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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Yami (Imorod)
Yami (Iranomilek)

Yami (Iraralay)


827. Yabem (31) OC [jae] Papua New Guinea

àc-lêfour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

atêliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

àwàmouth (POC: *qawa₂)

gèsuback of the head (POC: *keju)

jafire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

latuchild (PEMP: *natu)

lauŋleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lêmahand (PAN: *qalima)

luà-gêctwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

maand (PAN: *maS)

-macpainful, sick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataʔyoung (POC: *mataq) *qataq

mataʔ-mataʔgreen (POC: *mataq) *qataq

moacsnake (POC: *mwata)

-nômto drink (PMP: *inum)

ŋa-wakacits root (PMP: *wakat)

ôliskin (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

ôsiclightning (POC: *qusila)

salepbroom, originally the fruit stem of the nipa (POC: *salap-i) *salap

Yabem (20 / 31)

sôŋːnsôŋto cork (POC: *joŋjoŋ) *seŋseŋ

sufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix (PAN: *ita₁)

tamafather (PAN: *amax)

-taŋto cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋaear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tauperson, human being (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

têlê-àcthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tênamother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tômlouse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tôpto grow (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

828. Yakan (278) WMP (Behrens 2002) [yka] Philippines

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

awamto be ignorant, uninformed (LOAN)

bakaʔa basket with a handle to carry it (esp. a small basket made of rattan or lygodium) (PWMP: *bakaq-bakaq)

balatsea cucumber, trepang (generic) (PPh: *balát)

basakrice paddy; wet rice field (PWMP: *bacak)

basak-ana collection of wet rice fields (PWMP: *bacak)

basseʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

bataŋtrunk of a tree, stalk of flower, rice, etc. (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ-anwarp (in weaving) (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

batustone, rock (PMP: *batu) *batux

batu-hanstony, stone-covered (PWMP: *batu-an) *batux

batu papanbig rock with flat surface (level with ground) (PWMP: *batu papan) *batux

besseya waterfall (PWMP: *besay)

betteŋbelly, stomach; pregnant (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ₁

bewu-wan ~ bewwanfor something to smell bad, to stink (like dung, rotten fish, etc.) (PWMP: *bahu-an) *bahu

buaʔ pusuʔcalf of the leg (PMP: *pusuq₁)

dalilbuttress root (PMP: *dalij)

dalumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

datu-ʔchief, headman (PMP: *datu)

Yakan (20 / 278)

dawamillet: Echinochloa frumentacea or Setaria italica (small-seeded annual cereal and forage grass, often planted at the edge of rice fields) (PAN: *zawa₂)

dawena leaf (of plants and trees) (PMP: *dahun)

dawen teyiŋethe external ear (PMP: *dahun nu taliŋa) *dahun

daʔawaexcuse, pretext (LOAN)

deketscorched rice (that sticks to the bottom of the pot) (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dellaʔtongue (PWMP: *zelaq)

deppearm span (measurement of length; both arms are stretched out, and one measures from fingertip to fingertip) (PAN: *depah)

dulewturmeric; yellow ginger (PPH: *dulaw)

duwetwo (in counting objects) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duwe-duweh-anto doubt, have doubts (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

duyuŋmermaid (a mythical being), manatee, sea cow, dugong (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

gabukrotten, of wood (it can already be taken apart by hand) (PMP: *Rabuk)

gabuncloud, rain cloud; mist (they may be white or dark and bringing rain) (PMP: *Rabun)

gadduŋgreen (LOAN)

gamutroot , as of a tree or plant (also used of teeth) (PMP: *Ramut₁)

giliŋ-ana mill (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

guyudto drag or pull something (most often it is used for transporting coconuts on a carabao sled, the sled being dragged) (PWMP: *guyud₃)

hadjebig (as a house) (PAN: *Raya)

hatushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

Yakan (40 / 278)

hatus-anhundreds of something (PWMP: *Ratus-an) *RaCus

i-lahaʔto menstruate (PAN: *daRaq)

i-lumutto be infested with algae (of fresh water) (PMP: *lumut)

impentooth, teeth (PMP: *ipen)

ka-lumaʔ-anvillage, cluster of houses (PAN: *Rumaq)

kamatistomato: Lycopersicum esculentum (LOAN)

ka-talluall three that one has (of anything) (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

ka-tambak-anbe affected by something that piles up on top (as a house struck by a falling tree) (PWMP: *ka-tambak-an) *tambak₂

ka-taʔuknowledge (especially of supernatural things) (PWMP: *ka-taqu₁) *Caqu

ka-taʔuh-anto know something (PWMP: *ka-taqu-an) *Caqu

ka-tekkah-anfor something to come to someone, arrive at someone; the place or time of someone’s arrival (PMP: *teka₁)

katelsores; infected places (generic); for something to itch, be itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katel-anto feel itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kaweymotion with the hand for someone to come toward the speaker (PMP: *kaway₁)

kayutree (generic); wood (generic); lumber; firewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kenuʔuslarge variety of squid (PWMP: *kanuqus)

kilale-h-unto recognize (PAN: *kilala)

kileyeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray)

kimefluted clam, several species, fam. Tridacnidae (includes T. squamosa, Hippopus hippopus, and Hippopus porcellanus) (PMP: *kima)

k<in>a-kanfood; staple food (usually thought of as rice) (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

Yakan (60 / 278)

kinamto try or try out something; to taste food (in order to try out if it is good or done, etc.) (PWMP: *kiñam)

kitewe, us (dual incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kite biwe, us (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

-ku1sg ergative pronoun; 1sg possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kukkunail (of finger or toe); claw (of animals and birds) (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

ku-lisaʔlouse’s egg, nit (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

kumanscabies bug, a parasitic mite (PMP: *kuman)

kutulouse, lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu asuflea (‘dog louse’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lagaka sound (as of waves), gurgling (as water of a flood), bubbling (of something cooking) (PWMP: *lagak)

lahaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

lakatana small variety of banana (similar to suley badju), Musa family (PPH: *lakatán)

lakkesfast, quickly; to be fast or do something quickly (PWMP: *lekas₂)

lalemdeep (of a hold or body of water, also figuratively of thinking, speaking or wisdom) (PMP: *dalem)

lān ~ lalanpath, trail, road, way (PMP: *zalan)

lantikcurved, bent in a light curve (as eyelashes); to stick out (like a cock’s tail, a person’s rear) (PPH: *lantik)

laŋewa fly, housefly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lapatfor something to be covered with something; to cover an area without gaps; to be close fitting (PPH: *lapat₂)

lawaʔ-lawaʔspiderweb, cobweb (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

Yakan (80 / 278)

laʔatbad, evil (morally); poorly (of feeling) (PMP: *zaqat)

laʔat-aneasily getting angry, hot-tempered (PMP: *zaqat)

lebbaka hollow, dell, valley; indentation (PWMP: *lebak₂)

legedirty (with anything); greasy (LOAN)

leggabfor something to be submerged to soak (in water) (LOAN)

lekkeblid, cover (as of a bottle, jar, box, or pot) (PWMP: *lekeb)

lekkeb-anto cover something (as with a lid) (PWMP: *lekeb)

lepoh-anstove (in old times it consisted of a fire table that had a surface of dirt on which the fire was built and supports for the pots placed; a charcoal burner is also a lepohan, and so are gas or electric stoves) (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR₁

lettud-lebbakrolling country (several hills and valleys in succession; said also of a bumpy road) (PWMP: *lebak₂)

libatcross-eyed (PPH: *libat)

limasto bail out (water), to empty (something) of water (PMP: *limas)

limas-anto bail out (water), to empty (something) of water (PWMP: *limas-an) *limas

limatekthin black leech up to 20 cm. long, lives on ground (not in water) (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

límefive (PAN: *lima)

linugearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

luhithorn (growing on a plant) (PMP: *duRi)

luhi-anthorny (PMP: *duRi)

lumaʔhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

lumaʔ-lumaʔplayhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

lumutalgae (various kinds, esp. a hairlike variety); small plants growing in sea or fresh water (PMP: *lumut)

Yakan (100 / 278)

lumut-anto be infested with algae (of fresh water) (PMP: *lumut-an) *lumut

l<um>uwasto be out (outside) of something that is confining in some way (PMP: *luas₁)

luraʔspittle; foamy saliva spit out (PMP: *ludaq)

luraʔspittle; foamy saliva spit out (PWMP: *luzaq)

mag-daʔawato deny (an accusation) (LOAN)

mag-dellaʔ tuwaka triangular tear, as in clothing (PWMP: *zelaq)

mag-duwe-duweto waver, to be uncertain about something (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

mag-giliŋto mill something; to grind something (PMP: *giliŋ)

magin-taʔu, pagintaʔuto make something known (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

mag-ka-kanto eat (PAN: *kaen)

magka-tekkafor something to arrive (PMP: *teka₁)

mag-katelto develop a sore, become a sore (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

mag-kawinto marry, have a wedding (NOISE)

mag-kilaleto know, recognize, point out something (PAN: *kilala)

mag-kiteto see something (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

mag-lahaʔto bleed; to menstruate (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq

mag-laŋito swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

mag-laŋi-hanto swim (repetitive) (PWMP: *laŋuy)

mag-láyaŋto fly (like birds, airplanes, etc.) (PWMP: *layaŋ₁)

mag-laʔitto sew (clothing, etc.) (PMP: *zaqit)

Yakan (120 / 278)

mag-lekkupto remove something that is firmly fixed in its place (PWMP: *lekup)

mag-libedto wind something (onto a core, as thread onto a spool) (PWMP: *libej)

mag-libutto go around, make a detour (PWMP: *libut)

mag-ligidto roll something back and forth, knead (like in making dough); to roll something over and move it forward (PWMP: *ligid)

mag-lumaʔto live somewhere, to make one’s place somewhere (PAN: *Rumaq)

mag-luraʔto spit (PWMP: *luzaq)

mag-luwasto take off something (as clothes or shoes); to bring out something, express (of thoughts or speech); to go outside (of room, house, forest, etc.) (PMP: *luas₁)

mag-luwasto take off something (as clothes) (PPH: *luas₂)

mag-nanaʔto develop pus (of an inflamed wound or boil) (PWMP: *maR-nanaq) *naNaq

mag-palemto put out, extinguish (a fire or light); turn or shut off (water, engine) (PWMP: *padem)

mag-pasaŋ(-pasaŋ)to be approximately the same size (of people and animals); it is always comparative (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

mag-pokotto fish, catch fish with a net (PMP: *puket₁)

mag-punasto wipe something (as the floor) (PMP: *punas)

mag-saŋeyto have the same name (PWMP: *saŋay)

mag-saŋey-saŋeyfor something to rhyme (PWMP: *saŋay)

mag-saputto shroud a corpse; wrap a body in grave clothes (PMP: *saput₁)

mag-sepputto shoot something with a blowgun; to carry or use a blowgun (PWMP: *seput)

mag-sikatto treat threads before using them in weaving; in old times the thread, especially silk, that was going to be used in weaving was treated with a soupy, overcooked rice mixture in order to make the threads more durable (i.e. to prevent the threads from fraying or breaking), to stiffen them; it was brushed on with a piece of coconut husk (PWMP: *sikat)

mag-siŋalto prop up something in order to keep it from moving (as one leg of a table that is shorter than the rest) (PPH: *siŋal)

mag-sublito come and go (of people and vehicles, some leaving, others arriving); to alternate, to take turns (PPH: *sub(e)líq)

Yakan (140 / 278)

mag-sugleyto comb the hair (NEAR)

mag-suruɁto use a spoon; to give or take something with a spoon (PWMP: *suduq)

mag-susuto suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

mag-susulto walk along or follow the edge of something (especially of a body of water, as the edge of the sea) (PMP: *sulsul₁)

mag-tahik-tahikto be used to doing something on/in/at the sea (as traveling by boat, fishing, swimming, looking for shellfish, etc.) (PMP: *tasik)

mag-tambakto place something on top of something else; pile up on top (PMP: *tambak₂)

mag-tanaʔto plant (or make something into) a dry rice field (PMP: *taneq)

mag-tanemto plant something (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

mag-taŋisto cry, weep (audibly, or inaudibly with tears) (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

mag-tebbuto cut or plant sugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

mag-tekaŋto take a step (in walking) (PWMP: *tekaŋ)

mag-tekkato raid, attack, arrive at (someone’s place with evil intent) (PMP: *teka₁)

mag-tekka-tekkasometimes; occasionally (PMP: *teka₁)

mag-teŋaʔto divide something into two equal halves or pieces (PMP: *teŋaq)

mag-teyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam) (PMP: *taytay)

ma-kite ma-kiteto show something off (PWMP: *ma-kita) *kita

manipeanut (LOAN)

manukchicken, domestic fowl (PMP: *manuk)

manuk-manukbird (generic) (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

manuk talunjungle fowl: Gallus gallus (PMP: *manuk)

Yakan (160 / 278)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata badjaʔplowshare (‘eye of the plow’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata baliyudirection wind comes from (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata boheʔthe surface of a river (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ellewthe sun, disc of the sun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata keybubuthead of a boil (PWMP: *mata nu piRsa) *maCa

mata lānthe middle of the road (PMP: *zalan)

mata lānmiddle of the road (PMP: *mata nu zalan) *maCa

mata oroʔblade of a knife (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata pirablade of a bolo (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata satandirection of sound (wind) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mayericebird; chestnut mannikin: Lonchura malacca (PPH: *máya)

mennoʔto fill something with something (PWMP: *maŋ-penuq) *peNuq

moteʔto turn white or pale, to blanch (because of fear or pain) (PWMP: *ma-mutiq) *putiq

mututo make steamed cassava (LOAN)

naguto discharge watery, sticky liquid (said of sores) (PWMP: *sagu₂)

nalusimmediately, right away, directly (PWMP: *tarus)

nanaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nanemto plant something (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

naŋisto cry, weep (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

Yakan (180 / 278)

nekkento press or push down on something with the hand (PMP: *teken)

neŋaʔto be halfway or mid-way between two points (PMP: *teŋaq)

nepputto shoot something with a blowgun (PWMP: *seput)

neyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam) (PWMP: *ma-naytay) *taytay

nipaʔnipa palm; palm shingles: Nipa Fruticans. It makes good roofing material; the leaflets are cut off from the midrib and individually folded over a strip of bamboo in such a way that one end is a bit longer than the other. (PMP: *nipaq)

niyawasoul, spirit, life principle (all living things --- humans, animals, plants --- are said to have niyawa; if a person is dead his niyawa has left; if sleeping his niyawalihan may wander about) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

-nuyou (second person singular ergative pronoun); your (second person singular possessive pronoun) (PAN: *-nu₂)

ŋa-lahaʔto bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

ŋa-luraʔto spit (PMP: *ludaq)

ŋilaleto know (PWMP: *ma-ŋilala) *kilala

pag-guntiŋhaircutting ceremony; name-giving ceremony (it is usually a big occasion; many people attend and much food is provided) (LOAN)

pag-kawin-anwedding (the place of the celebration) (NOISE)

pa-hadjeto honor someone, treat someone with respect (PAN: *Raya)

paka-causative affix in transitive or antipassive clauses (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

pa-ka-kanto eat into something (as a saw); sink into something (as tires); consume something (as fire) (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-kellesto go down, become less, subside (of air, water, swelling); deflate (PPH: *keles)

pa-kiteto show something to someone; to appear, to show oneself (PAN: *pa-kita) *kita

pa-lakkesto speed up something (PWMP: *lekas₂)

pa-laŋito cause to swim, to let swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

pa-lekkupto come off, peel (like skin, paint) (PWMP: *lekup)

Yakan (200 / 278)

palemfor something to go out, be extinguished (fire or light), turned off, shut off (water, electricity, engine), dried up (stream, well) (PWMP: *padem)

paleyrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa (PAN: *pajay)

palidblack surgeonfish, different varieties of surgeonfishes, unicorn fishes, fam. Acanthuridae (NEAR)

pandemfor something to go out, be extinguished (fire or light), turned off, shut off (water, electricity, engine), dried up (stream, well) (PWMP: *padem)

papana plank, board (as for making a wall) (PMP: *papan)

pa-sinagto shine (of sun and moon only) (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

paspas-anto speed up an action (PPH: *paspas-an₂) *paspás₄

pa-sunsuŋto flow or go backwards (as a river flowing upstream at high tide; food returning in vomiting); to push something (as a boat into the sea, or a person pushed upward to assist him in climbing a tree) (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

pa-susuto breastfeed, nurse a child (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

pa-susu-hungive him the breast! (PAN: *pa-susu-en) *susu₁

pa-telluto make something three (as in dividing cookies into three batches) (PMP: *pa-telu) *telu

paʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

paʔitbitter, over salted, too salty (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pennoʔfull (as a suitcase full of clothes); to fill something with something (PAN: *peNuq)

pennoʔ-anto fill something with something (PWMP: *penuq-an) *peNuq

pennuturtle, order Chelonia (a large kind of marine reptile) (PMP: *peñu)

pesselto squeeze something (as someone’s hand) (PAN: *peRes)

piyehow many? (days, etc.), how much? (money, etc.) (PAN: *pijax)

pokotfishing net (circular). It is thrown out by hand from a small boat. (PMP: *puket₁)

ponsotnavel, umbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

Yakan (220 / 278)

poteʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

poʔonbase of a tree; source, origin or beginning of something (as the source of a river, foot of a mountain, beginning of a rumor); classifier for plants; clump, trunk, stalk, plant, etc. (PMP: *puqun)

poʔon-ancapital (the beginning to start a business venture) (PWMP: *puqun-an) *puqun

pukifemale genitals, vulva, vagina (PAN: *puki)

pusuʔlower leg; calf of leg (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusuʔ uyatflower (blossom) of the banana (cooked as a vegetable) (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pūt-ana type of glutinous rice or maize; sticky rice (PMP: *pulut)

putusteamed cassava; balls or clumps are made of grated cassava and steamed (LOAN)

putuh-ancontainer for steaming cassava (LOAN)

saguwatery discharge, serious drainage (from sores) (PWMP: *sagu₂)

s-akato be older in age than someone else (people and domesticated animals); older brother or sister; elder sibling (PWMP: *aka)

salaʔa mistake, a wrong, a fault; for something to be wrong, be at fault, faulty (PMP: *salaq₁)

salaʔ-anto worsen something, corrupt something, make something deteriorate (PWMP: *salaq-an) *salaq₁

s-amafather (PAN: *amax)

s-amafather (PAN: *si amax) *amax

sanamspecies of black ant (they live on trees, such as lansones and coconut trees); one of the divisions of living creatures (includes insects, vermin, other things that creep or crawl) (PWMP: *sanam)

saŋeynamesake (PWMP: *saŋay)

saputshroud, grave clothes (Yakans, as Muslims generally, do not bury their dead in coffins but wrapped in a white shroud; the body is then placed on a ledge dug in the side of the grave) (PMP: *saput₁)

sawesnake (generic) (PMP: *sawa)

sendegto lean against something (PWMP: *sendeR)

Yakan (240 / 278)

sepput-anblowgun (PWMP: *seput-an) *seput

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

sinagto shine brightly (of a light, esp. the moon) (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

s<in>anamfor something to be insect-infested bug-infested (as sugar) (PWMP: *sanam)

siŋala shim, any object (paper, wood) one puts under something to prop it up (PPH: *siŋal)

siŋkamasyam bean, Pachyrrhizus erosus (a vine cultivated for its fleshy and juicy turnip-shaped root) (LOAN)

sugleya comb (NEAR)

suliŋa bamboo flute; any type of flute; the traditional suliŋ is a fipple flute, i.e. has a whistle mouthpiece and is made of a thin kind of bamboo ... it has six holes in a row (PWMP: *suliŋ)

s<um>ampukto stub the toe (PWMP: *sa(m)puk)

suruɁa spoon (PWMP: *suduq)

susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

sūʔresin; a light (fueled with resin) (PMP: *suluq)

tabuʔana bee-like insect; it is large and black with brownish wings, and makes round nests of dirt on trees; its sting hurts very much (PMP: *tabuqan)

tahiksea; ocean; sea water (PMP: *tasik)

talusto proceed with doing something, finish doing something, complete doing something (PWMP: *tarus)

tamanup to; until (stating the limits of objects and time; extent, limit, topping point (of objects) (PWMP: *taman)

taman-anend, stopping point, limit (of actions); used also for forming superlatives of adjectives (PWMP: *taman)

tamaʔfor something to be penetrated or pierced (by a knife or bullet); covered with (wounds or bullet holes) (PMP: *tamaq₂)

tambak-anto place something on top of something else; pile up on top (PWMP: *tambak-an) *tambak₂

tanaʔdry rice field, swidden (PMP: *taneq)

Yakan (260 / 278)

ta-sampukto hit something (with the foot) (PWMP: *sa(m)puk)

taʔuto know how to do something; to be able to do something (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

tebbusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tebbuh-ana sugarcane field (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tehompaʔshoe (LOAN)

tekaŋa step (in walking) (PWMP: *tekaŋ)

tekaŋ-anstride, pace (in walking) (PWMP: *tekaŋ)

tekkaarrival (PMP: *teka₁)

tekka-unto arrive (PMP: *teka₁)

tekken-unpress down on it! (PWMP: *teken-en) *teken

telluthree (PAN: *telu)

tennughollow sounding, loud sounding, of brass gongs (PWMP: *teneR)

teŋaʔone half of something (PMP: *teŋaq)

teytey-ana footbridge, small bridge, catwalk (it is usually made of a board or a log) (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

timula strong east wind (with strong rain), storm (PMP: *timuR)

t<in>anemwhat has been planted, the plant, seed, seedling, etc. (PWMP: *t<in>anem) *CaNem

tīsdrip (a small amount of liquid that drains off something) (PMP: *tiRis)

tukadsteps cut in coconut tree trunk to facilitate climbing (PWMP: *tukad₁)

t<um>aŋisto cry, weep (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

udjuŋ poʔonthe reason, cause for something (PMP: *puqun)

829. Yamdena (345) CMP (Drabbe 1932b) [jmd] Indonesia (Maluku)

afincover with a towel, mat, etc. to make a place to sit or to set something down (PMP: *hapin)

afuash; hearth (PMP: *qabu)

alasforest, jungle (PMP: *halas) *Salas

ambakstamp on the ground with the foot (PMP: *ambak)

ambakpound into the ground; stamp with the feet (ROOT)

amefather, FB, MZH (PAN: *amax)

anakchild in the sense of offspring; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

auyes (PAN: *au₂)

au-kto howl, of dogs (PAN: *qauŋ)

au masu-nsmoke of a fire (PMP: *ma-qasu) *qasu₃

babalhit, beat; something with which one hits, beats (PAN: *balbal₁)

babebeneath, southern (PMP: *babaq₁)

babipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

babi alaswild pig (PMP: *babuy halas) *babuy₃

babi-asuquadrupeds (PAN: *asu₁)

bab' pnuedomesticated pig (PMP: *babuy banua) *babuy₃

balchange oneself into (PMP: *baliw₂)

balikturn around or about (PMP: *balik₂)

Yamdena (20 / 345)

bali-nside, opposite side; half, one of a pair (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

baŋecave, grotto, opening in rocks; vagina (PMP: *baŋa₂)

baratwest, western, west monsoon; also used for 'year' (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barethe two crossbeams in a Tanimbarese house which project from the entrance, and are longer than the others (PMP: *bara₂)

bareswell, swell up (PAN: *baReq)

baretake, have, or carry on the shoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

barecross-stick of the outrigger (LOAN)

bare, bara-nglowing coal (PMP: *baRah)

bebewind around (as a rope or a snake around a post) (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

belarunfold, unroll; lie open, be unrolled, to open (of flowers, leaves) (PMP: *bekelaj)

béli-nbrideprice (PMP: *beli)

belukuse heat to help straighten curved wood or bamboo (PMP: *beluk)

beŋ-duthe day after tomorrow (PMP: *duha) *duSa

bérito open, of wounds (PAN: *beriq)

bért-anweight, heaviness (PMP: *beReqat)

besecanoe paddle; lower arm (PMP: *beRsay)

binekind of large shell (PCEMP: *bina)

birelarge native tuber (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bua-nfruit (PMP: *buaq)

bubuwickerwork fish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

Yamdena (40 / 345)

bu-buburrice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bubuŋ-ansmall hill, minor elevation (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

bubursoft or mushy, of cooked rice (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bu-busefoam, suds (PMP: *busa₁)

buipour out, throw away by pouring out, flow away, overflow (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulithin bamboo reed, tube, pipe, barrel of a gun, lamp glass (PAN: *buluq₂)

bunutchaff (PMP: *bunut₁)

bun-yanaka constellation, the triangle in the middle of the 'Steer' (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

bun-yenea constellation, part of the 'Steer' (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

buŋ-anridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

buŋ-an duri-nridgepole (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

buririnse off, rinse out, wash off (PMP: *buRiq)

buritback (anat.); outside (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

busirhunting bow; a constellation: The Crane (PMP: *busuR₂)

bwa-watanseahorse, hippocampus (PCEMP: *buqaya)

bwayecrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

dalaminside; contents; in (PMP: *dalem)

dalam loloisad, sorrowful (PMP: *dalem)

dalam mabuwehumble, lowly (PMP: *dalem)

Yamdena (60 / 345)

dalam me-fanashot-tempered (PMP: *panas₁)

dalam mefanashot-tempered (PMP: *dalem)

dalam ŋamoneopen-handed, generous (PMP: *dalem)

dalam yatakmiserly, stingy (PMP: *dalem)

dareblood (PAN: *daRaq)

das buritoutside the house (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

dayeinland, west (PAN: *daya)

defefathom (PAN: *depah)

didiŕ buŋ-ancenter post, main housepost (PCEMP: *hadiRi bubuŋ-an) *SadiRi

di-diristanding up; post (PAN: *diRi)

diripost, pillar (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

dutwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

du-dutwo by two, two at a time (PCEMP: *dua-dua) *duSa

duethe second (PMP: *duha) *duSa

elakmark off a border; stretch between (PMP: *elak)

embugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *empu)

fa-falua stake that has been pounded into the ground (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

fakarfencing-in, as a planted tree; fencing with stakes for the defense of the village (PMP: *pager)

fa-mudiyoungest child (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

fanasheat; warmth (PMP: *panas₁)

Yamdena (80 / 345)

faneearthen dish of native manufacture (PMP: *panay)

faŋespan of the hand (PAN: *paŋa₁)

faŋehandspan, step (PAN: *paŋaq)

farikind of ray fish; the constellation Scorpio (PCEMP: *paRi) *paRiS

fa-sawwedding; carrying out of a wedding (PMP: *pa-qasawa) *qasawa

faserice (PAN: *pajay)

fatarbamboo-slat bed (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

fat(e)four (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

fate-fatefour by four, four at a time (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

fayanbeachworm; bait (PCEMP: *payan)

fenisea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

fen-kéranturtle with prized shell (probably Chelonia imbricata) (PMP: *peñu)

fen-laiturtle with worthless shell (probably Chelonia mydas) (PMP: *peñu)

fufufall from a height (ROOT)

fulikind of shellfish (PMP: *buliq₁)

fuŋuncluster of palm trees (PMP: *puŋun) *puŋuN

idakglitter, shine, light (NOISE)

ie3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

iethis (PMP: *ia₂)

ifarZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.), FBDH (m.s.), FZDH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), MZDH (m.s.), FBSW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.), MBSW (w.s.), MBD (w.s.), MZSW (w.s.) (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

Yamdena (100 / 345)

ikurtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ilaŋlose, waste, squander (PMP: *qilaŋ)

in tu-tunufish baked in the fire (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

iŋatfight, make a commotion (PMP: *qiŋet)

irinose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iritfan for fanning the fire (PMP: *irid₁)

isi-nflesh, contents; blade of knife, point of an arrow, etc.; harvest of the crops; have a plentiful yield, of tubers (PAN: *isi₅)

itikbeating of heart or pulse (ROOT)

iukall birds that make the sound "iuk!" (PMP: *qiuk)

iukany bird that makes a squawking sound "iuk" (PMP: *kiuk)

kaillink, as in a chain (PAN: *kawil₁)

ka-kaita hook (PAN: *kawit)

ka-kalidug up (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

katicalling of dogs (PAN: *kati₁)

kauto howl, of dogs (PMP: *kauŋ)

ke-keseindividual, particular (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

keseto separate, distinguish oneself, be different, alone; seclude oneself (PCEMP: *kese)

ketito pluck off with the hand (PMP: *ketuq)

kikiscour (PAN: *gisgis₁)

kikiscour, scrub off (PAN: *kiSkiS)

Yamdena (120 / 345)

kikirfile with ray or shark skin (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kitewe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kudanearthenware cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kukuthoof, claw of animals (PAN: *kudkud)

kulattoadstool; sponge; moss on trees, stones, etc. (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kulitskin, hide, bark (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kumanmite or maggot on the skin (PMP: *kuman)

labarwidth (PMP: *labeR₁)

lafarhunger (PMP: *lapaR₁)

la-laŋanroller for beaching a canoe (PMP: *laŋen₁) *laŋen

lamakmat of lontar leaves (on which to dry tobacco, etc.) (PMP: *lamak)

laŋitsky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋit sepanhorizon (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋubitter, poisonous (PAN: *laŋu)

latuseaweed sp. (PMP: *latuq)

lawaslength (PAN: *lawas₁)

leresun; day (PMP: *qalejaw)

lesiremove, as a door from the hinges, knife from a sheath, etc. (PCMP: *lesu₂)

likutbend, of arms and legs; lie folded up (PMP: *likut)

likutbent, of arms and legs (ROOT)

Yamdena (140 / 345)

liliNautilus shell (?) (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

li-limevery five (PAN: *lima)

limfive (PAN: *lima)

liri-nvoice; language (PCMP: *liRi)

lisenit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lolancut off a piece (PCMP: *lolan)

luwetears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

maand (PAN: *maS)

ma-bératheavy, weighty, also used figuratively (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

madaralmost ripe, of coconuts; half-withered, of leaves (PCEMP: *madar)

malassoft, supple, as leaves or thread (PMP: *males)

ma-maliplaughable (PCEMP: *malip)

ma-matedead (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

mandecuscus, opossum (PCEMP: *mansər)

maŋ-anituspirit medium, person believed to have the ability to communicate with spirits (PMP: *maŋ-qanitu) *qaNiCu

masusmoke (PCMP: *masu)

mata-neye; cutting edge of a knife; kind, type; opening (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n ikurouter corner of the eye (‘tail of the eye’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n tomwatepupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n ulu-ninner corner of the eye (‘head of the eye’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Yamdena (160 / 345)

matedie, go out (fire, light); finished, terminated, of a matter; (in some words) very, extremely , exceptionally (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mateunripe, uncooked; not yet completely dry, of wood (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mbimbigoat (LOAN)

mbinanplate, earthenware (LOAN)

mbu-mbusukstench, stinking (PMP: *busuk)

mbusukto rot, putrefy; to stink (PMP: *busuk)

me-fanashot (PMP: *ma-panas) *panas₁

mé-labarwide (PMP: *labeR₁)

me-lamandeep (PCEMP: *laman)

mésa-nsingle, alone (of only children) (PMP: *ma-isa) *isa₁

m-étiebb (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

minakfat, grease (PMP: *miñak)

m-oripto live (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

m-udionly when used strictly as an adjective: posterior; otherwise always = mud the rear part; outside, the outside of (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

m-udi-n térikthe boundary between reef and deep sea (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

muteto vomit; semen (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

na-banitto remove, as the copra from the shell in drying, anything that sticks, the skin, etc. (PAN: *baNiC)

na-béliengage in business, carry on commerce (PMP: *beli)

na-bubear fruit (PMP: *buaq)

na-bwaychange into a crocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

Yamdena (180 / 345)

na-dareto bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

na-deŋarto have good hearing, able to hear well (PMP: *deŋeR)

na-diristo bathe oneself, wash children; baptize (PAN: *diRus)

na-fanassick, feverish; warm up food (PMP: *panas₁)

na-f-dirito stand something up (PAN: *diRi)

na-f-mbusuk tomwate ŋaranvilify someone's name or reputation (PMP: *busuk)

na-f-ŋaregive a name to (PMP: *i-pa-ŋajan) *ŋajan

na-f-saŋ-ito bifurcate, fork into branches (PMP: *saŋa₁)

na-isifleshiness (PAN: *isi₅)

na-iukto squawk (PMP: *kiuk)

na-k-ramasscratch with the nails (PAN: *Rames)

na-kulatovergrown with moss (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

na-m-dirstand, stand up (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

na-m-dirto stand (PMP: *ma-diRi) *diRi

namedeep sea channel in the reef (PMP: *namaw)

na-m-lafarbe hungry (PMP: *lapaR₁)

na-m-lufeto forget (PMP: *lupa)

nanamtaste, savor; sweetness; tasty, sweet (PCEMP: *ñañam) *ñamñam

na-ŋ-siweninth (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

na-ŋ-télithe third (PAN: *telu)

Yamdena (200 / 345)

na-rabutpull out (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

na-saŋbranching, having branches (PMP: *saŋa₁)

na-sa-saŋhaving many branches or sprouts (PMP: *saŋa₁)

na-sikucarry on the upper arm (PAN: *sikux)

na-sulfish by torch light (PMP: *suluq)

natardance and gathering place, village square (PMP: *natad) *NataD

na-t-liurturn the back to someone (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

na-yatinto sweat, perspire (PMP: *qatiŋ)

n-ba-taruto wager, place a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

n-bayarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

n-besto paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

n-bitikfish with a pole, pull up a fishing pole; spring back, of a bent branch or spring (PMP: *bitik₁)

n-bitikjerking up of a fishhook, springing back of a branch (PMP: *bitik₁)

n-dadanstay by a fire; warm oneself by a fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

n-defto fathom, measure by fathoms (PAN: *depah)

n-deŋarto hear, be obedient (PMP: *deŋeR)

n-faluto nail, to hammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

n-fa-turuto point out, indicate, show; teach (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

n-feraswring out (PAN: *peRes)

n-festo break wind, to fart (PCMP: *pesu₂)

Yamdena (220 / 345)

nifekind of large snake (PMP: *nipay)

ninikmidge, mosquito (PCEMP: *ñiñik) *ñikñik

ninushadow; reflection (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

nituspirit, ghost, spectre (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

n-kaitto hook something, fish with a hook; to drag; turn a boat around by paddling (PAN: *kawit)

n-kalto dig, dig into; to hollow out trees (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

n-kal asakmake holes for the planting of tubers (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

n-karatto bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

n-kariscratch with the nails, scratch over a hard surface; draw a line (PMP: *garis)

n-laŋanplace rollers under, as under a canoe (PMP: *laŋen₁) *laŋen

n-luespit out food, etc. (PMP: *luaq)

n-lulunto roll up (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

n-mato come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

n-maliplaugh, laugh at (PCEMP: *malip)

n-masto smoke (PMP: *ma-qasu) *qasu₃

n-ŋeŋhiss, of a snake (PMP: *ŋeŋ)

n-olmove to and fro (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

n-papanstack on top on one another, of flat objects like boards (PMP: *papan)

n-sallose one’s way (PMP: *salaq₁)

n-sesakto stuff full (as a sack with copra) (PAN: *seksek₁)

Yamdena (240 / 345)

n-sisirto comb the hair (PMP: *sisir)

n-suluilluminate with a torch (PMP: *suluq)

n-surto spoon up, to ladle up (PMP: *sudu)

n-sususuck at the breast, of an infant (PAN: *susu₁)

n-susukprick with a pointed instrument (PAN: *suksuk)

n-tanamdibbling for maize, rice, peanuts, beans, seeds (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

n-télanto swallow (PMP: *telen)

n-tetakcut through, chop through at right angles (PAN: *tektek₁)

n-tetak ulu-ncut off someone’s head (PAN: *tektek₁)

n-tuluŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ)

n-turto string (PMP: *tuRa)

n-turdrip, leak (PAN: *tuduq)

n-tutupush, knock with the whole body (PAN: *tutuh)

n-tutunto light with a flame (PMP: *tutuŋ)

nurecoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

nure bunutcoconut with husk that is still green (PMP: *bunut₁)

nusedistrict; population of a district; people (PMP: *nusa₁)

ŋarename; namesake (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋé-liriuproar, clamor (PCMP: *liRi)

ŋiŋisgums (PMP: *ŋisŋis₁)

Yamdena (260 / 345)

ŋriye bali-nenemy, opponent; opposed party (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

ŋudeyoung, of children, fruit, wood, bamboo (PMP: *ŋuda)

o, uyes (PMP: *qu₁)

otak, utakmarrow of bones; brains (PMP: *hutek)

petiksnap off with the fingers; shoot pellets with a flexible lathe (PAN: *peCik)

péuto bind in a bundle, of maize (PCMP: *peu)

pnuevillage (PMP: *banua)

ratihundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ratugreat man, king; guardian of the truth; God (PMP: *datu)

raty-ar saone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rawedaybreak, dawn (PMP: *zawa₁)

réanwoven palm leaf base on which hot cooking pots are placed (PAN: *reken)

r-ket’d fjaserice harvest (PMP: *ketuq)

ruapflood (PMP: *Ruab)

runutjutelike fibrous material of the coconut tree (PMP: *Runut)

rusukrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

rusuk kesefloating rib (PAN: *Rusuk)

sa-one (in serial counting); other; indefinite article (PAN: *esa)

saleguilt, fault; mistaken, in error; guilty (PMP: *salaq₁)

sambakstamp on the ground with the feet or something else (PMP: *sambak)

Yamdena (280 / 345)

sambukpound fine (of roasted maize) (ROOT)

saŋa-ntributary of a river (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋebranch broken off a tree (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sawa-nhis or her spouse (PAN: *qasawa)

sawespouse (PAN: *qasawa)

sikulpush away with the hand (PMP: *siŋkul)

sir(e)they, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

siresalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

sisirhair comb (PMP: *sisir)

siunine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

smaŋatsoul, ghost, spectre (PMP: *sumaŋed)

solatstrait, passage between two islands (PCEMP: *solat)

suandigging stick used to excavate tubers (PMP: *suqan)

sulutorch made of coconut frond (PMP: *suluq)

sulu lonew moon (PMP: *suluq)

susubreast (male or female) (PAN: *susu₁)

su-susukpointed instrument for perforating (PAN: *suksuk)

tabakutobacco (LOAN)

tafito winnow (PMP: *tahep-i₁) *tahep-i

tafito winnow (PMP: *tapi)

Yamdena (300 / 345)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali runutcord of runut fibre, hence trip-cord (lunut) of spring-trap (PMP: *Runut)

tal-tuluŋhelp, assistance (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tamburestrain, prevent, forbid (PCEMP: *tambu)

taŋarto bark, of dogs (ROOT)

tasakcooked, ripe (PMP: *tasak)

tasiksaltwater, sea (PMP: *tasik)

teanpress down, press against the ground (PMP: *teken)

tebaksting, prick, spear; point out, decide (PAN: *tebek)

tefusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

télthree (PAN: *telu)

té-télthree by three, three at a time (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

te-tetaka chisel (PAN: *tektek₁)

timuncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

timureast, eastward, east monsoon; the Tanimbarese on the east coast of Yamdena island (PMP: *timuR)

tuikind of timber tree (PMP: *tui₁)

tumekind of louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tunuto fry, to bake, to roast in the fire; shooting of firearms; shining, scorching of the sun (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

turethe cord on which one strings something (PMP: *tuRa)

turu-na drop of liquid (PAN: *tuduq)

Yamdena (320 / 345)

udanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uerattan (PAN: *quay)

ukurto measure (LOAN)

uleworm, earthworm, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

ululeader, commander, chief (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulu-nhead, head hair (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

undu-summit, extremity, peak (PMP: *quzuŋ)

upunhang in the air, of smoke in an enclosed area (PMP: *upun₁) *upun

uratvein; sinew; muscle (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uruweeds (PAN: *udu)

utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

uti-npenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

valikmixture of liquid and dry substances (PCMP: *balik₁)

vlunura tree (unident.); an extract from its leaves is used to prepare a drink (PMP: *balunuR)

waiyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

wakarroot (PMP: *wakaR)

walueight (PAN: *walu)

wananbamboo lath on which thatch is placed in making roofing (NOISE)

warasliana (generic) (PMP: *waRej)

warilay, put, or hang something in the sun (PAN: *waRi₁)

Yamdena (340 / 345)

weye mata-nspring, source (‘eye of water’) (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

yafurlime, calcium (PAN: *qapuR)

yaku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

yasakpress into the ground (PMP: *hasek₁)

yati-nsweat, perspiration (PMP: *qatiŋ)

830. Yami (500) WMP (Rau, Dong, et al. 2012, Tsuchida 1987) [tao] Taiwan (dialects: Iraralay 2, Imorod 19, Iranomilek 28)

abiwound, cut, scar (NOISE) Iranomilek

abtekbelt (PPh: *beték)

acidry, dry up (as a stream) (PMP: *qati) *qaCi

acipwarp beam, used to roll up the expanded warp (PMP: *qatip₁)

adanold (as a story, or clothing) (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

adnetto touch (PPH: *denet)

agaŋdry branches and twigs of fallen tree (ROOT) Iranomilek

agomgreedy (PPH: *águm)

ahoa fish, the barracuda: Sphyraena sp. (PMP: *qalu)

aicome (PAN: *aRi)

akaygrandfather (PWMP: *lakay)

a-kdot-ento pinch (PWMP: *kedut-en) *kezut

akesgrandmother (PPH: *bakes₂)

aknasaykind of fish: mullet (PMP: *kanasay) *kaNasay

alibaŋbaŋflying fish (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₂)

alipogpog a pagpagwhirlwind (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) (PPH: *qali-pugpug)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

amoashamed, embarrassed (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

anakchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anama plant: Glochidion rubrum (PPH: *anam)

Yami (20 / 500)

ananayshriek (of pain), moan (PPH: *ananay₁)

anayoptype of plant, beautyberry (PPH: *anayup)

anebclose door (PMP: *qaneb) *qaNeb

aneb-anclose the door (PMP: *qaneb-an) *qaNeb

anedsink (PWMP: *leñej)

aŋ-aŋay-anplace where one goes frequently (PAN: *aŋay)

(a)ŋaygo (PAN: *aŋay)

aŋotstinky (PAN: *haŋut) *Saŋut

aoma type of plant:: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (PPH: *álem)

apatotsmall tree or shrub, the noni (Morinda citrifolia) (PPH: *apatut)

araifar (PPH: *hadawiq)

arai-into feel it is too far (PPH: *hadawiq)

aromany; much (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

aro-aromore (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

aro so nakemdisciplined, cultured (PPH: *nákem)

a-sdepto enter (PMP: *sedep₁)

asipity, feel compassion; greeting (PMP: *qasiq)

a-siamnine (in combination) (PPH: *siám)

asinsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

asoŋcanine tooth, tusk (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) (PPH: *sauŋ)

Yami (40 / 500)

atbayto answer (PPH: *tebáR)

atbedspring water (PMP: *tebej) *Cebej

ateproof; after having finished with the frame-work of (the) main dwelling, people gather grass material for use in thatching (the) roof. While vuchid grass (Imperata cylindrica Beau. var. Koenigii Honda) is preferred, aviyau grass (Miscanthus japonicus Andr.) is occasionally used instead. Because vuchid grass is not plentiful enough close by the village, it is generally brought by boat from distant grassland, and the bundles of grass thus brought are dried on the sandy beach (Kano and Segawa 1956:53ff) (PMP: *qatep)

atoŋblow (on) to help ignite (PPH: *hátuŋ)

atovaŋto stand facing each other (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atoystone wall (PAN: *atuR)

atoy-into build a stone wall (PAN: *atuR)

avakaa plant: Manila hemp (PPh: *abaká)

avaŋwarship, large boat, boat; to ride (PAN: *qabaŋ₁)

avaspass by (PPH: *labas)

aviosk.o. plant: Acalypha grandis (PPH: *abilus)

avosahairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. (PPH: *basula)

awawthirsty (PPH: *hawaw)

bakbakto hit (PAN: *bakbak₂)

baroka tree: Zanthoxylum integrifolium Merrill. A cotton-like fiber obtained from the root is used to caulk boats, and as tinder in starting fires (Kano and Segawa 1956) (PMP: *baruk)

bekennot exist (PWMP: *beken)

beletiʔtree of riverbanks yielding a tart fruit (NOISE) Iranomilek

beseregakspeaking together, all talking at once (ROOT) Iranomilek

be-teŋelaŋ(of animals) striped, patchy in color (ROOT) Iranomilek

bidanmidwife (LOAN) Iranomilek

Yami (60 / 500)

bidaŋtear, rip (NOISE) Iranomilek

biŋoŋdizzy, stupid, confused (LOAN) Iranomilek

biŋoŋdizzy, stupid, confused (NOISE) Iranomilek

bobohbody hair, feather (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) (PPh: *bulbúl)

budi, budiʔdeceit; deceive, entrap; kindness, generosity, gratitude (LOAN) Iranomilek

bujaŋyoung man, bachelor; (of men) smart, dandy (LOAN) Iranomilek

bujaŋ babian old bachelor (LOAN) Iranomilek

buliwhirlpool, deep eddy (NOISE) Iranomilek

bunculboss of a gong; swell into a lump (LOAN) Iranomilek

burudrive away, send away, ostracize (NOISE) Iranomilek

ci-cimiteyelashes (PPH: *kimit)

cimitblink (PPH: *kimit)

cimoyrain (PMP: *timuR)

c<in>inonwoven clothes or men’s thongs; Yami traditional dress (PAN: *tinun)

cinonloom, weave (PAN: *tinun)

cipootype of breadfruit tree (PPH: *qatipulu)

citato see, look at (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

cita-cita-enconstantly see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

cita-ensee, look (PAN: *kita-en) *kita

cita-ilook! (imperative) (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

Yami (80 / 500)

cita-nsee, look (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

citodog (PMP: *titu)

daŋdaŋget warm (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

deŋdeŋto cook (as fish) (PPH: *deŋdeŋ₁)

diriʔself, oneself (LOAN) Iranomilek

dolocative marker (PWMP: *du)

doatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

emasoft (PWMP: *lemaq)

gametlaver, seaweed (PWMP: *gamet)

gaodtype of plant: betel, eaten with betel nut (PPH: *gawed)

geksound of water passing through the throat (PWMP: *gek)

gonaybe moved, roll over (PPH: *gunay)

gugutpull out violently (ROOT) Iranomilek

icia-ma-vakesfemale (PPH: *bakes₂)

ika-doasecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

ika-ra-roathe other (person) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ika-siamninth (PPH: *ika-siám) *siám

ika-tlothird (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

ilapcut pieces, cut chunks (PPH: *hilap₃) *hilap

ilap-anreason for cutting into pieces (PPH: *hilap-an) *hilap

Yami (100 / 500)

ilap-ento cut (PPH: *hilap-en) *hilap

ilektype of fish: snubnose rudderfish (considered the best type of fish) (PPH: *hilek)

ilivillage (PMP: *hili)

inawa-(n)breath (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

inoyripe (PPH: *hinuR) Imorod

i-ŋatoon top (PPH: *i-ŋatu) *ŋatu

i-ovaŋto plant dry taro (PPH: *lubaŋ₂)

i-pa-citadisplay, show, cause to see (PPH: *i-pa-kita) *kita

i-paŋ-ililiused to visiting other villages (PMP: *hili)

ipi-ato-atoŋtools for starting fires, such as paper or dried reeds (PPH: *hátuŋ)

ipi-doatwo times, second time (PPH: *ipi-duhá) *duSa

ipi-tlothird time, three times (PAN: *telu)

iponriver shrimp (PPh: *hípun₂)

ipustail (PPh: *ipus)

i-ralaOrchid Island, the name the Tao have given their own island (PAN: *daya)

iruscoconut shell ladle for millet (PAN: *qidus)

i-salapto fly (NEAR)

i-toodrock to sleep (rocking crib) (PPH: *i-tulúd) *tulúd

i-toroto give (PPH: *tudul)

i-vaodused to tie (PPH: *i-balud) *balud

Yami (120 / 500)

jinot (PPh: *diq)

ka2sg. nominative (PMP: *ka₄)

ka-‘very’ (in comparative constructions): ka-tava-tava ‘very fat’ (cp. ma-tava ‘fat’) (PPH: *ka-₃)

ka-company, co-: ka-kteh ‘fellow brothers and sisters, siblings’ (cp. mi-keteh ‘sibling relationship’) (PPH: *ka-₄)

ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-cimoy-an ‘be rained on (as something left outside)’ (cf. cimoy ‘rain’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ka-doatwo in total (PWMP: *ka-duha) *duSa

k-aito bring; in the process (PAN: *aRi)

ka-ilap-anthickness of the slabs of meat (PPH: *hilap₃) *hilap

ka-ili-anvillagers (PMP: *hili)

kakaolder brother or sister (PMP: *kaka₂)

kaka-ento call someone an older brother or sister (PPH: *kaka-en) *kaka₂

ka-kalispade, shovel, metal stick (PMP: *ka-kali) *kalih

ka-kamayfinger, toe (PAN: *kamay)

ka-kan-enfood (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ka-koanso-and-so, that way (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kalatclimb (PPH: *kayat)

kalat-anclimbing spot (PPH: *kayat)

kalat-ento climb (as a tree) (PPH: *kayat)

kamaligboat house (PMP: *kamaliR)

kamayfinger; width of a finger (unit of measurement) (PAN: *kamay)

Yami (140 / 500)

kam-ina-naunt (< *ina (PWMP: *kam- -an)

kamo2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu Imorod

kan ~ akaneat (PAN: *kaen)

k-anak-ánchild (PWMP: *ka-anak-an) *aNak

kanarema tree: Diospyros kotoensis (PPH: *kanadem)

kan-enbe eaten (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

kaopgrab a handful (PWMP: *kaup)

ka-pia-pia-nin good condition (PMP: *pia₂)

ka-pi-avaspassed by (PPH: *labas)

ka-podpodbroken-legged crab (PPH: *pudpud)

ka-rahem-andeep place (PMP: *dalem)

ka-rako-anthe rest; majority (PPH: *ka-dakel-án) *dakél

ka-ratay-anflatlands, prairie (PAN: *ka-dataR-an) *dataR

ka-rateŋjust got home (PMP: *dateŋ)

ka-sdepjust enter (PMP: *sedep₁)

ka-seŋseŋ-anstuffed up, as the nose (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

k-asipity very much; very compassionate (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

ka-siam-anfirst month, about February-March, during flying fish season, month for making torches (PPH: *ka-siam-an) *siám

k-asi-angive a gift to; what a pity (PMP: *ka-qasiq-an) *qasiq

ka-sosobecause of drinking milk (PWMP: *ka-susu) *susu₁

Yami (160 / 500)

kataŋtype of crab --- can be cooked to eat (PPH: *kataŋ)

katkatto lift up (as in raising the foot) (PWMP: *katkat₁)

ka-tlothree in total (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

ka-tovaŋface-to-face with (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

ka-vosoy-anenemy (PAN: *busuR₁)

kavovoyawtree with orange fruit: Tabernaemontana subglobosa (PPH: *kabuRaw)

kawalanbamboo (PAN: *kawayan)

kayowood, tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kedkedtie together (PPH: *kedked)

keroŋhowl of a dog (ROOT) Iranomilek

kofirst person singular genitive pronoun, I, my (PAN: *-ku)

koasomeone, something, sometime (PWMP: *kua₂) *kua₁

koanto say (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kokodanimal foot that has been cut off (as chicken feet) (PAN: *kudkud)

kolilithick cord, rope (PPH: *kulili)

k<om>anto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

k<om>edkedto tie (PPH: *kedked)

k<óm>oanwhat else to do (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

komoysuck in the mouth (PMP: *kumuR)

konohear, rumor (PMP: *kunu₂)

Yami (180 / 500)

kotohead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kovahantype of fish: banded surgeonfish (PPH: *kubalan)

koytaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kozadscar (PWMP: *kulad)

kozapohawkfish sp. (PMP: *kuRapu)

labnoya tree: Ficus fistulosa (PPH: *lab(e)nuR)

lalamtoy (PWMP: *qayam₃)

la-limafive (people) (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

lapobeginning, begin (PPH: *lapu₃)

lapo-enbeginning (PPH: *lapu₃)

lekakcackling with laughter (ROOT) Iranomilek

lepoŋ lepoŋfloating (ROOT) Iranomilek

liktawjump over (as in jumping over a ditch) (PPH: *lik(e)taw) *lik(e)táw

limafive (in serial counting) (PAN: *lima)

linakcalm, quiet (PPH: *linak)

liŋaylook around (PWMP: *liŋaR)

liŋayto look around (PPH: *liŋay₂)

loitfilth (LOAN)

lolitdirt, grime on person (PPH: *dulit₂) Imorod

ma-stative prefix for indicative verbs (PAN: *ma-₁)

Yami (200 / 500)

ma-bsoyfull (after eating) (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

maci-akaneat together with someone (PPH: *maki-kaen) *kaen

ma-cimoyto rain, be raining (PMP: *timuR)

ma-citasee, able to see (PWMP: *ma-kita) *kita

ma-gona-gonayto wobble (as a loose tooth) (PPH: *gunay)

m-aicome (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

maka-citaable to see, see (PWMP: *maka-kita) *kita

máka-ka-kanable to eat (PPh: *maka-kaen) *kaen

maka-piaslowly, very well (PMP: *pia₂)

ma-káraŋhigh, tall (PWMP: *kazaŋ₁)

ma-layoto run (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

ma-liktawable to jump over (PPH: *lik(e)taw) *lik(e)táw

ma-loitdirty (LOAN) Yami

ma-megpegto shiver (PPH: *pegpeg₂)

ma-moyawchase away (PWMP: *maŋ-buRaw) *buRaw

ma-nakemremember, think of (PPH: *ma-nákem) *nákem

manaŋdaŋget warm near the fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

ma-naremto sharpen (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

ma-ndepto break in (PMP: *sedep₁)

ma-niloscoop up, fish for, catch (PPH: *ma-ñiluʔ) *síluq Imorod

Yami (220 / 500)

manokchicken (PMP: *manuk)

ma-noŋitto bite (PPH: *suŋit₂)

ma-nopitto grab (PWMP: *supit)

maŋaprenominal plural determiner (PMP: *maŋa₁)

maŋalata fish, the porgy: Lethrinus sp. (PPH: *maŋaRat)

ma-ŋalito dig up (as in digging up taro) (PMP: *ma-ŋali) *kalih

ma-ŋatoupper (PPH: *ŋatu)

ma-ŋdotto pinch someone (PWMP: *ma-ŋezut) *kezut

maŋ-ilapto cut meat (PPH: *maŋ-hilap) *hilap

m-aŋotvery stinky (PAN: *haŋut) *Saŋut

mapa-nalato wait (PAN: *naRa) Imorod

ma-parekvery murky, as water (PPH: *ma-parek) *parek

mapá-salacause to deviate, cause to get off the course (PPH: *mapa-salaq) *salaq₁

mapa-seksekto block (PAN: *seksek₁)

mapa-sisitto stir-fry (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

mapa-sosoto breastfeed; a breastfeeding woman (PPH: *mapa-susu) *susu₁

ma-pikaŋwalking with legs wide open (PMP: *pikaŋ)

ma-podpodto fall out (tooth) (PPH: *ma-pudpud) *pudpud

ma-rahemvery deep (PMP: *dalem)

ma-riostake a bath (PAN: *diRus)

Yami (240 / 500)

ma-sdohiccup (PAN: *sedu)

ma-siremvery dark, black (PWMP: *sidem)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mataeyes (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

matana fish: the porgy (Tsuchida, Yamada, and Moriguchi 1987) (PPH: *mata-án)

ma-tavavery fat (as a pig) (PWMP: *ma-tabeq) *tabeq

ma-tnawclear (water) (PPH: *tenaw) Imorod

ma-udistern of a boat (PMP: *ma-udehi) *udehi

ma-vaheŋblack (LOAN) Yami

ma-vasaʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

me-hakayman, male, boy; husband (PWMP: *lakay)

me-hmasoft (as a sweet potato) (PWMP: *lemaq)

mi-akaygrandfather and grandson (PWMP: *lakay)

mi-gona-gonayto move around (PPH: *gunay)

mi-ilithe village one lives in (PMP: *hili)

mika-kala-kalatto climb in droves (PPH: *kayat)

mi-like-likédturn round (PWMP: *li(ŋ)keD)

mi-liktaw-ito stride over, stride across (PPH: *lik(e)taw) *lik(e)táw

mi-ŋotŋotto gnaw on bones (PMP: *ŋutŋut₄)

mi-onoŋforever (PPH: *unuŋ)

Yami (260 / 500)

mi-onotone behind the other (NEAR) Yami

mi-ovayto wear gold chest ornaments (PPH: *lubay)

mi-ozoŋto have horns (PAN: *uReŋ) Imorod

mi-pa-piabecome good (PMP: *pia₂)

mi-savoŋto bloom (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

mi-sorodto comb hair (PWMP: *sujud)

mi-ta-taŋayto lie or sleep on one’s back (PPH: *taŋay₁)

mi-vonoŋto distribute (PPH: *bunuŋ)

moiŋface (PAN: *mujiŋ)

nakemintention, meaning (PPH: *nákem)

nakm-ento want (PPH: *nákem)

nak-nakm-ento think, remember (PPH: *nákem)

na-naoto teach (PPH: *nau)

naŋo-taŋoto nod (as when listening to someone speak) (PPH: *taŋuq)

n-atenours (PPH: *n-aten) *iten Imorod

natoa tree used to obtain wood for canoe planks: Palaquium formosanum Hayata (Chen 1988:305, fn. 1) (PMP: *ñatuq)

nigenitive marker for personal names and kinship terms (PAN: *ni)

niketa plant: Ilex integra; its sap can be used to catch the takoyab bird (PMP: *niket)

ni-key-kalidug up (as sweet potatoes) (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

n-ilapcut pieces (PPH: *hilap₃) *hilap

Yami (280 / 500)

ni-mi-avaspassed by (PPH: *labas)

nimsin-ieat off the bones, suck (PPH: *simsím)

niniDonax cannaeformis (plant used to make karapal, or flat basket) (Kano and Segawa:386) (PMP: *niniq₁)

nogenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

nowhen, if (PAN: *nu₁)

nokaboil, sore (PMP: *nuka) *Nuka

ŋahaydrivel, drool (PAN: *ŋajay) Imorod

ŋalehdull (PWMP: *ŋazel) Imorod

ŋaranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋaran-angive a name to, call by a name (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan

ŋaresgums (PPH: *ŋajes)

ŋatoupgrade, on top, above (PPH: *ŋatu)

ŋəpəntooth (PAN: *ŋipen) Imorod

ŋinaprice, worth (PPH: *ŋina)

ŋina-nawadangerous (PPH: *ŋina)

ŋina-ŋina-enwant to buy (PPH: *ŋina)

ŋ-inawa-(ji)to breathe (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ŋosomouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋotŋot-anto gnaw on bones (PMP: *ŋutŋut₄)

om-honagto melt, as lard (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) (PPH: *lunag)

Yami (300 / 500)

om-lapoto start from (PPH: *lapu₃)

om-nedto sink (PWMP: *leñej)

om-onotto follow (NEAR) Yami

omo-omot-anto grow moss (PMP: *lumut-an) *lumut

omotmoss, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

onassugarcane (LOAN)

onotto stalk, follow (NEAR)

osoŋmortar (PMP: *lusuŋ) *Nusuŋ

otodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS Imorod

ovaŋto plant dry taro (PPH: *rubaŋ)

ovaŋ-anplace one planted dry taro (PPH: *lubaŋ₂)

ovaŋ-anplace where one planted dry taro (PPH: *rubaŋ)

ovaygold, gold chest ornaments (PPH: *lubay)

ovidrope, string (PPH: *lúbid)

ovid-enweave a strand (PPH: *lúbid)

oyotto pull out (PPH: *húRut)

ozoŋhorn (as of a goat) (PAN: *uReŋ) Imorod

pafirst (before doing something else) (PAN: *pa₁)

paka-pia-enmake well (PMP: *pia₂)

pa-kedked-ento tie to (something else) (PPH: *kedked)

Yami (320 / 500)

palashelf above the oven that is used to dry wood (PAN: *paRa₁)

pa-layoto run (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

palitto exchange (PPh: *palit)

pa-nala-ento wait (PAN: *naRa) Imorod

panebdoor (ROOT)

pa-pataw-enflying fish with red fins, can be used as bait; the most common type of flying fish (PPH: *patáw)

pa-patoka hammer (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

parekmurky, as water (PPH: *parek)

pa-sakay-inpull up, make something go up (PMP: *sakay₄)

pa-sakebplace something face downward (PPH: *sakeb)

pa-sala-encause to deviate (as in mispronouncing words) (PWMP: *pa-salaq-en) *salaq₁

pa-sapat-anstorage shelf (PPH: *sapat)

pa-sapat-ento be put above by someone (PPH: *sapat)

pa-sovo-ato stuff food into someone’s mouth (PPH: *subu₂) *súbuq

paspasremove dirt; remove bad luck (PWMP: *paspas₂)

paspas-anremove grime (PPH: *paspas-an₁) *paspas₂

patawfishing bob, buoy (PPH: *patáw)

patokbang; nail (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

patok-ento pound, bang (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

pa-vonoŋ-ato receive a share (PPH: *bunuŋ)

Yami (340 / 500)

pegpegshivering (PPH: *pegpeg₂)

piagood, nice, beautiful, kind (PMP: *pia₂)

pikaŋwalking with legs apart (PMP: *pikaŋ)

pikpikto pound (PAN: *pikpik)

pilalead (metal) (LOAN)

pirahow many?, how much? (PAN: *pijax)

pisŋicheek (PPH: *pis(e)ŋí) Imorod

pispissound of things rubbing together (PWMP: *pispis₂)

pi-tapito flatten (PPH: *tapiq₁)

podpodpull out; snap and fall (PPH: *pudpud)

podpod-enpull out a tooth (PPH: *pudpud)

pokpokto knock, hit one’s head (PAN: *pukpuk)

pokpok-ento knock (PWMP: *pukpuk-en) *pukpuk

polingdust in the eye (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

ponaswipe off with hand (PMP: *punas)

rahemdeep (PMP: *dalem)

rahetbad (PWMP: *zaqet)

rákovery big, large (PPH: *dakél)

rak-rakoolder (as an elder brother) (PPH: *dakél)

ralablood (PAN: *daRaq)

Yami (360 / 500)

ralanext to the mountain, on the inside, in the north (PAN: *daya)

ranomwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

raŋandistance between an outstretched middle finger (or pinky) and thumb, used to measure length (PMP: *zaŋan₁)

rapanbottom of the foot; keel of a boat (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

rapoyto start a fire (PMP: *dapuR₁)

ra-rahanroad (PAN: *za-zalan) *zalan

ra-rapoy-anstove (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR₁

ra-roatwo people (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

ratayflatlands, prairie (PAN: *dataR)

rateŋarrive back home from the fields or another village (PMP: *dateŋ)

rawaear of grain (PAN: *zawa₂)

rayomneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

redamdark red, maroon (ROOT) Iranomilek

rekaŋwide apart, wide open (as legs) (PWMP: *rekaŋ) Iranomilek

rekaŋwide apart, wide open (as legs) (ROOT) Iranomilek

reŋeyhear (PMP: *deŋeR)

reŋoŋgroan, growl; humming, drone, whine (ROOT) Iranomilek

royoycoconut pitcher (PPH: *duyuR)

ruŋkupbent, bowed; curled up (ROOT) Iranomilek

saone (PAN: *sa₃)

Yami (380 / 500)

sa a ranawone hundred (dollars) (PAN: *sa₃)

sakaygo up, climb up (PMP: *sakay₄)

sakeblie flat, stick close to the ground (PPH: *sakeb)

salaget off the course, deviate (PMP: *salaq₁)

salapto fly (PWMP: *sayap)

saŋijawbone (PPH: *saŋi)

saodto weave (PPH: *saud)

sapadbunch, unit for bananas; an entire stalk of bananas is called asa a kayo (PPH: *sápad)

sapatto put above (PPH: *sapat)

sapopohold on the lap or against the chest (as a young child) (PPH: *sapúpu)

sapopo-enhold on the lap or against the chest (PPH: *sapúpu)

sapot-enpick up with a clamp (as pots) (PAN: *saput₂)

sa-sapotclamp made from betel nut sheaths (PAN: *saput₂)

savoŋflower (as on a tree) (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

seksekstuffed (PAN: *seksek₁)

seŋseŋblock (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

(se-)sdep-anfront porch (PMP: *sedep₁)

sinominative singular case marker for person’s name (PAN: *si₁)

sia3sg. (PAN: *si ia₁) *ia₁

siamnine (in counting) (PPH: *siám)

Yami (400 / 500)

sikoelbow; pattern on a boat, nook (PAN: *sikux)

siloscoop up, fish for, catch (PPH: *síluq)

simsimeat off the bones, eat crab, gnaw, nibble (PPH: *simsím)

si-nuwho? (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu₁

siŋitcrying expression (PWMP: *siŋit)

siratman's waist- or loin-cloth (ROOT) Iranomilek

siremdark (PWMP: *sidem)

sirem-ento make black (PWMP: *sidem)

sisitsound of cooking (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

solitaro (PMP: *suli₃)

s<om>depto enter (PMP: *sedep₁)

s<om>o-sdohiccup, burp (PAN: *sedu)

soŋitbit (PPH: *suŋit₂)

soŋit-ento bite (PPH: *suŋit₂)

sopitclamp (PWMP: *supit)

sopit-ento clasp (PWMP: *supit)

soroda comb (PWMP: *sujud)

sorod-ento comb hair (PWMP: *sujud)

so-sopitchopsticks (PWMP: *supit)

sovoto put food in one’s mouth (PPH: *subu₂) *súbuq

Yami (420 / 500)

tawe (nominative case, inclusive); hortative (PAN: *ta-₁)

tawe (genitive case, inclusive) (PAN: *-ta)

tabecause, otherwise; negator (PPH: *taq₁)

tagzaŋspareribs; ribs (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tainepto dream (PPh: *taRa-qinép) *qinep

taktakto sprinkle, to water (PAN: *taktak₁)

talanSquirrelfish spp. (Tsuchida 1984) (PMP: *taRaqan)

talavatype of shellfish: Saccostrea mordax (PPH: *talabá)

tanamud, earth, soil, land (as opposed to sea) (PMP: *taneq)

t<an>orofinger (PMP: *tuzuq₂) *Cuzuq

tanyodmulberry tree and fruit (PAN: *taNiud) Imorod

taŋaralook up (PMP: *taŋada)

taŋara-enlook up (PMP: *taŋada)

taŋaybefore one’s eyes, in front of (PPH: *taŋay₁)

taŋdangiving compensation to the midwife (in a topping off ceremony, after the blessing, the child’s father will carry the compensation to the midwife’s house) (PPH: *taŋ(e)dan)

taŋenpillow (PPH: *taŋén)

taŋoraise the head, hold the head up (PPH: *taŋuq)

taŋtaŋbeat or smash with a stone or metal tools (PPH: *taŋtáŋ₁)

taŋtaŋ-ento mash, beat (as in forging metal tools) (PPH: *taŋtaŋ-én) *taŋtáŋ₁

tapiboard; flat (PPH: *tapiq₁)

Yami (440 / 500)

tarem-ento sharpen (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

ta-tlothree (people) (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tatoscoconut crab (PPH: *tatus)

tavafat, grease (PWMP: *tabeq)

tavalaytype of plant: small gourd (PPH: *tabayaR)

tavaŋbland, not salty (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tavoto get water (PMP: *tabuq)

tayoto hide (PMP: *taRuq)

tebtebdull a knife or an axe; cut off (PAN: *tebteb)

tebteb-ento cut (PAN: *tebteb)

tey-de-doaevery two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

tey-ŋatoabove, on top (PPH: *ŋatu)

toaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

todopoint at (PPh: *tulduq)

todoto point at (PAN: *tuzuq₁) Imorod

todw-enbe pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁ Imorod

toktokto peck (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

toktokhair whorl, top (PAN: *tuktuk₂)

t<om>italook at, stare at, see (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita

t<om>oroto pay back (PPH: *tudul)

Yami (460 / 500)

tonaeel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

toodto shake (PPH: *tulúd)

toodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS Iraralay

toropay, give (PPH: *tudul)

toro-anto give (PPH: *tudul)

to-to-toaŋbones (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tovoyask to leave (PPH: *tubuy)

tovoy-inassign, make go (PPH: *tubuy)

tuŋawchigger (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

u-ituthat (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

unsuitobacco pipe, esp. bamboo water-pipe (LOAN) Iranomilek

uviyam: Dioscorea alata Linn. (PMP: *qubi)

vagiatfemale anklet (PPh: *bagiat)

vagotto dig up, as taro (PPH: *bagut)

vahaŋasoup bowl (PAN: *balaŋa)

vaheŋblack (LOAN)

vaidaughter-in-law or girl; term of address for a daughter who is unmarried, or married but without children (PMP: *bahi)

valicibanyan tree: Ficus caulocarpa (PPh: *balítiq)

valinoa type of plant: beach morning glory (PPH: *balinu)

vanisaa tree: Planchonella obovata (PPH: *banisah)

Yami (480 / 500)

vaŋaclay pot (PPH: *baŋaq₂)

vaŋonto help someone up out of bed (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

vaodtie up (as a fox) (PPH: *balud)

vatekdesign (PMP: *batek)

vatokidneys (PMP: *batu₂)

vayoytype of plant: Pterospermum (PMP: *bayuR)

viladsail of a boat (PPh: *bik(e)laj)

vivilips (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

vonoŋdistribute, take charge; one’s share (PPH: *bunuŋ)

voodborrow, loan (PPh: *bulud₁)

vosoyhatred, enemy (PAN: *busuR₁)

vottohseed, pit (Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987) (PMP: *butequl)

voyawchase away (PAN: *buRaw)

wariyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

wasayaxe, hatchet (PWMP: *wasay)

wa-wawoeight (of humans) (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu Iraralay

y-aireason to come, bring (PAN: *aRi)

y-amenwe (nominative case) exclusive (PAN: *i-amen) *amen

yamotroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

y-atenwe (incl.) (PWMP: *aten₃) *ita₁ Imorod

Yami (500 / 500)

y-atenours (PMP: *aten) *iten Iranomilek

y-avaŋto give a ride to (PAN: *qabaŋ₁)

yo-yoshark (PAN: *qiSu)

zozonlocust, grasshopper (PPh: *dúdun)

Yami (Imorod) (19) WMP

inoyripe (PPH: *hinuR) Imorod

kamo2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu Imorod

lolitdirt, grime on person (PPH: *dulit₂) Imorod

ma-niloscoop up, fish for, catch (PPH: *ma-ñiluʔ) *síluq Imorod

mapa-nalato wait (PAN: *naRa) Imorod

ma-tnawclear (water) (PPH: *tenaw) Imorod

mi-ozoŋto have horns (PAN: *uReŋ) Imorod

n-atenours (PPH: *n-aten) *iten Imorod

ŋahaydrivel, drool (PAN: *ŋajay) Imorod

ŋalehdull (PWMP: *ŋazel) Imorod

ŋəpəntooth (PAN: *ŋipen) Imorod

otodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS Imorod

ozoŋhorn (as of a goat) (PAN: *uReŋ) Imorod

pa-nala-ento wait (PAN: *naRa) Imorod

pisŋicheek (PPH: *pis(e)ŋí) Imorod

tanyodmulberry tree and fruit (PAN: *taNiud) Imorod

todoto point at (PAN: *tuzuq₁) Imorod

todw-enbe pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁ Imorod

y-atenwe (incl.) (PWMP: *aten₃) *ita₁ Imorod

Yami (Iranomilek) (28) WMP

abiwound, cut, scar (NOISE) Iranomilek

agaŋdry branches and twigs of fallen tree (ROOT) Iranomilek

beletiʔtree of riverbanks yielding a tart fruit (NOISE) Iranomilek

beseregakspeaking together, all talking at once (ROOT) Iranomilek

be-teŋelaŋ(of animals) striped, patchy in color (ROOT) Iranomilek

bidanmidwife (LOAN) Iranomilek

bidaŋtear, rip (NOISE) Iranomilek

biŋoŋdizzy, stupid, confused (LOAN) Iranomilek

biŋoŋdizzy, stupid, confused (NOISE) Iranomilek

budi, budiʔdeceit; deceive, entrap; kindness, generosity, gratitude (LOAN) Iranomilek

bujaŋyoung man, bachelor; (of men) smart, dandy (LOAN) Iranomilek

bujaŋ babian old bachelor (LOAN) Iranomilek

buliwhirlpool, deep eddy (NOISE) Iranomilek

bunculboss of a gong; swell into a lump (LOAN) Iranomilek

burudrive away, send away, ostracize (NOISE) Iranomilek

diriʔself, oneself (LOAN) Iranomilek

gugutpull out violently (ROOT) Iranomilek

keroŋhowl of a dog (ROOT) Iranomilek

lekakcackling with laughter (ROOT) Iranomilek

lepoŋ lepoŋfloating (ROOT) Iranomilek

Yami (Iranomilek) (20 / 28)

redamdark red, maroon (ROOT) Iranomilek

rekaŋwide apart, wide open (as legs) (PWMP: *rekaŋ) Iranomilek

rekaŋwide apart, wide open (as legs) (ROOT) Iranomilek

reŋoŋgroan, growl; humming, drone, whine (ROOT) Iranomilek

ruŋkupbent, bowed; curled up (ROOT) Iranomilek

siratman's waist- or loin-cloth (ROOT) Iranomilek

unsuitobacco pipe, esp. bamboo water-pipe (LOAN) Iranomilek

y-atenours (PMP: *aten) *iten Iranomilek

Yami (Iraralay) (2) WMP

toodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS Iraralay

wa-wawoeight (of humans) (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu Iraralay

831. Yapese (32) OC (Jensen 1977) [yap] Micronesia

bæńroot of a type of tree which grows among the mangroves (sticks up above the water) (NOISE)

bugu-lii qaayhis toe (POC: *buku) *bukuh

buut'dirt, soil, earth, ground; dirty (POC: *butaq₃) *buRtaq

daaysaltwater, seawater; tide, flow of saltwater; tidal season (PMP: *tasik)

daguwfear (POC: *matakut) *takut

-g1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

k’aaw ~ k’owheron (POC: *kao)

kaayto eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

kiimgiant clam, Tridacna (< Palauan?) (PMP: *kima)

laaysail (PAN: *layaR)

lee-bug, lii-bugsections in bamboo, knots in rope (POC: *buku) *bukuh

maconjunction: then, and, but (PAN: *maS)

malaaldancing place, public open place in village, village square (POC: *malala)

manuweagle (POC: *manuka)

miiteye; front; point; kind of, type of, species of (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mitee-thuuthnipple of the breast (POC: *mata ni susu) *maCa

moolto sleep (?) (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

niimbailer (POC: *nimas)

niiwcoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

qaayhis leg/foot (POC: *qaqe) *qaqay

Yapese (20 / 32)

qaedflower of a type of plant (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

qayuuycoconut crab (PMP: *qayuyu)

raenwater, juice (POC: *ranum) *daNum

ruwtwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

taawothspear with many prongs (probably a Palauan loan) (PMP: *saet)

taelrope; string; twist tobacco (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

thaamoutrigger, pontoon (POC: *saman) *saRman

thoglaarswordfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

wultype of shell, large cowrie (POC: *buliq₁)

yabultype of conch shell; horn, trumpet, siren (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

yasultype of fish: white-finned tuna (POC: *qatun)

yiimoyster (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

832. Yogad (51) WMP (McFarland 1977, Davis and Mesa 2000)

abagashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

ádugall (PAN: *qapejux)

afuglime (PAN: *qapuR)

asinsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

bagalung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bálunprovisions (PWMP: *balun₂)

beggathusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

beŋŋegdeaf (PWMP: *beŋeR)

bibiglip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bukhead hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

bukelseed of fruit (PWMP: *bukel)

buligbunch of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

buŋbúŋdynamite (PPh: *buŋbuŋ₂)

busálrein made of rope; gag, muzzle (LOAN)

butupenis (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

bwaareca nut (PMP: *buaq)

dapansole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

do:yanhammock (PPH: *dúyan)

donleaf (PMP: *dahun)

ettutfart (PMP: *qetut)

Yogad (20 / 51)

fuŋanpillow (PPH: *puŋan)

futúnlower abdomen (PPH: *pus(e)qun)

gamutroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

gáwgawstarch; flour from starch from cassava (LOAN)

iguŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ilugegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

iráwsnake (PPH: *idau)

kalamánsia kind of lemon said to be better tasting than an ordinary lemon (PPH: *kalamansíq)

kalimúmmuggargle, wash one’s mouth out (PWMP: *kali-muRmuR) *muRmuR

kalúgto shake, as the contents of a container (PPH: *kalug)

kappálthick (measure of mass) (PPH: *kepal)

karrítscratch; a long visible mark (PMP: *kerit)

kídamclose the eyes (PWMP: *kizem)

kila-kilatlightning (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

kukkúpclosely-cropped hair, bald; shaved head (PPH: *kupkup₄)

kurápto flicker (from normal brightness to brighter) (LOAN)

kúsutwood shaving (LOAN)

ligneck (PAN: *liqeR)

mugiŋface (PAN: *mujiŋ)

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

Yogad (40 / 51)

ŋáganname (PMP: *ŋajan)

sussúta soft whistle to get someone’s attention (PPH: *sutsut₃)

tápitgarment (for women only; a broadcloth that women wrap around down to the knee) (PAN: *tapis₁)

teggemant (PWMP: *sejem)

telluthree (PAN: *telu)

úbiyam (PMP: *qubi)

uluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

um-inumto drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

utekbrain (PMP: *hutek)

wananright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

wígileft side (PAN: *wiRi)

833. Yotefa (4) OC

atamadoor opening (PMP: *kataman)

me-daricslippery (PMP: *ma-dalit) *dalit₂

medaritjslippery (POC: *madrali)

we, weimango (Galis 1955:275, sub buyai) (PCEMP: *waiwai) *wai

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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