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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Fijian (Boumaa)
Fijian (dialectal)
Fijian (Eastern)

Fijian (Lomaiviti)
Fijian (Naitāsiri)
Fijian (Namosi)
Fijian (Rakiraki)
Fijian (Waidina)


168. Fagani (4) OC [aka: Faghani]

gamiu2pl. focal pronoun (PCEMP: *kamiu) *amu

gamu2pl. object pronoun, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

-miu2pl. genitive, your (PCEMP: *kamiu) *amu

wariold (things or persons) (POC: *tuaRi)

Faghani (4) OC. see: Fagani

Fagudu (23) CMP. see: Sula

169. Faulili (3) OC

matiluto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mesaisick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

ŋgilelato know (PAN: *kilala)

Favorlang (57) Form.. see: Favorlang/Babuza

170. Favorlang/Babuza (57) Form. [bzq] (Babuza) Taiwan [aka: Favorlang, Babuza]

aboashes or cinders; lime (PAN: *qabu)

a-ito-itoseven and seven, by sevens (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

ararfence, garden (Marsh 1977) (PAN: *qalad)

badounmarried young man (PAN: *baqeRuh)

barriwind (PAN: *bali₃)

batostone (PAN: *batux)

bato no machapupil of fish’s eye (PAN: *batux)

bayusstorm (PAN: *baRiuS)

binnandeer (PAN: *benan)

boafruit (PAN: *buaq)

bonnatsand (PAN: *bunaj)

bubugrandparent, forefather (PAN: *bubu₆)

charinaear (PAN: *Caliŋa)

chomathe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

dalomwater (PAN: *daNum)

idasmoon, month (PAN: *qiNaS)

isiurine (PAN: *iSiq)

lalluminside (PAN: *dalem)

machaeye (PAN: *maCa)

ma-darramaccustomed to (PAN: *ma-dajam) *dajam

Favorlang/Babuza (20 / 57)

maito come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

manto eat; meal (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

ma-turuto doze (PAN: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

ma-udumdark (PAN: *ma-qudem) *qudem

ma-usiwhite (PAN: *ma-puNi) *puNi

mazjiesenmity (PAN: *pajiS)

m-ikodto sit (PAN: *ikud)

m-itato see (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita

mo-lallumin; deep (PAN: *ma-dalem) *dalem

momoa mole; the people of Formosa consider these as poisonous, and will not approach them (NEAR)

mosato walk (PAN: *um-uSa) *uSa

m-usato go, leave (PAN: *um-uSa) *uSa

naan o nummawhat name? (PAN: *nema)

na-itoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

nummawhat? (PAN: *nema)

nummawhat? (PAN: *nema)

nummawhat? (PAN: *numa)

oot o ar-rosorib (lit. ‘rib bone’) (PAN: *Rusuk)

orichalive; to live (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

pana-pitodo seven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

Favorlang/Babuza (40 / 57)

p-ararto fence round (PAN: *qalad)

pattasto paint, write (PAN: *pataS)

rarasold, contracted (PAN: *dadaN)

riesmosquito (PAN: *likeS)

roatwo (PAN: *duSa)

sapāriver (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sban-nowhen? (PAN: *-nu₁)

sjibonest (PAN: *Nibu)

sorroa pestle, with which people beat paddy out of the stalk (PAN: *qaSelu)

taansnare for catching wild beasts (PAN: *taqan₁)

tagablood (PAN: *daRaq)

ta o nummawhat country? (PAN: *nema)

taposall (PAN: *tapus)

tarranroad, path (PAN: *zalan)

tsa-tsiratongue (PAN: *dilaq₁)

t<um>enonto weave (PAN: *t<um>enun) *tenun

usago, leave (PAN: *uSa)

171. Fijian (990) OC (Capell 1968) [fij] Fiji (dialects: Eastern [fij] 1, dialectal 1, Namosi 1, Naitāsiri 1, Waidina 1, Lomaiviti 1, Rakiraki 1, Boumaa 1)

acommon article, used (1) before nouns: a tamata 'a man or the man'; (2) before possessives (really nouns): a noqu 'mine'; (3) before the preformative i (PMP: *a₁)

aconjunction: and or but (PMP: *a₂)

-atransitive suffix (PMP: *-a₂)

a kai colothe inland people (POC: *solos)

a waŋga vuraa canoe arriving with visitors (POC: *pura)

a yatu Lauthe Lau islands (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

fish fence (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

bathe stalk of taro leaves (only) (NOISE)

babastrike, smite the head with open hand (POC: *babak₃) *bakbak₂

babalarge fish, like a snake, with a large mouth (POC: *babaŋ) *baŋbaŋ₅

babathe side of a thing, the cheek bone; also, the side of a canoe (POC: *babaR) *papaR

babastrike, smite the head with open hand (PEMP: *babak₁) *babak

bacaworm; hence bait for fishing (POC: *bayan)

bacaworm; hence bait for fishing (POC: *bayan₃) *payan

bakathe banyan tree: Ficus obliqua (POC: *baka₂)

balathe male turtle; the name refers to the tail or penis (NOISE)

balaŋia fish: Teuthis sp. (POC: *balaŋi)

balifish sp. (POC: *bali₆)

balolosea-worm appearing on the reefs at the end of October and end of November ... It is cooked and eaten as a dainty (LOAN)

barito nibble at a hard thing (POC: *bari)

Fijian (20 / 990)

basalevel or in a straight line with (LOAN)

batitooth (POC: *bati)

batia tooth; a sharp edge; the border of a (LOAN)

bati ni savuprecipice with a waterfall (POC: *sabu)

bavawashstrake or upper planks of canoe (POC: *baban) *papan

bēbēbutterfly (POC: *bebe)

bebevagina (NOISE)

bekabat (POC: *bweka)

belean erect shrub, Hibiscus manihot, Malvaceae, with yellow flowers; the young leaves are tender eating and much relished (POC: *bele)

beluto bend, curve, of hard things, e.g. tin (POC: *belu)

belubend, curve, of hard things, e.g. tin (PMP: *piluq)

belubend, curve, of hard things, e.g. tin (ROOT)

benurefuse from food; offal (POC: *benu)

benu-benudung, excrement (POC: *benu)

betipluck fruits (ROOT)

bia-biasediment (POC: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₂

bia-biasediment (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

bia-biasediment (POC: *bia-bia) *bia

bilathat for which one has a special gift or genius (POC: *bilak₂)

bitubamboo: Bambusa sp. or Schizostachyum glaucifolium Gramineae (POC: *bituŋ₂) *bituŋ

Fijian (40 / 990)

bitubamboo: Bambusa sp. or Schizostachyum glaucifolium Gramineae (PMP: *pituŋ)

boa boil (POC: *baRoq) *baReq

boito have a smell, yield a perfume (POC: *boi₂)

boihave a smell, yield a perfume (NOISE)

boi-boihave a smell (NOISE)

boko-cato quench, extinguish, as a fire (NOISE)

bolacleave with an axe (POC: *polaq) *belaq

bonastink because rotten; stinking rottenness; a stench (POC: *bona₁)

bona-cato stink of (POC: *bona₁)

bono-tato block or dam up (POC: *bonot)

boŋaspeak sharply or give sharp orders, be displeased about anything without a cause (POC: *boŋa)

boŋinight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

boŋi-cakato delay one til night, get him benighted, keep him til night doing a thing (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

boŋi-kosoto last til night and then not be finished; be overtaken by night, as on a journey (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

buaname of two sorts of tree: (1) a tree with beautiful flowers and very hard wood, used for scent, perfume: Fagraea berteriana, Potaliaceae, (2) an imported tree with odoriferous white flowers: Plumeria acutifolia, Apocynaceae (NOISE)

bua buatree with very hard incorruptible wood, used for making the posts of houses: Fagraea Gracilipes Potaliaceae (POC: *bual bual)

bubulaspoken of the flesh when it rises after being cut or burnt for ornamental scars (POC: *pupula)

bui-nathe tail; also the name of a spot in the moon (POC: *buRit₂) *buRit

bukitie, fasten (ROOT)

bukuthe raised end of a thing, as of shell, and hence in some dialects the tail; the word applies really to anything knotted and humped; tie a knot, fasten two things together (POC: *buku) *bukuh

Fijian (60 / 990)

buku liŋaclasp the hands to carry one ashore from a canoe (POC: *buku) *bukuh

buku ni kaihinge of a bivalve (POC: *buku) *bukuh

bulithe cowrie shell: Cypraeidae (POC: *buliq₁)

bulithe buttock, rump, behind (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

buli-tato adorn with cowries, as a house -- the prerogative of chiefs (POC: *buliq₁)

bune damuOrange Dove: Ptilinopus victor (on Vanua Levu and Taveuni); its call is like the tock of a giant clock (POC: *bune) *punay

bune dromoGolden Dove: Ptilinopus luteovirens (on Viti Levu); its call is like the bark of a small dog (POC: *bune) *punay

bune karawagreen dove (the females of the preceding) (POC: *bune) *punay

buraemit matter, have a discharge of pus or semen (POC: *bura₂)

butaa disease of the eyes (POC: *buta₃) *buCa

bu-takosteal or rob (POC: *tako) *Cakaw

butodark, darkness (LOAN)

butōdark, darkness (NOISE)

butu-yaenclose in a net, as fish; bring things together to meet, as of the thatch on the roof of a house (NOISE)

ca-passive prefix (NOISE)

cacaa fern: Acrostichum aureum, Pteridaceae (POC: *asam) *aResam

cacaa fern: Acrostichum aureum, Pteridaceae (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

caihave sexual intercourse with: trans. cai-tá (POC: *qait)

caito have sexual intercourse with (POC: *qait)

cait-ato have sexual intercourse with (POC: *qait)

Fijian (80 / 990)

cakato do, make, work (NOISE)

cakaureef (PMP: *sakaRu)

cakeupwards, above (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

calato err, be in error, to miss a mark; as adjective erroneous, or adverb immediately after the verb, erroneously, by mistake (PMP: *salaq₁)

calidiburst, explode, detonate (ROOT)

caŋaa span or stretch of the fingers (POC: *saŋa₁)

caŋiwind, air, atmosphere (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

caŋi-nabe blown about by the wind (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

caŋothe turmeric plant, Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae; whites use the roots to prepare a curry; natives prepare rerega from it, used as food, but chiefly to daub over women at childbirth, and over newly born babes (POC: *aŋo)

caŋo layaginger (caŋo = ‘turmeric’) (PMP: *laqia)

caukind of ironwood tree: Casuarina nodiflora (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

cauto make presents, present property, answer a petition; present food to a chief; make a contribution to a common effort (NOISE)

caura-voua youth, young man of marriageable age (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

cavāa hurricane, storm of wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

cavainterrogative pronoun and adjective, what?, which? (PMP: *sapa)

cavoto fish with a rod (POC: *apon) *hapen

cavu i-vuvu-takato root up entirely (POC: *puput) *buCbuC

cavu-tato pull up, eradicate (POC: *saput) *cabut

cāwakikind of sea urchin, black or white, round and edible; it has short spikes (POC: *saRawaki)

cawu-tato pronounce a name (NOISE)

Fijian (100 / 990)

ceiinterrogative pronoun, who? (PMP: *sei) *

cekauntie a bundle (ROOT)

cevuexplode, burst, as breadfruit when roasting (ROOT)

to break wind (POC: *si₂)

cicito separate the pulp of a coconut, or the flesh of a fish from its shell with the point of a knife (PMP: *siksik₂)

cici-ato separate the pulp of a coconut, or the flesh of a fish from its shell with the point of a knife (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

cilato shine, of the heavenly bodies (POC: *silak) *cilak

cilato shine, of heavenly bodies (PMP: *silaq)

cilato shine, of the heavenly bodies (PMP: *silak₁) *silak

cilato shine, of heavenly bodies (PMP: *sila₁)

cinaa lamp or torch (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

ciŋanawhitebait (POC: *jiŋana)

ciŋifill up a crevice or push a thing into it, as into a leak in a canoe; stop a gap in a fence (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

ci-tabreak wind (on something) (POC: *si₂)

ciuto steam, of steam that finds its way out of an oven that is badly covered, or air from a punctured tire (POC: *siul) *sihul

ciul-akato steam in this manner (POC: *siul) *sihul

ciwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

coboclap the hands crosswise so as to make a hollow sound (PMP: *se(m)bek)

coboclap the hands crosswise so as to make a hollow sound (ROOT)

cokato pierce, usually with a spear; diarrhoea (POC: *soka)

Fijian (120 / 990)

cokobe caught, as a rat in a trap (POC: *sogo)

colothe inland country, mountain country; of anything on a shelf above the head (POC: *solos)

covapour out (NOISE)

cuathe stick or bamboo by which a fish net is lifted up (PMP: *sual)

cukito root, dig up or loosen the ground with a stick, to dig the surface only; fig. to force information from a person (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

cukito root, dig up or loosen the ground with a stick, to dig the surface only; fig. to force information from a person (PMP: *suŋkit)

cukit-ato root, dig up (trans.) (PMP: *suŋkit)

culato pierce, to let blood, to vaccinate, to sew (PMP: *sulam)

cumua small diamond-shaped fish, file or trigger fish, Balistes sp; also the name of a Fijian constellation (POC: *sumu)

curuenter (PMP: *surup₁)

da1pl. incl. pronoun, we (used under government of certain conjunctions); hortative (POC: *-da₁) *ta-₁

da1pl. incl.; we (POC: *da₂) *ita₁

dakuthe back of a person or thing (POC: *takuRu)

daku-daku ni matathe upper eyelid (PMP: *takub-takub) *takub

daku-daku ni matathe upper eyelid (POC: *takup₂) *ta(ŋ)kub

dalikind of pandanus from which ropes are made: Agave sisalana Amaryllidaceae; hence in common use, a rope. In Kadavu also a species of vine (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

daliŋaear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

dalothe taro plant, much used as a food, Colocasia esculenta (POC: *talos) *tales

damanua tree, very tall and straight, excellent for making canoes: Callophyllum vitense, Guttiferae (POC: *tamanu)

danivasmall fish like the sardine, sp. Sardinella (POC: *tañipa)

Fijian (140 / 990)

daveto flow, of liquids in a small stream (drōdrō is stronger, and dobui the strongest word); commonly of the flow of blood (POC: *tape₁)

dave-kakathe sound of a rushing violent stream (POC: *tape₁)

dave-nabe carried away by a flood (POC: *tape₁)

dave-taan opening in a reef that a canoe may pass through (POC: *tape₁)

davuia large univalve shellfish, the trumpet shell or Triton, used as a horn or trumpet, chiefly on canoes (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

dawaa large tree, Pometia pinnata, Sapindaceae. It bears a fruit with jelly-like flesh and a large stone the size of a plum. (PMP: *tawan)

to excrete (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

dē-nathe excrement, properly of animals (cf. ‘excrement, generally human’). Bau, however, does not make the distinction made in Lau, and this word is there commoner than . (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

dē ni laŋilight scudding clouds (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

dē ni osea plant, Euphorbia hirta (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

diaa handle, of some things only (NOISE)

didibe-saua bird, the Golden Whistler (POC: *sau) Lomaiviti

diothe rock oyster: Ostrea edibilis (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

divaempty, dry, of liquid (LOAN)

doathe heart wood of a tree, solid, and dark (POC: *toRas) *teRas

dokato respect or honor (NOISE)

dokothe poles with which canoes are propelled (POC: *tokon) *teken

dolaopen (as a door, but not of eyes, mouth, or book) (NOISE)

donustraight, right, in church languages sometimes for “holy”; correct, befitting, becoming, true, righteous; used thus of a sacrifice accepted (POC: *tonuq)

doŋothe mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza; the long roots or branches are good for firewood; the bark is used for a tanning dye (brown) (PMP: *teŋeR)

Fijian (160 / 990)

dovusugarcane, sugar: Saccharum officinarum (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

drāblood, sap (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

drakiweather; term used in speaking of weather (PCEMP: *raki)

draki cabad weather (PCEMP: *raki)

draki vinakagood weather (PCEMP: *raki)

dranoa lake or piece of fresh water inland (POC: *rano) *danaw

dranufresh, of water, not salt; to wash in fresh water after having bathed in salt (POC: *ranum) *daNum

drauleaf; hair of the head (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

drau-drauthe leaves on which food is served up; the cover or wrapper of anything (POC: *raun-raun) *dahun

drau-drau tabonohidden by leaves, as fruit on a tree (POC: *raun-raun) *dahun

drau ni kauleaf of a tree (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

drau ni kurokind of fish (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

dravuashes; slaked lime (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR₁

dravu-dravu-acovered with ashes; grey in color; poor; poverty (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR₁

drō-drōa current, chiefly of the sea; to flow (PMP: *deRes)

drut-itear or cut off leaves; pull up grass (POC: *rurut) *dutdut

dulalithe Fijian nose-flute (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

dunaan eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

duna-dunasmaller type of eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

duruknee (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

Fijian (180 / 990)

duru-duruthe upright posts of a canoe house (POC: *turus)

duru-naa post, esp. the shorter posts of a house on which the wall plates rest (POC: *turus)

dusito point with the finger (PMP: *tusiq)

dusi-ato point at something (if near) (PMP: *tusiq)

dusi-vakato point at something (if far) (PMP: *tusiq)

duvatwo plants: (1) Couthovia corynocarpa, Loganiaceae, and (2) a plant used for poisoning fish, Derris trifoliate, Leguminoseae; to poison fish (POC: *tupa₂) *tubah

eparticle used before numerals; 'there are (so many)' (Schütz 1985:101) (POC: *e)

e muribehind, later (POC: *muri) *udehi

e na mata-nain front of him, in his presence (PMP: *mata) *maCa

e na noayesterday (POC: *ñoRap) *ñeRab

e vica wale ŋājust a few (POC: *pica) *pijax

gioa shark (NOISE)

govulight clouds covering the land when (POC: *kopu)

-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂)

imarker of the genitive for inalienable possession (PMP: *qi₂)

i-a noun preformative added to verbal roots, sometimes with reduplications. It indicates (1) the instrument of an action; (2) the scene of the action, (3) the result of an action, (4) the method of an action, (5) the actor, (6) the person or thing acted on (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

iparticle postposed to numerals to form distributives (NOISE)

iado, perform, carry out (NOISE)

i-au1sg. cardinal pronoun: I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

ibemat (POC: *ibe)

Fijian (200 / 990)

i-benu-benudunghill, refuse heap (POC: *benu)

ibolarge edible sea-worm (POC: *ibo)

i boia smell or scent (NOISE)

i bukua knot (POC: *buku) *bukuh

i buku corislip knot (POC: *buku) *bukuh

i buku dinareef knot (POC: *buku) *bukuh

i cagaspan (about 9 inches) (PMP: *zaŋan₁)

i-cava-ia thing for what purpose? (PMP: *sapa)

i-ciciinstrument for performing this action (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

i cukia digging stick (PMP: *suŋkit)

i culaa needle, a thing for piercing with (PMP: *sulam)

i-dave-davethe channel of a stream, or its source (POC: *tape-tape) *tape₁

ikafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

i ka-ciwaninth (PMP: *ika-siwa) *Siwa

i ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

i-ka-onosixth (POC: *ika-onom) *enem

i karia scraper, a plane (POC: *karis₂) *garis

i ka-ruasecond (POC: *ka-rua) *duSa

i kasocrossbeam fastening together the outrigger and the hull of a canoe; the children of an inferior wife, the attendants and slaves of a marama wife (PMP: *kasaw₁)

i katoluthe third (POC: *ika-tolu) *telu

Fijian (220 / 990)

i ka-vituseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

i kā-waluthe eighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

ikemallet for beating bark into cloth (POC: *ike) *ikay

i-kocardinal pronoun, 2nd person singular. This form is always used after transitive verbs and preposition, never as subject of a verb, except in sai iko, ‘it is you’ (POC: *iko) *kaSu

i lako-lakoaway, going, path; also fig. manner, method, the “run” of a thing (POC: *lako lako) *lakaw

ilolook at, as a reflection in water or in a mirror (POC: *ilo₂) *ilaw

i-maca-macaa scar (PMP: *maja)

i-malu-maluthe shade of a roof or tree (PEMP: *maluRu)

i-nimaa baler (instrument) (POC: *nimas)

īoyes (PMP: *qio)

i ovi-ovia nest (POC: *opi)

iracardinal pronoun, 3rd pl. objective: them. It is used after verbs and prepositions; as subject only in sa i ira 'it is they'. The normal subject is ko ira after the verb, and era before it (PEMP: *ira) *ida

i raraa fire at which one warms oneself; fireplace, hearth (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

irito fan; a fan (POC: *irir) *irid₁

iroto peep, look slyly at (POC: *qiro)

isainterjection of regret or yearning (PMP: *qisaq)

i-saŋaa pair of tongs (POC: *saŋa₁)

isito tear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise as bamboo, cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string (PCEMP: *isi₂)

isitear out in small pieces (NOISE)

isi, isi-atear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise, as bamboo; cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string (PMP: *Risi)

Fijian (240 / 990)

isi, isi-atear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise, as bamboo; cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string (PMP: *Risiq)

i-sua-suathe two transversal poles lashes across the crossbeams near the deck of a canoe, and helping rowing (PEMP: *suak)

i sulua loincloth, piece of cloth one fathom long girt around the loins; nowadays applied to clothing in general (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

i-tabea small oval basket without handles (POC: *tabe)

i-tabea small oval basket without handles (NOISE)

i-ti-tirowater used as a mirror (POC: *ti-tiro) *tindaw

i-tuk-ia hammer (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

i turu-turua drop (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

i vaka-yak-avisupper (POC: *paka-Rapiqi) *Rabiqi

i-valuwar; warrior (POC: *i-palu)

i vasasharp piece of wood (NOISE)

ivithe native chestnut tree, Inocarpus fagiferus, Leguminosae. The fruit is eaten either baked or boiled, and without any further treatment, or it may be grated on mushroom coral and made into bread or pudding (POC: *ipi₂)

i vocea paddle, an oar (POC: *pose) *beRsay

i voce-vocescrew or propeller of a motor-boat (POC: *pose) *beRsay

i-volabook (NOISE)

i voliprice, cost (PEMP: *poli) *beli

i vulu-vuluwater to wash the hands in (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

i-vutua pestle for pounding (POC: *putuk) *butuk

i-vutubunch, bundle (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

i yacagrater, grindstone (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

Fijian (260 / 990)

kaconjunction, "and", but used to connect sentences, adjectives, and verbs (between nouns and pronouns kei is used instead) (PAN: *ka₁)

ka-marker of achieved states: ka-basu ‘torn open’ (cp. basu ‘break open a person’s eyes or mouth’) (PMP: *ka-₇)

parrot (POC: *kaRa)

ka-prefix for ordinal numerals (POC: *ka-) *Sika-

kabethe skin covering the coconut leaf stalk, and used for tying (POC: *kabe₁)

kabito adhere or stick to (POC: *kabit₂) *kampit

kabi-tato adhere, stick to (trans.); sticky, gluey (POC: *kabit₂) *kampit

kaboasmall black fish that goes about in shoals: catfish, Siluridae (POC: *kaboRa)

kabusow or scatter small seeds (PMP: *kambuR)

kabufog, mist, haze (POC: *kaput₂) *kabut

kabusow or scatter small seeds (ROOT)

kacikaa fish resembling but shorter than the doko-ni-vudi (Sethrinus miniatus) (POC: *kasika)

kadia large kind of black ant that stings (POC: *kadik)

kadi damua similar kind of red ant that destroys wood (POC: *kadik)

kadruto scratch (POC: *kadrut) *karut₁

kadru-tato scratch something (POC: *kadrut) *karut₁

kaigeneric name of bivalve shellfish: Lamellibranchiata (POC: *kaRi₂)

kaia male inhabitant or native of a place; it is never used alone and does not refer to women (POC: *kai)

kai ðoloinhabitant of the mountainous interior of Viti Levu (POC: *kai)

kai muaa sailor (POC: *kai)

Fijian (280 / 990)

kai Peritaniaa Britisher (POC: *kai)

kai waiinhabitant of the shore (POC: *kai)

kakastammer, stutter (POC: *kakap₂) *gapgap

ka-kāseveral species of parrot: Prospeia splendens (POC: *kaRa)

kā-kanafood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kalabucia plant: Acalypha insulana; also an ornamental plant: Acalypha grandis (POC: *kalaqabusi)

kalavoa rat (POC: *kalapo) *kalabaw

kalinative pillow, made of wood; lay one’s head down on something (POC: *kalik)

kaliwooden headrest (NOISE)

kaliaspecies of fish, called ulu rua from the peculiar formation of its forehead (POC: *kalia)

kanato eat; a meal (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kanacekind of fish (POC: *kanase) *kaNasay

kaniscales and roughness of the skin caused by excessive drinking of yaqona (kava); also the dregs of yaqona in the cup or bowl (POC: *kani-kani)

kani-ato eat (something specified) (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

karaa kind of ringworm, tinea circinata (POC: *karak₂)

karakarawablue, green, of color (POC: *kara-karawa)

karavauobsolute term for ox, bull or cow (LOAN)

karawamako shark: Isurus (POC: *kwarara) Rakiraki

kar-ito scrape, chiefly of coconut (POC: *kakar-i) *karkar

karito scrape, chiefly of coconut (POC: *karis₂) *garis

Fijian (300 / 990)

karito scrape, chiefly of coconut (POC: *kari) *karis

karo-karorough to the touch, of skin, as with prickly heat (NOISE)

katāthe larger section of a double outrigger canoe (POC: *katae)

katelasplit or divide into two parts (ROOT)

katito bite (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

kati-ato bite (trans.) (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

katoa basket, box, trunk, suitcase (NOISE)

kaua tree, piece of wood, stick; wooden, very hard (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

kau-kau-astrong, hard; strength, hardness (POC: *kayu kayu)

ka-vāthe fourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

ka-vidato split, of wood (POC: *pidak) *bitak₁

kavikatree and fruit of the Malay apple, Syzygium malaccense, Myrtaceae (red and white varieties) (POC: *kapika)

kavurucrumbled, pounded, powdered; of a yam, very soft, because well-cooked (POC: *kapuru)

kawa-kawaa fish, the yellow-finned grouper, Serranidae (POC: *kawa-kawa)

kelito dig a hole (PCEMP: *keli)

kesuthe occiput, back of the head (POC: *keju)

kito, towards, before common nouns and names of places (before proper nouns and pronouns kivei is used); before place names ki may also mean ‘at’ (POC: *ki₁)

kipreposition: to, towards, before common nouns and names of places (before proper nouns and pronouns, kivei is used) (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

kia-kavothe common war-club, with head bent somewhat like a capital J and notched on the other side (PMP: *kiRam)

kilawild, shy, of animals; savage (POC: *kila) *gila

Fijian (320 / 990)

kilato know; to understand; to feel, perceive (PAN: *kilala)

kila-kilāto guess; knowing, sly, cunning (PAN: *kilala)

kila-vakiof persons, uncouth, unsociable (POC: *kila) *gila

kilito turn up stones; uncover an oven; remove a thing from its place; exhume (POC: *kili)

ki murito the rear (POC: *muri) *udehi

kini, kini-tapinch with the nails (PMP: *kinit)

kiokiosmall birds, chickens (PAN: *kiaw)

kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits (POC: *kirik) *gidik

kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits (POC: *kiri) *giri

kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits (PAN: *kidiq)

kiri, kiri-catickle under the armpits (PMP: *kirik)

koduto bend a thing; arch, like the back of a cat (ROOT)

kokaa plant, Bischofia javanica, Euphorbiaceae (POC: *koka)

kokō (length unexplained)to cluck, of a hen; croak, of a frog; squeal, of a tethered pig (POC: *kokok) *gekgek

kolasplit wood with wedges; break open a seed pod (PMP: *kelaq)

koŋeto squal or grunt, as young pigs (POC: *koŋe)

koroan eminence; a village (POC: *koro₂)

kotito clip, to shear (PAN: *ketil)

kotito clip, to shear (POC: *koti)

koti-lakato cut off small things; said also of mats (PAN: *ketil)

Fijian (340 / 990)

kototo lie in a place (PMP: *keteŋ)

kovuto tie up fish, etc. in banana leaves (NOISE)

kucuv-ato rape or attempt to rape; to force a woman (NOISE)

kudruto grunt, to groan, to grumble; to suffer conclusive contortions like the priest of old under inspiration (LOAN)

kuitacuttlefish, octopus; fig., cords, ropes, vines, whip, rod, scourge (from appearance of the tentacles); intermittent headache (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kukaa small red and black mangrove crab (POC: *kuka)

kukunail of finger or toe (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kukua kind of mussel (POC: *kukur) *kuDkuD

kuli-skin; bark; peel (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kuli-kulithick skin, a pachyderm; a diseased skin (POC: *kuli-kulit) *kuliC

kuli-tato peel cooked taro or food cooked in water; to strip off the skin or bark of a tree (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kulu-kuluthe youngest stage of the coconut (POC: *kulu₂)

kumithe chin or beard (PMP: *kumi)

kumu-kumi-aadult, having a beard (PMP: *kumi)

kuraa shrub, Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae; the leaves are medicinal, the fruit edible, the roots produce a yellow dye for the hair or for staining tapa cloth (POC: *gurat)

kurocooking pot of clay (PAN: *kuden)

kutuflea, crab louse, Pediculus pubis (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu-kutuvery small insects; lousy (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu ni manumanua flea (of dog) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuvudust, spray, smoke, steam, the foam at the front of a swiftly moving; canoe; to foam or smoke (POC: *kupuk)

Fijian (360 / 990)

kuvudust, spray, smoke, steam (<*-puk₂?) (ROOT)

kuvu-cato puff into, of smoke (POC: *kupuk)

kuvu-ismoke-dried (as sea cucumbers) (POC: *kupuk)

lacaa sail (PAN: *layaR)

lakoto go; used for motion of any kind (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lako maicome (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lako voligo about (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lako yanigo away (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lalithe native wooden drum, and in modern use, a bell. It is beaten with two sticks called i uaua. (POC: *drali)

lalithe thigh (PMP: *lali)

lalithe thigh (PMP: *laliŋ)

lali ni leŋgabeat calling people together in sudden emergencies (POC: *drali)

lali ni matefuneral beat (POC: *drali)

lali ni waŋgabeat played on a high chief’s canoe when approaching a village (POC: *drali)

lali-tato accompany a meke [native dance] with a drum (POC: *drali)

lali vutubeat played at the birth of a chief (POC: *drali)

lā-ma-wato yawn, gape (POC: *mawap) *Suab

laŋi-laŋibeautiful, magnificent, glorious (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋoplace rollers under a canoe (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

Fijian (380 / 990)

laŋo kataa wasp (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋon-aplace rollers under a canoe (trans. form) (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed (POC: *lasa₁)

lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed, amusing (PAN: *lajam)

lasethe common branchy coral and the lime made from it (POC: *laje)

lasuto tell a lie (NOISE)

laueast; name of the Windward Islands (POC: *laur) *lahud

lavidislight ticking, cracking of joints (ROOT)

lawathe Fijian fishing net (PMP: *lawaq₁)

lawathe Fijian fishing net (PMP: *lawan₁)

lawe-nathe larger feathers of a bird (the smaller feathers are vuti-na) (PMP: *lawi₁)

liato change into (as a person changing into a snake) (PMP: *lian)

lia-liafoolish ??? (not in Capell) (LOAN)

lidiburst, explode, strike; the report of an explosion, as of thunder or a stone in a heated oven (PMP: *li(n)tik)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-limaall the five (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

liŋaforearm and hand, forelegs of an animal (NOISE)

lisenits (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lisoto glare, of the eyes; glisten, be phosphorescent, of water at night (POC: *liso) *licaw

liuprecede, go before, surpass, excel, be the first to do a thing (PMP: *liu₁)

Fijian (400 / 990)

livalightning (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

liva-livalightning, electricity (POC: *bila₂)

liva-livalightning; electricity (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

lobito fold lengthwise and crosswise, of a large piece of cloth (POC: *lobi) *lepit₂

lokaheavy breakers over a reef, very heavy tides that flow inland, floods (NOISE)

lokibend a joint; shut the hand (POC: *loki)

loki liŋabend the arm (POC: *loki)

loki-lokilame (POC: *loki)

lo-loa small ant (POC: *loRo)

lolobeginning to rise, of the tide (POC: *lolop) *lebleb₂

lolothe milk squeezed out from scraped coconut (NOISE)

lomā-laŋithe sky, heaven (lit. ‘inside of sky’) (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

loŋgasparse, not dense (NOISE)

luato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

lua-ðato vomit on (PMP: *luaq)

lua-luato keep vomiting (PMP: *luaq)

lua-ra(ka)what is vomited (PMP: *luaq)

luluthe barn owl, Tyto alba (NEAR)

lumaashamed (NOISE)

lumimoss, adhering to a rock or a boat; a kind of edible seaweed (PMP: *limut)

Fijian (420 / 990)

lumi-lumicovered in moss; sleek, shiny (PMP: *limut)

lumuanoint with oil (PMP: *lumuk)

lumuanoint with oil (POC: *lumu₁)

luvato loosen, untie a thing; to undress, strip (POC: *lupas₂)

maa particle compounded with many words, forming adjectives of state or condition (PAN: *ma-₁)

macaempty, dry, of liquids. Used as exclamation when a bowl of yaqona (kava) has been drunk --- the onlookers call out ‘A! Maca!’; to dry or heal up, of a sore (PMP: *maja)

maca-macadry or healed (PMP: *maja)

macedruhiccup (POC: *masedru)

macoua plant, Cinnamomum pedatinervium, Lauraceae; the bark is grated as a perfume (POC: *masou)

maia directive particle after verbs, indicating movement towards the speaker (POC: *mai) *ai₃

malaiwithered, faded; to wither, fade (POC: *malai)

malismile (PCEMP: *malip)

malosoft kernel of the center of the breadfruit (POC: *malon)

malothe paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera, hence the native cloth made from it, and the former native male dress, a piece of malo passed between the thighs and fastened with a girdle; if not passed between the legs it is i sulu (PCEMP: *malaw)

malu-malushady, sheltered; the shade of a roof or tree (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

ma-lumuweak, faint, sick, soft (PMP: *ma-lumu) *lumu₂

-mami1pl. excl. possessive, our (PMP: *m-ami) *ami

manasupernatural power; a sign, an omen, a token; possessing supernatural qualities (POC: *mana₂)

mana-tato be affected by, of a disease (POC: *mana₂)

maniadverb preceding verbs; indicating the final one of a series of acts: then, finally, after all (NOISE)

Fijian (440 / 990)

manu-manua bird, sometimes also animal or insect, but these are so few that the actual name will generally be used (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

maŋavagina (PMP: *maŋaq)

maravucalm, of the sea (POC: *marapu)

matathe eye, the face, the source or front of a thing (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matā-dravuhearth, fireplace (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR₁

matā-dravuhearth, fireplace (dravu = ‘ashes’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matā-dravu ni sautūthe Magellanic Clouds (‘hearth of peace and plenty’) (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR₁

mata-i-taliŋaa large axe tied with sinnet (‘eye of ears’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kaloua seer, one who sees kalou (spirits) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mataa gateway; a goal, at football (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-mata-i-taliŋaa variety of shark, with eyes that look upwards (probably hammerhead) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni bukaa firebrand (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni caŋithe direction of the wind (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata ni civathe pearl found in the civa oyster (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni dāthe anus (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni dalotaro stems fit for planting (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni ikaa painful sore on the sole of the foot or in the palm of the hand from yaws (POC: *mata ni ikan) *maCa

mata ni siŋathe sun (‘eye of the day’); a string figure (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata ni sucuthe nipples (POC: *mata ni susu) *maCa

mata ni tavutoa hole through a rock, forming a kind of eyelet through which a rope may be threaded to fasten a canoe (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Fijian (460 / 990)

mata ni tūa political federation of vanua; in modern use a kingdom, independent country, government (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni vanuaa chief’s official herald, sometimes simply called a mata; an ambassador (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni waia spring; sometimes a gully, or low ground, on which taro is planted; in Lau, the uterus (POC: *mata ni waiR) *maCa

mataŋgalithe primary local division of Fijian society (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matauright, as opposed to left (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

mataunative adze made of stone (POC: *matau)

matedeath, disease, sickness; to die, be sick (POC: *mate) *aCay

mate matesickly (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

mate ni vulathe menses of a woman (POC: *mate ni pulan) *bulaN

matito ebb, of the tide, as opposed to the flow; part of the reef exposed at low tide (POC: *maqati) *qaCi

matuamature, ripe, fit for gathering or digging; of people who are getting on in years it is more usual to say qase; as adverb, strongly, vigorously (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mavohealed, of a sore (POC: *mapo)

mavutaro ready to be eaten, or already beaten up for puddings (PMP: *mapu₁)

mawīleft as opposed to right (POC: *mawiRi) *wiRi

mecaan enemy (NOISE)

mimito run in a small stream; of a boat, to leak (PMP: *mimi)

mimi-cato urinate on (of the place affected) (PMP: *mimi)

mi-miloshiny, glossy (NEAR)

mimiloshiny, glossy (ROOT)

moðesleep (NOISE)

Fijian (480 / 990)

moðe-rato sleep on, with or in (NOISE)

mokoembrace, clasp in the arms (ROOT)

momobreak into small pieces (PMP: *mekmek)

monabrain (POC: *moñan)

monoturn taro pulp over and make it into a neat lump in preparation for pudding (POC: *mo(nñ)o)

-mu2sg. possessor, your (PMP: *-mu)

muathe tip, point, front of a thing (POC: *muqa)

muducut off, ceased, ended (PEMP: *mutu₂)

mudu ni liŋaman given to a man who has had a finger joint chopped off in mourning for a dead chief (lit. ‘cut off hand’) (PEMP: *mutu₂)

muriafter, following (POC: *muri) *udehi

-na3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nathe common article: the, a; neither use is always in accord with the English practice (PMP: *na₁)

-na3sg. possessive suffix, his, her, hers, its (PAN: *ni-ia) *ia₁

na-icatime when (POC: *ican) *ijan

nakito intend, purpose (NOISE)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

namu-namuchew and swallow (intr.) (POC: *ñamu)

namu-tachew and swallow (trans.) (POC: *ñamu)

nanapus, matter; to fester, suppurate (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nipreposition, sign of possession; used before common nouns and names of places, but before names of persons replaced by i or nei, and in some expressions not used at all (PAN: *ni)

Fijian (500 / 990)

nimato bale out a canoe (POC: *nimas)

nima-nimaa mode of fishing by bailing out the water from a hole and taking the fish in it (POC: *nimas)

ninitremble, quake with fear or anger (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

niuthe coconut tree, Cocos nucifera; at least eleven named varieties of fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu-niuVeitchia filifera (PMP: *niuR)

niu yabiaarrowroot palm (PMP: *niuR)

nokubend two ends together; bend sharply, of the body (<*-kuk or *-kut?) (ROOT)

nona i vuni-vunihis hiding place (POC: *puni-puni) *buNi

nona vuni-vunihis private parts (POC: *puni-puni) *buNi

novufish of an ashen color resembling a stone, and possessing a very rough, horny skin (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nunufig tree sp. (PMP: *nunuk)

ŋāthe grey duck (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

ŋaŋabitter, sour, poisonous (POC: *ŋaŋa₁)

ŋatasnake, viper (POC: *mwata)

ŋgakamangrove crab (PMP: *kaRakap) Eastern

-ŋgu1sg possessive pronoun: my, mine; added to some nouns and the possessive roots no-, ke-, me- (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ŋīto squeak, as a bat, squeal, as a pig (PMP: *ŋik)

ŋībuzz, as a mosquito (PMP: *ŋiŋ)

ŋodroto grunt, as a pig; of a person, to moan in pain; a grunt, a moaning sound (POC: *ŋodro)

ŋusu-the mouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

Fijian (520 / 990)

ŋusu ni maŋanathe labia pudenda (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋusu-ŋusu cāfoul-mouthed (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋwacalarge rat (POC: *mwajar) *mansar Namosi

ŋwacolarge rat (POC: *mwajor) *mansər Naitāsiri

ŋwacolarge rat (POC: *mwajor) *mansər Waidina

ocofood given in payment for work, or in course of it (POC: *qoso)

okocover up a bunch of bananas to ripen them (POC: *okop) *e(ŋ)keb

one-amend nets (tran.) (POC: *one-a) *one

oneonemend nets (intr.) (POC: *one one) *one

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

ono-onoall the six (POC: *onom onom) *enem

ono-sa-ŋa-vulusixty (POC: *onom ŋa puluq) *enem

oqoto walk stooping, as in a house or in the presence of a chief; crouch down in approaching something, as a fish to spear it (POC: *oŋkol) *eŋkel

oqoto walk stooping; crouch (ROOT)

oqowalk stooping, as in a house or in the presence of a chief (NOISE)

orito slit or cut lengthwise with motion away (POC: *ori)

osito moan (POC: *osi(rR))

osi-mato lament, bemoan (POC: *osi(rR))

osonarrow, crowded; strait (POC: *osok) *esek

osonarrow, crowded; strait (ROOT)

Fijian (540 / 990)

otaplant species with edible leaves (NOISE)

otifinish, complete, end (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

ovito brood, of hens; to cover up the chickens under her wings (trans.) (POC: *opi)

pitonavel (when projecting; possibly < Tongan) (POC: *bito)

pu(u)rucover, shelter from wind and rain (Geraghty 1983:118) (ROOT)

qalitwist together, roll together on the knee under the palm of the hand, as in making string (ROOT)

rakofitting or suiting well (NOISE)

rakov-ato embrace (POC: *rakop) *dakep

rarato warm oneself at a fire; of a pain, to smart slightly (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

raraa flowering tree, Erythrina variegata, var. orientalis, Leguminosae (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

rā-ramalight, as opposed to darkness (POC: *ramaR) *damaR₁

ratuhonorific particle and title of rank before names of males who are chiefs (PMP: *datu)

rerebe afraid, fear, have a delicacy of feeling towards (POC: *rere₁)

ririto be cooked by boiling; a shed, cooking place, kitchen, temporary house (POC: *ririq) *diqdiq

rodubent, curved (ROOT)

rokobe in a bowing or stooping position, a sign of reverence (POC: *roko)

rokobe in a bowing or stooping position, a sign of reverence (ROOT)

roŋoto hear; to make a noise (of an engine), to spread, to be heard (of a report), to be famous (of a person or place) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

rotubeat at with fists or stick (POC: *rotuk) *retuk

rotubeat at with fists or stick (ROOT)

Fijian (560 / 990)

rotubeat at with fists or stick (ROOT)

rovuto sprout or shoot, of yams and trees or of beard growing, teeth being cut; a young shoot or sprout (POC: *robuŋ) *rebuŋ

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-ruaboth (POC: *rua rua₁) *duSa

companion, mate, one of a couple; used thus of the rafter of a house; the opposite, a thing given in exchange; one of twins (POC: *soRa)

sabaslap, strike strongly (PMP: *sambak)

sabato slap, strike strongly (POC: *sabak) *sambak

saba-kato slap (trans.) (POC: *sabak) *sambak

sabislap or hit with the open hand, not so strong as saba-ka (ROOT)

sa karawa na sē-ni-cōevening shades after sunset (POC: *kara-karawa)

sakusword-fish, Makaira spp. (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

sakua swordfish, Makaira spp, of the following kinds: saku-voro-waŋga, a large kind that can sink canoes; saku-laya, the sawfish proper; saku-lele, a small kind (PMP: *saku₂)

saku-layathe saw-fish proper (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

salapath, road, track (POC: *jalan) *zalan

sala ni caŋithe Milky Way (POC: *jalan) *zalan

sala ni waŋgathe wake of a ship (POC: *jalan) *zalan

salatothe nettle plant, Laportea harveyi, Urticaceae (POC: *salatoŋ) *zalateŋ

salito flow, of water (PMP: *saliR)

sali-sali waiwatery, of the eyes (PMP: *saliR)

sali-vato flow towards or against (PMP: *saliR)

Fijian (580 / 990)

sa mai vuso-vuso-a na i tukutukuhe makes a wonderful report (lit. 'makes the story foam') (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

sanito remove leaves (POC: *sani)

saŋaa crotch; crotched, especially of a branch which forms a crotch with a tree (POC: *saŋa₁)

saŋa-nathe thigh, as branching out from the body (POC: *saŋa₁)

saŋa-saŋachafed between the thighs (POC: *saŋa₁)

sa-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

saŋgato be cooking in a pot; to boil (intr.) (POC: *sakan) *zakan

saqoqoshrivelled, as a leaf; shrunk, as a cloth (ROOT)

saurepay, retaliate, answer a question (PMP: *saRut)

sava ~ savasavaa temple (NOISE)

savuwaterfall, a spout for water, aqueduct, conduit (POC: *sabu)

savulua shellfish: Pinna squamosa (POC: *sapulu)

to be in blossom, to flower (POC: *see)

seaseaa tree of the family Myrtaceae (POC: *seasea)

seŋaBlue-crowned Lory, Vini australis (POC: *seŋa₂)

silathe sheet of a sail (POC: *jila)

siŋaday, daylight, sun (PMP: *siŋaR)

siŋa levumidday (PMP: *siŋaR)

sisito slip, of land; to invade a land, of warriors (NOISE)

siuproduce a hissing sound, as steam under pressure (PMP: *siuk)

Fijian (600 / 990)

sivodebased, put down, out of office; dismissal (POC: *sipo)

sobudown, downwards; descend, come down, go ashore from a canoe, or to go west (POC: *sobu) *sombu

sokathe ribs of a boat; the short beams or braces joining the middle of the companion pieces to the centerpole in a native house; the smaller transversal beams of a house (POC: *sokar) *seŋkar

somostained, of sinnet (LOAN)

somo-somo-a ~ somo-somo-tadirty (LOAN)

somo-tato stain sinnet black, generally by burying it in black earth or mangrove mud (LOAN)

sosomianything that replaces another thing, a substitute, a successor to a person (NOISE)

subroth, soup (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

suato stab, pierce with a spear, retaining hold of the weapon; to husk coconuts (POC: *sua₁)

sucusuck the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

sucu-nabreast (PAN: *susu₁)

sui-nabone (POC: *suRi₁)

sulia banana or taro sucker; name also extended to other plants, as yaqona [Piper methysticum] suckers (PMP: *suli₁)

suli-sulito shoot out, produce suckers (PMP: *suli₁)

sulu-mato put on clothing (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

sulu-ŋato wrap in a cloth; to carry a child on one’s back; to carry a thing in one’s clothes (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

suluwagoclocramp from cold, pain or fear (ROOT)

suvito cut in pieces, chiefly of yams and breadfruit, generally lengthwise (PEMP: *supi)

to chop with knife or axe (PAN: *taRaq₁)

ta-prefix to verb indicating spontaneity (sere ‘untie’ : ta-sere ‘come untied by itself’) (PMP: *ta-₂)

Fijian (620 / 990)

the leather jacket, or unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornis and other spp. (PMP: *taRaq₂)

the leather jacket or unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornus and other spp. (POC: *taRa)

tabathe upper arm of human beings; foreleg of an animal; wing of birds; branch of tree; store of a house; page of a book (NOISE)

taba bulia cowrie necklace (POC: *buliq₁)

tabehold or carry with the hands under (POC: *tabe)

tabe-tabethe bringing of food in this basket (POC: *tabe)

tabuforbidden, prohibited, implying a religious sanction, but now used also for legal prohibition, such as “no admission’; sacred, holy, unapproachable (POC: *tabu) *tambu

ta-cavuuprooted, pulled out (not always of itself) (POC: *saput) *cabut

t-aciyounger sibling of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tacithe sea (PMP: *tasik)

taka-somosomo-takato dirty, blacken with earth (LOAN)

(tā)-lawa-lawacobweb (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

talito plait, interweave (POC: *tali₂) *tali

tamafather, FB, MZH (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tamataperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taniaway (directional) (POC: *tani₁) Boumaa

taniaway, elsewhere (POC: *tani₁)

taŋaa bag, pocket, sack (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋa-naput into a bag; fish with hand-nets (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋito give out sound: of humans, to cry, weep, lament; of animals, to cry, mew, crow, etc.; of clocks and musical instruments, to give out their sounds; to give an alarm (as of war) (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

Fijian (640 / 990)

taŋi-cato cry for (in order to get a thing); to chime in, of a meke or song (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋi-cakato cry on account of, to lament the dead (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tarato follow, ensue, immediately precede or succeed (NOISE)

tara-vato follow (as one day after another) (NOISE)

tasito scrape, shave, peel food before cooking (POC: *tasim) *tazim

tasito scrape, shave, peel before cooking (PMP: *tasim)

tau-namumosquito net (POC: *tau ñamuk)

taur-ato take, hold (POC: *taur)

tavato cut with a knife, as meat from a carcass (POC: *tapa) *taba₃

tavakotobacco (LOAN)

tavalemale cross-cousin, son of father’s sister or mother’s brother (man speaking) (LOAN)

taviskim along, skid off a flat surface, as the tiŋga (reed used in a game of throwing) on level ground (PMP: *tapis₂)

taviapplied to various acts done with the hand: to slap, pat lightly (POC: *tapik)

tebethe brim or edge (NOISE)

tibibend sharply, fold clothes; plait (ROOT)

tikoto sit, remain, be in a place (POC: *tiko)

tiko-vakato stay with someone (POC: *tiko)

tiloto swallow (PMP: *tilen)

tina-M, MZ, FBW (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tiŋgato throw a stick horizontally from the end of the forefinger; to throw the tiqa in the game of veitiqa (POC: *tika)

Fijian (660 / 990)

tiroto look at something reflected in water or a glass; to peep furtively; admire oneself (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

titiooze, flow gently, as gum from a tree (PMP: *titis)

filled, saturated with water or milk (POC: *toRop) *teReb

toaa jungle fowl: Gallus gallus, Gallus bankhiva, and the domestic fowl (POC: *toqa)

toatwo kinds of fish: a round fish like the sumusumu (thornless pufferfish), and a rather squarish variety (LOAN)

tobaa bay or gulf (POC: *tobwa) *tobwa₁

tobua pool in a river, bathing hole; a well; a deep hole in a reef or inside it, but surrounded by shallower water (POC: *topuc) *Cebuj

tobua pool in a river, bathing hole; a well (LOAN)

tobu-rakato plunge (a bucket, etc.) into water (NOISE)

tokatake a boat (POC: *toka₃) *toka₁

tokato sit on the heels, squat; to be placed, situated, of people and small objects; to place, put on (garments); adhere to; to ride (horse) (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tokato sit on the heels, squat; to be placed, situated, of people and small objects; auxiliary verb indicating continuance in the given state or act (POC: *toka₂)

toka kasato settle in a place (POC: *toka₂)

tokalauthe northeast wind; the northeast (POC: *tokalaur)

toka matastare fearlessly at (POC: *toka₂)

toka-rakato lie in wait for (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tok-i (< *totok-i)to peck, of birds (POC: *totok) *tektek₁

tolothe trunk of the body; the middle part of a thing (NOISE)

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tolu-sa-ŋa-vuluthirty (POC: *tolu-ŋa-puluq) *telu

Fijian (680 / 990)

tolu-toluall three (POC: *tolu-tolu) *telu

tomato accompany, help (NOISE)

toma-nato help one another (NOISE)

tono, tono-kapierce, probe, poke (PAN: *Cenek)

toroto move (LOAN)

tosidraw a line, score or mark (PEMP: *tosi)

toua plant, Cordia aspera; the sap is used as a paste (POC: *toRu)

tovaa flat piece of land, formerly planted with yams (NOISE)

to stand, to be in a place (of people: toka of things) (POC: *tuqur₁) *tuqud

tuaa word used by children to their grandfathers (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuaka-elder same sex sibling (POC: *tuaka)

tubugrow, increase, spring up (of plants) (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tubuto grow, increase (POC: *tubu₃) *tubu₂

tuea shell, Cyamium antarticum N. (POC: *tue) *tuay

tuilift up with a string (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

tui-tuia plant: Aleurites moluccana (PEMP: *tuRi₂) *tuRi

tui-tui vakastring together (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

tuk-ito strike at, knock at, hammer (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tunuwarm food up again (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tunu-tunuhot (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

Fijian (700 / 990)

turaŋaa chief, master: descriptive, not used in address (POC: *turaŋa)

turuknee (PCEMP: *turu₁)

turuto drip, drop, of liquids (as with a leaky roof) (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

turu drāthe menses (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

turu-vato drip on (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tututo light a lamp, set fire to a thing (PMP: *tutuŋ)

tututhe beat of a drum when a village was taken or people killed (POC: *tutu)

tu-tubuan eruption on the skin: herpes, hives (POC: *tubu₁)

tutuv-ito wrap oneself up (POC: *tutup₁)

tuvaset in order, arrange (POC: *tupak)

tuvato set in order, arrange, build up (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuvato set in order, arrange (NOISE)

tuvushoot up, of a tree (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tuvushoot up, of a tree (POC: *tupul)

tuvua spring of fresh water, on the sand along the beach, generally somewhat brackish (POC: *tupuR) *tubuR

tuvu-ka-nathe top of a tree (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

uavein; muscle (POC: *uRat) *huRaC

uathe tide, a wave (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

ua ni niuraised rib on coconut-shell (POC: *uRat) *huRaC

ucarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

Fijian (720 / 990)

ucucape, mountain peak (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ucu-nose (POC: *ucuŋ) *ujuŋ

ukushaft of an arrow (POC: *quku)

ulistir up dry things into a liquid (PMP: *quli)

uloworm, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

ulo-ulomaggot (diminutive) (PMP: *qulej qulej) *qulej

ulo-ulo-awormy, maggoty (PMP: *qulej-an) *qulej

uluhead, top (POC: *qulu) *quluh

ulu ni vanuamountain (POC: *qulu ni panua) *quluh

ulu taŋahead or upper part of a river (POC: *qulu) *quluh

unuto drink (PCEMP: *unum) dialectal

uŋathe hermit crab: Cancer dubius (POC: *qumwaŋ) *qumaŋ

uraprawn, crayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ura-ulobster: Panulirus spp. (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

usacarry a cargo by boat (POC: *ucan) *ujan

usothrust a stick into, pierce (POC: *usok) *u(n)sek

usuthread through, as a rope through a hole (PMP: *usuk)

uti-penis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

utoheart; pith of a tree (POC: *quto)

uvia yam, Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

Fijian (740 / 990)

uvuthe young leaf of the banana, in which the flower is enclosed; also of the coconut (POC: *upur) *qubuj

uvu-cablow with the mouth (POC: *upi-a) *upi

four (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

to tread softly (POC: *paRas)

vā-cato tread softly on something (POC: *paRas)

vacueyebrow (POC: *paju)

vacuthe eyebrows (POC: *pasu₂)

vadrathe pandanus tree: Pandanus odoratissimus (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

vaia ray or skate, Raiidae; also a string figure (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

vaka-prefix; added to verbs it usually makes causatives; added to nouns it makes adjectives or adverbs (tamata ‘man’, vaka-tamata ‘human; like a human being); added to adjectives it makes adverbs (vinaka ‘good’, vaka-vinaka ‘well’); added to nouns it may indicate possession (vale ‘house’ vaka-vale ‘having a house’); added to some intransitive verbs it makes intensives, frequentatives or continuatives (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

vaka-boŋi-vāfourth night after the chief's death (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

vaka-calato cause to err (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

vaka-cala-kado a thing by mistake (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

vaka-caŋi-caŋigo somewhere for health's sake; take a holiday (POC: *paka-aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

vaka-cavain what way?, how?, how is it that?, \ why? (PMP: *sapa)

vaka-ciwanine times (POC: *paka-siwa) *Siwa

vaka-dē-nato excrete on (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

vaka-i-sāhaving a mate or opposite; of a house, having rafters (POC: *soRa)

vaka-maca-takato dry or empty a canoe on shore (PMP: *maja)

vaka-mataucleverly, in a right-handed way (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

Fijian (760 / 990)

vaka-matego out, of a light (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

vaka-mate-aput to death, kill; extinguish a light (POC: *paka-mate-ia) *aCay

vaka-mimito make water run in a small stream (PMP: *mimi)

vaka-moðe-ito bid good-bye or good sleep to (NOISE)

vaka-nanahaving pus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

vaka-onosix times (POC: *paka-onom) *enem

vaka-osooso-takacrowd together (POC: *osok) *esek

vaka-oso-rato fill, as a crowd does (POC: *osok) *esek

(vaka)-raraŋ-ato warm food again by placing it near a fire; to sear up banana leaves around food (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

vaka-riri-ŋato boil a thing (POC: *ririq) *diqdiq

vaka-ro-roŋoto hear, listen, obey (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

vaka-ruatwice (POC: *paka-rua) *duSa

vaka-sala-takato point the way, show, advise, warn (POC: *jalan) *zalan

vaka sali-ato drain (PMP: *saliR)

vaka-sisi-tato cause of slip, of land (NOISE)

vaka-sivo-yato dismiss, depose (POC: *paka-sipo) *sipo

vaka-tabe-tabe-ato test the weight of something in the hands; to life a boat out of shallow water (POC: *tabe)

vaka-tā-kilāto show, make known, reveal (PAN: *kilala)

vaka-toluthree times (POC: *paka-tolu) *telu

vaka-turaŋabelonging to a chief, chiefly, of chiefly rank, noble (POC: *turaŋa)

Fijian (780 / 990)

vaka-vāfour times (POC: *paka-pat) *Sepat

vaka-vicahow many times? (POC: *paka-pica) *pijax

vaka-vituseven times (PMP: *paka-pitu) *pitu

vaka-vunisecretly, on the sly (POC: *puni₂) *buNi

vaka-vut-i-takapull off old thatch preparatory to putting on new (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

vaka-vū-vūclear the throat (POC: *buu₄)

vaka-walueight times (PMP: *paka-walu) *walu

vaka-watimarry (POC: *wati₂)

vaka-yaca-nato name (PMP: *pa(ka)-ajan) *ajan

vā-kila-kilāto fawn upon one previously despised (PAN: *kilala)

vala (OG)to fight (POC: *(bp)ala₂)

valehouse (POC: *pale) *balay

valumake war on, be at war with (POC: *i-palu)

valuto make war on, be at war with (POC: *palu₄)

vanashoot with an arrow or a gun; to pierce (PAN: *panaq)

vanito put oil through the hair with one’s fingers (POC: *pani₂)

vanualand, region, place; used in a number of weather expressions, sa siga na vanua 'it is daylight'; sa bogi na vanua 'it is night' (POC: *panua) *banua

vaŋanipet animal; petted (POC: *paŋan-i) *paŋan

vaoa plant: Bleekeria elliptica (POC: *paqo)

varaspongy flesh in the kernel of a coconut before it shoots; a coconut in this stage or just shooting (PMP: *para)

Fijian (800 / 990)

vara(not in Capell) (LOAN)

vari-ascale a fish; scratch (POC: *pari₁)

varoto file, saw, or rasp (POC: *paro)

vasaa plant: Cerbera odollam (POC: *pasa(rR))

vasito plant yams in the same ground two or more years in succession (POC: *pasi)

vatashelf, loft, platform; bed in a corner of a native house (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

vatustone (POC: *patu) *batux

vaua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (POC: *paRu) *baRu

vauKleinhovia hospita (POC: *pau)

vau-cato tie, bind (PCEMP: *paqus₂)

vavacarry a child on the back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

vā-vāall four (POC: *pati pati) *Sepat

vavibake food in a native oven (POC: *papi)

vayasmall fish like the daniva (similar to a sardine), but with a red tail (PMP: *paya)

veiinterrogative noun, asking place where? (PMP: *pai₁)

vei-a prefix. Added to nouns it forms a collective plural (vale 'house', vei-vale 'a group of houses'). Added to verbs it makes reciprocals. It may also be added to names of relationships to produce a reciprocal sense: vei-taci-ni 'brother and sister', the taci relationship (PEMP: *paRi-)

vei-dio-dioof a rock, covered with oysters (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

vei dranu-mithe place where the tide meets the fresh water of a river (POC: *ranum) *daNum

vei-nakito agree to do (NOISE)

vei-rara-yakiof two persons, each lying on one side of a fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

Fijian (820 / 990)

vei sāa pair, couple; a thing given in exchange (POC: *soRa)

vei-tama-nifather and son relationship: applied to animals (cp. also Toba Batak par-ama-on 'relationship of children to their father') (POC: *paRi-tama) *amax

vei-vatugroups of rocks, rocky country (POC: *patu) *batux

vei-vatu-vatustony place; shoulder-blade; slate for writing; coral (POC: *patu) *batux

vei-vunihide-and-seek, a game (POC: *puni₂) *buNi

vela, velavelainterjection of surprise (POC: *pela pela)

vesi (dü)a tree: Intsia bijuga (POC: *pesi)

vetaua tree: Ochrocarpus odoratus yielding a dye and a useful timber (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

viageneric name of the giant arums of the genera Alocasia and Cyrtosperma Araceae. Kinds: via dranu 'Alocasia indica', via ŋaŋa, via kana 'Cyrtosperma edule', via mila 'Alocasia indica, edible' (POC: *piRaq₂) *biRaq₁

viaan auxiliary verb expressing desire (PMP: *pian)

viaan auxiliary verb expressing desire (PMP: *pia₃)

viakind of broad fish with large breast fins (POC: *piRa₂) *piRa

via-luato feel sick (PMP: *luaq)

vicainterrogative numeral, how many?, and indefinite, so many, as in ‘a certain number of days’ (unspecified) (POC: *pica) *pijax

vica-saŋavuluhow many tens? (POC: *pica) *pijax

vicito bind, roll up, coil (POC: *pisi₁)

vicikothe flesh, the lean of meat as against uro, the fat; the grain of lumber (POC: *pijiko)

vicikoflesh, the lean of meat as against the fat; the grain of timber (POC: *pisiko)

vicoa wild sugarcane: Erianthus maximus (POC: *piso₁)

vicoa wild sugarcane: Erianthus maximus (POC: *pijo)

Fijian (840 / 990)

vico-vicothe navel (POC: *piso₂)

vidato split, of certain things only (POC: *pidak) *bitak₁

vidato split, of certain things only (PMP: *pi(n)tak)

vidato split, of certain things only (PMP: *pitak₃)

vidijump, spring, fly up; of animal, to run at full gallop; of sap or gum, to ooze out; of water, to sound like drips (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

vidito jump, spring, fly up (POC: *pidik) *pitik

vidi-kato fillip (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

vidi-kato fillip (POC: *pidik) *pitik

vidi vidikind of sea-prawn, so called because it jumps (POC: *pitik-pitik) *bitik₁

vilito pick up scattered things, as fallen leaves or fruits (PAN: *piliq)

vilolocrooked, bent (POC: *pilolo)

vilusmall deep-bellied fish like the saqa (trevally, Caranx spp.), but dark in color and with no teeth (PMP: *pilu)

virito throw at, pelt (POC: *piriŋ₃) *biriŋ₂

virocross-grained, of timber (POC: *piro)

viro-viro-across-grained, of timber (POC: *piro-a) *piro

vitito break off small branches (POC: *piti)

vituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

vitu-sa-ŋa-vuluseventy (PMP: *pitu ŋa puluq) *pitu

vitu-vituall the seven (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

viuthe fan palm: Pritchardia pacifica, Palmae. Used as protection from rain, hence umbrella (POC: *piRu) *biRu

Fijian (860 / 990)

vivito wrap up, as a mat; to bind, as a bandage (NOISE)

vocato be wrecked on a reef, of a canoe (stronger than kasa to run aground, of a canoe) (POC: *posaq) *peceq

voceto paddle a canoe, row a boat (POC: *pose) *beRsay

voce-a, voce-rarow to a place (POC: *pose) *beRsay

voivoia kind of pandanus with leaves that are made into mats: Pandanus thurstonii (POC: *poipoi)

volaput up a fish-fence (at the mouth of a river) (POC: *polat) *belat₂

volato make marks on; to write (NOISE)

volibuy, purchase (PEMP: *poli) *beli

voli-abuy, purchase (POC: *poli-a) *beli

voli-takasell, spend (money) (PEMP: *poli) *beli

volosmall striped fish (POC: *polos₂)

voloa small striped fish (NOISE)

vonusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

vonu balavua euphemism for human flesh (Lau islands) (POC: *poñu) *peñu

vonu dinagreen turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

votothorn, prickle (POC: *potok) *beRtek

votothorn, prickle (POC: *potok) *betek₁

voto-kato prick (POC: *potok) *beRtek

voto ni molikind of kingfish (lit. ‘orange thorn’) (POC: *potok) *betek₁

voto ni vaiskate-thorn, used as a spear-thorn in olden times (POC: *potok) *beRtek

Fijian (880 / 990)

votuappear, become visible (as a ghost) (POC: *potu₁) *betu₁

votu-votu-aof breadfruit, presenting an abundant crop (POC: *potu₁) *betu₁

vounew; newly, recently (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

to cough, a cough (POC: *buu₄)

bottom, basis, root (tuberous or bulbous; fibrous root is waka); cause (PMP: *puqun)

to wash, cleanse with water, of the feet or hands (PMP: *puRiq) *buRiq

to wash, cleanse with water, as the feet or hands (POC: *puqi)

vuafruit, produce; grandchild, descendant; to bear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vuabear two burdens on the shoulder, one at each end of a stick; the burden so carried, also a yoke (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

vuatake possession of a village in war, driving the inhabitants out (NOISE)

vuato take possession of a village in war, driving the inhabitants out (NOISE)

vua ni kaufruit; also used for a pill (POC: *puaq ni kayu) *buaq

vuat-acrop, fruits of trees, etc.; harvest (POC: *puat-an₁) *buat₁

vua vuato bear fruit (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

vucarotten (POC: *pusa₂)

vuca-loabruised, of fruit (POC: *pusa₂)

vucuhit with a missile, as in veilavo game (POC: *pusuR) *busuR₂

vudibananas in general, Musa sapientum, Musa paradisiaca, Musaceae (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

vueto lift up, generally from water or mire (as a fishing net) (POC: *puRe₁)

vulamoon, month (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

Fijian (900 / 990)

vulakind of sea cucumber (POC: *pula₃)

vū laŋistranger (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

vula-vulawhite; a partial albino (POC: *pulan₂) *bulan₂

vula-vulawhite; a partial albino (POC: *pulaR₁) *bulaR₂

vula-vulawhite; a partial albino (NEAR)

vulu-ahair about the privates (POC: *pulu-an) *bulu₁

vulu-vuluwash the hands; euphemism for being circumcised; circumcision (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

vū-nato begin (PMP: *puqun)

vunito hide, conceal (POC: *puni₂) *buNi

vuni-ato hide, conceal (trans.) (POC: *puni₂) *buNi

vū ni kautree (often coupled with name of tree instead of generic kau, as in vū ni vudi ‘a banana plant’) (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

vū-ni-kaudefinitely a tree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

vū ni laŋihorizon (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

vū ni laŋias though one who comes from the horizon (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

vū ni saŋahip joint (PMP: *puqun)

vū ni tabashoulder (taba = upper arm) (PMP: *puqun)

vuŋaa porous coral rock in the sea: vatu vuso (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

vuŋodescripive term applied to one's relations in law: father or mother, son or daughter, mother's brother (whose daughter one normally marries), niece and nephew to the same (POC: *puŋao)

vuraarrive, emerge, appear (POC: *pura)

vura!interjection of welcome to a stranger arriving (POC: *pura)

Fijian (920 / 990)

vuri-wai(flowing water) = river (Dempwolff 1938) (NOISE)

vusaalmost synonymous with yavusa (the largest kinship and social division of Fijian society), but used more generally of a group, tribe, either of people or animals, etc. (POC: *pusa₁)

vusoto effervesce, to froth; foam, froth (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

vusofoam, suds} (POC: *busa₂) *busa₁

vusoto effervesce, to froth; froth, foam (POC: *pusoq) *buseq

vuso-lakato foam over, of the sea (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

vuso-vuso-afrothy, foaming (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

vut-i-apluck hair or feathers, pull up weeds (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

vut-ia na malamalaextract a splinter (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

vutupound with pestle and mortar (POC: *putuk) *butuk

vutua tree, Barringtonia sp. (POC: *putun₁) *butun

vututie flowers in bunches (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

vutupound with pestle and mortar (ROOT)

vutupound with pestle and mortar (ROOT)

vutuk-apound it! (POC: *putuk) *butuk

vutu kana, vutu kataBarringtonia edulis (POC: *putun₁) *butun

vutu ŋaŋa, vutu karakara, vutu valaBarringtonia speciosa (POC: *putun₁) *butun

vutu siri waiBarringtonia racemosa (POC: *putun₁) *butun

vuvulong narrow fish trap made of bamboo (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

vuvuroot up entirely (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

Fijian (940 / 990)

vu-vūenvious, jealous; envy, jealousy (POC: *puRu₂) *buR(e)hu

vuvumuddy, troubled, of water (ROOT)

vuvulaa white fish, bony to eat (easily chokes people): Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet) (POC: *pu-pulan)

vu-vulaa fish: Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet); white, bony to eat, easily chokes people (POC: *pu-pulan) *bulan-bulan

vu-yawash it (trans.) (PMP: *puRiq) *buRiq

vū-yato wash something, cleanse something with water (POC: *puqi)

vine, creeper of any kind; string, bandage (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

wabubeat with a stick, strow down with violence (ROOT)

waiwater, liquid of any kind (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wai ni matatears (PCEMP: *waiR ni mata) *wahiR

wai ni sucumilk (breast water) (PAN: *susu₁)

wai taciwai taci (PMP: *tasik)

wakathe root of a plant (PMP: *wakaR)

wakakind of club with many knots at the head, and really just a root (POC: *waka)

walianoint; rub a sore with i wali, which is a kind of oil made of leaves cut up and oil added (POC: *wali₁)

walueight (PAN: *walu)

walu-waluall eight (PMP: *walu walu) *walu

wā ni vico-vicothe navel string (POC: *piso₂)

wānonostare at (ROOT)

waŋgaa sailing canoe, of various kinds (POC: *waga) *waŋka

Fijian (960 / 990)

waseto divide, separate (POC: *wa(n)se)

wase ruabisect, etc. (POC: *wa(n)se)

watispouse (POC: *wati₂)

wā vula-vulaa creeper, fam. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea pes-caprae (POC: *pula₂)

a tree, Spondias dulcis, Anacardiaceae; the natives are fond of the fruit (PCEMP: *quRi)

wilicount, read (NOISE)

wiriturn, revolve (PMP: *wirit)

yacaname (POC: *acan) *ajan

yacagrate, grind, file, rub eyes with cika (conjunctivitis) (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

yadreforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

yak-avithe evening, and by extension the afternoon (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

yalo, yalov-ato beckon (POC: *qalop) *qalep

(ya)-motusmall detached reef (POC: *motus)

yana-yanaloosely plaited or woven, as of mats (PMP: *añam)

yanesp. of moth (POC: *ane) *aNay

ya-nucaproper name of many small islands (Geraghty 1983:128) (POC: *a-nusa) *nusa₁

yaŋageneric name for some varieties of shell-fish: Pterocera and Lambis sp. (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

yā-ruatwo each (POC: *rua) *duSa

yate-nathe liver, considered as the seat of cowardice and courage, hence yate levu 'coward' ( = 'big liver'), yate dei, yate lialia 'courageous' ( = 'firm, unwavering/mad, foolish liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

yā-toluthree each (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

Fijian (980 / 990)

yatuthe yellow-finned tunny, locally called bonito: Neothunnus, Macropterus (POC: *qatun)

yatua row, not followed by (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

yatu durua row of posts, colonnade (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

yatu-naarrange in rows (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

yaudew (PCEMP: *au₁)

yaucarry, bring (PMP: *qaRus)

yavatoa grub in a tree which develops into the coleopterus called qou (large coleopterus resembling a stag beetle) (POC: *qapator) *qabated

yavatoa grub in a tree which develops into the coleopterus called qou (large coleopterus resembling a stag beetle) (POC: *qapatoR) *qabateR

yava vilolobow-legged (POC: *pilolo)

yavuburned up, consumed (NOISE)

yavusathe largest kinship and social division of Fijian society (NOISE)

yawamilkfish (Chanos chanos) (PMP: *qawan)

yawadeep-bellied fish that jumps along the surface of the sea: the milkfish, Chanos chanos (PMP: *qawa₁)

Fijian (Boumaa) (1) OC

taniaway (directional) (POC: *tani₁) Boumaa

Fijian (dialectal) (1) OC

unuto drink (PCEMP: *unum) dialectal

Fijian (Eastern) (1) OC [fij] (Fijian) Fiji

ŋgakamangrove crab (PMP: *kaRakap) Eastern

Fijian (Lomaiviti) (1) OC

didibe-saua bird, the Golden Whistler (POC: *sau) Lomaiviti

Fijian (Naitāsiri) (1) OC

ŋwacolarge rat (POC: *mwajor) *mansər Naitāsiri

Fijian (Namosi) (1) OC

ŋwacalarge rat (POC: *mwajar) *mansar Namosi

Fijian (Rakiraki) (1) OC

karawamako shark: Isurus (POC: *kwarara) Rakiraki

Fijian (Waidina) (1) OC

ŋwacolarge rat (POC: *mwajor) *mansər Waidina

172. Filakara (3) OC

fiahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

na-maruaold (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

-u1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

173. Fordata (196) CMP (Drabbe 1932) [frd] Indonesia (Maluku)

anahakind of fish (PMP: *kanasay) *kaNasay

ananplaiting of baskets, fish weirs, etc. (PMP: *añam)

ataŋjealous of (NOISE)

avaratake, have, or carry on the shoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

awankind of small fish (PMP: *qawan)

babaaddress of children to their father, of elders to male children, and to any male person with whom one wishes to speak confidentially (PMP: *baba₂)

ba-lamandeep; a depth (PCEMP: *laman)

bali-nveil oneself, as a woman does when her husband is dead (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁

baraswell, swell up (PAN: *baReq)

barispoiling of foodstuffs (PCEMP: *baRi) *baRiw

belatfencing in (PMP: *belat₂)

bibigoat (LOAN)

bubureciprocal term of address between grandparents and grandchildren (PAN: *bubu₆)

bweacrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

daainland (PAN: *daya)

elakfrontier, border, line of division (PMP: *elak)

elunbent, curved (PMP: *eluŋ)

eranturtle with prized shell (PCEMP: *keRan₂)

faa-ncalf of the leg (PAN: *paqa₁)

faanfish bait (PAN: *paen)

Fordata (20 / 196)

fa-firahow often? (PAN: *pijax)

fa-fituseven times (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

fal-falutime of general sago-pounding; beater for sago-pounding (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

fa-limafive times (PAN: *lima)

faŋahandspan (PAN: *paŋa₁)

faŋaa span (PAN: *paŋaq)

fa-ratus isaaa hundred times (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

faristingray; the constellation Scorpio (PCEMP: *paRi) *paRiS

fa-ruatwice, do something twice (PCEMP: *paka-dua) *duSa

fa-teluthree times (PMP: *pa-telu) *telu

fat-fitu-nseven-by-seven, seven at a time (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fennuturtle with worthless shell (probably Chelonia mydas) (PMP: *peñu)

f-rua-nmiddle (PMP: *duha) *duSa

iprefix to numerals in counting (used with 1-9) (PCEMP: *i₄)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ia(n)fish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ifarZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.) (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

i-firahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

i-fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ihi-nflesh, contents; flesh of tubers, pit of a nut, yield of the crops (PAN: *isi₅)

Fordata (40 / 196)

iki-fituonly seven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

iki-ruaonly two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

i-limafive (PAN: *lima)

imatree sp. (PCEMP: *ima₂)

inithis; here (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

iŋatremember (PMP: *iŋat)

irathey, them (PMP: *ida)

i-ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

i-teluthree (PMP: *i-telu) *telu

ivaedible shellfish (PMP: *qibaw₁)

iʔirscrape off (NOISE)

kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kal-kalipit, quarry; groove (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

kenahit the mark; correct, right, true (PAN: *keNa)

kikurthe tail, except for birds (PAN: *kikuR)

kisipinch, hold between thumb and forefinger (PCMP: *kisi)

lafarhunger (PMP: *lapaR₁)

lamandepth (PCEMP: *laman)

lam-lima-nevery five; five by five (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

Fordata (60 / 196)

lawalength (PAN: *lawa₁)

lerasun; dry season following the east monsoon in the months of August and September (PMP: *qalejaw)

letabridge (PCMP: *letay₂)

lisa-nnit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lukutbend, fold, crumple (PMP: *lukut) *lukut₁

lukutbending of arms, legs, pen-knife; folding of folding chair, etc. (ROOT)

maminkind of fish (PMP: *mamin₁)

man-minaksweet, tasty (PMP: *miñak)

manu-tbird, and more particularly chicken (PMP: *manuk)

mar-m-urilater (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

mataraw, uncooked, unripe (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mataeye; sprout of a banana, etc. (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n tomattapupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n vulu-neyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

m-etiebb, lowering water (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

mina-nfat, greasy (PMP: *miñak)

m-urioutside, the outside of; behind, at the back; stern of a boat; rear of a house (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

na-bali-n nitumourn for the dead, be in mourning (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁

na-b-lafarbe hungry, suffer hunger pangs (PMP: *lapaR₁)

Fordata (80 / 196)

na-b-rusukbe thin, skinny (PAN: *Rusuk)

na-f-kenato correct; to tally, of a sum of money or a calculation (PAN: *keNa)

na-f-rua-be half full (PMP: *duha) *duSa

nahi-n ihi-nblade of a knife or other weapon (PAN: *isi₅)

n-bitito kick (PMP: *bintiq)

n-daago inland (PAN: *daya)

n-diristand, stand up (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

n-dirito stand (PAN: *diRi)

n-faluhammer on, pound on (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

n-faŋa-tto measure by handspans (PAN: *paŋaq)

n-fa-tarubring something to a specified place (PMP: *pa-taRuq) *taRuq

n-fa-vanuŋset upright, as a post (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

n-feraswring out (PAN: *peRes)

nifasnake (PMP: *nipay)

nitudead person; ghost, shade, spectre (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

n-kenato touch, to affect someone or something (PAN: *keNa)

n-mali-tlaugh, laugh at (PCEMP: *malip)

n-mamato chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

n-ramasto knead, massage (PAN: *Rames)

n-raranstay by a fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

Fordata (100 / 196)

n-refato fathom, measure by fathoms (PAN: *depah)

n-renarto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

n-sikucarry on the upper arm (PAN: *sikux)

n-sisirto comb the hair (PMP: *sisir)

n-tarulaying of eggs; to lay an egg (PMP: *taRuq)

n-tutnudge, bump against (PAN: *tutuh)

n-tutunlight a lamp, cigarette, etc. (PMP: *tutuŋ)

n-vanungto erect, set upright (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

n-viluwrap up (PCMP: *bilu₂)

n-vilu nitushow last respects to the dead (PCMP: *bilu₂)

n-vivitlet dangle from the hand (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

ŋ-luarwide, spacious (PMP: *luqaR)

ŋ-lulunto roll up (a sail, mat, etc.) (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

pulutsticky sap of breadfruit, birdlime (PMP: *pulut)

ra-rua-ntwo by two, two at a time; two each (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ratuking (PMP: *datu)

ratuthundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ratut isaaone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rav-ruathe day after tomorrow (PMP: *duha) *duSa

refafathom (PAN: *depah)

Fordata (120 / 196)

r-naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

r-si-bitishin-kicking, a game (PMP: *bintiq)

salaguilt, fault; mistaken, in error; sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

salirconduit for water, water pipe (PMP: *saliR)

sana-nbranch, side path, tributary of a river (PMP: *saŋa₁)

san-sana-nhaving many branches (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sisira comb (PMP: *sisir)

sita-na mata-nstone setting in a finger-ring (PMP: *mata) *maCa

solatturn towards the destination of a voyage, of boats (PCEMP: *solat)

sulaarwhale, the fins of which project above the water when it swims on the surface (clearly misidentified, since whales have no dorsal fin; cf. Fordata laar ‘sail’) (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

suratletter; book (LOAN)

susubreast (male or female) (PAN: *susu₁)

tabuforbid, prevent (PCEMP: *tambu)

tafaladhere to; to stick, paste, glue (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

(tan)tunu-nroasted in the fire (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tera-nleftovers, remainder (PAN: *teda)

tevusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

timureast, east monsoon (PMP: *timuR)

tivudeep hole in the reef (PCMP: *tibu₁) *tibu

tnirikind of large fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

Fordata (140 / 196)

tuarstubble; stump (of a tree) (PAN: *tuqed)

tunuroast in a fire; shooting of a firearm (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

turuto point out, show; teach, instruct (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

uarattan (PAN: *quay)

uanpointed digging stick (NOISE)

ubugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *umpu)

ularcaterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

uluin front; front part of something (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulu-nhead; classifier for boats (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

umunpit in the ground in which tubers are baked (PMP: *qumun)

uratvein; sinew; tendon; muscle (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uturfish sp., the red neck (PMP: *qutud)

uuhowling of dogs (PMP: *uu)

uvurheart of palm (PMP: *qubuj)

vaaflowing of a river (PCEMP: *baaq) *baSaq

valatanswer, repay, requite (PAN: *bales₁)

valikmixture of liquid and dry substances (PAN: *bales₁)

valikmixture of liquid and dry substances (PCMP: *balik₁)

vanabe light, bright (PMP: *banaqaR)

varacross-stick for outrigger (LOAN)

Fordata (160 / 196)

vavabeneath, south (PMP: *babaq₁)

vavamouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

vavupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

velarunfold, unroll, spread out, open a book; be unfolded, unrolled, spread out (PMP: *bekelaj)

velibrideprice (PMP: *beli)

velukuse fire to help straighten a curved bamboo (PMP: *beluk)

vevawind around, wrap around (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

viaksplit in two; tear, rend (PMP: *biqak)

vinakind of shellfish (PCEMP: *bina)

viraa tuber which causes itching (PMP: *biRaq₁)

v-n-ilu-ngifts offered to the dead (PCMP: *bilu₂)

vua-nfruit; heart (PMP: *buaq)

vuarmountain, hill (NOISE)

vuatresemble (PMP: *buat₂)

vuatbring, carry; load, cargo (PMP: *buhat₃)

vulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

vulan nabrii timurmoon in the last quarter (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

vulan nabrii varatmoon in the first quarter (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

vuliporcelain shell, egg cowrie (PMP: *buliq₁)

vulu-nbody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

Fordata (180 / 196)

vunaflower spadix of the coconut and some other palms (PMP: *buŋa)

vun-anridgepole (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

vun-an dar-diri-nmain housepost (reanalyzed, apparently by Drabbe 1932, as vuna-n) (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

vun yanata constellation, part of the 'Steer' (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

vututop, peak, crest of a mountain or hill (PMP: *buntu) *buntu₂

walueight (PAN: *walu)

wananbamboo lath on which thatch is placed (NOISE)

waratliana sp. (PMP: *waRej)

wariyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

wari-kdry in the sun; put, hang, etc. in the sun (PAN: *waRi₁)

waʔatshore tree: Rhizophore (PMP: *wakat)

yafufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

yafurlime, calcium; very white, of the flesh of the sago palm (PAN: *qapuR)

yatakcover, cover oneself with; envelop oneself with (PCMP: *atek)

yata-nliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

yaturlay (things) in a row (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

174. Fortsenal (6) OC

karuto swim (POC: *kaRu₁)

ma-kikicold (POC: *maridriŋ) *diŋdiŋ₂

ma-vuso-heart (POC: *puso₃) *puso₂

meme-tongue (POC: *meme)

su-maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

tanito cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

175. Futuna-Aniwa (4) OC [fut] Vanuatu [aka: Aniwa]

finewoman (POC: *pine) *bahi

fu-fulato swell, become swollen (as the foot) (POC: *pula₄)

nunufemale breast (POC: *nunu₃) *nunuh

sabad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

176. Futunan (175) OC [aka: East Futunan]

afi-afievening (after about 5:00 p.m.) (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

afusadescendants (NOISE)

aiinterrogative pronoun, who?, whom? (PMP: *sai)

alaroad, way, path (POC: *jalan) *zalan

amaoutrigger of a canoe (POC: *saman) *saRman

anu-siabe smelly (said of dead animal, etc.) (POC: *qanusi)

atutowards the addressee (directional) (PMP: *atu)

faka-lakato pass over (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

faka-lanurinse off with fresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

faka-utato load cargo on a boat (POC: *ucan) *ujan

fale fonoassembly house (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

fiahow much?, how many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

filito choose (PAN: *piliq)

fili-filito choose; choice, selection (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fonoassemble for discussion; a council, assembly (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

fonusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

fonu koloahawksbill turtle (koloa = ‘riches, durable goods, as mats or tapa cloth) (POC: *poñu) *peñu

futibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

ifodescend (POC: *sipo)

Futunan (20 / 175)

ifo-ifodescend gently (POC: *sipo)

ikequadrangular mallet of wood or iron, used for pounding out bark cloth (POC: *ike) *ikay

ikube finished; transmitted (of information) (POC: *siku)

kaito eat (transitive or intransitive) (POC: *kani) *kaen

ka-kaipeople, inhabitants (POC: *kai)

kalaʔapusia shrub: Acalypha grandis (POC: *kalaqabusi)

kaliwooden headrest with short legs (POC: *kalik)

kalu-matathe whites of the eyes (NOISE)

kanocentral part (of a road, an army) (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kano ’i matapupil of the eye (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kasorafter in a house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

katafaa plant, Asplenium sp. (PMP: *katapaŋ)

kito, into; toward; mark of the oblique case (introduces object and locative complements) (POC: *ki₁)

kito, toward, marker of the oblique case (introduces object and locative complements) (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

kiteappear in the distance; appearance (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kofuclothing (NOISE)

kosostake, post (as for husking coconuts) (POC: *kojom)

kum-kumʷibeard (POC: *kumʷi) *gumi

kutulouse, lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu-ainfested with lice, lousy (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Futunan (40 / 175)

sail; sheet (PAN: *layaR)

laka-fiabe passed over (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

laka-lakawomen’s dance performed while sitting (POC: *lakar-lakar) *lakaj

la-ku, lo-ku1sg definite possessive adjective: my, mine (POC: *-gu) *-ku

lalato smoke fish (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

lalothe bottom, area beneath (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lanurinse off with fresh water; give a bath in a basin (of a baby) (POC: *ranum) *daNum

laŋisky; mythical residence of persons after their death (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋo-afull of flies, swarming with flies (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋo ʔusibluebottle (lit. ‘blue fly’) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laso-fuaelephantiasis of the scrotum (lit. ‘fruit scrotum/testicles’) (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

lataused to, familiar with (POC: *lasa₁)

laʔa-kautree; woods; stick (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

laʔeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

leleto fly (POC: *rere₂)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limualgae (in general); moss, lichen; edible red seaweed (PMP: *limut)

liŋito pour out (PCEMP: *liŋi)

liŋi-liŋito pour (frequentive) (POC: *liŋi-liŋi) *liŋi

Futunan (60 / 175)

lofafathom, distance from tip to tip between outstretched arms (POC: *ropa) *depah

lo-lokuto bend (of a branch, bough) (POC: *rokuŋ) *dekuŋ

loŋoto hear, be heard (from a distance) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-āto be noisy (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-fiato understand, know (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-loŋoto hear faintly; rumor, hearsay; to inform; to summon (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-nabe known, celebrated, famous; to be announced, proclaimed (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-ʔito feel (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lototo desire, want, wish; prefer; desire sexually; interior, center; enclosure, yard (POC: *loto₁)

loto velibe ill-natured; jealous (POC: *loto₁)

luatwo; second; companion (POC: *rua) *duSa

and; etc. (in counting) (PAN: *maS)

mafoto scar, heal over (POC: *mapo)

maimai (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mai le tosiGive me the book! (POC: *mai) *ai₃

makisick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

malamisfortune, bad luck (PMP: *malaŋ)

ma-lamatorch (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

mā-lamaclear, transparent (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

malocloth girdle used during ceremonies; menstrual cloth (PCEMP: *malaw)

Futunan (80 / 175)

mamato chew (fruits); mouthful of premasticated food for a mother to give her infant (PMP: *mamaq)

mama-ʔianourish an infant at the time of weaning (PMP: *mamaq)

mamihave a good taste (as sweet fruits); be tasteless, insipid (from lack of salt) (POC: *mamis) *hemis

manathunder, thunderbolt (POC: *mana₂)

manavaabdomen, belly (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

mānavato breathe; to rest; to catch one’s breath (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manavābe patient; able to endure; marathon (race) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

mānifithin (in thickness) (PMP: *ma-nipis) *Nipis

masabe empty (as a bottle), be dry (as a river from which the water has evaporated) (PMP: *maja)

masakibe sick; patient, sick person; sickness, illness, disease (POC: *masakit) *sakit

masa-masato dry up gradually (PMP: *maja)

masifermented breadfruit; pit for preparing fermented breadfruit (NOISE)

mataraw, uncooked (meat or fish); immature, as a young coconut not ready to be used (POC: *mataq) *hataq

mataface (plural); eye; numeral classifier for counting fish; have the appearance of, have an air of; cutting edge, blade; front of something, in front (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-talato understand; be evident, be clear (LOAN)

mata-likiPleiades; small, miniscule (of writing, tattooing) (POC: *mata riki) *maCa

mata-matacontemplate, view, gaze on; source (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mataŋiwind (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata ʔi laŋihorizon (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ʔi taliŋahammerhead shark (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Futunan (100 / 175)

mata ʔonebeach (‘eye of sand’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matuʔabe old (singular); age; an old person (from about 40); king (in cards); ripe, mature; an elder person of importance (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mātuʔaparents (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

moa toʔacock, rooster (POC: *toqa)

mumunito hide (oneself) (POC: *mumuni)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

niucoconut tree, Cocos nucifera L. (PMP: *niuR)

niu matayoung coconut with very soft meat (PMP: *niuR)

nofostay, occupy; sit down (NOISE)

nonua tree: Morinda citrifolia (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋūto speak (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋutumouth, beak, muzzle; orifice, neck (of a bottle) (PAN: *ŋusuq)

oŋeto be wanting, lacking resources, in a condition of scarcity, famine (POC: *soŋe)

papaboard, plank (POC: *baban) *papan

pitonavel (POC: *bito)

pono-ponoto close (oven, door) (POC: *bonot)

pulut-ito dress a wound (POC: *bulut) *pulut

saeto ruin, spoil (POC: *saRe)

safebe slung over the shoulder (POC: *sape) *sapay

sakejump over (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

Futunan (120 / 175)

salabe at fault, faulty; be excessive; fault, error; in error (PMP: *salaq₁)

saʔele atuMarch forwards! Advance! (PMP: *atu)

to flower, be in bloom; a flower (POC: *see)

seŋaVini australis (POC: *seŋa₂)

sikiget up to leave; change place (NOISE)

sukibe pricked, pierced (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

sulusarong, wrap-around garment (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

sumudark/sombre Picasso fish: Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Solander) (POC: *sumu)

su-sunuto burn, scorch (PMP: *sunuR)

to beat, hit (with a stick); to cut (wood) for construction; to build (with wood) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tafa-tafasmall field; bordering (NOISE)

tafeto flow (rapidly) (POC: *tape₁)

taisea; tide (PMP: *tasik)

tainamumosquito net (POC: *tai ñamuk)

talaspine, horn, dorsal fin (POC: *salaŋ)

talaspine, horn, dorsal fin (PEMP: *sala)

talotaro (generic): Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum Schott (POC: *talos) *tales

tanubury; be buried (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tanu-miabe buried (as a house under a landslide) (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋito weep; to take a complaint to the chief (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

Futunan (140 / 175)

taŋi-taŋito whimper, whine, snivel (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

tā-toufirst person plural inclusive postposed personal pronoun (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

taʔeexcrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

taʔuseason for harvesting yams (PMP: *taqun)

taʔu laʔādry season (PMP: *taqun)

timublast of strong wind (PMP: *timuR)

tinaʔepregnant (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

toaa tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L. (POC: *toRas) *teRas

tokato calm down (of the wind) (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tokato meet, gather (as an assembly of people) (POC: *toka₁) *teka₁

tokopunting pole, long pole used to propel a canoe in shallow water (POC: *tokon) *teken

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tosibook; letter; design; to make a design, write (PEMP: *tosi)

toʔabe courageous (POC: *toqa)

tufato divide, distribute; a portion (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tufa-tufato divide into small parts (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuli ~ tulitulideaf (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

tuluto drip (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tuluʔ-ito drip onto, as a doctor putting drops in the eyes (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tumaclothes louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

Futunan (160 / 175)

tunariver eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tunuroast over a fire (as breadfruit) (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupakind of land crab (NOISE)

tuputo grow, increase, sprout, spring up; bud; to reveal; more (in counting) (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tusipoint with the finger (intrans.) (PMP: *tusiq)

tusi-ʔito designate, point at with the finger (trans.) (PMP: *tusiq)

tuʔaback; behind; outside (POC: *tuqa₁)

ūnurse a baby (PAN: *susu₁)

utacargo (as on a boat) (POC: *ucan) *ujan

ʔanu-sito spit in someone’s face, spit on someone (POC: *qanus-i) *qanus₂

ʔanu-sito spit in someone’s face, spit on (POC: *qanusi)

ʔanu-ʔanuto spit (POC: *qanus₂)

ʔanu-ʔanuto spit (POC: *qanusi)

ʔa-ʔanuto spit (POC: *qanus₂)

ʔuaneck (POC: *Ruqa)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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