN)

benemwrap something in leaves and roast it on the fire (PWMP: *benem₁)

benihseed for sowing, esp. seed-rice which is broadcast into the dibble holes of a swidden (PWMP: *benehiq)

bentukstructure, form, shape (PMP: *bentuk)

beŋaŋ-engaping, agape (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

beŋapsurprised, astonished (PMP: *beŋap)

beŋbeŋblock, hinder, obstruct, hold up (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

beŋissomeone who easily becomes angry (PMP: *beŋis₁)

berasfruit, especially husked rice (PMP: *beRas)

beratheavy burden, as a person being carried by many; heavy, of things (PMP: *beReqat)

beregive to, present gifts to (PMP: *beRay)

berettether, tie to something, tie with a rope (as horse, carabao) (PWMP: *beRet)

bergninnight (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

berkestied into a bundle; sirih/ leaves (for the betel chew) which are tied into a bundle (PMP: *beRkes)

berŋin-berŋinnighttime, at night (PMP: *beRŋi beRŋi) *beRŋi

bertihroasted or popped rice; figuratively: fruit of the womb of a pregnant woman (PWMP: *beRtiq)

beru ni puhunmother’s brother’s daughter; also used of one to whom one is pledged in marriage (PMP: *puqun)

besahswimming trunks, in general clothes worn while fishing or doing dirty work (PMP: *besaq)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (100 / 398)

besarswell, swollen, of the skin or other body parts (NOISE)

besiiron; made of iron; kinds of iron (LOAN)

besursatisfied from having eaten enough (PAN: *besuR)

besur-enmore satisfied than, fuller than (PWMP: *besuR-en) *besuR

betahthe hardest rice grains which remain unhusked after the pounding (PWMP: *betaq₁)

betekenupper part of the front leg of a sacrificial animal that must be surrendered at a fixed time to the one who has a right to receive it; upper arm (PWMP: *beteken)

betikpapaya tree and fruit (LOAN)

biasaaccustomed, used to (LOAN)

biayacosts, expenses (as for a feast); money to spend on a journey (LOAN)

bibiduck (LOAN)

bibirlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibirbank (of a ravine, river) (PMP: *birbir₁)

bibitseedling (LOAN)

bidakopen (of the eyes) (PMP: *bidak)

bidiŋedge, side, as of the road (PMP: *bidiŋ)

bilahclassifier used in counting bones (PWMP: *bilaq₁)

bilaŋreckon, count (PAN: *bilaŋ₁)

bilaŋ-entotal, quantity, amount; types of (PWMP: *bilaŋ-en) *bilaŋ₁

bilikroom (PMP: *bilik)

b-in-aŋunpost, pillar, post of a house or granary (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (120 / 398)

binarlight, radiance (PMP: *binaR)

binarlight, radiance (ROOT)

binataŋanimal, four-footed animal (LOAN)

bincararegulations, rules that must be obeyed or followed (LOAN)

bintaŋstar; medal, medallion (LOAN)

biŋitpatient in suffering, long-suffering (PAN: *biŋiC)

birahkind of taro with very large leaves and edible root (PMP: *biRaq₁)

biri-birisheep (LOAN)

birik-birikbird sp., (LOAN)

biriŋkind of running sore on the shin: Framboesia tropica (PWMP: *biRiŋ₂)

bisaforce, power (LOAN)

bisikkeep silent, bear a grudge (PWMP: *bisik₃)

bitislower leg (PMP: *bities)

bitukastomach, intestines (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

buahfruit (PMP: *buaq)

buah bedilammunition for a gun (PMP: *buaq)

buah buahtesticles (PMP: *buaq buaq) *buaq

buah mbitiscalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

buaŋthrow out, cast away something regarded as useless or dangerous (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buaseasy, pleasant, sweet-natured, good (PWMP: *buas)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (140 / 398)

buatfetch, get, obtain (PMP: *buhat₃)

buayacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

bububasket trap for fish (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubuŋridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bukaopen, opened (PMP: *buka)

buka-bukadawn (PMP: *buka)

bukkukbent; bowed (PMP: *buŋkuk)

bukunode, joint, as in sugarcane or bamboo (PMP: *bukuh)

buku-bukunodes, joints (PMP: *buku buku) *bukuh

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaŋ-bulaŋcloth that is wrapped around the head (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bulawana promise that is bound by oath (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

buleletrunk of an elephant (LOAN)

buluhbamboo (generic); kind of rattan (PAN: *buluq₂)

buluŋleaf (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

buluttangled, twisted (ROOT)

buluttangled, of rope, thread, thoughts (NOISE)

bunuhkill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

buŋaflower; interest on a loan (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋkaruproot a tree (PMP: *buŋkaR)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (160 / 398)

buŋkulridge of the roof (PMP: *buŋkul)

burburkind of wood worm that destroys timbers from within and leaves behind a black powder from its boring (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

burbur-eninfested with wood worms (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

burtasbreak, of a dyke or dam (ROOT)

burukold, worn-out (in contrast with what is new), crumbling, decaying (as a log) (PAN: *buRuk)

burut-enhave a child (LOAN)

burut-enhave a child (NOISE)

busbuspierced, perforated from one side to the other, as clothing or thatch (PMP: *busbus)

busukbehave in a foul manner toward others, nasty or vindictive behavior (PMP: *busuk)

busuŋkind of sorcery used to cause the abdomen to (as in punishing a thief) (PWMP: *busuŋ)

busuŋ-ensuffer from a swollen abdomen (PWMP: *busuŋ-en) *busuŋ

butbut, bubutuproot a tree from the earth; pull out tubers (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

cepaksnap, break off (PMP: *cep(e)qak)

cibal mak mer-bekaslocated somewhere without leaving a trace (PMP: *bekas₃)

daliŋbuttress root (PWMP: *daliŋ)

dalitsmooth, slippery (PMP: *dalit₂)

da-l-ŋahwide open (as the mouth) (PWMP: *daŋaq)

dalŋahwide open, as the mouth (ROOT)

daŋkahbranch of a tree (PMP: *daŋkaq)

daŋkahfork, branch (ROOT)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (180 / 398)

darketbe parasitic on (ROOT)

datufunction among animists (‘orang kafir’) worshipping idols; shaman (PMP: *datu)

degerto shake (as a tree, to make its fruit fall) (ROOT)

dekeŋsound made by the rusa deer (Cervus equinus) (ROOT)

dekettogether; and; with (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dergekgulp, swallow (ROOT)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-dua-naboth (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duruside, edge of a field (PWMP: *zuRu)

emaa kiss (PWMP: *ema₂)

émbakwork the soil with a hoe (ROOT)

embarared (as eyes) (NOISE)

em-berasincrease in number, of cattle (PMP: *beRas)

em-bersihholy, clean, undefiled (LOAN)

em-binarto rise, of the moon (PMP: *binaR)

em-bisastrong (LOAN)

ememhold a liquid in the mouth without swallowing it (PAN: *qemqem)

empakcut, sever (PWMP: *hepak)

en-dabuhto fall; to set, of the sun (PWMP: *dabuq)

en-dapdapkind of shade tree known for its connection with the cultivation of coffee: Erythrina indica (PMP: *dapdap₁)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (200 / 398)

enjakplace the foot on (PWMP: *enzak)

eŋkeŋsound made by a sleeping person during a nightmare (PMP: *eŋkeŋ)

eŋketwith, and, together with (PWMP: *eket)

e-r-jakstep, tread on (PWMP: *enzak)

erjakstep, tread (PMP: *re(n)zak)

e-r-seŋblow the nose (PMP: *eseŋ)

ésektightness in breathing, e.g. of asthma (PWMP: *isek)

eteshack a path by felling trees and brush (PMP: *etes₁)

eteshack a path by felling trees and brush (PMP: *qetes)

eteshack a path by felling trees and bushes (ROOT)

gamber ~ gambirUncaria gambir Roxb. (LOAN)

garisscratch mark (PMP: *garis)

gebak-gebaksound of wings flapping (ROOT)

gedekclamor, riotous noise; sound of galloping horse (PMP: *gedek)

gedeksound of a galloping horse (ROOT)

genepeach, every; every time; even, of numbers (PWMP: *genep)

genep arievery day, daily (PWMP: *genep)

gidikto tickle (PMP: *gidik)

giriŋa bell (PAN: *giRiŋ)

giriŋa bell (ROOT)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (220 / 398)

gondemovercast weather, sign of approaching rain (PMP: *gu(n)dem)

gondemovercast weather, sign of approaching rain (ROOT)

gotikspotted or striped, of animals (as the tiger) (PMP: *getik)

gotikspotted or striped, of animals (as the tiger) (ROOT)

gugutinner two incisors (both upper and lower) (PMP: *gutgut₁) *gutgut

g-um-edekboiling (water) (PMP: *gedek)

gutikmove momentarily, as a fishing line by the tug of a fish on the bait (ROOT)

hantughost, spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

(h)asilrent, tax (LOAN)

(h)endemsulk, brood (PWMP: *qendem)

ianreside, dwell (PAN: *ian₂)

i-aŋinwinnow rice by exposing it to the wind so that the chaff is carried away (PMP: *haŋin)

i-benemcook in hot ashes, of fish or other meat wrapped in leaves (PWMP: *benem₁)

idamcrave certain foods (pregnant women) (PWMP: *qidam)

idithat one, there, over there (PMP: *i-di) *-di

imbaŋfriend; compared with (PMP: *imbaŋ)

ina-inamother animal (PMP: *ina)

ina-ŋM (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

indu-ŋmother animal (PWMP: *indu-ŋ) *indu

ipapay close heed to someone (PMP: *hipaʔ)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (240 / 398)

iriŋto lead, guide (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

itahexpression inviting or inciting someone to leave together with the speaker; come on! let's go! (PWMP: *itaq)

itilclitoris (PWMP: *itil)

i-tuduh-kento point at something (PWMP: *i-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

ituklittle, not much (PMP: *ituk)

jemakgrasp in the hand (PMP: *zemak)

jeŋjeŋto stand up (PWMP: *zegzeg)

kaluŋcurved, of carabao horns (PWMP: *kaluŋ)

kastukresound, of bamboo water containers that strike together when they are carried in fetching water (ROOT)

kastukresound, of bamboo water containers that strike together when they are carried in fetching water (ROOT)

kebelinvulnerable, not reachable with weapons (PWMP: *kebel)

ke-buro-nprotection (PAN: *buRaw)

keleŋto like, be attached to (PWMP: *keleŋ₂)

ke-mate-n anakone who has lost a child through death (PWMP: *ka-m-atay-an) *aCay

kendaŋ peŋ-aŋin-enwinnowing basket used to winnow rice by exposing it to the wind (PMP: *haŋin)

kèpaksound of wings clapping (PWMP: *kipak)

kerbo ina-inamother carabao (PWMP: *ina ina) *ina

keritiksound of sand ground between the teeth, oil sizzling in a frying pan (ROOT)

kersik bulbulsand (PAN: *bulbul)

kerteŋhum made by a wasp when it comes to attack (ROOT)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (260 / 398)

kertiŋringing sound, as of a coin (ROOT)

ke-telu-nthe period of the third planting of rice, at which time yam plantings are seen here and there (PWMP: *ka-telu-en) *telu

ki-verbal prefix (gadoŋ ‘yam’, ki-gadoŋ ‘gather yams’, haraŋ ‘charcoal’, ki-haraŋ ‘gather charcoal’, tarutuŋ ‘durian’, ki-tarutuŋ ‘gather durians’) (PAN: *ki-)

kimbaŋopen a book, open a letter (ROOT)

kurpakclap the hands (ROOT)

kuyuk kuyukway of calling a puppy (PWMP: *kuyuk)

laŋkah-laŋkaha trip (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

lembaŋvalley, watercourse between two hills or mountains (PWMP: *le(m)baŋ)

léneksleep soundly (ROOT)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lisanit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lubaŋhole, having a hole; vagina; nostril (PMP: *lubaŋ₁)

lumutmoss, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

lumut-encovered with moss, mossy (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

m-acemsour, of the expression on a person's face (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

mamahchew food to give to an infant; food that is regurgitated by a bird for its young (PMP: *mamaq)

m-anunadrift, carried away on a current (PMP: *ma-qañud) *qañud

m-arirto flow (PMP: *qaliR)

m-asihpitiful, compassionate, merciful (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

mata warisun (PAN: *waRi₁)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (280 / 398)

matedie; dead; blocked path; go out (fire); new moon; paralyzed (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

me-hantuarouse sentiments of respect, awe or fear (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

me-medil-ishoot someone with with a weapon (LOAN)

me-milaŋreckon, calculate, count (PWMP: *maŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ₁

me-mukaopen something (door, business, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-buka) *buka

me-munuhkill a person (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

me-munuh-itie a 'dead' knot (one that is hard to undo) (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

me-muro-ichase off birds, scare away birds (PWMP: *maŋ-buRaw) *buRaw

me-nalinto translate, interpret (PWMP: *salin)

me-naŋis-ito cry over someone or something (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

men-duru-durukeep at a distance; commit adultery (PWMP: *zuRu)

me-nuanto plant (PWMP: *suan)

me-nuŋkup-ito cover, hide, conceal (PWMP: *tuŋkup)

meŋ-aburto scatter, as rice grains in sowing (PWMP: *qambuR)

meŋ-aku-iguarantee, be responsible for (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

meŋ-ambitfetch or take in a figurative sense: take a woman from her lineage because she must reside with the lineage of her husband (PWMP: *maŋ-ambit) *ambit

meŋ-anak-iyield interest (money) (PWMP: *maŋ-anak-i) *aNak

meŋ-aŋkatleap; lift, raise (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

meŋ-aŋkat-ŋ-aŋkatleap, spring, rise on one's toes (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat-aŋkat) *aŋkat

meŋ-emato kiss (PWMP: *ema₂)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (300 / 398)

meŋe-rusuk-i jukutstring meat on a rope (PAN: *Rusuk)

meŋ-gaŋgaŋ-iheat up (PWMP: *gaŋgaŋ)

meŋi-buahave meaning; have an exceptionally great value (PWMP: *maŋ-buaq) *buaq

m-eŋkak-eŋkakpant, gasp for breath (PWMP: *eŋkak-eŋkak) *e(ŋ)kak

meŋ-kiapmake the fire flare up, as by fanning it with a winnowing fan (PWMP: *kiab)

mer-anak-anak-enhaving lots of children (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mer-buabear fruit, have results, have a meaning (PAN: *maR-buaq) *buaq

mer-buŋato bloom, blossom, flower (PWMP: *maR-buŋa) *buŋa

mer-jualto borrow something that can be returned in monetary value (LOAN)

mer-sakitsick; bedridden because of sickness (PWMP: *maR-sakit) *sakit

mer-salinto change clothes (PWMP: *salin)

mer-salin tempato change form or shape (PWMP: *salin)

mer-saoŋhaving a head cover (PWMP: *saeŋ)

mer-sapu darohsmeared with blood (PMP: *sapu)

mer-tabanfall into the hands of someone through plunder; capture someone from his village in a raid (PWMP: *maR-taban) *tabaN

mer-taŋis-ento weep, of many people at once (PWMP: *taŋis-en) *Caŋis

mumukbroken; in pieces, as a rope or chain (PWMP: *mukmuk)

neŋneŋthrown into the river (ROOT)

oŋkambreak open, lift up (PWMP: *e(ŋ)kab)

paka-duathe second month (PMP: *paka-duha) *duSa

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (320 / 398)

paka-pituthe seventh month (PMP: *paka-pitu) *pitu

palaŋpalm of the hand (PMP: *palaj₁)

paliŋlean to the side, list (PMP: *paliŋ)

paŋgilinvoke the spirits to bring sickness or misfortune to someone tabas p-em-aŋgil incantation for summoning the spirits (LOAN)

paŋiflattish seed which is eaten after being cooked; if eaten uncooked it can cause intoxication (PWMP: *paŋi)

parahextremely sick (LOAN)

paspas-ena place on the ground where rain dripping from a roof makes a groove or channel; the dripline from a house (which is made by rain dripping from the roof) (PWMP: *paspas₃)

pe-belaŋextend, widen (PMP: *bekelaj)

pegespoor, miserable (PMP: *hapejes)

pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding (LOAN)

pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding (NOISE)

peke-limathe fifth month (PMP: *paka-lima₁) *lima

peke-teluname of the third month (PMP: *paka-telu) *telu

pe-munuh-enplace where a stab wound brings about death (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

peŋ-aŋkatway of leaping (PWMP: *aŋkat)

pe-pitu-kenthe seventh (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

per-anakthe father of the bridegroom or his substitute (PWMP: *paR-anak) *aNak

per-duadivide into two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

perlakenclosed garden, orchard; fruit orchard (PWMP: *parelak)

per-sakit-ensickness, illness, disease (PMP: *sakit)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (340 / 398)

per-si-bukaperson who begins or precedes in an activity, as in the dance at a traditional festival (PMP: *buka)

pesiŋdizzy (ROOT)

pipicheek (PMP: *pihpih) *piSpiS

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

puaŋbride-givers (PMP: *puaŋ)

puaŋ benakin group represented by the mother's brother (PMP: *puaŋ)

pukpaksound of many knives cutting at once (ROOT)

pu-l-kasopened; broken, of a dam or water tap (PWMP: *pukas₂)

pulkasopen; broken, of a dam (ROOT)

putikto pick, as a fruit (ROOT)

raburmixing up (foods); to mix (PWMP: *labuR)

raburmix (ROOT)

rakepwrestle with someone (PWMP: *Rakep)

rakepwrestle with someone (ROOT)

raŋgutseize or grasp someone roughly; snatch something with a jerk (PWMP: *raŋgut)

rebutbustle, confusion, as during a squabble (PWMP: *re(m)but)

rumahhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

rusukstring meat on a line (PMP: *rusuk)

rusukspars of house roof used to support the thatch (PAN: *Rusuk)

rusuk silaoside, flank; armpit (PAN: *Rusuk)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (360 / 398)

sabahwet ricefield, rice paddy (PWMP: *sabaq)

sakitsickness (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-ensick (PWMP: *sakit-en) *sakit

salin-tubuhimages or statues that represent people (PWMP: *salin)

saŋkethanging from; attached, sticking to (PMP: *ca(ŋ)ket)

saoŋroof, house cover of split bamboo or wood; whatever may be improvised as an umbrella, as large banana leaves; women’s head cover (PWMP: *saeŋ)

sapubroom (PMP: *sapu)

sapu-ito sweep something (PMP: *sapu)

selpuksnap or break in the middle (as young bamboo stalks) (ROOT)

sempekbreak off (sugarcane, etc.) close to the ground so as to produce the sound n/pek/u (ROOT)

sim-berkesa bundle (PMP: *beRkes)

siuksucked down into a whirlpool (PMP: *siuk)

suan-suan-enplants, things that have been planted (PWMP: *suan)

tabanwhat is plundered, looted or taken captive (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

taban-enwar captive (PWMP: *taban-en) *tabaN

talkasfree, of a person who was previously detained; loosened, of clothes that are removed (ROOT)

tanoh ke-buaŋ-enplace of banishment (PMP: *buqaŋ)

taŋkepface downward; to fall face downward (PWMP: *taŋkeb) *taŋkeb₂

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

tempusconclusion, end, as of a conversation or discussion (PMP: *te(m)pus)

Dairi-Pakpak Batak (380 / 398)

ter-buaŋbanished, exiled (PMP: *buqaŋ)

ter-duatwo each (PWMP: *taR-duha) *duSa

ter-durube put on the side, as someone who will receive attention later (PWMP: *zuRu)

terkaŋstiff, inflexible (ROOT)

terpukcluster, group (ROOT)

te-tuduhindex finger (PWMP: *tu-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

tompelblunt, dull (PMP: *tumpel)

torik-en (*u > o unexpl.)pock-marked; spotted, freckled (PMP: *turik)

tulan bitisshin bone (PMP: *bities)

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tunasseed bud, plant shoot (PWMP: *tunas)

tuŋkukbow or lower the head; to bend over, humble oneself (PWMP: *tukuk)

tuŋkukbent down, of the head (ROOT)

uar-puarkind of plant that is woven into rope (PMP: *huaR)

umbak-umbakbellows, instrument for fanning the fire (PWMP: *umbak umbak)

urupto help, support (PWMP: *uRup)

wanilarge bee that nests in a wooden or bark box, or nests near the village (PMP: *wani)

wariday (PAN: *waRi₁)

Dalat - Kampung Kekan Melanau (4) WMP. see: Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan)

Dalat - Kampung Teh Melanau (54) WMP. see: Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh)

Dalat Melanau (21) WMP. see: Melanau Dalat

137. Dali' (33) WMP

abawash (PMP: *qabu)

adinname (PMP: *ŋajan)

aporlime (PAN: *qapuR)

asawtree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

asawdog (PAN: *asu₁)

avaiface (PWMP: *away₂)

awrafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

baboydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

basecrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

batawstone (PMP: *batu) *batux

bərehusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

bətayleg (PAN: *beties)

bulawbody hair, feathers (PMP: *bulu₁)

danawlake (PAN: *danaw)

dareblood (PAN: *daRaq)

faʔafoot (PAN: *paqa₁)

fokhead hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

ikawelbow (PAN: *sikux)

ilawclaw (PWMP: *silu₂)

ipəntooth (PMP: *ipen)

Dali' (20 / 33)

jeufar (PMP: *zauq)

lalədhousefly (PMP: *lalej)

masainsweet (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

mitəmblack (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

padayriceplant, rice in the field (PAN: *pajay)

puədnavel (PMP: *pusej)

putaybanana (PAN: *punti₁)

ramutroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

rayabig (PAN: *Raya)

təfawsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

ubayyam (PMP: *qubi)

ulaitskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

Damar (38) CMP. see: East Damar

Damar (West) (28) CMP. see: West Damar

138. Dampelas (75) WMP [dms] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

alipaŋcentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

ampunpardon, forgiveness (PMP: *ampun)

an-tuliʔearwax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

asawhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

ayamother (address form) (PMP: *aya₂)

bayarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

dindiŋwall of a house (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

eliihouse post (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

gaduŋblue-green (LOAN)

gatagum, sap (PWMP: *gateq)

gaʔit-anraft (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

habiasago (PMP: *Rambia)

han-daavirgin, young girl (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

h-apatfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

h-onoŋsix (PAN: *a-enem) *enem

jalaŋroad (PMP: *zalan)

jaʔaŋto boil, cook (in pot, water) (PMP: *zakan)

kukussteam (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kukussteam (PWMP: *kukus)

laŋkayman, male (PWMP: *laŋkay)

Dampelas (20 / 75)

lapitmat (from nipah leaves) (PWMP: *lampit)

le-limafive (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

liaŋcave (PMP: *liaŋ)

ma-atedie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-nanoŋto bury (PWMP: *ma-nanem) *CaNem

maŋ-asawhet, sharpen (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

maŋibanshark (NEAR)

ma-ʔupugrandchild (PMP: *kempu)

meŋ-akuadmit, confess (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

meŋ-ampun-ipardon, forgive (PWMP: *maŋ-ampun-i) *ampun

me-turuto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

mom-basowash hands (PMP: *baseq)

mo-noboŋto cut down, as trees (PWMP: *ma-nebeŋ) *tebeŋ

na-atedie; dead (PWMP: *na-atay) *aCay

naŋi-naŋito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

ñawasoul, spirit (of a living being) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

n-eaŋtame (PWMP: *qayam₂)

nimpisthin (object) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

-ŋku1sg possessive suffix (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

olomdark (PMP: *helem) *Selem

Dampelas (40 / 75)

paŋayawheadhunting (PWMP: *pa-ŋayaw) *ŋayaw

p-atekill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pisomachete (PMP: *pisaw)

ponufull, as a container (PAN: *peNuq)

poñusea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

puputo pick, pluck (PMP: *pupu₁)

pusenavel (PMP: *pusej)

rariroot (PMP: *dalij)

sa-atuone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

se-sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

si amaŋfather (PAN: *si amax) *amax

siʔuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

so-puluten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

tambalaŋkind of long, not very strong bamboo (PWMP: *tambelaŋ)

tañato ask (PMP: *utaña)

tanoearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

tanoŋto bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tariŋk.o. large, strong bamboo (PWMP: *tariŋ)

tente-ana bridge (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

Dampelas (60 / 75)

toboŋcut down (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

tomu tepu-to meet, come across (PWMP: *temu₂)

tooperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tubapoison (PAN: *tubah)

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t<um>aŋisto weep, to cry (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

tuŋochicken mite (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

tu-tuutrue, correct (PMP: *tuqu₂)

uat limalines in the palm of the hand (PMP: *uRat i lima) *huRaC

ulitrepeat (PWMP: *ulit)

umpanbait (PMP: *qumpan)

uŋkurto grunt (ROOT)

wate buntalungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔali-sosoʔ ~house lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus (PWMP: *cekcek)

ʔitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

Daui Suau (40) OC. see: Suau

139. Dawawa (1) OC

tamasi-nafood for travel (POC: *tamaji)

140. Dehu (2) OC

meand, with (PMP: *mai)

xento eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

141. Delang (20) WMP [xdy] (Malayic Dayak) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

bansahwet (PMP: *baseq)

buahfruit (PMP: *buaq)

dadochest (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

duotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

habuash (PMP: *qabu)

hitamblack (PMP: *qitem)

hujanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ikuʔtail (PAN: *ikuR)

isimeat (PAN: *isi₅)

jalanpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

joohfar (PMP: *zauq)

kitowe (incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

ladiŋknife (PMP: *ladiŋ)

lootsea (PAN: *lahud)

matoeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

osoone (PAN: *esa)

pahothigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

silufingernail (PWMP: *silu₂)

tuhoold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

Deli Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Deli)

142. Dhao/Ndao (51) CMP (Fox, J. n.d.) [aka: Ndao, Ndau]

adeliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

adiwe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ahu-ahuashes (PMP: *qabu)

aifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ajutree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ajutree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

amoroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ariyounger sibling (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

arueight (PAN: *walu)

aʔaelder sibling (PMP: *kaka₂)

babashort (PMP: *babaq₁)

biaheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

ca-ŋ-uruten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ca-ŋ-uruten (PMP: *ŋa)

darablood (PAN: *daRaq)

darirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

dasisea (PMP: *tasik)

do-kfar (PMP: *zauq)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Dhao/Ndao (20 / 51)

hadustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

hausmell (PMP: *bahuq)

hausmell (PMP: *bahu)

huafruit (PMP: *buaq)

iʔafish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

jararoad (PMP: *zalan)

kaito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

lemifive (PAN: *lima)

lodosun (PMP: *qalejaw)

madedie, dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

maito come (PWMP: *um-ari) *ari

manithin (PMP: *ma-nipis) *Nipis

manu-buibird (PMP: *manuk)

ma-riŋicold (PMP: *ma-diŋin) *diŋin

mediblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qetem) *qitem

miu2pl., you all (PCEMP: *kamiu) *amu

naŋito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

n-inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

ŋaraname (PMP: *ŋajan)

panawarm (PMP: *panas₁)

Dhao/Ndao (40 / 51)

piduseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pudiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

raiearth (PAN: *daReq)

rauleaf; feather (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

raʔidirty (PMP: *daki)

ruibone (PMP: *duRi)

tiuto blow (PMP: *tiup)

tunuto burn (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

udulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

urutuknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₁) *tuduS

usuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

Dibabawon Manobo (36) WMP. see: Manobo (Dibabawon)

Dixon Reef II (6) OC. see: Nasarian

143. Dobel (75) CMP (Hughes n.d.) [kvo] Indonesia (Maluku)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

barlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

fafaground (PMP: *babaq₁)

fafamouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

fa-falua hammer (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

fa-faluhammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

fafipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

fal-búwidow (PMP: *balu₄)

farawest (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

fatanbody (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

fatustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

feliprice (PMP: *beli)

fukwaheart (PMP: *buaq)

fulanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

fulubody hair (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

fuʔuhead hair (PCEMP: *buek) *bukeS

kunafish scale (PCEMP: *qunap₁) *quSeNap

kwa-kwasacrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

kwaliyounger sibling (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

kwali-s-ansibling of the same sex (PAN: *Suaji-an) *Suaji

Dobel (20 / 75)

kwarwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

kwaʔarmedicine, drug (PMP: *wakaR)

kwaʔirroot (PCEMP: *wakir)

kwuluhead (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

kwuravein, artery; ligaments (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

kwurugrass (PAN: *udu)

kwusanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

kwutangarden, field for cultivation (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

la-fufunroof’ (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

larusun (PMP: *qalejaw)

lawsea (PCEMP: *laur) *lahud

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lisacave (PMP: *liaŋ)

llakʷa (< *la-lawaq)spider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lolaladder (PMP: *haRezan)

manbird (PMP: *manuk)

masagold (LOAN)

masinsalt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

ma-turuto drip (PMP: *ma-tuduq) *tuduq

muriyounger (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

Dobel (40 / 75)

n-altake (PAN: *alaq₁)

nitughost (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

norcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ϕ-ϕakʷurspringy stick which is the engine in a snare trap; springy stick which holds the sieve taut in the sago-processing apparatus (reduplication of ϕak ʷur) (PMP: *baquR)

rakwunleaf (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

ratuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

respan, fathom (PAN: *depah)

rirearthquake (PMP: *linduR)

rotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rrennear (PMP: *adani)

sabugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

salaroad, path (PMP: *zalan)

samafather (PAN: *amax)

saŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

sataliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

saʔu1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

sinamother, mother’s sister (PCEMP: *ina)

siʔafish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

suwshark (PAN: *qiSu)

tunstove (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

Dobel (60 / 75)

úlurbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

wuyvulva, vagina (PAN: *puki)

yawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

yawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

yakwaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

ʔa-fasirto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

ʔa-funkill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

ʔa-larto sail (PAN: *layaR)

ʔa-m-ulcome back (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

ʔa-nayto boil, cook by boiling (PMP: *nasu) *Nasu

ʔaytree; wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ʔa-yayito plant (PCEMP: *pasekₐ) *pasek

ʔa-yirahow many? (PAN: *pijax)

ʔa-ʔelto dig (PCEMP: *keli)

ʔutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

144. Dobuan (87) OC (Bromilow 1904) [dob] (Dobu) Papua New Guinea

Ɂamarker of edible possession (POC: *kana-)

anunushadow (POC: *qanunu)

a-pwesato appear, arrive, depart, happen (POC: *pwosa)

asuforehead (POC: *pasu₂)

atafour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

a-tairight hand (PMP: *ka-taqu₂) *taqu

bara-baraacross (POC: *barabara₂) *bara₂

bara-baraacross (POC: *baRa baRa)

binamahornbill (POC: *binam)

bune-bunedove, pigeon (POC: *bune bune) *punay

buso-busofoam (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

bwara-nashell, peeling, skin (POC: *bwara)

e-to-towa-nato copy, mimic, imitate (POC: *toa)

ianafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

kaiwa ba-baba-naboard (POC: *baban) *papan

kara-karawinablue (POC: *karawina)

kawarato crawl (POC: *kawar)

kawa (tabuya)rock cod, coral cod, reef cod, coral trout (POC: *kawa-kawa)

kolito scrape (POC: *kori)

kuru-nato whimper (PMP: *kuruq)

Dobuan (20 / 87)

kʷalalashark (generic) (POC: *kwarara)

lusashoot with a gun (POC: *lusa) *lusa₁

mana sinabwanastorm (‘big wind’) (POC: *mana₂)

manuabird (POC: *manuk)

manu-manuainsect (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matautaafraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

meatongue (POC: *maya)

muriaafter, behind (POC: *muri) *udehi

mwatasnake (POC: *mwata)

mwa-wayawn (POC: *mawap) *Suab

naiasail (PAN: *layaR)

natalalarge uninhabited space between two villages (POC: *natar) *NataD

nimafive (PAN: *lima)

n-inathat (PMP: *i-na) *-na

nu-numifold a cloth, furl (PMP: *lumiq)

nu-numito fold a cloth (POC: *numi)

o-maya-mayashame, ashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

pata-pataraplatform (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

patu-patuhard, of fat, sago (POC: *patu₃) *patu₂

Dobuan (40 / 87)

pomato smear; white paint (POC: *boma)

pouegg (POC: *poku)

pulito roll (of a stone) (POC: *puri)

rarablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

roafathom (POC: *ropa) *depah

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

saga-saga-naforked (POC: *saŋa₁)

sinaoyster (NOISE)

sinarasun (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sisito scrape baked food (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

sobuget down Capell 1943:60) (POC: *sobu) *sombu

sulitaro sucker (PMP: *suli₁)

suraa bunch of bananas (PEMP: *sura)

susu-breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susu mata-nanipple of the breast (POC: *mata ni susu) *maCa

tabʷa(-anuwa)coconut sprouted (POC: *tabwa)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

t-asi-sibling of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

toato perch (POC: *toka₂)

tomotaperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

Dobuan (60 / 87)

tousugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tutupato hammer (POC: *tutup₂)

udibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

ulasato spit, as in sorcery (POC: *puRas)

usi-penis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

wagacanoe (POC: *waga) *waŋka

wainewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

wa-kokobrown house spider (POC: *koko)

warising (PCEMP: *wari)

wiwinewomen; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

yaia-nafemale of the first ascendant generation of one's father's village (Fortune 1963:37) (PMP: *aya₂)

ʔae-naleg, foot (POC: *qaqe) *qaqay

ʔara-nashoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

ʔasusmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

ʔate-naliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔatoaroof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ʔawamouth (POC: *qawa₂)

ʔedu-ʔedubase of skull (POC: *keju)

ʔe-isahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

ʔenosleep (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

Dobuan (80 / 87)

ʔeno-ʔenolie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

ʔe-usanaload (POC: *ucan) *ujan

ʔitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

ʔuerattan (POC: *que) *quay

ʔunubreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

ʔupʷenacurtain (POC: *kupwena)

ʔutuflea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

145. Dohoi (17) WMP [otd] (Ot Danum) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

alʸutcanoe (PWMP: *alud)

aroʔmany (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

danumwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

daunleaf (PMP: *dahun)

i-aiwho? (PMP: *i-sai) *sai

kuhtulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ma-hcuʔfar (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

mama-ʔparents’ brother (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mihpihthin, of materials (PMP: *mipis)

pihtuʔseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

poriŋbamboo (PMP: *periŋ)

puhtiʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

puluʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

tohotuŋporcupine (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

toluʔthree (PAN: *telu)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tuotsit (NEAR)

146. Dondo (14) WMP [dok] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate bulalungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

gi-giulto pull (something) (PWMP: *guyud₃)

kukussteam (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

ma-ʔa-asipity (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

mo-notoʔto chip, slash, hew (PWMP: *ma-nektek) *tektek₁

pantadEshore, beach (PWMP: *pantad)

tondoʔ-egarden fence (PWMP: *tendek₂)

totoʔchip, slash, hew (PAN: *tektek₁)

ubanEwhite hair (head, not body) (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ujuŋ u toŋutip of the nose (PMP: *quzuŋ)

uŋachild (PWMP: *uŋaq)

utanEvegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

ʔa-asipity (PMP: *qasiq)

147. Donggo (15) CMP

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ariyounger sibling (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

atiroof, thatch (PMP: *qatep)

douperson, human being (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

inamother (PCEMP: *ina)

karavorat, mouse (PCEMP: *kalabaw)

madedie, dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

nawasoul (PCEMP: *ñawa) *NiSawa

ompugrandparent/grandchild (recip.) (PMP: *empu)

rahihusband (PMP: *laki₁)

umahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

upafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

vaʔigrandmother (PAN: *baqi)

veigive (PMP: *beRay)

148. Drehet (27) OC [tlx] (Khehek) Papua New Guinea [aka: Ndrehet]

ahlime (for betel) (PAN: *qapuR)

akroof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

sun (POC: *qalo₁)

cihiŋcockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

heksago grub (POC: *qapatoR) *qabateR

iha tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

ihthe ironwood tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

kehipround, red Malay apple (POC: *kapiku)

kepwood; tree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

ketikthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qatita)

ketikputty nut: Parinari laurinum (POC: *katita)

khablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

khaŋslitgong (POC: *drali)

khuhsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

kuklouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuŋbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

lipginger (PMP: *laqia)

mete-puto-navel (POC: *buto)

mwalaŋopen area, clearing (POC: *malala)

n-elipcanarium almond (POC: *(q)alipa)

Drehet (20 / 27)

nelipcanarium almond (NEAR)

peto defecate (POC: *bekeR₂) *beŋkeR

puka shore tree: Barringtonia spp. (POC: *putun₁) *butun

puŋbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

pʷahbroad-leaved pandanus used to weave (POC: *pwasa(rR))

rinakone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

saŋpath, road (POC: *jalan) *zalan

149. Dubea (2) OC [duf] (Dumbea) New Caledonia

kavamullet (PMP: *qaRuas)

kawamullet (PMP: *qawas)

Duhtu Tsou (1) Form.. see: Tsou (Duhtu)

150. Duke of York (30) OC (Lanyon-Orgill 1962) [rai] (Ramoaaina) Papua New Guinea [aka: Raluana (Duke of York), Ramoaaina]

aiinterjection: I don't know (NOISE)

akototo point out, show (POC: *akot)

aŋgacanoe (POC: *waga) *waŋka

boropig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

bua-buawild betel nut (POC: *buaq)

ianfish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

kaito scrape, scratch, chop up food, esp. taro and coconut (POC: *kakas(-i))

kamustem of a bunch of coconuts (POC: *kamu₁)

kilito dig (POC: *kili)

k<in>i-kilspade, any implement used for digging (POC: *kili)

kutucut, separate; cut off the retreat of a party in war (POC: *kutu₂) *kutu

laŋitsky, heavens (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lianit of a louse (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lukunto bend; to close, as a clasp-knife; to roll up, as a mat (POC: *lukun)

mai-maishame; ashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

m-in-atcorpse, dead body; dead (POC: *m<in>ate) *aCay

muruto follow; behind, afterwards; the back; the last (POC: *muri) *udehi

na-ŋa-ianwhen? (past) (POC: *ana<ŋa>ican) *ijan

nithis (PAN: *-ni)

Duke of York (20 / 30)

orofinished, of rain (PMP: *hedaw)

pinskin, of human beings only (POC: *pinut)

ta-tadato look or face upwards (POC: *tadal)

tatu-natrue (PMP: *tatuqu)

unaefface, wipe out; disappear, go out of sight (PMP: *punas)

u na-ŋa-ianwhen? (future) (POC: *ana<ŋa>ican) *ijan

wanualand, country (POC: *panua) *banua

waŋanto eat (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

wararahandle of a stone club or adze (POC: *paRara) *paRada

wirplait coconut leaves round trees to make them taboo (PMP: *pirit)

151. Dumagat (Polillo) (1) WMP (Polillo Dumagat)

sali-baŋbaŋbutterfly (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₂)

152. Dumpas (28) WMP (Lobel 2016)

a-gayoʔbig (PAN: *Raya)

a-lalomdeep (PMP: *dalem)

apuglime (PAN: *qapuR)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-taromsharp (edge) (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

boŋol-ondeaf (PMP: *beŋel)

buaʔfruit (PMP: *buaq)

buludmountain (PWMP: *bulud₂)

bwayocrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

i-saywho? (PMP: *i-sai) *sai

k<om>urohow?, how many? (PMP: *kuja)

liowneck (PAN: *liqeR)

mo-ulawcrazy (PAN: *ma-ulaw) *ulaw

namukmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nipontooth (PAN: *nipen)

o-omissweet (PMP: *emis₁) *emis

paitfish (PWMP: *paqit₁) *paqit

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

pusodnavel (PMP: *pusej)

puun do kayutree (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

Dumpas (20 / 28)

raanbranch (PMP: *daqan₁) *daqan

raaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

siwo-ynine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sodopnight (PMP: *sedep₁)

sudaycomb (PWMP: *sunday)

to-likudback (anat.) (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

ulanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wogokpig (PAN: *beRek)

Dupanigan Agta (98) WMP. see: Agta (Dupaningan)

153. Duri (3) WMP

ciʔcakhouse lizard (PWMP: *cikcek)

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

salaŋkajoint (elbow, knee, etc.) (NEAR)

154. Dusner (34) SHWNG (Anceaux 1961) [dsn] Indonesia (Papua)

aitree, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

anto cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

aperlime (PAN: *qapuR)

au2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

beto give (PEMP: *boRe) *beRay

brahand (PMP: *baRa₁)

burbody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

enepto sleep (PAN: *qinep)

i3sg., he/she (PAN: *ia₁)

infish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

inemto drink (PMP: *inum)

manbird (PMP: *manuk)

pasrice (in general) (PAN: *pajay)

(p)atifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

rato walk (PMP: *lakaw)

ramensea (PCEMP: *laman)

ranetsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

repentooth (PAN: *lipen)

rianpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

riketblood (PMP: *liket)

Dusner (20 / 34)

rim-bifive (PAN: *lima)

riobto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

sa-m-purten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sneabdomen, belly (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

susfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

te-nliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

tinemgherkin (PMP: *qatimun)

tnaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

toruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

va-vounew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

wakcanoe (PEMP: *waŋka)

wefoot, leg (PAN: *waqay)

ya1sg., I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

Dusun (Kadazan) (739) WMP. see: Kadazan Dusun

Dusun (Kimaragang) (4) WMP. see: Kimaragang Dusun

Dusun (Talantang) (1) WMP. see: Talantang Dusun

Dusun (Tambunan) (2) WMP. see: Tambunan Dusun

Dusun (Tobilung) (1) WMP. see: Tobilung Dusun

Dusun Dejah (20) WMP. see: Dusun Deyah

155. Dusun Deyah (20) WMP [dun] Indonesia (Kalimantan) [aka: Dusun Dejah]

asokdibble stick (PMP: *hasek₁)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

atuksmoke (PWMP: *atuk)

daatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

i-sewho? (PMP: *i-sei) *

ituthis (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

lipisthin (materials) (PWMP: *lipis)

lum-pusuʔheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

mama-ʔparents’ younger brother, parents’ younger sister’s husband (PMP: *mama) *mamah

ma-tuoMeB, FeB, MeZH, FeZH (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

naŋɔmouth of a river (PMP: *binaŋa)

ŋ-asokto dibble (PWMP: *maŋ-hasek₁) *hasek₁

ŋ-ikitbite (PWMP: *i(ŋ)kit)

raiforehead (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

solo-buyuŋbumblebee (PWMP: *buyuŋ)

so-sobu-anbladder (PAN: *sebu)

tasiksea, ocean (PMP: *tasik)

tataelder sibling (NOISE)

toluthree (PAN: *telu)

tuoold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

156. Dusun Malang (13) WMP [duq] Indonesia (Kalimantan)

amaifather (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

atuksmoke (PWMP: *atuk)

gawiʔ ayamto play (PWMP: *qayam₃)

ina-iM (PMP: *iná-i) *ina

kadiksmall (PWMP: *kedik)

k-anupto hunt (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

leuʔvillage (PMP: *lebuq)

lipisthin (materials) (PWMP: *lipis)

maŋkitto bite (PMP: *um-a(ŋ)kit) *a(ŋ)kit

ñamukmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

tithis (PAN: *ti)

tiloregg (Ray 1913) (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

157. Dusun Witu (24) WMP [duw] Indonesia (Kalimantan)

aku1sg., I (PAN: *aku)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ayempangolin, scaly anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

dimefive (PAN: *lima)

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kau-n2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

laβuʔto fall (PWMP: *labuq₁)

lawitfar (PWMP: *alawid)

manuʔchicken (PMP: *manuk)

mateeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mateyto die; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

raʔatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

raʔiforehead, face (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

ruehtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

sam-pupukto wash clothes (by beating on the river rocks) (PAN: *pukpuk)

taneʔearth (PMP: *taneq)

telothree (PAN: *telu)

teluyegg (PMP: *qateluR)

tetuŋporcupine (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

Dusun Witu (20 / 24)

vatustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

veahhusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

vivilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

vulufeathers (PMP: *bulu₁)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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