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Updated: 3/28/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


High Balinese
Highland Murut


Hukua, Tasiriki, Valpei, Piamatsina

197. Hahon (1) OC

vuswind (POC: *pusi)

198. Haku (21) OC

aku1sg., I (PAN: *aku)

a-landay (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

a-lumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

a-susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

a-yanafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

boŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

i-laŋitssky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

meteto die; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

taliŋaear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tissea (PMP: *tasik)

to-hatsfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

to-hitiseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

to-limafive (PAN: *lima)

toŋoloto swallow (POC: *toŋol) Haku

to-sinine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

to-waleight (PAN: *walu)

tsina-mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tu-nomosix (POC: *onom) *enem

u-mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Haku (20 / 21)

w-alimahand (PAN: *qalima)

199. Halia (26) OC [hla] Papua New Guinea

atunmackerel (POC: *qatun)

boŋaspeak carelessly; lie, mislead, deceive (POC: *boŋa)

boutto be cold (as water) (POC: *pout)

gururuthunder (POC: *kururu₁)

hanato shoot (PAN: *panaq)

hisi-n mataeyelash (POC: *pisi ni mata)

hosecanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

kala-kalaEclectus Parrot (POC: *kaRa)

kihaubush fowl (POC: *kipau)

kiraLittle tern: Sterna albifrons (POC: *kiRa)

koranalive coal, ember (POC: *koran)

kosoto cough, have a cold (POC: *koso)

laŋitsrain (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

limasawooden bailer used in bailing out canoes and boats (PMP: *limas)

mahutomorrow (POC: *mapua)

masulbe full from eating (POC: *masuR)

matslow tide (POC: *maqati) *qaCi

monacanoe (POC: *mona)

nasto cook (PMP: *nasu) *Nasu

nolahayesterday (POC: *ñoRap) *ñeRab

Halia (20 / 26)

ŋalato cry (POC: *ŋara)

salnasea urchin with long thin black spines (POC: *salaŋ)

soagarfish, needlefish (POC: *sao)

tapato fly (POC: *tapa₃) *tapa₂

to-hitseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

tohusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

200. Hanunóo (1291) WMP (Conklin 1953, Reid p.c.) [hnn] (Hanunoo) Philippines

àwathelp, assistance (PWMP: *awat)

bábacarry (something) on the back, as in a pack (PMP: *baba₁)

bábaddip in liquid (PPh: *bábad)

bábawsurface, top, uppermost surface; mountains, as opposed to lowlands; in the mountains; source, referring to a river; upstream (PAN: *babaw₃)

ba-báyiwoman, girl; female (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bábaʔlowness, shortness (PMP: *babaq₁)

bágaember (PMP: *baRah)

bágaysuitable, fitting; responsive (PWMP: *bagay)

bágaything, item (PPH: *bágay)

bágaysuitable, fitting; responsive (LOAN)

bágaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bagáʔa bump or swelling as a result of a blow (PAN: *baReq)

bagyústrong wind, storm, typhoon (PAN: *baRiuS)

bagʔáŋany of the molars and bicuspids (PMP: *bageqaŋ)

bágʔunew; just, recently, freshly (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bagʔúbefore, earlier than (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

báhawbreakfast, the first meal of the day, usually eaten about 10 A.M. (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

baháytree species, family Leguminosae, probably Pueraria phaseoloides [Roxb.] Benth.) (PMP: *bahay) *baSay

baháʔflood (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

bahugthe process of mixing a liquid, such as soup, with cooked rice while eating (PWMP: *bahuR)

Hanunóo (20 / 1291)

bákana tree, family Lauraceae: Litsea sp. (PWMP: *bakan)

bakbákchipping off, breaking off (PMP: *bakbak₁)

bakbákchipping off, breaking off (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bakháwtype of mangrove tree: Rhizophora sp. (PWMP: *bakehaw)

baktinsuckling pig (PPH: *baketin)

bákuŋsmall upland plant with large white flowers and large round leaves (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

balagbágparallel zigzag lines usually running across, i.e., horizontally, a decorated object (PPh: *bala(R)báR)

balakáŋspace between one's legs (ROOT)

balánakmedium-sized white fish (PWMP: *balanak)

balániʔmagnet, lodestone (LOAN)

balantákgeneral term for basket-type fish traps (NOISE)

balántiʔtree sp.: Kleinhovia hospita L. (PWMP: *balalantiq)

balátedible black squid, but not greatly valued as a source of food (PPh: *balát)

balátikhorizontal spring spear pig trap, usually equipped with a long, tapering bamboo point (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

balátuŋmungo bean: Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (PWMP: *balatuŋ)

baláwno, not; an emphatic negative similar to bukun, but not so strong, and less frequently used in conversation ... it is common in certain set phrases (PPh: *baláw)

baláyhouse, building; shell of a mollusk (PMP: *balay)

baláyaŋa variety of plantain (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) similar to sabʔá except that the fruits are thicker (PPh: *baláyaŋ)

baláyithe reciprocal relationship between parents of mates, as the relationship between a man's parents and the parents of his wife (PPh: *balaqih)

báligood, fitting, suited (PWMP: *bali₂)

Hanunóo (40 / 1291)

balígood, fitting, suited (LOAN)

balíkreturn, going back (PMP: *balik₂)

balílittiny edible fresh-water snail with a smooth, spiraled black shell (PPh: *balilit)

balisúsumedium-sized red-billed kingfisher (PPh: *balisúsu)

báliwtransformation, metamorphosis (PMP: *baliw₂)

báludsmall wild dove or pigeon (subfamily Duculinae) (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

balugúlarge reddish, woody, tendril-bearing vine: Entada scandens Benth.; the bark is used as soap (PWMP: *baluRu)

balúlaŋlarge checker-woven carrying basket hastily made, usually from fresh buri (palm) leaves, for temporary storage or packing (PPh: *balúlaŋ)

bálunprovisions and necessary articles, including betel, food, trade items, small coinage, etc. which are taken with a person when going away for a period of time (PWMP: *balun₂)

balútudugout, or small canoe (PPh: *balútu)

balyánshamanism (PWMP: *balian)

balyán-anshaman, medium, shaman doctor (PWMP: *balian)

bambánspecies of grasslike plant: Donax cannaeformis (PWMP: *banban)

banabálarge tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn. (PPh: *banabá)

banagua tree: Thespesia populnea (PMP: *banaRu)

banáwdipping of fingers in water (PMP: *bañaw)

banáytree sp. (NOISE)

bansíʔa six-holed flute made from a single piece of bagákay (Schizostachyum longispiculatum) bamboo (LOAN)

bantúgknown, famous (PPH: *bantug)

banúgserious external bruises resulting in internal hemorrhage (PPh: *banéR)

Hanunóo (60 / 1291)

bánwitfishing tackle (PPh: *banuít)

baŋatall palm (probably Orania decipiens Becc.) (PWMP: *baŋa₁)

baŋkáycorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

báŋlufragrance, sweetness of smell (PPH: *baŋ(e)lúh)

báŋunarising, getting up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

báraŋperhaps; expressing uncertainty or suspicion (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baráŋunlarge red and white speckled fish (NOISE)

barássand; beach, seashore (PMP: *badas)

baráyuŋtree sp.; the roots are mixed with those of lágis (Ficus sp.) in brewing a decoction for allaying stomach pains (PWMP: *barayeŋ)

barítanews, rumor (LOAN)

barúktinder made from bamboo shavings (PMP: *baruk)

básagbreaking, as of a stick (PPH: *basag)

basbáscutting, trimming, as of branches or limbs of a tree (PWMP: *basbas₃)

bátadsorghum, a coarse annual grass, cultivated as a cereal (Andropogon sorghum Linn. Brot.) (PMP: *batad)

bátaŋlog of wood (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ-áneither of two principal floor (tie) beams, usually of bamboo (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

batústone, rock (PMP: *batu) *batux

batúkidneys (PMP: *batu₂)

báwasdecrease, subtraction (PPH: *bawas)

báwiʔretrieval, retraction, getting something back (PPH: *báwiq)

Hanunóo (80 / 1291)

báwugspring pole in spring snares or balátik-like ground traps (PMP: *bauR)

báyadpayment (PMP: *bayaD)

bayáwakmonitor or large lizard (Varanus salvator Laurenti), commonly mislabeled 'iguana' (PWMP: *bayawak)

báybaycoast, littoral (PPh: *baybáy)

báyifemininity, quality of being female (PMP: *bahi)

bayúpounding in a mortar, especially of grain such as rice, for husking purposes (PAN: *bayu)

bayúga tree: Pterospermum diversifolium (PMP: *bayuR)

báyʔaʔabandonment, neglect, act of forsaking (someone) (NOISE)

báʔugrotten egg (PPH: *báqug)

baʔúgsterile woman; tree which does not bear fruit (PPH: *báqug)

bibígmouth, a collective term for the external parts of the mouth, including the lips (more specifically tárip bibíg (lips)) and the mouth opening as seen from the outside; the term for the internal parts of the mouth, the oral cavity is súlaŋ (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bigáa giant form of taro; this plant is a cultigen; its leaves grow five to six feet and higher, and the underground stem is eaten (PWMP: *biRaʔ)

bigláʔsudden, suddenly (PPh: *big(e)láq)

bíkaʔwith one's legs wide apart (PMP: *bikaq₂)

bilaŋas if, like, as, but not in the sense of being equal to something (PPH: *bilaŋ₂)

bílaŋ bílaŋnumber, numeral; counting, enumeration (PAN: *bilaŋ₁)

biláŋ-unbe counted by (PWMP: *bilaŋ-en) *bilaŋ₁

biláŋ-un nimúcount them (lit. 'be-counted by-you') (PAN: *-en)

bilásthe reciprocal relationship between spouses of siblings regardless of sex, as the relationship between a man’s wife and his sister’s husband (PPH: *bilas)

bilípurchase (PMP: *bili)

Hanunóo (100 / 1291)

bílinorder, request, requisition, command; something said to warn or instruct the addressee and to be carried out by the latter (PWMP: *bilin)

bílugbody, especially in its external, unified aspect; hence a unit classifier for people, animals, solid round fruits and vegetables (not coconuts and bananas), and many objects; roundness, sphericity; full, referring to the moon (LOAN)

bilúgsolid, globular, in the round (LOAN)

b<in>abáyihermaphrodite (human) (PPh: *b<in>a-bahi) *bahi

b-in-áliwpetrified, fossilized (PMP: *baliw₂)

binhíʔseed saved for the next season's planting (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

b-in-ugáshusked rice (PPh: *b<in>eRas) *beRas

b-in-úkidthe language spoken by the Buíd (PAN: *bukij)

binúŋatree sp. (probably Macaranga tanarius var. tomentosa) (PPh: *binuŋa)

b-in-wát-anwas made, was done (PWMP: *b<in>uhat-an) *buhat₂

bíŋkuŋcurved-headed adze (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

bíŋulheel (PWMP: *beŋil)

bíri-bíria tree, family Moraceae, genus Ficus (NOISE)

bírikrevolving, twirling of spindle and the spinning of cotton thread (NOISE)

bírublackness, darkness, referring to color (LOAN)

bítbitcarrying something in the hands and allowing it to dangle (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bitbít-unbe carried dangling from the hand (PWMP: *bitbit-en) *bitbit

bitíkoverhand-knot type of raised, vertical spring snare for catching small birds (PMP: *bitik₁)

bítukin a general sense, this term applies to many different types of worms; specifically earthworms and intestinal parasitic worms, particularly Ascaris (PWMP: *bituk)

bíutree sp. (probably Garuga abilo [Blco.] Merr.) (PPh: *biu)

Hanunóo (120 / 1291)

biyáwswinging afar (NOISE)

buálfalling down, with reference to trees (PPh: *buál)

buállarge chunks of recently dug-up earth, clods of turned-up soil (NOISE)

búbularge round bamboo wicker fish trap used only at sea (PAN: *bubu₂)

búbudplanting, as of rice or corn, i.e. the actual dropping of grains or seeds into separate dibble holes by hand (PWMP: *bubud)

búbuga species of large tree; the bark is used in dyeing cotton yarn with indigo (Conklin 1953); a tall forest tree: Sterculia foetida (PMP: *bubuR₃)

bubúnwell for drawing water (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

búbunfontanelle, the soft spot on a baby's head (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

bubúŋroof peak or ridge layer of thatch, especially of cogon grass (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

budbúdwrapping or binding of something (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

budbúdwrapping or binding of something (NOISE)

búgaspittle (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

bugáshusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

búgawdriving away of animals (PAN: *buRaw)

búgbugvery flexible yet sturdy vine; used as a cord for spinning tops (NOISE)

bugkústight binding, wrapping, or band (PMP: *beRkes)

bugnáytree sp.: Antidesma bunius [Linn.] Spreng. (PWMP: *buRnay)

bugsáypaddle (PMP: *beRsay)

bugtása condition in which something is broken; ripped, unseamed, etc. (PMP: *be(R)tas)

bugtúŋone and only, truly unique (PPh: *bug(e)túŋ)

Hanunóo (140 / 1291)

bugtúŋone and only, truly unique (PPH: *buR(e)túŋ)

bugʔátheaviness, weight (PMP: *beReqat)

búhuspouring out, with reference to a liquid (PWMP: *buhus)

buístax(es), levy, taxation (PWMP: *buhis) *buhís

búkadboll of cotton, cotton blossom (PWMP: *bekaj)

bukásopen (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

bukas-búkasopening in a kaiŋin fence, or a stile arrangement whereby people may leave and enter a kaiŋin (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

búkawowl (PWMP: *bukaw)

bukbúka common wood-boring insect or bamboo weevil; a powder-post beetle (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

búkidBuíd, the name of the pagan group of mountain people living north of the Hanuno'o (PAN: *bukij)

buḱladopened, as a book (PPh: *buk(e)lad)

búkunode, joint, etc., but only in specific derivatives (PMP: *buku)

búkulbud or immature fruit of a plant (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bukúnno, not; an emphatic negative similar to but stronger than baláw, most frequently used in statements of denial or contradiction; e.g. bukún 'no! (that's not right)', bukún ʔínda 'not this one' (PWMP: *beken)

bukúnno, not; an emphatic negative similar to but stronger than baláw; most frequently used in statements of denial or contradiction (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

buládsun-drying, exposure for dessication (PWMP: *belaj)

búlagseparation, divorce (NOISE)

bulalákawany large meteorite, or falling star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

buláluʔa sea snail similar to bagtúŋan, except that its cover is white, smooth, and larger (NOISE)

búlanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

Hanunóo (160 / 1291)

bulátuksmall black woodpecker having a red topknot (PWMP: *belatuk)

buláwangold; any bright-colored object (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bulbúgspringing forth, flowing out (NOISE)

bulbúg-anspring, an issue of water from the earth (NOISE)

bulbúlbody hair (PPh: *bulbúl)

bulíglarge bunch, a complete infructescence, as of bananas or palms; the classifier for enumerating such units (PMP: *buliR)

bulínawlong-jawed anchovy, Stolephorus commersonii Lacépède (PPh: *bulínaw)

bulíʔanus, anal region; bottom, back, or hind part of an object (PMP: *buliq₂)

búludmountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

bulud-ánmountain range (PPh: *bulud-an) *buled₁

bulúŋmedicine, any substance or preparation used in treating disease (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

búluscurrent, as of a river (PWMP: *bulus)

bulus-ánriver current (PWMP: *bulus-an) *bulus

búluʔa thin-walled bamboo: Schizostachyum lumampao [Blco.] Merr. (PAN: *buluq₂)

b-um-áŋunarise, get up (PPh: *b<um>aŋun) *baŋuN

búmbuŋnode or joint (less common variant of búŋbuŋ) (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

búmbuŋbeating on gongs (PPh: *buŋbuŋ₂)

búnaŋthread, yarn (PWMP: *benaŋ)

búnt-ihusk the coconut! (PPh: *bunut-i) *bunut₁

buntúyprotuberant belly, potbelly (PMP: *be(n)tuR)

Hanunóo (180 / 1291)

buntúyprotuberant belly, potbelly (PPh: *butúy)

bunútcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

búnuʔthrowing, casting, as of a lance; stabbing, as with a knife (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunúʔwrestling (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunwáŋtree sp. (PWMP: *benuaŋ)

bunyágsprinking of water; hence, also, baptism (PPh: *buniag)

búnʔiringworm, esp. Tinea imbricata or Tinea trichophytina, tetter, herpes (PMP: *buqeni)

búnʔ-unbe stabbed (PWMP: *bunuq-en) *buNuq₂

búŋaareca nut palm (Areca catechu Linn.) and its fruit, the betel nut (PMP: *buŋa)

búŋbuŋnode or joint, as of bamboo or sugarcane; hence knuckle, digit, joints (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

búŋiʔharelip (PPH: *buŋiq)

búŋiʔharelip (NOISE)

buŋúldeaf (PMP: *beŋel)

buŋurana variety of banana (Musa sapientum, var. suaveolens [Blco.] Teodoro; it is a good eating banana like the súlu, but longer, more fragrant, and green-skinned when ripe (LOAN)

búŋutbeard, whiskers, moustache (PPh: *beŋet₂)

búŋutbeard, whiskers, moustache (PWMP: *buŋut)

búrakclassifier for most individual fruits which are not round (as bananas) (PWMP: *bujak)

búrak káyugeneral term for fruit (PWMP: *bujak)

búrasseminal fluid (NOISE)

buráʔbubble (PMP: *budaq₁)

Hanunóo (200 / 1291)

buráʔbubble (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

buríspecies of fan palm (Corypha elata Roxb.; the leaves are one of the main sources of basketry and mat-weaving material for the Hanuno'o (PMP: *buri₁)

busbúspouring out of any liquid or granular substance, such as water or rice (PMP: *busbus)

busúgsatiated, full, satisfied, as after a hearty meal (PAN: *besuR)

buswáŋrecommencement of a river to flow in a dry stream bed (PPh: *busuáŋ)

butáblind in one eye, with one eye closed (abnormally) (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

bútirbead, grain, bean, kernel, or any small, hard, round object; classifier for same (PWMP: *butir)

bútiʔexplosion or pop of kernels of corn, rice grains, etc. when heated (PWMP: *beRtiq)

bútiʔexplosion or pop of kernels of corn, rice grains, etc. when heated (PPh: *butíq)

butlákrising, with reference to the sun (ROOT)

butlák-aneast (ROOT)

butúgurinary bladder (PWMP: *buntuR)

bútuŋpulling or drawing toward oneself; pulling or plucking out (PPH: *beteŋ₃) *beteŋ₂

butúŋ-anto be pulled out, be plucked, as of bird feathers (PPH: *beteŋ₃) *beteŋ₂

butʔúlmarrow (PMP: *hutek)

butʔúlbone; general term for seed (PMP: *butequl)

buwákany hole in the ground into which taro, yams, and other root crops are placed, i.e. for planting (NOISE)

buwátmaking, doing; deed; construction; because of, on account of (PMP: *buhat₂)

buwát ínitbecause of the sun, on account of the sun (PMP: *buhat₂)

búyaplaying of games, sports; in certain ambáhan, búya may mean 'toy' or 'plaything' (PWMP: *buya)

Hanunóo (220 / 1291)

búybuykapok tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. (PPh: *buybuy)

buybúykapok tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. (NOISE)

buyúkrotten, in a general sense (PPh: *buyúk)

búyuŋunwinding, spiraling, going around and around, specifically the unwinding of lengths of yarn from a horizontal yarn reel (LOAN)

búyuŋunwinding, spiraling, going around and around, specifically the unwinding of lengths of yarn from a horizontal yarn reel (NOISE)

buyúŋ-ana four-spoked, horizontal yarn reel (LOAN)

buyúŋ-ana four-spoked, horizontal yarn reel (NOISE)

buʔáyacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

búʔuŋbreaking, smashing, as of glass, pottery, etc. (PPh: *búquŋ)

dágatsea, ocean (as opposed to land) (PMP: *daRat)

dáguscontinuance, persistence (PPH: *dágus₁)

dagʔúnyear, season (PPH: *dag(e)qún)

dáhanslowness, quietness; respect (NOISE)

dakúpseizure, arrest, capture (PAN: *dakep)

dalága species of mudfish (Opiocephalus striatus Bloch) (PPH: *dalág)

dálantrail, path, road, route (PMP: *zalan)

dal-dálua queen termite, a fat “flying ant,” particularly numerous in July; the Hanunóo use queen termites for bait and also eat them with relish after they are fried; they have a fatty taste (PMP: *dalu₁)

dalídtree buttress (PMP: *dalij)

dálitvenom; arrow poison (PPH: *dalit₃)

dalíʔhaste, speed; hasten (toward something) (PPH: *dalíq)

Hanunóo (240 / 1291)

dámaa type of game similar to checkers (LOAN)

dámaysympathy (PWMP: *damay)

damáy-anbe sympathized with (PWMP: *damay)

dánawlake, pond (PAN: *danaw)

danúmwater; juice, as of fruits (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dáŋawa unit of linear measurement, equal to the span between the extended thumb and middle finger (PPH: *daŋaw)

daŋdáŋroasting directly on coals, as of bananas (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

dápala unit of linear measurement, equal to the width of the four fingers of one hand when placed together and parallel to each other (PWMP: *dapal)

dápatthe quality of being well joined, closeness of fit (PPH: *dápat₁)

dapáʔlying in a prone position (LOAN)

dapdápa species of tree: Erythrina variegata Linn. (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dapúghearth, fireplace; ashes; probably by extension from hearth, fireplace (PMP: *dapuR₁)

dapug-ánstove, cooking place (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR₁

da-rágamaid, maiden, young girl; virgin; any unmarried girl past the age of puberty (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dáwaItalian millet (Setaria italica [Linn.] Beauv.) (PAN: *zawa₂)

dáwunleaf; large leaves which have been cut and removed from banana plants or banana-like (Musae) plants; leaves which are still on the stalk are known as lábuŋ (PMP: *dahun)

dáyapa lemon tree and its edible fruit; the leaves are boiled and the resultan decoction is drunk for sore throat, probably Citrus aurantifolia (PPH: *dayap)

dáyawostentatious dress, ostentation; by extension, admiration, esteem, astonishment (PPH: *dáyaw)

dáyaʔsorcery; deceit, fraud (LOAN)

dá yi ma-bílaŋinnumerable, countless (PPh: *ma-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ₁

Hanunóo (260 / 1291)

dáykuthoney (PPH: *dayket)

dáyumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

dáʔanold, ancient, referring to objects and abstract things, but not to people; by extension dáʔan often means ‘previously’, ‘formerly’, ‘anciently’. (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

dáʔua tree: Dracontomelum dao [Blco.] Merr. & Rolfe (PMP: *daqu₁)

daʔútbad, ugly (PWMP: *zaqet)

diláwturmeric; the color yellow (PPH: *diláw)

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

ditáʔa tall tree (Alstonia scholaris [Linn.]) with many medicinal uses; the sap is placed on cotton and applied directly to a decayed, aching tooth to allay the pain (PMP: *ditaq)

dubdúbchest, breast (PAN: *debdeb)

dúgithorn, spike (PMP: *duRi)

dugúʔblood (PMP: *zuRuq)

dúkuta dark, adherent substance, especially on the teeth, as fine blackening or betel stains (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dúkuta dark, adherent substance, esp. on the teeth, as vine blackening or betel stains (PPH: *deket₃) *deket₂

dúlaŋshallow wooden tub or basin (PPH: *dulaŋ)

dúlaŋshallow wooden tub or basin (LOAN)

dúlita very small meteorite, or falling star (PPH: *dúlit)

dulúmdarkness (PPH: *dulem)

d<um>águsto continue, keep on one’s way, keep on going (PPH: *dágus₁)

dumdúmremembrance, as of people (PAN: *demdem₁)

dúmpulblunt, as of arrow points, etc. (PMP: *dumpul)

Hanunóo (280 / 1291)

dúnuŋintelligence, knowledge, know-how (PPH: *dunuŋ)

duŋánconcerted action, togetherness (PMP: *deŋan)

duŋúghearing, listening; perceiving; the more commonly used form is dunúg (PMP: *deŋeR)

dúŋuna tree: Heritierra littoralis Dryand. (PWMP: *duŋun)

dúŋussnout, as of a pig (PPH: *duŋus)

dupáfathom; a unit of linear measurement, equal to the distance between the tips of one’s extended arms; arm span (PAN: *depah)

dupúŋsnake sp. (probable genus Trimeresurus, species Wagleri Boie [?]) (PAN: *depuŋ)

dusdúsrubbing of the stomach with herb medicines, always with a downward motion (PPH: *desdes)

duwátwo, a cardinal number (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dúyanhammock; hammock-like cradle (PPH: *dúyan)

dúyuŋdugong, an aquatic, herbivorous mammal: Dugong dugong (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

gábitaro (Colocasia esculenta Schott), a generic term covering all seventeen varieties recognized by the Hanunóo (PPH: *gabi)

gabúd, yabúdtangle; entwining, climbing up and up something, as of vines (PWMP: *Ra(m)bej)

gabúd, yabúdtangle; entwining, climbing up and up (something), as of vines (ROOT)

gabúkdust; rotten (PMP: *Rabuk)

gábutunsheathing, drawing, as of a bolo (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

gábutunsheathing, drawing, as of a bolo (PPH: *gábut)

gábutcoconut husk (ROOT)

gáliŋgrinding, milling (PWMP: *galiŋ)

galíŋ-unbe ground, be milled (PWMP: *galiŋ)

Hanunóo (300 / 1291)

gámituse, employment, as of an instrument (PPH: *Rámit)

gámituse, employment, as of an instrument (PPH: *gámit)

gamít-unto be used (PPH: *Rámit)

gamít-unto be used (PPH: *gámit)

gamútroot, as of a tree (PMP: *Ramut₁)

ganápcomplete (LOAN)

gantirecompense; response (PWMP: *ganti)

gantírecompense; response (LOAN)

gápustying, manacling (PMP: *Rapus)

gapus-únto tie, manacle (PWMP: *Rapus-en) *Rapus

garáŋroughness, coarseness (PMP: *garaŋ₂)

garáwmovement; mischievousness, playing around; ‘keep your hands to yourself’, etc. (said to small children) (PPH: *garáw)

garísa scabby, itchy skin disease; sarna; dhobie itch (PMP: *garis)

gárusscratching, clawing with long strokes, as done by an animal (PMP: *garus)

gatáʔcoconut cream obtained by squeezing and leaching shredded coconut meat (PWMP: *gateq)

gatáʔcoconut cream obtained by squeezing and leaching shredded coconut meat (PMP: *Rataq)

gatúlitch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gátushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gayákplan, intention (PPH: *gayák)

gáyatcutting into extremely thin strips, as of tobacco leaves (PPH: *gáyat)

Hanunóo (320 / 1291)

gáʔudoar (PPH: *gáqud)

gílaŋiridescence (PWMP: *gilaŋ)

gílidside (PPH: *gílij)

gípakbroken, crushed (PWMP: *Ripak)

gísitearing, ripping intentionally, as of cloth (PMP: *Risi)

gíʔukthrashing by trampling (PAN: *Riqek)

gubáʔcrashing, tumbling, falling in or down or to pieces (PPH: *gebáq)

gúlayboiling of secondary foods in an earthenware pot (PWMP: *gulay)

gúlpicontract labor (LOAN)

gulpí-h-anto be done by contract labor (LOAN)

g<um>íʔukto thresh by trampling (PWMP: *R<um>iqek) *Riqek

guntíŋany cutting edge or blade, as of a knife, which is sharpened or beveled from one side only; this type of bevel; scissors (LOAN)

gunutfibers, i.e., the very long stiff black hairs from the sheathing parts of the leafstalks of the sugar palm (Arenga spp.); these hairs are used to make snare ropes and are traded to the coastal Christians, who employ them as thatch for the ridges of house roofs (PMP: *Runut)

gupúkwood hollowed by weevils or termites (PMP: *Re(m)puk)

gúraŋage; old, referring especially to people (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

guráŋ-unold person, elder (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gutl-únto pinch (PAN: *geCel)

gutúlto pinch; pinching (PAN: *geCel)

gúyudpulling (along), dragging (PWMP: *Ruyud) *guyud

guyúd-unbe dragged, be pulled (along) (PPH: *gúyud-en) *guyud

Hanunóo (340 / 1291)

hábulweaving of cloth (PPH: *habél)

hagkúsa twilled rattan pocket belt worn by all adult men and women (PPH: *hag(e)kes)

hálinleaving, taking off, going (PMP: *halin)

hálʔuwooden pestle for pounding rice, corn, etc. (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

hampákhit, strike; beating, whipping (PPh: *hampak)

hampákhit, strike; beating (Also Hiligaynon hámpak 'beat, whip, whack') (ROOT)

haŋádwish, desire (LOAN)

haŋga-neven, even to, even including (PWMP: *haŋga)

háŋitanguish, regret, torment; anger (PMP: *haŋit)

hápitpressing tightly against something (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

hapúnfishline, frequently of two-ply home-grown cotton thread (PMP: *hapen)

hárabpasturage, grass, and other fodder (PPH: *hárab₂)

h-ar-abl-ánbackstrap loom for weaving cotton garments and blankets (PPh: *habel-án) *habél

háwakback of the waist (NOTE: No general term for waist) (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

háyupanimal, especially a mammal; also by extension and colloquial usage, any object that moves, animate or inanimate (PPh: *hayep)

higpíttightness, seriousness, gravity (PPh: *hig(e)pít)

higúttie, tying (PPh: *hiRét)

híliŋlooking at something, usually near by (PWMP: *hiliŋ)

hílutmassage (PPh: *hílut)

himánmanconsciousness, thought; be aware of, be conscious of (LOAN)

Hanunóo (360 / 1291)

hi-niŋápicking of one's teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

hípusquality of being gentle, reserved, quiet (PPH: *hipes)

hítaʔcrotch, groin (PPh: *hitaq)

hítuedible freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus Linn.) found in swamps, ponds and ditches (PMP: *hitu)

hubásevaporation, drying up, as of mountain streams in the dry season (PPh: *hebás)

húgutpulling, up as of a loincloth; tightening, as of a binding (PAN: *SuRut)

húgutpulling up, as of a loincloth; tightening, as of a binding (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

hukásunloading or dismounting from an animal (PWMP: *hekas)

hukásunloading or dismounting from an animal (PWMP: *hukas)

húlugfall, falling (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

humbákwave(s) at sea, ocean waves (PWMP: *humbak)

h-um-ubásdry up (PPh: *h<um>ebás) *hebás

húnatstretching of something that will snap back when released, as of a rubber band (PPh: *huñat)

h<ur>ugut-án-angetting married, “tied together”, “hitched” (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

húyaŋphysical weakness, debility, feebleness, unsteadiness (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

íbacompanionship; accompanying, going along with someone (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

íbugliking, desire, wish, love (PMP: *ibeR)

íhiʔurine (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

íhularge sharklike fish with very thick, smooth skin, about one meter long (PAN: *qiSu)

íkugtail, as of an animal (PAN: *ikuR)

Hanunóo (380 / 1291)

ílagcare, caution; avoidance (PWMP: *qilag)

íluorphan (PWMP: *ilu)

ínaʔ-ámaʔ guraŋunparents (PMP: *ina ama) *ina

ínitsun (PWMP: *qinit)

InsíkChinese, language and-or people (LOAN)

íŋaynoise, commotion, disturbance, clamor (loanword) (PMP: *iŋaR)

íŋgukgrunting of pigs (PPh: *iŋguk)

ípuscockroach (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

ísipthoughts, thinking; perception, feeling; think (PPh: *ísip)

íwiksquealing, as of pigs (PPh: *íwik)

you (singular); occurs mainly in certain set phrases; in all of them, however, may be replaced by the more frequently used káwu (PMP: *ka₄)

kabáldefensive power believed to make the owner virtually invulnerable, i.e., indestructible by ordinary weapons (PWMP: *kabal₂)

kabántogetherness, companionship (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kabántrunk, chest for storage; seen by Hanunóo in Christian barrios (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kádaŋwalking on stilts (PWMP: *kazaŋ₁)

kadaŋ-kádaŋstilts of long bamboo poles, used by children as a form of amusement or game (PPH: *kadaŋ-kádaŋ) *kazaŋ₁

kágaŋfreshwater crab (PMP: *kaRaŋ) *gaRaŋ

kagt-únbe bitten (PPH: *kaRat-en) *kaRaC

káka-Ɂolder sibling (both nominative and vocative) (PMP: *kaka₂)

ka-kilálaan acquaintance (PAN: *kilala)

Hanunóo (400 / 1291)

kalamúndiŋa lime tree and its fruit: Citrus mitis Blco. (LOAN)

kálata tie rope for animals (PWMP: *kalat)

kalawíta barbed spear point (PWMP: *kalawit)

kálidigging up, as of rootstocks, tubers, etc. (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kalíŋbunch (PWMP: *kaliŋ)

káliŋjingle (ROOT)

kaliŋ-ancluster of small palm fruits (PWMP: *kaliŋ)

kálugshaking (PPH: *kalug)

kamagúŋa tree, (Diospyros discolor Willd.?); the term is used only to designate young trees the wood of which is still light in color; for older trees or wood having a darker, seasoned color the term used is baluntínaw (PPH: *kamaguŋ)

kamánsia tree and its edible fruit: Artocarpus camansi (PPH: *kamansi)

kamáŋiplant species, Ocimum sanctum L.. The leaves have some reportedly medicinal value; when dried the herb is placed among clothes to scent them (PWMP: *kamaŋi)

kamátisa naturalized form of semiwild tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller) with small (1 - 1.5 cm. in diameter) round, smooth-skinned fruits (LOAN)

kamayáa species of tree (family Ebenaceae) (PAN: *kamaya)

kambíŋgoat; known, although rare, in southern Mindoro (LOAN)

kamíwe (exclusive) (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamiriAleurites moluccana Linn. (Madulid 2001) (PMP: *kamiri)

kámu2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kanárumtree sp. (PMP: *kanarum)

kanáruma species of tree (PPH: *kanadem)

kandístree with reddish fruits: Garcinia rubra Merr. (PWMP: *kandis)

Hanunóo (420 / 1291)

kanúmaya tree, possibly Diospyros maritima Blm.; the fruits are pounded and pulverized for use as a stupefier or poison for eels and shrimp (PPH: *kanúmay)

kánʔ-unbe eaten by someone (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

ka-palad-unluck, fortune, fate, destiny (PMP: *palaj₁)

kapísspecies of clam averaging the size of one's hand (PWMP: *kapis)

kapúsend, last (in time) (PPH: *kapus)

kapúsend, last (in time). kapús-an youngest child (ROOT)

kapús-anyoungest child (PPH: *kapus)

ka-tágbuʔa person met (PPH: *tag(e)búq)

kátigoutrigger (PMP: *katiR)

kátiʔdecoy wild cock (PPH: *kátiq)

kátriraised bed; known to the Hanunóo only through visits to Christian villages (LOAN)

ka-tuŋáʔ-anone half (as an entity) (PMP: *teŋaq)

ka-túwaŋcarrying pole (PPH: *ka-tuaŋ) *tuaŋ₂

ka-uyáʔ-anvirtue, honor (PWMP: *ka-heyaq) *Seyaq

káwadwire; specifically the short wire between a fishhook and the end of a fishline (LOAN)

kawáyana species of bamboo, Bambusa spinosa Roxb.; this is not a generic term as it is in Tagalog and several other Philippine languages (PAN: *kawayan)

káwaʔa large cooking vessel or kettle, especially of trade origin (PWMP: *kawaq)

kawíŋcoition (canine), mating of dogs (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

káwithook, in a general sense (PAN: *kawit)

káyabfanning motion (PWMP: *kayab)

Hanunóo (440 / 1291)

káyasrattan strips which have been split and shaved to an even thickness for use in plaiting, lashing, tying, or lacing (PPH: *káyas)

kayígscratching of the ground, as by chickens (PWMP: *kahiR)

káyuwood; tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-ʔáwayenemy, opponent (PPH: *áway)

ka-ʔibáh-ancompanion, fellow traveler (PWMP: *ka-ibah-an) *ibaS

káʔuneating; food (PAN: *kaen)

kaʔun-káʔuneat and eat! (PMP: *kaen kaen) *kaen

ki-baság-anbreaking up into small pieces (of some object) (PPH: *basag)

kilálaknowing (someone), being acquainted with (someone); acquaintanceship (PAN: *kilala)

kílatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kili-kíliarmpit (PPH: *kili-kíli)

kilíŋa tall, smooth bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.) (PPH: *kilíŋ₂)

kímaynumbness, cramp, as in the leg (PPH: *kimay)

kiŋkiŋhopping on one leg (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

kitíktickling (of someone) (PMP: *kitik₁)

kugánscab (PWMP: *kuRan)

kugánscab (PAN: *keRan₁)

kugítaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kuguncogon grass: Imperata cylindrica [Linn.] Beauv. (PMP: *guRun)

kukúnails (of the body); claws (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

Hanunóo (460 / 1291)

kúlaglue, paste, made of tree sap (LOAN)

kulambúʔmosquito net; an exceedingly rare possession among the Hanunóo, but known through contact with Christians in lowland villages (LOAN)

k<um>áʔunto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

k<um>úyuggo with, accompany (someone) (PPH: *kúyug)

kúnsaying, telling, etc. (PWMP: *ken)

kundímanred trade cloth (LOAN)

kundúya cucumber with very white interior (PWMP: *kunduR)

kúnuit is said, they say (the common quotative) (PMP: *kunu₂)

kúnutflexibility, pliability (Also Bikol kúnot 'tough (as meat)') (ROOT)

kúnuʔsaying, telling; poetic or literary (PPH: *kunuq)

kúpaŋa large tree: Parkia javanica [Lam.] Merr. (PPH: *kúpaŋ)

kurúnearthenware pot (PAN: *kuden)

kusúgstrength, etc. (speed) (PAN: *keseR)

kútkuta hole in the ground (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

kútuhair or head louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuwáwhat do you call it? what’s his name? (PWMP: *kua₂) *kua₁

kuwátpower, force(?) (LOAN)

kúyuggoing together (with someone), accompanying (someone); accompaniment, companionship (PPH: *kúyug)

lábawquality of being higher, above, exceeding, over or longer than (something else) (PPH: *labaw₂)

lábaya type of yarn or thread (PWMP: *labay₁)

Hanunóo (480 / 1291)

lábiexcessiveness (PMP: *labi₁)

lábisan excessive amount; more, (PPH: *lábis)

lábugrice gruel (PWMP: *labuR)

lábugrice gruel (ROOT)

lábuŋleaf (LOAN)

lábutperpetrator, doer, especially of a nefarious deed; the one to blame (PPH: *labut)

labúyuʔrooster, cock (PPH: *labúyuq)

ladládunrolling of sleeping mats or similar matlike objects (PPH: *ladlád)

lagíwrunning (PAN: *laRiw)

láguʔa large tree (PPH: *lagúq)

lákaŋtaking a long step, as when walking over a fallen tree or a rock in a trail; a pace (PWMP: *lakaŋ)

lakatána tasty variety of eating banana (Musa sapientum lacatan [Blco.] Teodoro) (PPH: *lakatán)

lakáwwalk, hike; walking, moving on; in vogue, current (among); circulation (PMP: *lakaw)

lakígrandfather (in both nominative and vocative; grandchild of either sex; male ancestor (PWMP: *lakay)

lákimasculinity, quality of being male (PMP: *laki₁)

lakíancestor, male ancestor; in a general sense, any direct, distant male progenitor (PMP: *laki₁)

lakigrandfather/grandchild (recip.) (PWMP: *laki₂)

lalákiman, boy, male (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

lálumore (intensive) (PWMP: *lalu₁)

lámaksetting out of food for a meal (PPH: *lámak)

Hanunóo (500 / 1291)

lámaŋonly; but (PPH: *lámaŋ)

lámbuŋwoman’s waist or blouse; a seven-piece, closed-seamed slipover, homespun cotton garment with a flare bottom (PPH: *lambuŋ)

lamísaa raised table of the usual four-legged wooden type found in Christian Filipino homes; seen but not used by the Hanunóo (LOAN)

lánaoil, especially coconut oil, used occasionally for the hair (PMP: *laña)

lánayclear pitch; used as a medicament to apply to the skin of those suffering from ringworm (PPH: *lanay₁)

lántaŋduration of time (PWMP: *lantaŋ)

lantaŋ-ánlong time (PWMP: *lantaŋ)

laŋonly, but (said to be derived by syncope from lámaŋ ‘only, but’) (PPH: *laŋ)

láŋawthe common housefly (PMP: *laŋaw)

láŋitsky, heavens (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkáʔjackfruit (Artocarpus heterophylla Lam.), the tree and its fruit (LOAN)

laŋtútrepulsive odor of long-standing water and the like (ROOT)

láŋudizziness; drunkenness (PAN: *laŋu)

laŋúdizzy; drunk (PAN: *laŋu)

laŋúyswimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

lápadbroadness, width, breadth, as of a field (PMP: *lapad)

lápawexcessive depth (in an agricultural sense this means excessive cultivation) (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

lápawexcessive depth (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

lápaʔbutchering, chopping, splitting up (of something) (PAN: *lapaq)

lapáʔ-unbe cut up, be butchered (PAN: *lapaq)

Hanunóo (520 / 1291)

lápusgoing over and beyond (PPH: *lápus)

lásataste (LOAN)

lásiksudden flying off of splinters and the like (LOAN)

lásunpoison, but not venom or arrow poison (LOAN)

látagscattering, spreading out (PPH: *latag)

láwaa generic term for spiders, very few of which are given specific names (PWMP: *lawa₂)

lawa-láwasimple string figures, or cat’s cradles, made with strings of seed beads (PWMP: *lawa₂)

láwasinternode, as a bamboo cylinder or strip, including at least one node as well as the section between two joints (PAN: *lawas₃)

láwaysaliva (while in the mouth) (PPH: *láway)

lawáʔana species of tree (family Dipterocarpaceae) (PPH: *lawaqan)

lawítail feather(s); specifically, those of the wild jungle fowl; frequently bound together and used as plume decorations stuck in men’s arm bands (PMP: *lawi₁)

láwiglong time (PPH: *lawig)

láwudlowlands, coastal regions; down below, as opposed to up in the mountains (PAN: *lahud)

láyaŋflying (PWMP: *layaŋ₁)

láʔadbrook or stream which may run dry in the dry season; dry streambed; arroyo (PWMP: *laqaD)

líbatcross-eyed (PPH: *libat)

líbtuŋwater left in pools, as when a river dries up (PPH: *lib(e)túŋ)

líbtuŋwater left in pools, as when a river dries up (NEAR)

líbutaround; surround (PWMP: *libut)

ligsáyslipping (up); slipperiness (PPH: *lig(e)say)

Hanunóo (540 / 1291)

ligtásfree, freed, saved; set free (PPH: *lig(e)tas)

líhimsecret; kept quiet (PWMP: *lihim)

likúdthe thick, flattened side of the back of a knife blade (PAN: *likud)

líkussides, around (PMP: *likes)

likúʔcrook, bend, as in a stick, river, etc.; watercourse (PMP: *likuq)

likúʔriver (NEAR)

likúʔ-anriver (PMP: *likuq)

límafive (PAN: *lima)

limátukcommon leech, bloodsucker, found in damp forests; a blood-sucking annelid worm of the class Hirudinea (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

limbúndam (PMP: *limbun)

limbúndam (ROOT)

limúsdrowning (PPH: *limes)

línawcomplete stillness, tranquillity; pool, i.e. a quiet, still body of water; the deeper part of a river or stream (PMP: *linaw)

lintáʔa carnivorous annelid worm, leech or bloodsucker, found usually in small pools or in bodies of still, fresh water (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

linúgearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

línuŋpeace, quiet, tranquillity (PMP: *linuŋ) *liNuŋ

línuŋpeace, quiet, tranquillity (PWMP: *lineŋ)

lípaspassing of time (PAN: *lipas)

lípayjoy, happiness (PPH: *lípay)

lípiteither of the two common rafter-sized bamboo poles used in house (roof) construction, placed parallel with and above the top intermediate purlin strip, to hold down the roof thatch (PMP: *liq(e)pit)

Hanunóo (560 / 1291)

lípiteither of the two common rafter-sized bamboo poles used in house (roof) construction, placed parallel with and above the top intermediate purlin strip, to hold down the ridge thatch (PWMP: *lipit)

lípuŋdizziness (PPH: *lipeŋ)

lítiknoise made by striking of flint and steel, in making fire (PMP: *li(n)tik)

liwánfar, distant (PPH: *líwan)

liʔúdfootprint (PPH: *liqed)

líʔugneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lúbidrope, cord, as a fishline, usually twisted, and made of bast or other fibrous material (PPH: *lúbid)

lubúgcloudiness, turbidity (PWMP: *lebug)

lúbuŋgrave; ground burial as opposed to cave burial (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

lubúthole, perforation, especially if it be completely through an object (PPH: *lubut)

lúgusinsistence, obligation, force (PPH: *luges)

lugús-unbe forced (to do something) (PPH: *luges)

luhúdkneeling (PPH: *luhúd)

lukásslipping off (both transitive and intransitive); undressing, taking off clothing (PMP: *lu(ŋ)kas)

lukbánthe pomelo: Citrus grandis Osbeck (PPH: *luk(e)bán)

luksújump, jumping, i.e. up and down, as opposed to running, broad jumping, etc. (PPH: *luk(e)súh)

lukúbskin, bark, cover, outer layer (PWMP: *lekeb)

lukúbskin, bark, cover, outer layer; foreskin, prepuce (PPH: *lukúb)

lulúdfoot, leg, as of a chicken (PAN: *luluj)

lulúnroll, as of a sleeping mat, paper, or cloth (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

Hanunóo (580 / 1291)

l<um>ákaŋto take such steps; to step over something in this fashion (PWMP: *lakaŋ)

l<um>akáwto walk, will walk (PMP: *l<um>akaw) *lakaw

l<um>aŋúyto swim; will swim (PWMP: *l<um>aŋuy) *laŋuy

lumáylove charm, potion (PPH: *lumay)

l<um>áyaŋto fly, will fly (PWMP: *layaŋ₁)

l<um>ípasgo by, go past, with reference to a certain time or date (PAN: *lipas)

lúmutmoss, especially that found on trees (PMP: *lumut)

lúmuyslowness; weakness, as of persons (PPH: *lumúy)

lúnudcovering up; drowning (PWMP: *leñej)

lúnudturning over; covering up; drowning (PPH: *lúnud)

lúŋasesame, much used as flavoring: Sesamum indicum Linn. (PMP: *leŋa)

lúŋbuya species of wild cherry tree and its fruit: Eugenia cumini L. (PPH: *luŋ(e)búy)

lúpiŋa side dent or impression in the edge of a knife blade, from cutting a hard object (PPH: *lupiŋ)

lupúkstamping of the feet, or of a single foot (PWMP: *lepuk)

luslússliding up and down or removal of ringlike objects from more stationary bodies, as when removing a breastband from the body, or in moving a band up and down a hollow cylinder or pole (PPH: *lesles₁)

luslússliding up and down or removal of ringlike objects from more stationary bodies, as when removing a breastband from the body, or in moving a band up and down a hollow cylinder or pole (PMP: *luslus)

lusúŋa large wooden mortar used mainly to hull grain such as rice (PMP: *lesuŋ)

lútukmud (PPH: *lutek)

lútuʔripe (PWMP: *lutuq)

lutʔ-ánsoft, pithy, easily crushed portion of rattan vines (PWMP: *lutuq)

Hanunóo (600 / 1291)

luwápause, wait; most frequently used in the expression kalwá or kalwá yí ‘wait a moment!’ (PPH: *luá)

luwágloose, fitting easily, not tight, as of clothes; easy (PMP: *luqaR)

luwásoutside, exterior, out of doors (PMP: *luas₁)

ma-báŋlufragrant, sweet-smelling (PPH: *ma-baŋ(e)luh) *baŋ(e)lúh

ma-bayád-anto be paid (PMP: *bayaD)

ma-bílaŋnumerable, countable; be counted, be enumerated (PPh: *ma-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ₁

ma-bírublack; purple; blue, green, esp. with reference to the darker shades; a term covering a much greater descriptive color range than any single English color term (LOAN)

ma-búquŋbe broken (by nature), i.e. hatch, referring to eggs (PPh: *búquŋ)

ma-buswáŋbegin to flow again, referring to a river after the dry season is over (PPh: *busuáŋ)

ma-dáhanslow, quiet; respectful (NOISE)

ma-diláwyellow (PPH: *diláw)

ma-gatúlitchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

mag-bayúto pound rice (PAN: *bayu)

mag-búgaexpectorate, spit (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

mag-búlusflow, run referring to a river current (PPh: *maR-búlus) *bulus

mag-bunúʔto wrestle (PWMP: *maR-bunuq) *buNuq₂

mag-buwátmake, do (PWMP: *maR-buhat) *buhat₂

mag-daŋdáŋroast something directly on coals (PPH: *maR-daŋdaŋ) *daŋdaŋ

mag-dáyaʔto cheat, defraud (LOAN)

mag-dumdúmto remember someone (PAN: *demdem₁)

Hanunóo (620 / 1291)

mag-dúyanto sleep, rest, or rock back and forth in a hammock (PPH: *dúyan)

mag-kabángo together as companions (PMP: *maR-kaban) *kaban₁

mag-ka-kilálabe acquainted (used mostly in the passive) (PAN: *kilala)

mag-ka-lípayto rejoice (PPH: *lípay)

mag-ka-lípuŋto get dizzy (PPH: *lipeŋ)

mag-k<ar>awíŋ-anmate freely (intensive), of dogs only (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

mag-kitíkto tickle, will tickle (someone) (PMP: *kitik₁)

mag-kúnto say, to tell (PWMP: *ken)

mag-kutkútdig (a hole) (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

mag-mag-ʔar-agáw-angrab at (plural,intensive) (PAN: *qaRaw)

mag-ŋáŋakeep one’s mouth open (PMP: *ŋaŋa₂)

mag-pa-káʔunto feed, give food; also, by extension, give (other things) (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

mag-pa-tindúgto erect, construct something (as a house) (PMP: *ti(n)zeg)

mag-paypáyto beckon (PPH: *paypáy)

mag-pipíʔto wash clothes, launder clothes, using a pa-mipíɁ (PPH: *piqpiq)

mag-sakítto be painful, to be hurt, to feel bad about (PWMP: *maR-sakit) *sakit

mag-sapúputo take in one’s lap, or carry something or someone in one’s arms (PPH: *sapúpu)

mag-sitsítcall someone’s attention to something by hissing (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

mag-siyápto chirp, cluck (as a chick) (PWMP: *ciap)

mag-súkutto collect payment (PPH: *sukut)

Hanunóo (640 / 1291)

mag-súluŋto put on, wear (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

mag-tahúpwinnow (PMP: *tahep) *tapeS

mag-tanúmto plant, will plant (PWMP: *maR-tanem) *CaNem

mag-taŋághold on by biting (PMP: *taŋaR)

mag-taŋágto hold on by biting (LOAN)

mag-t<ar>upúŋbe the same in height (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

mag-túkadto climb, as a mountain (PAN: *tukad₂)

mag-ulíʔgo home (PPh: *maR-uliq) *uliq₁

mag-ʔákuttransport goods in this manner (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

mag-ʔániharvest with the hands (PAN: *maR-qani) *qaniS

mag-ʔílagavoid (something), be careful (PWMP: *qilag)

mag-ʔíwikto squeal (PPh: *íwik)

ma-hípusquiet, calm, reserved (PPH: *hipes)

ma-lagíwrun, will run (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

ma-limústo drown (PPH: *limes)

ma-línawtranquil, still, quiet (PMP: *ma-linaw) *linaw

ma-lubúghazy (PWMP: *lebug)

ma-lúmuyslow; weak (PPH: *lumúy)

ma-matáydie (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

mámaʔchewing of betel leaf, areca nut chew (PMP: *mamaq)

Hanunóo (660 / 1291)

ma-múbudplant rice or corn by dropping the grains or seeds into separate dibble holes by hand (PWMP: *maŋ-bubud) *bubud

mamʔ-ínbetel leaf for chewing; areca nut chew (< Tagalog?) (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-nalíŋsiŋto branch out (PPH: *saliŋsíŋ)

ma-námugdew-laden, dewy (PAN: *ñamuR)

ma-nipísthin (PMP: *ma-nipis) *Nipis

ma-níwaŋthin, referring to people (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

maníʔpeanut: Arachis hypogaea Linn.; known but not grown in Hanunóo country (LOAN)

manúka generic term for bird; specifically, in certain combinations, chicken (PMP: *manuk)

maŋamore than one (a pluralizing indicator) (PMP: *maŋa₁)

ma-ŋáʔunto eat (PMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋgámango tree (Mangifera indica Linn.) and fruit (LOAN)

maŋ-gatáʔmake gatáʔ (PWMP: *gateq)

maŋ-ʔúgaswash hands, coconut shell vessels, etc. (PWMP: *maŋ-huRas) *SuRas

ma-paʔítbitter, referring to taste (PMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-púlawawake; wake up (PPH: *pulaw)

ma-pútaʔsticky, gluey (PAN: *puteq)

ma-púyatsleepy? (PPH: *ma-púyat) *púyat

ma-raráred (PWMP: *ma-rara) *rara

m-ar-aty-únslaughter, killing on a large scale (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-sakíthurt, pain, be painful (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

Hanunóo (680 / 1291)

ma-sámukthorny, thick, dense, as of jungle underbrush; entanglement(s) (PWMP: *samek)

ma-saplúdacrid, tasting like unripe bananas (PWMP: *sapeled)

ma-sípagdiligent, industrious (PPH: *sipag)

ma-siwáŋopened (PPh: *ma-siwáŋ) *siwaŋ

ma-súrutclosely packed, jammed together (PWMP: *sendet)

ma-súrutclosely packed, jammed together (PPH: *súrut)

matáeye; operculum of a snail (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tabʔáŋfresh, referring to water; tasteless, flat, referring to taste (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

ma-tagbuʔ-ánbe found, be encountered, as an animal or plant species (PPH: *tag(e)búq)

mátaydeath (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mata ʔikána species of insect; the caterpillar form is very long and thin, and causes the skin to itch considerably on contact (from hair secretion) (PMP: *mata nu hikan) *maCa

ma-tikásbe entered, be opened, as by some natural force such as the wind (PMP: *ti(ŋ)kas)

ma-t<in>upád-unfaithful, complying (PPH: *tupád)

ma-tiʔis-únpatient (PPH: *tiqís)

ma-túnawdissolve, melt (PPH: *túnaw)

ma-túruggo to sleep; sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

maty-únkilling (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mayand (only when indicating the existence of a numerable entity in excess of what has been enumerated previously) (PMP: *mai)

maysáoneness, aloneness (PMP: *ma-isa) *isa₁

ma-ʔabálato be bothered, be molested (PPH: *abála)

Hanunóo (700 / 1291)

ma-ʔágato be punctual (PPH: *ága)

ma-ʔaslúmsour, acid (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

ma-ʔiláwild, untamed (PWMP: *ma-ilah₁) *ilah

ma-ʔilawild, untamed (PWMP: *ma-ilah₂) *ma-ilah

mináŋaunion of two near-by bodies, as of rivers; hence, fork of a river, fork or crotch of a tree limb (PMP: *minaŋa)

mínsanonce, at one time (PPH: *minsan)

mútaʔgummy secretion of the eyes (PWMP: *muteq)

mutyáʔbezoar stone amulet (LOAN)

na-bwálit fell down (as of a tree in a storm) (PPh: *buál)

nágaNarra tree: Pterocarpus indica; the sap is used as a medicament for application to cold sores in the mouth (PMP: *naRah)

naka-taʔúncocked (PMP: *taqen)

námugdew (morning) (PAN: *ñamuR)

namúkmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nánaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

na-pnúʔalready filled up (PPH: *na-penuq) *peNuq

nátuʔa large tree, Madhuca obovatifolia [Merr.]; the bark is boiled and the resulting decoction drunk by those who pass bloody feces (PMP: *ñatuq)

niof, by [indicator of possession and agency of a non-actor voice verb] (PAN: *ni)

nígua flat, circular winnowing tray made of twilled bamboo strips (PMP: *niRu) *Rinu

nipísthinness, referring to (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

nítuʔa climbing fern (Lygodium circinnatum Swartz); the twining, vinelike dark stems are used extensively in basketry overlay work (PMP: *nituq)

Hanunóo (720 / 1291)

níwaŋthinness, referring to people (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

-niyá3sg. agent and possessor (PAN: *ni-a) *-a₂

niyúgcoconut palm and fruit (Cocos nucifera Linn.); the roots are boiled and the resulting decoction is drunk for urinary disorders (PMP: *niuR)

niyúg-ancoconut grove (PMP: *niuR)

nuif; when, during, in (with forms denoting periods of time) (PAN: *nu₁)

ŋániindeed (asserting validity, as in ‘This is alright, isn’t it? Yes, indeed!’) (PPH: *ŋani)

ŋáŋaopen-mouthed (PMP: *ŋaŋa₂)

ŋáranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋáruspalate (PPH: *ŋajes)

ŋípuntooth, teeth (PAN: *ŋipen)

ŋukŋúknoise made by monkeys, often referred to in ambáhan (chanted verse) (PMP: *ŋukŋuk)

pádaŋa short, small-leaved cogon grass (Imperata sp.) (PWMP: *padaŋ)

págashelf (PAN: *paRa₁)

pagáwhoarseness (PAN: *paRaw)

pagbúone of the four principal rafters, frequently of bamboo, used in the Hanuno'o construction of a house roof (PPh: *paR(e)bu)

pag-buát-unthat which is being made, being done (PWMP: *paR-buhat-en) *buhat₂

pag-buwát baláymaking a house (PMP: *buhat₂)

págisting ray, devil ray, rayfish (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pag-i-ŋárn-anto be named or called (something) (PWMP: *i-ŋajan(-an)) *ŋajan

pag-káʔunfood (PAN: *kaen)

Hanunóo (740 / 1291)

pag-puyát-unovercome by sleepiness (PPH: *púyat)

pa-hulug-húlugkind of monkey trap (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

pákawhandle, as of a frying pan or other utensil (PWMP: *pakaw)

pakpákwing (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pákutcord, string, used to sling a bush knife from the waist (PMP: *pakut)

pakyáwsomething done by lot, en masse, in a large unit; specifically 1) contract labor, 2) wholesale purchase, as of rice, dry goods, etc. (LOAN)

palákpakflapping of wings (PPH: *p<al>akpak) *pakpak₁

p<al>akpákflapping of wings (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pa-líkuscircumference (PMP: *likes)

paltíkswift, jerky blow (PWMP: *paletik)

paltíkswift, jerky blow (PWMP: *pale(n)tik)

pálumast, pole (LOAN)

páluŋcock’s comb (PPH: *páluŋ)

pa-mánainheritance (PWMP: *mana₁)

pa-mánainheritance (PWMP: *maña)

pa-máŋluperfume; any object that is sweet-scented (PPH: *baŋ(e)lúh)

pa-mipíʔwooden mallet or beater for pounding clothing (PPH: *piqpiq)

pampáŋbank of a river; edge of a field (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

pa-mulúŋany prepared medicine (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

pánduŋa protective rain cover, a combination rain cape and umbrella, made commonly from a leaf sheaf of the of the fan palm (PPH: *panduŋ)

Hanunóo (760 / 1291)

pa-nípulwhistling, a shrill musical sound produced by forcing the breath through the teeth or compressed lips (LOAN)

pa-nuhúg-anbeads, literally 'that which is used for being strung' (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

panússtench of urine (PPh: *panuqus) *panúqus

paŋákbarking of dogs (ROOT)

paŋánayoldest child (PPH: *paŋánay)

pa-ŋaŋah-ínto get someone to open his mouth (PMP: *ŋaŋa₂)

pa-ŋátiʔdecoy wild cock (PPH: *pa-ŋátiq) *kátiq

pa-ŋáwita hook, i.e. an implement (PWMP: *pa-ŋawit) *kawit

pa-ŋáyabfan, any fanning device (PWMP: *kayab)

páŋdanpandanus palm (Pandanus sp.) (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

pápaga bamboo slat-tray or shelf, used for support of bone bundles in a family burial cave (PPH: *papag)

parásana tall, mature type of rattan (PPH: *parásan)

parásantall, mature type of rattan: Calamus maximus Blanco (LOAN)

páraypalay, or unhusked rice (Oryza sativa Linn.), especially that standing in the fields, still unharvested (PAN: *pajay)

paspásdripping of rain from eaves (PWMP: *paspas₃)

paspás-anditch formed by rain dripping from eaves; rain ditch (PWMP: *papas-an) *paspas₃

pa-táguʔhiding oneself (PMP: *pa-taRuq) *taRuq

patánilima beans (Phaseolus lunatus Linn.), the largest type of beans cultivated by the Hanunóo (PPH: *patániq)

pátaydry, as of grass (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patíeven; a more common term is haŋgán ‘even, even to, even including’) (PPH: *patí)

Hanunóo (780 / 1291)

patíktapping on the rim of metal dance gongs with pamatík (set of bamboo tappers) (PWMP: *pa(n)tik)

pa-túkadgoing uphill (PAN: *tukad₂)

payapáyfin of a fish (PPH: *payapay)

páyidwiping off (LOAN)

paypáybeckoning, always with a downward motion of the hand (PPH: *paypáy)

páyuŋumbrella (know to the Hanunoo only through contact with the lowlanders) (PWMP: *payuŋ)

paʔítsmall white freshwater fish with a bitter taste; hence its name (< paʔít 'bitterness') (PWMP: *paqit₁) *paqit

paʔítbitterness (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

páʔunbait (PAN: *paen)

pídutpinch (PWMP: *pizet)

pídutpinch (PPH: *pidut)

pikítclosing the eyes (PMP: *pikit)

pílaksilver; coinage, money (LOAN)

piláylame (PAN: *piNay)

píliʔchoosing, selection (PAN: *piliq)

p<in>írittwisted (as of the fibers in a rope) (PMP: *pirit)

pínsancousin (PPH: *pinsan)

píntasany extremely powerful and evil force in the supernatural realm; specifically, either of the two worst types of labáŋ (evil forest spirits) (PPH: *pintás)

p<in>útulclub, cudgel; a hardwood baton carried by young men (PMP: *putul) *putun

piŋgándish, plate, usually of porcelain (LOAN)

Hanunóo (800 / 1291)

pipíʔpounding of clothing in laundering (PPH: *piqpiq)

piráhow many?; some, several (objects) (PAN: *pijax)

pírittwist, twisting (PMP: *pirit)

písusa monetary unit equal to 80 centavos (rather than 100 centavos, which is the standard value of the peso in most other parts of the Philippines); one peso (LOAN)

pitúseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitúgua tree: Cycas circinalis Linn. (NEAR)

púgadnest, as of a bird (PPH: *pugad)

púgadnest, as of a bird (LOAN)

pugáʔsqueeze, pressing, wringing (PAN: *peReq)

púguʔquail (probably the barred button quail, Turnix suscitator fasciata) (PAN: *puRuq)

púkanchopping down, cutting, felling (PPH: *púkan)

pukíbuttocks; hindmost part of buttocks (PAN: *puki)

púlawwaking up, awakening (PPH: *pulaw)

púnaypigeon, wild dove, possibly Treron pompadora axillaris (PAN: *punay)

punúʔfull (PAN: *peNuq)

puŋáwsorrow, gloom, grief (PWMP: *puŋaw)

púŋsuanthill, i.e. a termite hill (PWMP: *puŋsu)

purúnspool, ball, of anything that can be wound; classifier for same (PMP: *pudun) *puduN

pusítspurt, spurting, as of blood (PMP: *pe(R)cit)

púsudumbilicus, navel (PMP: *pusej)

Hanunóo (820 / 1291)

púsuʔheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

púsuʔ maʔísear of corn (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusʔúnabdomen (PPH: *pus(e)qun)

pútata species of tree (probably Barringtonia racemosa [Linn.]) (PMP: *putat)

pútaʔstickiness, glutinousness (PAN: *puteq)

pútaʔstickiness, glutinousness (ROOT)

pútula cut-off section, as of a stick (PMP: *putul) *putun

púyatsleepiness (PPH: *púyat)

púʔunbase of a plant stem; trunk; stump; an officiating elder at a panagdáhan ritual (not to be confused with a shaman (PMP: *puqun)

púʔun kayutree (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

raráred, redness, quality of being red (PMP: *rara)

rawángrudge (PMP: *rawan)

ríkutgrass, weeds (PWMP: *rikut)

rímasbreadfruit: Artocarpus altilis (LOAN)

rúnutpulverization, smashing, crushing (PPH: *rúnut)

rúyuŋfalling, as of bamboos when cut (PWMP: *ruyuŋ₁) *ruyuŋ

sa atubáŋ-anin front (of), in the presence (of) (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

sabláycarrying something slung from the shoulder (PPH: *sab(e)láy)

sábudsowing, broadcasting, as of seeds (PWMP: *sabuD)

sábuŋcockfight; a sport known but not practiced by the Hanunóo (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

Hanunóo (840 / 1291)

sabútpubic hair (PWMP: *sabut)

sabʔáan angular, short banana (Musa sapientum var. compressa [Blco.] Teodoro) or plantain; yellow-skinned when ripe, but usually picked green and boiled to make it palatable; one of the important staples of the central Hanunóo (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sádɁaŋhanging, as on a peg, hook, etc. (PPH: *sad(e)qaŋ)

ságasmall vine (Abrus precatorius Linn.) the seeds of which are vermillion with some black, and are used as eyes in carved figures, beads, etc. (PWMP: *saga)

sagútto answer (PMP: *saRut)

sagútanswer (PPH: *sagút)

sakáclimbing up, going up, as into a house (PPH: *saka)

sakáŋastride, astraddle (PMP: *sakaŋ)

sakáyriding on a horse or in a boat or land vehicle, etc. (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakítpain; illness (PMP: *sakit)

salátansouthwest monsoon, southwest (PWMP: *salatan)

saláʔmistake, error (PWMP: *maR-salaq) *salaq₁

sálintransferring the contents from one container to another; translation; translating (PWMP: *salin)

salíŋsiŋbranches, twigs (PPH: *saliŋsíŋ)

sáludreceiving something, as water, from a bamboo tube in a receptacle held in the hands (PWMP: *saluD)

salúgflooring, floor (PMP: *saleR)

s<al>uksúkoverlaid work with nito [fern] and/or akós [loose coils of red-dyed rattan strips] on buri-leaf baskets and bags (PWMP: *s<al>uksuk) *suksuk

salúkubtubular bamboo quiver for arrows, especially if poison-tipped (PPH: *salúkub)

salúmdiving, swimming under water; immersion (PWMP: *salem)

sáluŋpitch, resin, used for lighting (PAN: *saleŋ)

Hanunóo (860 / 1291)

salúpa measure of volume equal to one 25th of a pásuŋ; one ganta (3.17 quarts liquid) (PPH: *salúp)

sámatogetherness; among, with, together with (PWMP: *sama)

sámpukfight, especially cock-fighting (PWMP: *sa(m)puk)

sámukthat which causes entanglement or impedes travel, as dense thickets (PWMP: *samek)

sandáyresting of the head (on something) (PMP: *sanday) *saŋeday

sandáy-anpillow (PMP: *sanday) *saŋeday

sandúkladle (PWMP: *sanduk)

santúlthe ketjape or santol tree: Sandoricum koetjape [Burm. f.] Merr. (LOAN)

saŋábranch, limb; a two-pronged wooden stick, a special instrument used in setting up the warp threads for weaving on a backstrap loom (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sáŋlaytoasting (PMP: *saŋelaR)

sápaɁriver (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sápadsmall bunch, or hand, of bananas; classifier for same (PPH: *sápad)

saplúdtaste of unripe bananas; acridity of such unripe fruits (PWMP: *sapeled)

sapúputaking on one’s lap or carrying in one’s arms, as a child (PPH: *sapúpu)

sáputshroud, wrapping (PMP: *saput₁)

sapút-unbe wrapped (PMP: *saput₁)

sárabroasting (PPH: *sajab)

sárabroasting (PPH: *sárab)

s<ar>aput-ʔan butʔulbone bundle (wrapped bones of the dead) (PMP: *saput₁)

sari-sárivarious types; diverse (LOAN)

Hanunóo (880 / 1291)

sáwismall bird with shiny black plumage; it imitates the calls of other birds and of some mammals (PWMP: *cawi)

sáyaŋpity! an expression of vain regret; what a shame! what a pity! (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

sia form preposed to personal names; sometimes si is used figuratively with terms other than personal names [as animals in tales] (PAN: *si₁)

sibáɁto gulp, swallow (especially with reference to animals) (PPH: *sibáq)

sibúkawa tree (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.); the wood shavings are mixed with water and slaked lime to make a much-used decorative red paint or dye (PPH: *sibukaw)

síduʔhiccup (PWMP: *siqedu)

sígaycowries, especially “money cowry” (Cypraea moneta Linn.) (PWMP: *sigay)

síkashout or yell used to drive cats away (PMP: *sika)

siksíkscales of fish, reptiles, or birds (PMP: *siksik₂)

síkuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

símaʔbarb, barbed prong, as of an arrow point (PPH: *símaq)

s<in>abláyslung from the shoulder (PPH: *sab(e)láy)

s<in>árabroasted with the skins left on, as bananas (PPH: *sajab)

siŋgítray of light (PPH: *siŋgít)

siŋírcollection of payment of debts (PWMP: *siŋir)

siŋítnock in an arrow (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

siŋkamása climbing herbaceous plant with edible, turnip-like, watery tubers (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.); now pantropic, this plant originated in tropical America (LOAN)

siŋr-ácollect (that payment)! (literally: ‘be collected!’) (PWMP: *siŋir)

síŋsiŋfinger ring (LOAN)

sípagdiligence, industry (PPH: *sipag)

Hanunóo (900 / 1291)

sípittongs, pincers (PAN: *sipit)

sipít-unbe grasped by or with pincers (PPh: *sipít-en) *sipit

sípulwhistling (LOAN)

síraŋday, but not sun (PWMP: *siraŋ)

sírukspoon made from a section of coconut shell; made for children only (PMP: *si(n)duk)

síruŋa location with reference to something above it; hence the space under or below a house, or underneath or below something (PWMP: *siduŋ)

sisíwchick (PAN: *siwsiw)

sitsíta sort of hissing “psst!” sound made to attract someone’s attention (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

siwáŋopen, spread apart, not closed (PMP: *siwaŋ)

siyámnine, the cardinal number (PPH: *siám)

siʔrípglance, glancing (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

sudláycomb (NEAR)

súguɁorder, command (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

suguɁ-ándemand, order, command (PWMP: *suRuq-an) *suRuq

súkavomiting (PPH: *suka₂)

suklúbanany telescopic basket; specifically a checker-woven telescopic rattan box used to hold betel and areca nut ingredients (PPH: *suk(e)luban)

suksúkoverlay work (PAN: *suksuk)

suksúkcommon house lizard (Hemidactylus frenatus, Dumeril and Bibron); also the sound made by this lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

súkubfacing down, pronation (ROOT)

sukúlmeasuring (PMP: *sukul₃)

Hanunóo (920 / 1291)

súkutcollection of payment of debts, bills, rent, etc. (PPH: *sukut)

súlaŋmeeting (someone) (PWMP: *sulaŋ)

súlaŋmouth, oral cavity (PPH: *selaŋ₂)

súlichild born with legs first (PAN: *suli₂)

sulítreplanting of a kaingin [swidden] if the sprouts of the first planting are too few (PPH: *sulit₂)

súlsulcrowding, pressing in, insisting (PWMP: *sulsul₂)

súluŋadvancing, forward motion; pushing, shoving (PWMP: *suruŋ)

súluŋputting on, wearing, with reference to clothing (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

súluʔtorch (PMP: *suluq)

s<um>akáto go up, enter (PPH: *saka)

s<um>aláʔto err, be wrong, make a mistake (PWMP: *s<um>alaq) *salaq₁

sumpáʔoath, swearing (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpítsling for hurling stones, usually of stick, cord, and leaf construction (PMP: *sumpit)

s<um>úkato vomit, will vomit (PPH: *suka₂)

s<um>umpáʔto swear (PWMP: *sumpaq)

s<um>unúdto follow (PPH: *sunúd)

s<um>úratto write (LOAN)

sundáŋblunt-tipped bolo (LOAN)

sundáŋblunt-tipped bolo (LOAN)

sunúdfollowing (PPH: *sunúd)

Hanunóo (940 / 1291)

sunuysmoke (?) (PMP: *sunuR)

sunúy-unsmoke torch used for chasing bees away (PPH: *sunúg-en) *sunuR

súŋawleaking, escaping, as of steam, gas, liquids, etc. (PWMP: *seŋ(e)qaw)

suŋaw-ánglans penis (PWMP: *seŋ(e)qaw)

súŋayhorn, i.e. of an animal (PPH: *súŋay)

suŋkukdrooping head; hanging of one's head, being unable to speak or answer because of fear, shame, or similar emotions (PMP: *su(ŋ)kuk)

súŋuthe pointed anterior projection of the rostrum of shrimps and crayfish; also, sometimes, including bases of antennules, “nasal spike” (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

súpaʔmaternal premastication of food for a baby (PWMP: *sepaq)

súputyoung leaves of any plant, just after having sprouted (PPH: *sepet₁)

súratwriting, especially on bamboo; a letter so written; a character, one “letter” of the Indic-derived syllabary used by the Hanunóo (LOAN)

s<ur>úlʔ-anlight, lamp, lighting fixture (PMP: *suluq)

súruttightness, congestion, a state of being closely packed (PWMP: *sendet)

súsubreasts, especially those of an adult woman (PAN: *susu₁)

suwítextraction of something from a hole or cavity, with a prying instrument (PWMP: *suqit)

tawe (inclusive); apheretic, literary form of kitá (PAN: *-ta)

tábascutting down, clearing underbrush and small trees as in preparing a kaiŋin (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

tabáyaglime container made from a gourd (PPH: *tabayaR)

tábuncover, covering, as of the heavy stitching over the closed portions of the seams in a man’s shirt (PMP: *tabun₂)

tabʔáŋfresh water; tastelessness, flatness, referring to flavor or taste (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tagábaslong-leaved variety of kusúl (Kaempferia galanga Linn.); many medicinal and religious uses (PWMP: *taRabas)

Hanunóo (960 / 1291)

tagáʔfishhook (LOAN)

tágbuʔmeeting (someone); encountering (something) (PPH: *tag(e)búq)

ta-gílidtipped on one side, as trees partially blown over by the wind (PPH: *ta-gílij) *gílij

tágina horizontal spring snare for catching pigs or deer (PMP: *taRin)

tagúksap, as of a tree (PPH: *tagek)

tágumindigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria Linn.); the leaves are used for dyeing and for rubbing on neck swellings (PMP: *taRum)

táguʔhiding (as hiding something in a cave) (PMP: *taRuq)

taguʔ-ánbe hidden, be concealed, as an object (PWMP: *taRuq-an) *taRuq

tagyáŋrib (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tahíʔsewing (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tahúpwinnowing (PMP: *tahep) *tapeS

tákawtheft, stealing (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

takáw-unbe stolen (PWMP: *takaw-en) *Cakaw

taklúbcover, top, lid (PWMP: *tak(e)lub)

takúdsomething which may be fastened or tied onto something else (PPH: *takéd)

takúpcover, lid, top (PWMP: *takup₁) *takup

talagáright; really, truly (PPH: *talagá)

t<al>akúpdoor (sliding type) (PWMP: *takup₁) *takup

taliŋa-bátaŋa poisonous saprophytic tree fungus (PMP: *taliŋa nu kahiw) *Caliŋa

tálucheating, beatingm as in trade; surpassed (PMP: *talu₂)

Hanunóo (980 / 1291)

talú-hunbe beaten in, or cheated at trade (PMP: *talu₂)

táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting (PMP: *taluk)

táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting (PWMP: *taruk)

tálunjungle, forest; an extensive, continuous, forested area (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tálun manúkwild jungle fowl, wild chicken: Gallus gallus gallus(Linn.) (PMP: *manuk)

tálun manúkwild jungle fowl, wild chicken: Gallus gallus gallus Linn. (PPH: *talun₂) *CaluN

talúŋeggplant (Solanum melongena Linn.); five varieties are know to the Hanunóo (LOAN)

t<al>úŋkudbridge of a stringed instrument such as a gitgít (small, locally made violin having three strings of twisted human hair) (PAN: *tukud)

tálusa taro with yellowing leaves (PMP: *tales)

támaʔright, correct, true (PMP: *tamaq₁)

támbandark-colored fish about 15 cm. long (PWMP: *tamban)

támbidhanging, as of a bamboo container from the rafters of a house (PWMP: *ta(m)bid)

támbuŋdam, as in a stream (PWMP: *tambeŋ)

tampúlplaster, poultice (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

tanánall (PPH: *tanan)

tanan-tanánall (emphatic) (PPH: *tanan)

tandáʔremembering, memorizing (something) (PPH: *tandaq)

tánudguard, one who watches over something, as a field (PPH: *tánud)

tanúmplanting (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do (PMP: *taŋaR)

Hanunóo (1000 / 1291)

taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do (LOAN)

taŋan-táŋana species of tree: Jatropha curcas Linn.; two types or varieties are known, one reddish, one white (PWMP: *taŋan-taŋan)

táŋbuʔoffshoot, sucker, referring to bamboo (PPH: *taŋ(e)buq₂)

táŋdandirect payment of beads to a seer for his services (PPH: *taŋ(e)dan)

taŋkálpig basket or cage (PPH: *taŋkal)

tapásmoked fish (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tápalplaster, poultice (PWMP: *tapal)

tápayfinely pounded rice flour added to sugarcane juice to aid in making fermented wine (PWMP: *tapay)

tapáy-ana large earthenware pot used in making sugarcane wine (PWMP: *tapay-an) *tapay

tapúsfinished, as a song, task or story (PAN: *tapus)

táripskin, peel, rind, as of fruit (PPH: *tájip)

tárubeeswax produced by the bee known as putyúkan (a honeybee, Apis sp.) (PWMP: *tadu)

tarúdscraping, rubbing (ROOT)

tarúmblade of a knife, bolo or other cutting instrument (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

táwaddiscount; bargaining; pardon (PWMP: *tawaD)

táwadpardon (PPH: *táwad)

táwuman, person; human being, not man in the sense of male opposed to female (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

táwu dágatsea supernaturals in human form (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

táwu danúmwater spirit (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

táwu sa tálunforest spirit(s) (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

Hanunóo (1020 / 1291)

tayáʔbet, wager, stake (PPH: *tayáq)

taytáysitting or perching on a single crosspiece (PMP: *taytay)

táʔuknowledge of a fact; denying knowledge of a fact; in a verbal sense, not to know (something) (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

táʔubhigh tide (PWMP: *taeb)

taʔúncocking, as a gun or a trap (PMP: *taqen)

ti b-um-wát índathe one who did this (PMP: *buhat₂)

tig-piráhow much? (in asking a price) (PAN: *pijax)

tikásentering, opening with force (as of wind blowing in) (PMP: *ti(ŋ)kas)

tikísintention; intentionally (PPH: *tikís)

tíkiʔa lizard larger than the common house lizard; geckos (esp. Gekko gecko Linn.), which are small and harmless; also, the sound made by them (PPH: *tikiq)

tíktikdrippings, as of filtered liquids, tree sap, etc. (PMP: *tiktik₁)

timbáŋweight (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timbáŋ-anmeans of weighing something, scales (PWMP: *timbaŋ-an) *timbaŋ

tímidchin’ (PMP: *timid) *timij

tímlacommon dog flea (PAN: *qatimela)

tímugsouth wind, south (PMP: *timuR)

tindúgstanding, being erect (PMP: *ti(n)zeg)

tíndukthe largest local variety of plaintain: Musa paradisiaca var. magna Blco.); arm-sized, and eaten only when cooked (PPH: *tinduk)

tiŋáfood particle stuck between the teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tiŋgílclitoris (PPH: *tuŋgíl)

Hanunóo (1040 / 1291)

tíŋilisten (PMP: *tiŋi)

tipítclamps, holders, as used to fasten house walls down (ROOT)

típuncollecting, gathering (together) (PPH: *típun)

tipún-unbe gathered (PPH: *típun)

tírʔisstinging secretion of a millipede, the most important part of which is prussic acid (PPH: *tiq(e)ris)

tiyánbelly; back (referring to a hunter’s bow) (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tíʔispatience (PPH: *tiqís)

túblia vine the sap of which is used as a fish stupefier; also the fish-stupefying substance itself; the pulverized roots of this plant are applied as a medicament to large skin ulcers: Derris elliptica (PWMP: *tub(e)liq)

tubúsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tubukawl (PAN: *tebek)

túbuʔgrowth, growing (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

túhugstringing of beads or similar objects (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

túkadascent, as of a ridge; uphill (PAN: *tukad₂)

tukádcontrariwise; uphill (PAN: *tukad₂)

tuksúʔtemptation (LOAN)

túktukmincing, chopping into small pieces, as of meat (PAN: *tektek₁)

túkudany of the six to eight supporting posts of wood, braced against the main floor beams of a house; support, prop (PAN: *tukud)

túladsimilarity, sameness (PWMP: *tulad)

tuláybridge, a general term (PPH: *tuláy)

túliear (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

Hanunóo (1060 / 1291)

túluthree, a cardinal number (PAN: *telu)

tulu-kánthree, used only in a children’s counting game (PPH: *telu-gan) *telu

tulúln-anthroat (PWMP: *telen-an) *telen

túlunswallow, swallowing (PMP: *telen)

túluscontinuance (PMP: *tulus)

túluscontinuance (PWMP: *terus)

túmaitch mites or immature lice; tiny, almost invisible insects on clothes, fabrics, or the human body (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t<um>aytáyto sit down, perch (on something) (PMP: *taytay)

t<um>indúgto stand up (PMP: *ti(n)zeg)

tumpúkpile, heap (PWMP: *tumpuk)

t-um-úbuʔgrow (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

t<um>úlunto swallow, will swallow (PMP: *telen)

t<um>ulus-ánto continue (PWMP: *terus)

túnawmelting, dissolving (PPH: *túnaw)

túntunprop or aerial roots, as of the pandanus (PPH: *tuntún)

tuntúndangling, hanging through (and down) (PPH: *tuntún)

tunúgsound (PWMP: *teneR)

tunúgsound (PPH: *tunuR)

tuŋáwtiny reddish biting mites (Trombiculicae), most bothersome in regions such as the crotch, armpits, scrotum, under the belt; they transmit scrub typhus (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

tuŋáʔhalf, middle, center (as indefinite concepts) (PMP: *teŋaq)

Hanunóo (1080 / 1291)

tuŋáʔ-unbe divided into halves; be halved (PMP: *teŋaq)

túŋkudany supporting object (PAN: *tukud)

tuŋkúlconcern; about, concerning (PPH: *tuŋkúl)

tuŋkúl-anduty, obligation, charge (PPH: *tuŋkúl)

tupádcompliance, faithfulness (PPH: *tupád)

túpuŋmeasuring the same, having the same height or length (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

túriʔcircumcision; circumcised (PPH: *turiq)

túrugsleep (PAN: *tuduR)

túruʔexuding, dripping (out), coming out, with reference to liquids; a drop of any liquid (PAN: *tuduq)

túruʔpointing, direction (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

túruʔpointing; direction (PMP: *tuzuq₂) *Cuzuq

tutúbsoft, clothlike covering for anything; a bandana-like head covering; a leaf cover for an earthenware pot filled with bananas for cooking, etc. (PMP: *tutub)

tútudburning down, usually of brush, in order to clear a kaiŋin (swidden); such a kaiŋin after the trees and brush have been burned (PWMP: *tutuD)

tuwádstate of being upside down, head forward, buttocks protruding backwards (PWMP: *tuad)

túwaŋbalancing on a fulcrum, rocking to and fro (PPH: *tuaŋ₂)

túwaya species of clam (Venus sp.); clamshell used as a unit of liquid measure, i.e. a clamshellful (PMP: *tuay)

tuway-túwaypatella, kneecap (PMP: *tuay)

túyuʔdirection toward (some place) (PPH: *tuyuq)

túʔuga tree (probably Bischofia javanica Blm.); shavings from the bark are rubbed on fishing lines to become dark, smooth, and more durable (PMP: *tuquR₂) *CuquR

-um-active verb infix, generally intransitive, and often with a future meaning (e.g. l-um-aŋúy 'to swim; will swim', t-um-índas 'to kick; will kick') (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

Hanunóo (1100 / 1291)

-unmarker of direct passive, and polite imperative (PAN: *-en)

wákcommon crow (Corvus macrorhynchus); apheresis of the form ʔuwák, q.v. (PPh: *wáak)

wákatvine, a general term (PMP: *wakat)

walúeight (PAN: *walu)

waŋwáŋexpansiveness, broadness, wideness, bigness, as of pools (PPh: *waŋwáŋ)

waŋwáŋant sp. (NOISE)

wásayax (PWMP: *wasay)

wísikshaking, sprinkling (PPH: *wisik)

wis-wísikshaking of the hand to get rid of something attached or stuck to it (PPH: *wisik)

yámanriches, with reference to money; a borrowed form and concept (LOAN)

yátabcrescent-shaped hand knife for harvesting rice (PPH: *yátab)

ʔabáan exclamation of surprise, admiration, wonder; the more commonly used form is ʔabaʔabá (PWMP: *abá)

ʔabágatsouthwest monsoon; or, indefinitely, any very strong wind; year (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

ʔabakáManila hemp, abacá (Musa textilis Ne'e) (PPh: *abaká)

ʔabálamolestation, bother (PPH: *abála)

ʔabaŋʔábaŋa tree (Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent.); the leaves are used as a plaster in treating boils and other swollen body parts (NOISE)

ʔábatleading by the hand (PWMP: *abat₁)

ʔabúluydonation, gift, grant (PPH: *abúluy)

ʔábutreach, reaching, as with the hand; arriving (PPH: *qábut)

ʔabuwáttall, high, referring to people or objects; height (PWMP: *abuat)

Hanunóo (1120 / 1291)

ʔágapunctuality (PPH: *ága)

ʔágawgrasping, grabbing at (something) (PAN: *qaRaw)

ʔagáw-unbe grabbed at, be snatched (PPh: *qaRaw-en) *qaRaw

ʔagdánany single, inclined means of entering a typical Hanuno'o pile dwelling from the ground, especially a log or bamboo pole used in this manner. Note: Runged ladders, common elsewhere in the Philippines, are not used by the Hanuno'o (PMP: *haRezan)

ʔágiwsoot, such as that which collects on the rafters of a house (PPH: *ágiw)

ʔagútaya species of plant (PPH: *qaRutay)

ʔagúʔua tree (Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.), pinelike in appearance (PMP: *aRuhu)

ʔakúI (pronoun) (PAN: *aku)

ʔákuphandful, as of rice grains (PMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

ʔákutpacking, carrying on one's back, of slung over one's back (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

ʔakut-ʔákutwasp (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

ʔaládfence (PAN: *qalad)

ʔalagádwaiting (PPH: *alagád)

ʔálakwine, refering to bottled wine of various commercial brands; known from contact with lowland people; the term does not apply specifically to such native fermented beverages as intús (LOAN)

ʔaláŋdoubt (PPH: *alaŋ)

ʔaláŋandoubt, uncertainty (PPH: *alaŋ-án) *alaŋ

ʔalátlarge rattan storage basket (PWMP: *qalat)

ʔáldawtomorrow (PMP: *qalejaw)

ʔalíbuna tree (Blumea balsamifera Linn.); the leaves are boiled to make a beverage believed to stop malarial attacks (PPH: *qalibun)

ʔali-búyugbumblebee (PPh: *buyug)

Hanunóo (1140 / 1291)

ʔalipʔípscapula (PWMP: *qali-peqip)

ʔaluhípancentipede, a small common chilopod 5 to 6 cm. long (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

ʔalúma tree: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (PPH: *álem)

ʔamákwoven mat, especially one made of buri-palm leaves and used for sleeping purposes (PWMP: *amak)

ʔámancare, carefulness (PPH: *áman)

ʔamá-ŋfather (vocative) (PMP: *amá-ŋ) *amax

ʔámatcontinuity, continuousness (PWMP: *amat)

ʔámaʔfather (particularly in the nominative) (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

ʔamíhannortheast; northeast wind, which is usually very gentle (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

ʔa-mtíkred stinging ant (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

ʔanabúsmall tree (Abroma augusta L.); the leaves are used to rub on swollen parts of the body; the bast fibers of the inner bark are used extensively for making twisted bowstrings (PWMP: *anabu)

ʔánadaccustomed to, skilled at, expert in (PPH: *anad)

ʔanaháwpalm sp.: Livistona robinsoniana Becc.; the bold was formerly much prized as a source of bow wood (PMP: *qanahaw)

ʔanákchild, offspring, i.e., son or daughter; with all such kinship whenever one wishes to be specific as to sex; e.g. anák laláki 'son'; young, youthful, referring to persons (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ʔanaŋanáŋan exclamation expressing a threat or boast, somewhat in the sense of 'you'll see!' (PWMP: *anaŋ)

ʔánaytermite, white ant, whether found in wood or in large anthills (PAN: *aNay)

ʔániharvesting rice with the bare hands, i.e. without the help of a bladed implement (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

ʔanílawspecies of tree (family Tiliaceae) (PMP: *qanilaw)

ʔaniŋálecho (PMP: *aniŋal)

ʔa-niŋalecho (PMP: *niŋal)

Hanunóo (1160 / 1291)

ʔánitmolting of animals, as of reptiles, insects, etc. (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

ʔantatarúvaricolored taro beetle which feeds on the petiole of taro plants (PWMP: *qantatadu)

ʔántaʔjuice, as from citrus fruits (NOISE)

ʔánuddrifting with the current of a stream or river (PAN: *qañud)

ʔanulíŋsp. of tree: Pisonia umbellifera Seem. (PMP: *añuliŋ)

ʔanúnaŋtree sp. (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ)

ʔánussmoke, as from a cooking fire (PWMP: *qanuqus)

ʔanwáŋtamarau, timarau, a more or less straight-horned wild buffalo peculiar to the island of Mindoro: Bubalus mindorensis Heude (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

ʔáŋayfitting, fitted, suited, becoming (PPH: *aŋáy)

ʔapanan edible plague grasshopper, green in color, which travels in huge swarms (NOISE)

ʔapát-antrail or pathway used by animals (PPH: *apat)

ʔapdúbile, gall bladder (PAN: *qapejux)

ʔapdúsblister, especially one caused by friction (PMP: *hapejes)

ʔápuowner, master, often used figuratively (PMP: *ampu) *apu

ʔápugslaked lime, usually made by burning piles of clamlike shells; used principally in chewing betel, and for its reportedly medicinal properties (PAN: *qapuR)

ʔapug-ángeneral term for a lime container, whether of bamboo, shell, wood, a crab claw, or other material (PWMP: *qapuR-an) *qapuR

ʔapúyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ʔárukkiss, kissing, i.e., with the nose, sniffing lightly against the nose or cheek of another (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

ʔaruk-ánkissing (PPh: *hajek-an) *Sajek

ʔasáwaspouse, i.e. husband or wife (PAN: *qasawa)

Hanunóo (1180 / 1291)

ʔásaʔwhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

ʔasaʔ-ánwhetstone (PMP: *hasaq-an) *Sasaq

ʔasínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

ʔasín asíntype of vine: Procris frutescens Blm? (PWMP: *qasin qasin) *qasiN

ʔasín bilúghard, rocklike salt made by boiling down sea water leached through ashes (PAN: *qasiN)

ʔasín síraʔgranular salt, evaporated from sea water; a rarity among the Hanuno'o (PAN: *qasiN)

ʔaslúmsourness, acidity (PWMP: *qalesem)

ʔátaŋone of the underlying cross-pieces used in constructing the flooring of a house; shorter flooring strips may be placed on the átaŋ (PMP: *ataŋ₃)

ʔatáyliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔátithere, designating a place far from both speaker and person spoken to, especially if out of sight (PWMP: *ati₂)

ʔátiplower end bar of a backstrap loom consisting of two wooden half rods which are bound together at the ends and onto which the woven cloth is wound as the work proceeds (PMP: *qatip₁)

ʔatísthe sweetsop (Anona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatice and very sweet fruits (LOAN)

ʔatísthe sweetsop (Annona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatic and very sweet fruits (LOAN)

ʔátisthe sweetsop, a tree that bears aromatic and very sweet fruits: Annona squamosa Linn. (LOAN)

ʔatubáŋfront or presence (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

ʔatúproofing thatch (there is no general term for 'roof' in Hanuno'o) (PMP: *qatep)

ʔáwinterrogative particle (PMP: *aw) *Saw

ʔáwayfight, quarrel, argument, struggle (PPH: *áway)

ʔayemphatic particle (NOISE)

ʔayintroductory or conjunctive particle (NOISE)

Hanunóo (1200 / 1291)

ʔayágsifting, as through a sieve (PWMP: *qayag)

ʔayág-ansieve, as of woven bamboo strips (PWMP: *qayag)

ʔaynua plant: Phragmites australis (Madulid 2001) (PAN: *qaReNu)

ʔáyusorder, correct form, arrangement (PPH: *áyus)

ʔayús-unto be put in order (PPH: *áyus)

ʔibáanother, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ʔibábad! terrible! disagreeable, partly by being something other than that which is considered standard or acceptable (PPh: *iba₂)

ʔibáanother, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate (PPH: *iba)

ʔi-búhusbe poured out (PWMP: *buhus)

ʔi-buládbe placed in the sun to dry (PWMP: *belaj)

ʔika-prefix for ordinal numerals (PMP: *ika-) *Sika-

ʔikug-ʔíkugalways going together, as of close friends (PMP: *ikuR ikuR) *ikuR

ʔilástate of being wild, untamed, undomesticated, with reference to animals (PMP: *ilah)

ʔilímountain peak or rocky promontory (PMP: *qilih)

ʔiná-ŋM (voc.) (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

ʔinaʔ-ináthumb or great toe of man or of animals in general (PWMP: *ina ina) *ina

ʔinsáncousin, friend (esp. in the vocative) (PWMP: *insan)

ʔinsíkChinese, language and-or people (LOAN)

ʔinúmto drink, drinking (PMP: *inum)

ʔinum-úndrinking water (PWMP: *inum-en) *inum

Hanunóo (1220 / 1291)

ʔi-pag-ligtásto be set free (PPH: *lig(e)tas)

ʔipíltree sp. (PMP: *qipil)

ʔiráwupython (PPH: *idau)

ʔirúŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ʔi-sálinbe transferred from one container to another; be translated (PWMP: *salin)

ʔisdáʔfish (PPh: *sidáq)

ʔitlúgegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

ʔúbanaked; specifically, stripped from the waist down (PPH: *úba)

ʔúbangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ʔubántumpline or shoulder strap used in carrying heavy packs (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

ʔúbigreater yam: Dioscorea alata Linn. (PMP: *qubi)

ʔúbudpalm cabbage, the edible terminal bulb of most palms (PMP: *qubuj)

ʔudámborrowing; lending (PWMP: *huzam)

ʔudámborrowing, lending (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

ʔudtúmid-point of a vizualized celestial arch; more specifically, noon (PPh: *ugtu)

ʔudtuh-annoontime (PPh: *ugtu)

ʔugáliʔcustom; superstition (PWMP: *ugaliq)

ʔúgaswashing of hands, utensils, etc., but not of face, body or clothes (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

ʔugátstrand, as of thread (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ʔugat-úgatsmall surface veins (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

Hanunóo (1240 / 1291)

ʔúgisa species of tree (PPh: *quRis)

ʔuháʔcry of a newborn baby (PWMP: *uhaq)

ʔúlaygeneral term for snake (loan) (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ʔúlidbeside, at the side of, near; the state of being or lying side-by-side (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

ʔulílaorphan, i.e. only if the father is dead and the mother still living (PWMP: *ulila)

ʔúliʔagain, i.e., repetition; going home, returning (to a certain place) (PMP: *uliq₁)

ʔuliʔ-ánhome, dwelling; room (PWMP: *uliq-an) *uliq₁

ʔúluhead, as of a person or animal (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ʔúlutlevel, layer, floor, story, including the space or interval between such levels (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

ʔulu-ʔúluslung from a tumpline, i.e., a strap passing over the forward part of the head (PAN: *qulu qulu) *quluh

ʔumánagain; exchange, change (PAN: *quman)

ʔumánagain (PMP: *uman) *umaN

ʔum-áwatto help (PWMP: *awat)

ʔum-íhiʔurinate; always done in a squatting position by men as well as women (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

ʔum-inúmto drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

ʔum-udamborrow (PWMP: *h<um>uzam) *huzam

ʔum-ulíʔlive, dwell (in a certain place) (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

ʔum-umándo again, repeat, redo (PWMP: *q<um>uman) *quman

ʔum-uránrain, will rain (PMP: *q<um>uzan) *quzaN

ʔum-úsigrun after (someone) (PWMP: *um-usiR) *qusiR

Hanunóo (1260 / 1291)

ʔum-utútto break wind (PAN: *q<um>etut) *qetut

ʔum-utútbreak wind (PWMP: *q<um>utut) *qutut

ʔúnafirst, i.e. before something or someone else (PMP: *unah)

ʔuna-ʔunágoing on ahead (PPh: *unah-unah) *unah

ʔúnigeneral term for sounds produced vocally by any and all species of fauna, as of the chirping of birds (PMP: *huni) *Suni

ʔúnumsix (PAN: *enem)

ʔúnuʔnecklace beads, in a general sense; specifically, small opaque glass seed beads, preferably red or white, much used for personal adornment of both sexes, small business transactions, payment of fines, shaman's fees, etc. (PAN: *quNuq)

ʔún-ʔanfirst, i.e., before others (PPh: *unah-an) *unah

ʔupárice husks, chaff (PWMP: *qepah)

ʔúpahen, egg-laying chicken (PMP: *qupa)

ʔúpassheathing of banana, plantain and/or similar plants (PPH: *upas₂)

ʔúpatfour, a cardinal number (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

ʔupúŋharvesting rice with the aid of a knife or bolo (PAN: *qupuŋ)

ʔuránrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ʔuráŋa common type of shrimp; also a general term for various types of shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

ʔúriŋcharcoal (PAN: *qujiŋ)

ʔurípunservant, slave (PWMP: *qudipen)

ʔusáone (cardinal number) (PAN: *esa)

ʔusá ka gátusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ʔusa-ʔusáonly one, one only (PMP: *esa esa) *esa

Hanunóo (1280 / 1291)

ʔúsigrunning after, pursuit of, overtaking (someone) (PAN: *qusiR)

ʔusísa ~ usísaʔnvestigation, looking into a matter (LOAN)

ʔusísa ~ usísaʔnvestigation, looking into a matter (LOAN)

ʔutáklarge bush knife, machete, bolo; an implement owned by every Hanuno'o and used constantly for cutting, hacking, chopping, etc. (PPh: *eták)

ʔútaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

ʔútinpenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

ʔútukbrain(s) (PMP: *hutek)

ʔútuŋprotuberance, nipple (PWMP: *utuŋ)

ʔutútflatus, wind (PMP: *qetut)

ʔutútflatus, wind, breaking wind (PMP: *qutut)

ʔuwákthe common crow, Corvus macrorhynchus (PMP: *uak₁)

ʔuwáwthirst (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

ʔuwáya rattan much used in construction lashing (PAN: *quay)

ʔúyaʔshame, modesty (PMP: *heyaq) *Seyaq

ʔúʔuschewing of sugarcane to extract its juices (PMP: *ququs)

201. Haununu (30) OC

aosago palm (thatch used for roofing) (POC: *qatop) *qatep

a-ohusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

a-uhiyam (PMP: *qubi)

auru-egg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

gawifishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

haifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

huācrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

hukibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

huŋa-huŋamountain (POC: *puŋa-puŋa)

kariŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

manubird (POC: *manuk)

mwasnake (POC: *mwata)

na-namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

oruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

piuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

raŋohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

rawaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

rimafive (PAN: *lima)

rio-neck (POC: *liqoR) *liqeR

Haununu (20 / 30)

ritalouse egg (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

riwo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

suri-bone (POC: *suRi₁)

susu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

ta-ŋa-huruten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

tarapath, road (POC: *jalan) *zalan

warueight (PAN: *walu)

wi-penis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

ʔi-ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

Havu (227) CMP. see: Hawu

202. Hawaiian (491) OC (Pukui and Elbert 1971) [haw] United States

aand, then, but (usually preceding verbs, whereas a me usually precedes nouns; a may also connect words translated by English adjectives (PMP: *a₂)

ahawhy? what? for what reason? to do what? to ask what? (PMP: *apa₁)

ahifire, match, lightning; burn in a fire, destroy by fire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

ahi-ahievening, late afternoon; to become evening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

aholine, cord, lashing, fishing line, kite string (POC: *apon) *hapen

aicoition; to have sexual relations (POC: *qait)

ailinking or anaphoric particle. Every ai in Hawaiian has an antecedent, usually expressed, but sometimes understood (Elbert and Pukui 1979:96) (POC: *ai₁)

akeliver; to desire, yearn (the emotions and intelligence were thought to be centered within the body) (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ake māmālungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

akothatching; to thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

a-kokoendemic shrubs and small trees (Euphorbia spp.) with jointed leaves, oblong stems, and milky sap (POC: *toto)

akuparticle expressing direction away from the speaker, and time either past (with nei) or future (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

akubonito, skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamys, an important food item; to run, of aku fish (POC: *qatun)

akuparticle expressing direction away from the speaker, and time either past (with nei) or future; the particle contrasts with mai, and sometimes may be translated “away” or “to say” (PMP: *atu)

akuaGod, goddess, spirit, ghost, devil, image, idol, corpse; divine, supernatural, godly (PMP: *qatuan)

akulebig-eyed or goggle-eyed scad: Trachurops crumenophthalmus (PMP: *qatulay)

alapath, road, trail (POC: *jalan) *zalan

alofront, face, presence, upper surface, as of a bowl (POC: *qarop) *qadep

amaoutrigger float; port hull of a double canoe, so called because it replaces the float (POC: *saman) *saRman

anato measure, survey, evaluate, rate (PMP: *zaŋan₁)

Hawaiian (20 / 491)

anato measure, survey, evaluate, rate; survey, measurement, pattern, plan, model (POC: *saŋa₁)

a-na-huluperiod of ten days; for ten days; to pass ten days (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ana-nafathom (PMP: *zaŋan₁)

anea dermestid beetle that destroys feathers in feather-work; mites, as in chickens; ringworm; insect-eaten, gnawed (POC: *ane) *aNay

anibeckon, wave; blow softly, as a breeze (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

anucool, cold (NOISE)

anuanucold, chilly (NOISE)

aolight, day, daylight, dawn; to dawn, grow light; enlightened; regain consciousness; cloud; world, earth (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

aucurrent; movement, eddy, tide, motion; to move, drift, float, walk, hurry, stir; succession or train, as of thought (PMP: *qaRus)

augall, bile; gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

aɁuswordfish, sailfish, marlin, spearfish (Istiophoridae) (PMP: *saku₂)

auwēoh!, oh dear!, alas!, too bad! (much used to express wonder, fear, scorn, pity, affection); to groan, moan, grieve, bewail (PCEMP: *qaue)

awamilkfish (Chanos chanos) (PMP: *qawan)

awamilkfish (Chanos chanos) (PMP: *qawa₁)

awaport, harbor; channel or passage, as through a reef (PMP: *sawaq)

aʔasmall root, vein, artery, nerve, tendon, muscle (PMP: *akaR)

aʔeseveral native trees, the soapberry (sapindus saponaria f. inaequalis), and all species of Fagara (also known as Xanthoxylum), Fagara having yellowish wood formerly used for digging sticks and spears; seeds of all (largest in the soapberry) are black, round, and used for leis (POC: *ake)

aʔoinstruction, teaching, doctrine, learning (POC: *akot)

aʔuswordfish, sailfish, marlin, spearfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

boloa long bundle, as of hard poi (NOISE)

Hawaiian (40 / 491)

exclamation (POC: *pa₁) *ba₂

hoarse, hoarseness (POC: *paRak) *paRaek

four, fourth (commonly preceded by the numeral-marking prefixes, as ʔehā keiki, four children) (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

stalk that supports the leaf and aro or sugarcane; layers in a banana stump (PMP: *paqa₂)

hae ~ hae-haeto tear to bits (POC: *saRe)

ha-hanawarm, hot (physical, and of strong emotion, as sorrow, love, fear) (POC: *pa-panas) *panas₁

hakashelf, perch, platform (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

hakashelf, perch, platform; roost, as for chickens; fish spear rack; rack for suspending water gourds or other household objects; rack attached to booms of double canoe to hold spears; ladder (PMP: *pataR₁)

hakito break, as a stick; broken (POC: *pati)

hakucompose, put in order, arrange; weave, as a lei (POC: *patuR) *batuR₁

halathe pandanus, or screw pine: Pandanus odoratissimus (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

halaerror, fault, mistake; sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

halehouse (POC: *pale) *balay

halomotion of hands in swimming (NOISE)

hanabay, valley (only in place names) (POC: *paŋa₂) *baŋa₂

hanabay, valley (only in place-names) (POC: *paŋa₃) *paŋa₂

hana-hanahot, warm; vehement (PCEMP: *panas-panas) *panas₁

hānaugive birth; lay an egg; born; offspring; child (NOISE)

haoscoop or pick up; grasp, pillage, plunder; robber (POC: *paRo₂)

haoall native species of a genus of small trees (Rauvolfia) related to the maile and the hōlei. Four or five narrow leaves are borne together at joints of branches; many small, yellowish flowers develop, and then small, black, flattened, twinned, inverted, heart-shaped fruits (POC: *paoq (ʔ)) *pauq

Hawaiian (60 / 491)

haoto scoop or pick up; to grasp, pillage, plunder; robber (POC: *paqaRok)

haua lowland tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus ... Formerly the light, tough wood served for outriggers of canoes, the bast for rope, the sap and flowers for medicine (POC: *paRu) *baRu

haʔu-kekequiver, shiver (PAN: *tirtir₁)

heawhich (in questions and after other words); where (in questions, and after ai, ʔau, i, ma-, mai, no, ʔo; why, why not (in questions after i) (POC: *pea)

hele maiCome! (POC: *mai) *ai₃

flow; hiss (PMP: *sit)

-hiahow many?, how much? (POC: *pica) *pijax

hihientangle, creep, spread, intertwine, intermingle; entangled; web; a large-meshed fish net (POC: *pisi₁)

hī-hī-manuvarious stingrays (Dasyatidae) and eagle rays (Myliobatidae) (with assimilation of *hai-hai to hī-hī). (PMP: *paRih manuk) *paRiS

hīhī-wai (length unexplained)grainy snail (Neritina), in both fresh and brackish water, eaten both cooked and raw (PMP: *sisi₁)

hikuseven; seventh (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hilito braid, plait, string, as a lei or Candlenuts; a braid, plaiting, string; to turn, deviate, wander, stray (PMP: *pirit)

hilito braid, plait, string, as a lei or candlenuts; a braid, plaiting, string; to turn, deviate, wander, stray (POC: *pilit) *bilit

hili-hilito braid, plait, string (POC: *piri-piri) *pirit

hiloto twist, braid, spin; twisted, braided, threadlike; faint streak of light (POC: *piro)

hilo-hilolengthen a speech or story by inserting new matter; embroider or spin out a tale (POC: *piro)

hiʔuhind part or tail section of a fish, considered less delicious than the head or front section; caudal fin; to break wind (POC: *siku)

hiʔu- hiʔulast bits of odds and ends; remnants of matting strips that must be cut off after plaiting is finished; ends of knots in plaiting; wispy end of a braid (POC: *siku)

hoato strike with a stick or club; to club; a club (POC: *posaq) *peceq

hoacompanion, friend, associate, fellow, antagonist (POC: *soRa)

Hawaiian (80 / 491)

hoa-hoatapa beater, washing stick (POC: *posaq) *peceq

hoepaddle, oar; to paddle, row; fig. to travel, get to work, continue working (POC: *pose) *beRsay

holoto run, sail, ride, go; to flow, as water; to slide, as an avalanche; fleet, fast; double time; landslide (POC: *solo₃)

honogathering of chiefs in a taboo ceremony; group of islands in a circle (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

honugeneral name for turtle and tortoise, as Chelonia mydas; name of a design for Ni’ihau mats (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honualand, earth (POC: *panua) *banua

ho-Ɂōto cause to enter, put in, thrust in, insert; to reach in (POC: *soka)

hoɁo-a very active former of causative/simulative derivatives, including 1. causation and transitivization (pono ‘correct’ hoɁo-pono-pono ‘to correct’), 2. pretense (kuli ‘deaf’ : hoɁo-kuli ‘to feign deafness’), 3. simillarity (kamaliɁi- ‘children’ : hoɁo-kamaliɁi ‘childish’), 4. no meaning (kāholoholo ‘to hurry’, hoɁo-kāholoholo ‘to hurry’), 5. unpredictable (maikaɁi ‘good’ : hoɁo-maikaɁi ‘to congratulate’) (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

hoɁo-hoato make friends; to tie, bind, secure, rig; rigging, lashing; to challenge, dare, provoke; daring, defiant (POC: *soRa)

hounew, fresh, recent; again, more (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

hoʔ-āhiahito become evening; to spend an evening; to detain until evening; to darken, obscure (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

ho-ʔaito feed, give food to (POC: *kani) *kaen

hoʔ-ānibeckon, wave, signal; let wind (POC: *paka-aŋin) *haŋin

hō-ʔauto teach to swim, learn to swim; to swim with a drowning person (POC: *kaRu₁)

hoʔi-ihocause to go down; beside that, also, furthermore (POC: *paka-sipo) *sipo

hō-ʔiketo show, make known, display, tell, exhibit, reveal, explain, testify, cause to know or see; testimony, proof, token, guide, exhibition (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

hō-ʔike-ʔiketo display, exhibit, as in a museum or show; circus, museum, play, show of almost any kind (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

hoʔo-anato make measurements (POC: *paka-saŋa) *saŋa₁

hoʔo-huabear fruit, reproduce, give birth; swell high, as a wave (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hoʔo-huliturn, change, overturn, convert (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

Hawaiian (100 / 491)

hoʔo-kaheto water or irrigate, to cause to flow, drain (POC: *tape₁)

hoʔo-kalito cause to wait, delay; lingering, slow, as of a disease (POC: *tari)

hoʔo-kā-maka-makato ask forgiveness, to seek restoration of friendship (POC: *mataq) *hataq

hoʔo-kanito play a musical instrument, to cause to sound; to crack, as a whip; to ring up on the telephone (PMP: *paka-taŋis) *Caŋis

hoʔo-kanuto cause to plant or bury (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

hoʔo-kapumake taboo, prohibit, sanctify, consecrate (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

hoʔo-kiʔoto excrete, evacuate, give birth to a child (often sarcastic) (POC: *tiko)

hoʔo-kulideaf; to feign deafness; (fig.) disobey, be disobedient (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

hoʔo-kuputo cause growth, sprouting; to sprout (POC: *paka-tupuq) *Cubuq

hoʔo-lakato tame, domesticate; to treat with kindness, as a child or animal, so as to familiarize with one (POC: *lasa₁)

hoʔo-lalato warm, as over a fire; warm oneself by a fire; bask in the sun; cook over a fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

hoʔo-lanito treat one as a chief; to act as a chief; to enjoy the position and prestige of a high chief (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

hoʔo-lauto grow leaves, to leaf out (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

hoʔo-liliprovoke jealousy (POC: *lilim)

hoʔo-lokoinsinuate, suggest, implant a thought, either good or bad; character, disposition, heart (POC: *loto₁)

hoʔo-lonoto listen, hear, obey; obedient (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

hoʔo-luado twice, repeat, do over and over; to bake twice, as food in the oven (POC: *paka-rua) *duSa

hoʔo-makaʔuto frighten, scare, terrify, make afraid; to pretend fear (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

hoʔo-makekill; pretend to be dead; let die, let diminish, grow faint (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

hoʔo-makuato grow into maturity; to mature; to act the part of a parent; to foster, adopt, as a child; to call or treat as a parent; to address as parent, aunt, or uncle, one related by affection rather than by blood or adoption; to become established or permanent (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

Hawaiian (120 / 491)

hoʔo-maluto bring under the care and protection of, to protect; to keep quiet, still, as during taboo (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

hoʔo-malu-maluto overshadow, shade, darken, as by a cloud (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

hoʔo-maʔito cause sickness; to feign sickness; genitals (POC: *masakit) *sakit

hoʔo-mimito cause urination; to help to urinate, as a child (PMP: *mimi)

hoʔo-okiput an end to, finish, stop, end; extraordinary, superlative (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

hoʔo-papato place in rank or file; to put in order, to put in layers, overlay, as shingles; to make a shelf; to pack neatly (POC: *baban) *papan

hoʔo-pilito bring together, stick; to attach oneself to a person (PMP: *pilit₁)

hoʔo-ponorighteous, correct; to correct; behave correctly; completely, properly, rightly, well, exactly, carefully, satisfactorily, much (an intensifier following major words) (POC: *bonor₁) *bener

hoʔo-puaprogeny, child, descendant, offspring (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

hoʔo-puʔuto heap up, collect in heaps (POC: *buku)

hoʔo-ūkato load, as cargo or freight; to put on, as gear on a horse; to send, as a letter (POC: *ucan) *ujan

hō-ʔoʔito cause to limp; to pretend to limp (POC: *koki)

huafruit, egg, ovum, seed, offspring; to bear fruit, seed; bear a child; fruitful; round object, as pill or bead; result, effect; testicles; word, letter, figure, watchword, rallying cry, note in music; to speak (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hua huafruitful, productive; bear many fruits, lay many eggs; testicles (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

huhua wood-boring insect; worm-eaten, rotten (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

hu-huicluster (as of grain or fruit); Pleiades (POC: *pui₁) *pui

huhuk-ipull hard or frequently (as in uprooting taro) (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

huiclub, association, society, corporation, firm, partnership, union; form a society or organization; to meet; join, unite, combine; cluster, as of grapes or coconuts; bunch, as of bananas; chorus of a song (POC: *pui₁) *pui

huk-ito pull, as on a rope; to draw, stretch, reach (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

huk-i huk-ipull or draw frequently, or by many persons; pull by jerks or continuously, as in the tug-of-war game; to gather, as taro (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

Hawaiian (140 / 491)

hukuprotuberance, lump, projection, elevation, jutting out, heap; to protrude, jut (POC: *putul₂) *butequl

huliturn; curl over, as a breaker; (fig.) to change, as an opinion or manner of living (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

hulitaro top, as used for planting (PMP: *suli₁)

huli kuato turn the back on, as to insult; back wall of a house (POC: *tuqa₁)

hulufeather, quill; fur, wool, fleece, human body hair (contrasting with lauoho 'head hair'); kind, nature, color (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hulu-hulubody hair, hair of eyelashes, fleece, fur; hairy; frayed, splintered, rough, not smooth, bristling; blanket; feathers; down or fuzz on plant stems; rootlet (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

hulu manubird feather; tick used for mattresses and pillow covers, so called because they were stuffed with bird feathers; green seaweeds (POC: *pulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

hulu-palalight brown, bay, as a horse (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

humu-humutriggerfish; to sew, of many or continuously (POC: *sumu)

hunahidden secret; hidden (PMP: *punas)

huʔeremove, lift off, uncover, expose; to unload, as a ship; to open, as an oven; push, force, prod; to wash out, as flood waters (POC: *puke) *buka

iparticle and clitic preceding substantives and marking direct and indirect objects, with additional meanings: to, at, in, on, by, because of, due to, by means of ... while, at the time that, when (PAN: *i₂)

iparticle and clitic preceding subordinate verbs and marking completed or past action and state or condition; sometimes the linking ai follows the verb or verb phrase (NOISE)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ia, kē-iathis (PMP: *ia₂)

ihe-ihea fish, the halfbeak (NOISE)

ihito strip, peel (PCEMP: *isi₂)

ihito strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove (PMP: *Risi)

ihito strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove (PMP: *Risiq)

ihistrip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove (NOISE)

Hawaiian (160 / 491)

ihito strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove (NOISE)

ihoto go down, descend; to go south or before the wind; down, below (POC: *sipo)

ihunose, snout, beak, bill, trunk of an elephant, toe of a shoe; a kiss, prow or bow of a canoe or ship; thick end of pearl-shell shank (POC: *icuŋ) *ijuŋ

ikastrong (PMP: *qitaq)

i kaitowards the sea (PMP: *tasik)

ika-ikastrong, powerful; strength, force, energy (PMP: *qitaq)

ikismall, little; slightly, a little (PAN: *qitik₁)

ilaa dark birthmark (PMP: *qila)

i lalobelow, underneath (POC: *i rarom) *dalem

ilomaggot, grub; to creep, as worms (PMP: *qulej)

inuto drink; a drink, drinking (PMP: *inum)

inu-miadrink (passive and imperative) (POC: *inum-ia) *inum

iputhe bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, also called L. vulgaris); general name for vessel or container, as dish, mug, calabash, pot, cup, pipe (POC: *ibu) *ibu₃

iwibone; shell; midrib (POC: *suRi₁)

iʔafish or any marine animal, as eel, oyster, crab, whale; meat or any flesh food (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

iʔetapa beater (POC: *ike) *ikay

to hit, strike, hack, thrust, toss, fling, hurl, dash, especially with a quick hard stroke (PAN: *taRaq₁)

kaerefuse; refuse from fibers; treated with contempt, scorn (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

kahato swoop, as a kite; to be poised, soar, as a bird (POC: *tapa₃) *tapa₂

kaheto flow, trickle, drop, melt, menstruate; in heat, of a bitch; a run or school of fish (POC: *tape₁)

Hawaiian (180 / 491)

ka-hea halewhich house? (POC: *pea)

kahe ka hāʔaeto drool at the mouth (POC: *tape₁)

kaisea, sea water; area near the sea; current in the sea; insipid, brackish, tasteless (PMP: *tasik)

k-ai-k-ai-nayounger sibling or cousin of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

kaikama-hinegirl, daughter, niece (POC: *pine) *bahi

kakahiaka poni-ponipurple morning (before dawn) (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

kā-kouwe (plural, inclusive) (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

kalascrewdriver; surgeonfish; rough, as sharkskin (POC: *salaŋ)

kalasurgeonfish; rough, as sharkskin (PEMP: *sala)

kalito wait, loiter, hesitate; loiterer; hesitant, slow (POC: *tari)

kalotaro (Colocasia esculenta), a kind of aroid cultivated since ancient times for food… In Hawaii taro has been the staple from earliest times to the present, and its cultivation developed greatly, including more than 300 forms (POC: *talos) *tales

kā-maka-makafresh, alive, as of leaves or fresh fish; to lay green leaves on an oven (POC: *mataq) *hataq

kamako ~ komakotomato: Lycopersicon esculentum (< English; the word today is ‘ōhi’a) (LOAN)

kamani, kamanilarge tree (Calophyllum inophyllum, at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to eight inches long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about an inch in diameter. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes. (POC: *tamanu)

kanakahuman being, man, human, mankind, person, individual (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

kanisound of any kind; pitch in music; to sound, cry out, ring, peal, tinkle, roar, rumble, crow; to strike, of a clock; voiced (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

kani-hiato be sounded, cried out (POC: *taŋis-ia) *Caŋis

kani-kanito shout loudly; jackknife, from the sound of opening and shutting (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

kanuto plant, bury; planting, burial (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

kaodart, fish-spear, javelin; spike, as on the tail of a stingray (POC: *jaot) *saet

Hawaiian (200 / 491)

kapaedge, border, boundary; side, as of a road (POC: *taba₂)

kaputaboo, prohibition (POC: *tabu) *tambu

kapu-kapudignity, regal appearance; entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity and station (POC: *tapu-tapu) *tambu

kauperiod of time, lifetime; any season, especially summer; session of a legislature; term, semester; time of late night before dawn (PMP: *taqun)

kaua sacred chant, as Hi’iaka’s chants of affectionate greeting to persons, hills, and landmarks; a chant of sacrifice to a deity; to chant thus (PMP: *saRup₂)

kauto place, put, hang, suspend (POC: *saur₁)

kauto place, put, hang, suspend, affix, gird on (POC: *tau₂) *tau

ka-ʔu, ko-ʔumy, mine (POC: *-gu) *-ku

a woody plant (Cordyline terminalis) in the lily family (PMP: *siRi)

kiapillar, prop, post; mast of a ship; nail, spike; rod used in snaring birds with gum (NOISE)

kiheto sneeze (POC: *tise)

kihesneeze (NOISE)

kihi-kihivarious butterfly fishes (POC: *tipi-tipi)

kilostargazer, reader of omens, seer, astrologer, necromancer; kind of looking glass (rare); to watch closely, spy, examine, look around, observe, forecast. (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

kilofirst night of the new moon (ROOT)

kīna-namother hen or bird and her brood; a brooding place (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

kinobody, person, individual, self; main portion (LOAN)

kioa mollusk (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

kipato turn aside, to turn from the direct path (POC: *tibaŋ) *timpaŋ

kiuname of a strong, moderately cold northwesterly wind (PMP: *tiup)

Hawaiian (220 / 491)

koathe largest of native forest trees (Acacia koa), with light-gray bark, crescent-shaped leaves, and white flowers in small, round heads; a legume with fine, red wood, a valuable timber tree, formerly used for canoes, surfboards, calabashes, now for furniture and ukuleles. A small koa was sometimes added to the hula altar to Laka, goddess of the hula, to make the dancer fearless. (POC: *toRas) *teRas

kohoguess, election, choice; choose, select (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

kokoblood; rainbow-hued (POC: *toto)

kolahard, rigid; sexually excited (POC: *tolaq) *telaq

ko laloof or belonging to below; the people from below (POC: *ralom) *dalem

koluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

-kouindicator of plurality in the plural pronouns and possessives only (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

koua tree: Cordia subcordata (POC: *toRu)

koʔacoral, coral head (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

koʔacoral, coral head (POC: *toka₂)

koʔobrace, support, prop; pole as used in pushing a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

koʔolauwindward sides of the Hawaiian islands (POC: *tokalaur)

to stand, stop, halt, anchor, moor... (POC: *tuqur₁) *tuqud

kuaback; burden (POC: *tuqa₁)

kuhito point, gesture, as in speaking, directing an orchestra or dancing the hula (PMP: *tusiq)

kuhi-kuhito show, designate, teach, give orders (PMP: *tusiq)

kuito string pierced objects, as flowers in a lei, or fish; to thread, as beads; needle, pin, spike, nail, screw, any pointed instrument of wood or metal; to sting (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

kū-kaeexcreta (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

kū-kae akuaa brownish substance, sometimes noticed under trees in the shape of paste squeezed from a tube; if the substance contains red, it is believed to be the excreta of the ghost of a dying person, and a sign that someone is dying (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

kukuto beat, as tapa (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

Hawaiian (240 / 491)

ku-kuicandlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana; a large tree in the spurge family bearing nuts containing white, oily kernels which were formerly used for lights and are still cooked for a relish; called kuikui on Niʻihau (PEMP: *tuRi₂) *tuRi

kulideafness, deaf person; deaf; noisy (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

kuluto drip, leak, trickle; to flow, as tears; a drop; general name for distilled liquor; dystentery, gonorrhea (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

kunaa variety of freshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

kun-ito burn, blaze, kindle, scorch, sear, brand; to etch in leather (PMP: *tutuŋ)

kunubroil on coals, as meat or fish (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

kupusprout, growth; offspring; upstart, as one rising suddenly and conspicuously to high position; to sprout, grow, increase; to occur (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

kupuademigod, especially a supernatural being possessing several forms, as Kamapuaʻa (man, pig, fish) (POC: *tupuqa)

k-upu-nagrandparent, ancestor, relative of the grandparents' generation (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

kuʔ-ito pound, punch, strike; to beat out, as metals; to churn, as butter (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

sail; dorsal fin (PAN: *layaR)

laeforehead, brow; cape, point, promontory (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

lahaextended, spread out, broad; circulated, broadcast (POC: *lapa) *laba

lahoterm of abuse; male, as pipi laho ‘bull’, pua’a laho (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

laia fish: Scomberoides sp. (PMP: *daRi)

lakatame, domesticated, gentle; attracted to, fond of; to tame, domesticate, attract (POC: *lasa₁)

lakatame, domesticated, gentle; to tame, domesticate (PAN: *lajam)

lālābranch, limb, bough, coconut frond; timber, as of outrigger boom or float; wing of an army; to branch out, form branches, diverge (POC: *raqan) *daqan

lalodown, downward, low, lower, under, beneath; depths, lowness; leeward, southern (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lamatorch, light, lamp (POC: *ramaR) *damaR₁

Hawaiian (260 / 491)

lama-lamatorch fishing; torch; to go torch fishing (POC: *ramaR) *damaR₁

lanisky, heaven; heavenly, spiritual; very high chief, majesty; royal, exalted, high born, aristocratic (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lauleaf; frond; to leaf out (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lau-lauwrapping, wrapped package; packages of ti leaves or banana leaves containing pork, beef, salted fish, or taro tops, baked in the ground oven, steamed or broiled (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lau-lauwrapping, wrapped package; packages of ti leaves or banana leaves containing pork, beef, salted fish, or taro tops, baked in the ground oven, steamed or broiled (POC: *raun-raun) *dahun

laulaupregnant (NOISE)

lau-papaa broad flat, as of coral, lava, reef; board, lumber (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lā-ʔautree, plant, wood, timber, forest, stick, thicket, club; blow of a club; strength, rigidness, hardness, male erection; to have formed mature wood, as of a seedling; wooden, woody, stiff, as wood; medicine, medicinal; lump or knot in the flesh; general name for canoe endpiece (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan

lā-ʔautree, plant, wood, timber, forest, stick, thicket, club; blow of a club; strength, rigidness, hardness; male erection; to have formed mature wood, as of a seedling; wooden, woody; stiff, as wood; medicine, medicinal; lump or knot in the flesh, as eased by the rubbing kahi massage; to have a cramp (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

lehu anefine ashes (POC: *ane) *aNay

leleto fly, jump, leap, hop, swing, bounce, burst forth; to sail through the air, as a meteor; to rush out, as to attack (POC: *rere₂)

leovoice; tone; tune; sound; command; advice; syllable; plea, verbal message; speak, make a sound (POC: *leqo)

liha ~ lianit, louse egg (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lilijealous; highly sensitive to criticism; jealousy; anger and mental anguish felt if one’s loved ones are criticized (POC: *lilim)

li-liha ~ liha-lihamany nits (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

li-liʔitiny, dainty, fine (POC: *rikiq) *dikiq

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limua general name for all kinds of plants living under water, both fresh and salt; also algae growing in any damp place in the air, as on the ground, on rocks, and on other plants; also mosses, liverworts, lichens (PMP: *limut)

limu-aovergrown with moss, seaweed, or any limu (PMP: *limut)

liʔismall, tiny (POC: *rikit) *dikit

Hawaiian (280 / 491)

liʔismall, tiny (POC: *rikiq) *dikiq

liʔi-liʔihere and there, piecemeal, a little at a time, in bits; diminutive (POC: *rikiq) *dikiq

a black insect, the earwig (Dermaptera) (POC: *loRo)

lokoin, inside, within; interior, inside; internal organs, as tripe (POC: *loto₁)

lokoinside, within; interior, inside; interior organs, as tripe (NOISE)

loko kailagoon (NOISE)

loko-lokopuddles, small pools (NOISE)

lononews, report, remembrance, rumor (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

luatwo, second, secondary, twice; second of a pair; doubly, much, a great deal; equal, likeness, duplicate, copy, match; companion, mate (POC: *rua) *duSa

luahole, pit, grave, den, cave, mine, crater (lua is a hole that has a bottom, contrasting with puka, perforation) (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

lua-ʔivomit; volcanic eruptions; to vomit, erupt; to banish, expel, drive out, as people (POC: *lua-ki) *luaq

lulucalm, peace, shelter, lee, protection, shield, cloak; to lie at anchor (POC: *ruruŋ) *duŋduŋ

lumito crowd uncomfortably; overturn, pound, crush, as the surf; to press (PMP: *luqemit)

ma-(fossilized in e.g. makaɁu ‘fear, frightened, afraid’) (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-hanawarmth; warm (PMP: *ma-panas) *panas₁

ma-hea ka halewhere is the house? (POC: *pea)

maidirection towards the speaker; come, come here; say, give (used without particles); almost, nearly, as though; particle of negative command (POC: *mai) *ai₃

makaraw, as fish; uncooked; green, unripe, as fruit; fersh as distinct from salted provisions (POC: *mataq) *hataq

makaeye; eye of a needle; face, countenance; presence; sight, view; beloved one, favorite person; point; bud, protuberance; center of a flower, including usually both the stamens and pistils; nipple, teat; sharp edge or blade of an instrument; point of a fishhook; beginning, source; fig., descendant; mesh of a net, mesh in plaiting; stitch in sewing (PMP: *mata) *maCa

makaraw, as fish; uncooked; green, unripe, as fruit; fresh as distinct from salted provisions (POC: *mataq) *qataq

Hawaiian (300 / 491)

ma-kaion the sea side, toward the sea, in the direction of the sea (PMP: *tasik)

makaliʔitiny, very small, fine, wee; small-meshed; narrow wefts; Pleaides (POC: *mata riki) *maCa

maka-makaintimate friend with whom one is on terms of receiving and giving freely; host; fig., anything very helpful, as education (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

makaniwind, breeze; gas in the stomach, flatulent wind; to blow; fig., to show anger; ghost, spirit (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

m-ā-kau(-kau)able, competent, capable, efficient, adept, skilled, expert, qualified; prepared, ready; competence, proficiency; to know how, to to well (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

makaʔufear; frightened, afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

makedie; defeated, killed, unfortunate; to faint; death, fainting, danger of death, peril, destruction, misfortune; kill; deathly, deadly, faint, deceased, late; obsolete; poisonous; desire, want, to want (POC: *mate) *aCay

makeprice, barter, exchange (PCEMP: *matay₂) *matay

make-apassive/imperative of make: be defeated, be killed (POC: *mate-a) *aCay

mākoluthick, heavy, deep, as clouds; thick-coated, as with dust; laden, as a high chief with taboo (POC: *matolu) *təlu

mākolu-koluchubby; thick, as a plank (POC: *matolu-tolu) *təlu

makuaparent, any relative of the parents’ generation, as uncle, aunt, cousin; Catholic father; main stalk of a plant; adult; full-grown, mature, older, senior; fig., benefactor, provider, anyone who cares for one; the Lord (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mākuaparents, etc. (plural of makua) (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

ma-lalobelow, underneath (POC: *ma-ralom) *dalem

ma-lamalight, month, moon (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

mā-lama-lamalight of knowledge, clarity of thinking or explanation, enlightenment, shining... (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

maloleaf sheath that protects the young leaves of the breadfruit tree (POC: *malon)

malomale’s loincloth; chant in praise of a chief’s loincloth; leaf sheath that protects the young leaves of the breadfruit tree (PCEMP: *malaw)

malushade, shelter, protection, peace, control, strength; shaded, peaceful, quiet; under taboo; reserved, held apart; taboo; the stillness and awe of taboo (PEMP: *maluRu)

malu-malushelter or protection of any kind, often humble (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

Hawaiian (320 / 491)

mamato chew, masticate (but not swallow), as kava (PMP: *mamaq)

manasupernatural or divine power; give mana to, make powerful; have mana (POC: *mana₂)

manabranch, limb, crotch (POC: *maŋa₂)

manawatime, turn, season; chronology; for a short time, infrequent; affections, feelings, disposition; anterior fontanel in the heads of infants; top of the head in adults at position of the fontanel (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manubird; any winged creature; wing of a kite; person (fig.); ornamental elliptical expansions at the upper ends of the bow and stern endpieces of a canoe (POC: *manuk)

ma-ulilife, heart, seat of life; ghost, spirit; fontanel; twenty-ninth day of the old month (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

maʔipatient, sick person; sickness, disease; sick, ill; menstruating (POC: *masakit) *sakit

meand (PMP: *mai)

meareddish-brown, as water with red earth in it; yellowish-white, of feathers (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

mea-kanucrops, plants (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

mikito suck in (POC: *miti)

miki-mikito suck in (POC: *miti-miti) *miti

mimiurine, urinate (POC: *mimiq) *miqmiq

mimiurine; to urinate (PMP: *mimi)

mokuisland; to be cut, severed (POC: *motus)

mo-monafat; fertile, rich, as soil; fruitful; sweet (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

moʔ-opu-nagrandchild, great-niece or -nephew (POC: *mokobu) *empu

moʔopu-nagrandchild; great-niece or -nephew; relatives two generations later, whether blood or adopted; descendant; posterity (POC: *mo-kobu) *kempu

a fish (Monotaxis grandoculis), perhaps porgy or snapper (PMP: *muquŋ)

mukucut short, shortened; amputated; at an end, ceased; anything cut off short; short, brief, quick; broken section of a wave or crest; thirtieth night of the moon, when it has entirely disappeared (PEMP: *mutu₂)

Hawaiian (340 / 491)

m-uliafter, behind, afterward; last, following behind; younger, youngest; stern of a canoe (POC: *muri) *udehi

moan, groan, wail (PMP: *ŋaŋ)

na hikuthe Big Dipper (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

nalothe common housefly and other two-winged insects (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

nalolost, vanished, concealed, forgotten; to pass away, disappear (POC: *mwaloq)

naluwave, surf; full of waves; to form waves; wavy, as wood grain (POC: *ŋalu)

nalu-nalurough, of a sea with high waves (POC: *ŋalu)

nanāsnarling (PCEMP: *ŋaŋaŋ) *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

nauchew, munch, masticate; gnash the teeth; grinder, as of a sugar mill (POC: *ŋau₁)

nihotooth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niucoconut tree, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

nohoseat, chair, stool, bench, saddle; to live, dwell; to be in session; to stay, tarry; to marry; possession of a medium by a spirit or god (POC: *nofo)

nohuScorpaeinidae, fish with poisonous spines (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nonithe Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia), a small tree or shrub in the coffee family with pale yellow unpleasant-tasting fruits. Formerly Hawaiians obtained dye and medicine from the many parts of the tree (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

nonō (length unexplained)to snore, gurgle (POC: *ŋoŋok) *ŋekŋek

to cough; to roar, as wind; grunting, as of pigs; cooing, as of doves; patter, as of rain; groaning, deep sighing, moaning (PMP: *ŋuk)

to cough; to roar, as wind; grunting, as of pigs; cooing, as of doves; patter, as of rain; groaning, deep sighing, moaning (POC: *ŋuRuR)

nukubeak, snout, tip, end; spout, beaker of a pitcher; mouth or entrace, as of a harbor, river, or mountain pass; scolding, raving, ranting, grumbling (PAN: *ŋusuq)

nuku-kaua variety of taro (PAN: *ŋusuq)

nuku-manua variety of taro; the corm is pointed like a bird’s beak (Kauaʻi only) (PAN: *ŋusuq)

Hawaiian (360 / 491)

nuku waistream mouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

nūnū (length unexplained)moaning, groaning, cooing, grunting (POC: *ŋuŋuk) *ŋukŋuk

ōfood provisions for a journey, esp. at sea; sea rations (POC: *qoso)

ōto answer, reply yes, agree; yes (in reply) (POC: *qo)

Ɂoeyou (sg.) (POC: *koe)

okadregs, crumbs, sediment, filings, hulls, grounds, small bits (LOAN)

okistop, finish, end (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

olohill (obsolete now except in place names) (POC: *oro)

o-nahis, her, its (POC: *o₂)

onesand; sandy; silt; poetic name for land (POC: *qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

onolarge mackerel type fish (Acanthocybium solandri), up to five or six feet in length (POC: *qono₁)

o-uyour, yours (POC: *o₂)

oʔahouse rafter; timbers in the side of a ship (POC: *oka₂)

fence, wall, corral, pen, sty, enclosure (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

pearl-shell lure (POC: *bayan)

pearl-shell lure (POC: *bayan₃) *payan

pakatobacco (LOAN)

pakuto unite portions of tapa by beating (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

palala (length unexpl.)a low or rumbling sound (POC: *parara)

Hawaiian (380 / 491)

palania surgeonfish (Acanthurus dussumieri) famous for a strong odor (POC: *balaŋi)

palapalafish sp., perhaps Abudefduf abdominalis (POC: *(bp)ala(bp)ala)

panato shoot, as marbles, arrows, bow; bow and arrows... (PAN: *panaq)

pana ʻioleto shoot rats or mice with bow and arrow, an ancient sport; bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

papaflat surface, stratum, layer, level, foundation; story of a building; class, rank, order; table; sheet, plate, shelf; flat, level (POC: *baban) *papan

pe-heahow?, what?, how about it? (POC: *pea)

peluto fold, turn over, turn under; a hem, tuck, as in a dress; take a tuck, hem (POC: *belu)

pelufold, turn over, turn under; a hem, tuck, as in a dress; to take a tuck, hem (PMP: *piluq)

peʔabat (POC: *bweka)

peʔa-peʔaHawaiian bat: Lasiurus semotus (POC: *bweka)

to sprinkle, as water with the fingers (PMP: *picik)

piaa variety of taro; a variety of sweet potato (POC: *piRaq₂) *biRaq₁

pia-piathe encrusted white matter in the eyes, as from sleeping or from sore eyes, "sand" in the eyes; to get such matter in the eyes; an abusive epithet applied to one who was unwashed, said to refer to genitals (POC: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₂

pia-piathe encrusted white matter in the eyes, as from sleeping or from sore eyes, "sand" in the eyes; to get such matter in the eyes; an abusive epithet applied to one who was unwashed, said to refer to genitals (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

pikonavel, navel string, umbilical cord; fig. blood relative, genitals; design in plaiting the hat called pāpale ‘ie; bottom round of a carrying net (POC: *bito)

pilito cling, stick, adhere, touch, join, adjoin, cleave to, associate with, be with, be close to; clinging, sticking; close relationship, relative; thing belonging to (PMP: *pilit₁)

pipithe Hawaiian pearl oyster: Pinctada radiata; kind of tapa (POC: *bibi₂) *bibi

pi-pipismall mollusks (POC: *bibi₂) *bibi

piʔoarch, arc; bent, arched, curved; to arch, of a rainbow (POC: *biko) *pikel

piʔoarch, arc; bent, arched, curved (PMP: *pi(ŋ)keR)

Hawaiian (400 / 491)

piʔoarch, arc; bent, arched, curved; to arch, of a rainbow (POC: *piko) *piŋkaw

pō-hakurock, stone, mineral; tablet; rocky, stony (POC: *patu) *batux

ponipurple; any purple-like color (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

ponogoodness, uprightness, morality, moral qualities, correct or proper procedure, excellence, well-being, prosperity, welfare, true condition or nature, duty; moral, fitting, proper, right, just, fair, beneficial, successful, in perfect order; eased, relieved; should, ought, must; necessary (POC: *bonor₁) *bener

(po)poporot, as of wood or cloth; decay, as of teeth; moth-eaten; worm offal; rust (Bible); rotten, decayed (POC: *popok) *bekbek₁

poʔo lapa-lapaa square head (POC: *lababa)

large triton conch shell (Charonia tritonis); any wind instrument, as horn, trumpet, cornet; gun, pistol (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

puaflower, blossom, tassel and stem of sugar cane; to bloom, blossom; to issue, appear, come forth, emerge, said especially of smoke, wind, speech and colors, hence to smoke, blow, speak, shine; progeny, child, descendant, offspring (POC: *buaq)

puato issue, appear, come forth, emerge, said especially of smoke, wind, speech, and colors; hence, to smoke, blow, speak, shine (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

puaarrow, dart, sometimes made from flower stalks of sugarcane (POC: *bual bual)

puaflower, blossom, tassel and stem of sugarcane; to bloom, to blossom (POC: *bua₃)

puaflower, blossom (NOISE)

pueoHawaiian short-eared owl: Asio flammeus sandwichensis, sometimes regarded as a deity (NOISE)

pukahole; door, gate, opening (POC: *buta)

pukugather together, pucker; shrunken, contracted (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

pulaparticle, as dust; particle in the eye, mote; have something in the eye (POC: *pulaR₂) *bulaR₁

pulakindling; start a fire with kindling (POC: *bula₁)

pulaa fish, perhaps Pempheris mangula (NOISE)

puleprayer; to pray; grace; blessing (NOISE)

pulua soft, glossy, yellow wool on the base of tree-fern leaf stalks (Cibotium spp.). It was used to stuff mattresses and pillows... Hawaiians stuffed bodies of their dead with pulu after removing vital organs; mulch, coconut husk, coconut fiber, raw cotton; tapa pulp; cushion; fine linen; tinder, kindling; soft, padded; to kindle, as fire (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

Hawaiian (420 / 491)

puluwet, moist, soaked; a soft, glossy, yellow wool on the base of tree-fern leaf stalks (Cibotium spp.); it was used to stuff mattresses and pillows (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pulu-pulutinder, kindling; cotton, as for quilt padding; fine linen (POC: *bulut) *pulut

punacoral, lime, plaster, mortar, calcium; coral container, as for dye (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

punaspring (of water) (POC: *puna₁) *punaŋ

punaspring (of water) (PMP: *puna₂) *puna

puʔuany kind of protuberance, from a pimple to a hill; hill, peak, mound, bulge, heap, bulk, mass, quantity, clot, bunch, knob; heaped, piled, lumped, bulging; pregnant; any of various round parts or protuberances of the body, as pimple, wart, mole, callus, lump, stomach, fist, knuckle, ankle joint; gizzard, as of chickens; hard stomach, as of some fish; head, as of cabbage or lettuce; form a head, to head, sprout; fancy knot, as in kōkō net; hinge of pearl oyster (POC: *buku)

ūbreast, teat, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

ūmoist; to drip, drizzle; impregnated, as with salt (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

uarain; to rain; rainy (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

ua-uatough, sinewy, glutinous, viscid; not easily broken, as cord (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

uhithe yam, Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

uilalightning, electricity; electric (POC: *qusila)

ukainland, upland, towards the mountain; shore, uplands; shoreward (if at sea) (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

uka-nabaggage, luggage, freight, cargo, supplies (POC: *ucan) *ujan

ukua deep-sea snapper (Aprion spp.) (PMP: *qutud)

ukua deep-sea snapper: Aprion spp. (PMP: *qutun)

ulaHawaiian lobster: Panulirus japonicus (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ulepenis; tenon for a mortise: pointed end of a post which enters the crotch of a rafter (POC: *ule₁) *ule

uliany dark color, including the deep blue of the sea, the ordinary green of vegetation, and the dark of black clouds (NEAR)

ulunapillow, cushion, formerly made of pandanus (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

Hawaiian (440 / 491)

umuoven, furnace; a heap of rocks placed in the sea for small fish such as the manini to hide in (PMP: *qumun)

unah-iscales of a fish; scaly; to scale (POC: *qunap-i) *quSeNap

unuh-itake out, withdraw, as money from a bank, or a drawer from a desk; unsheath; take off, as a ring; translate, interpret (POC: *unus-i) *SuNus

waeleg (obsolete) (POC: *waqe) *waqay

waeto choose, select, pick out, sort, separate; to draft, as soldiers; to preen, as of a chicken; finicky (POC: *wa(n)se)

wahacarry on the back, as a child (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

wahamouth; opening; inner surface of a bowl; open top of a canoe (POC: *papaq₂) *baqbaq

wahiefuel, firewood; to serve as firewood (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

wahinewoman, lady; wife; sister-in-law; female cousin-in-law of a man; feminine (POC: *papine) *bahi

wāhinewomen (POC: *papine) *bahi

wahooutside, beyond, out, outer, outward (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

waiwater, liquid of any kind other than sea water; juice, sap, honey; any liquid discharged from the body, as blood, semen; river, stream (in place-names) (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wai niucoconut water (PMP: *niuR)

walueight (PAN: *walu)

waogeneral term for inland region, usually not precipitous and often uninhabited (POC: *wao)

(w)au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

wa-waeleg, foot; foot of a rainbow; trousers (obsolete); afoot (POC: *waqe) *waqay

waʔacanoe; trench, furrow (POC: *waga) *waŋka

wilito wind, twist, writhe, crank, turn, grind, drill, mix (PMP: *wirit)

ʔahamakahammock, as of tapa, fastened to the manuea, center support of a house; hammock in general (LOAN)

Hawaiian (460 / 491)

ʔahothatch purlin and rafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

ʔaifood or food plant, especially vegetable food as distinguished from iʔa, meat or fleshy food; often ʔai refers specifically to poi; to eat, destroy of consume, as by fire, erode; to taste, bite, take a hook, grasp, hold on to; edible; ; score, points in a game; stake, wager (POC: *kani) *kaen

ʔā-kauright (PMP: *ka-taqu₂) *taqu

ʔakito take a nip and let go; to nibble, as fish; to bite off the bark of sugarcane; to heal, as a wound; to scar over; sharp recurring pain, as in head or stomach (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

ʔapucoconut shell cup (POC: *kapuq) *kabuq

ʔauto swim, travel by sea (POC: *kaRu₁)

ʔawathe kava (Piper methysticum), a shrub four to twelve feet tall with green jointed stems and heart-shaped leaves, native to Pacific islands, the root being the source of a narcotic drink of the same name used in ceremonies (LOAN)

ʔawetentacle (POC: *kawe₂) *kaway₂

ʔawetentacle (POC: *kawe₁) *gaway₁

ʔaweʔawetentacles; runners, as on a vine (POC: *kawe₂) *kaway₂

ʔaweʔawetentacles; runners, as on a vine (POC: *kawe₁) *gaway₁

ʔaʔawawrasse: Bodianus bilunulatus (POC: *kakawa₂)

ʔa-ʔaʔacoconut cloth, vascular bundles in taro corm, chaff; fibrous (POC: *kaka₃)

ʔedifferent, foreign, strange, peculiar; heathen (Biblical) (PCEMP: *kese)

ʔe ~ eprefix to numbers (POC: *e)

ʔeahawksbill turtle: Chelone imbricata; the shell of this turtle; reddish-brown, as the color of the Ɂea shell (PCEMP: *keRa)

ʔelito dig, excavate (PCEMP: *keli)

ʔeli ~ ʔalito dig, excavate (POC: *kali ~ keli) *kalih

ʔiakooutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

ʔie-ʔiean endemic woody branching climber (Freycinetia arborea) (POC: *kiRe-kiRe) *kiRay

Hawaiian (480 / 491)

ʔiketo see, know, feel, greet, recognize, understand; to know sexually; to receive revelations from the gods; knowledge, understanding, recognition, comprehension and hence learning; sense, as of hearing or sight; vision (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

ʔiliskin; complexion; hide; scalp; bark; rind, peel (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

ʔioʔiocheeping, peeping (PAN: *kiaw)

ʔiʔismall, stunted, undersized; dwarf (POC: *kiki₂)

ʔōany piercing instrument, fork, pin, sharp-pointed stick, pitchfork, fishing spear; coconut husker; sharp darting body pain; to pierce, vaccinate, prick, stab, thrust; to flash, as lightning; to extend; to dip in, as the finger; to reach, to appear; force a way out (POC: *soka)

ʔōany piercing instrument, fork, pin, sharpened stick, pitchfork, fishing spear, coconut husker; to pierce, vaccinate, prick, stab, thrust, etc. (POC: *kojom)

ʔokicut, sever, hew (NOISE)

ʔopifold, crease; wrinkled; bend of a wave; to fold, crease (POC: *kobit₁) *kepit

ʔoʔito limp (POC: *koki)

ʔūto grunt, groan, moan, sigh, mourn, grieve, complain; sorrow; an exclamation of delight or assent; to exclaim thus (POC: *guRuŋ)

ʔukulouse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ʔūliliWandering tattler: Heteroscelus incanus, a slender winter migrant to Hawaii, slaty above and white with dusky bars and streaks beneath (LOAN)

ʔuluthe breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa); it is grown for its edible fruit, and sometimes for ornament (PMP: *kuluR)

203. Hawu (227) CMP (Wijngaarden 1896, Fox n.d., Walker 1982) [hvn] (Sabu) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) [aka: Savu, Havu]

adeliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ahapickles; sour (LOAN)

àifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

àmafather (PAN: *amax)

amo ajuroot; medicine (because the people prepare medicines from roots) (PMP: *Ramut₁)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aolime, calcium (PAN: *qapuR)

au2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

awudust; gray, blue (PMP: *qabu)

awu raʔuash (PMP: *qabu)

ɓaɓashort (not tall) (PMP: *babaq₁)

ɓagidivide, allot (PMP: *baqagi)

ɓanidare; courageous, brave (PMP: *baRani)

ɓaragoods (LOAN)

ɓare, ɓarichange, repent, change one's mind (PMP: *baliw₂)

ɓariturn over in one's sleep (PMP: *balik₂)

ɓaribroken, in pieces (PMP: *baliq)

ɓariturn over in one's sleep (PMP: *bali₅)

ɓeawages, pay (LOAN)

ɓeɓeduck (LOAN)

Hawu (20 / 227)

ɓoatree which is common along the shore (NOISE)

ɓolevetative particle: may not (PMP: *beliq₂)

buside, edge? (PCEMP: *buu₃)

bubucook, boil; bubbling up of boiling water (PMP: *bukbuk₁)

ɓuefruit; classifier used in counting fruits, round objects (PMP: *buaq)

ɓuito sprinkle, irrigate, water (as crops) (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

bukucurved, bent (PMP: *buŋkuk)

burosponge (PCEMP: *budeq)

ɓuwuto increase (PMP: *bubuq)

ɓuwu eiadd water to (PMP: *bubuq)

dababeat on with both hands (PMP: *tambak₁)

dahisea (PMP: *tasik)

dane ~ danato bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

ɗarain, within (both spatial and temporal) (PMP: *dalem)

darirope (sometimes made from the midrib of the lontar palm) (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

dəkato come (PMP: *teka₁)

dekapeel off husk of areca nut (ROOT)

dəleto swallow (PMP: *telen)

deluegg (PMP: *qateluR)

delu manuchicken egg (PMP: *qateluR)

Hawu (40 / 227)

delu manuchicken egg (PMP: *qiteluR ni manuk) *qiCeluR

dəpimat (PMP: *tepiR)

detuknock, beat (ROOT)

dou do peraifugitive (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

dou louforeigner, stranger (lit. ‘sea person’) (PCEMP: *laur) *lahud

ɗuetwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dulicontinue through (PMP: *tuluy₁)

eaturtle; turtle shell (PCEMP: *keRa)

eɗugall (PAN: *qapejux)

ehione (in serial counting only; otherwise 'one' is hèhi) (PAN: *esa)

eiwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

ei huhumilk (breast water) (PAN: *susu₁)

ei mada raispring, source (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

ei meñioil (PMP: *miñak)

ei na madatears (PCEMP: *waiR ni mata) *wahiR

ei waflood waters (PCEMP: *waiR baaq) *wahiR

ĕkitie, bind (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

elawing (PMP: *qelad₂)

enasix (PAN: *enem)

eñipress under the flat hand (PMP: *qeñek)

Hawu (60 / 227)

epafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

epugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *empu)

etacut, cut off (PMP: *qetes)

etacut, cut off (PMP: *hetek) *Setek

eta duetap a lontar palm for palm wine (PMP: *hetek) *Setek

etecut, cut off (PMP: *etes₁)

etestare at something (PMP: *e(n)teŋ)

etestare at something (ROOT)

etuworm (NOISE)

halamistake, error, fault (PMP: *salaq₁)

hamasame, similar (PWMP: *sama)

hedui deni-adegrief, sorrow ( = 'sorrow on the liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

hemaŋasoul (PMP: *sumaŋed)

he-ŋ-uruten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

he-ŋ-uruten (PMP: *ŋa)

he-wue he-wueeach, every, of fruits, eggs, etc. (PMP: *buaq)

hikamorning bird, named from its cry (PMP: *pikak)

hilusnake skin (ROOT)

huhubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

hurutorch (PMP: *suluq)

Hawu (80 / 227)

ibucome together, assemble (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

idacry of fright or shock (PMP: *inda₁)

ihicontents (PAN: *isi₅)

iladisappear, be lost (PMP: *qilaŋ)

ilusaliva, spittle (PMP: *iluR₁)

inaM (PCEMP: *ina)

inuput around the neck (beads, chain, string, etc.) (PMP: *hinuq) *SiNuq

itadiamond (LOAN)

ʄarapath, way (PMP: *zalan)

ʄauto sew (PAN: *zaRum)

ʄi-ʄauneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

juʔugrass (PMP: *zukut)

kejaŋabranches of a tree (ROOT)

kemalihouse; member of the household (PMP: *kamaliR)

ken-adive, plunge (ROOT)

keñadive, plunge (PMP: *keñej)

keŋucry, howl (as a dog) (ROOT)

kuriskin; bark (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kuufingernail; hoof (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

(la)hunaonion (LOAN)

Hawu (100 / 227)

larahousefly (PMP: *lalej)

lara menilablowfly, botfly (PMP: *lalej)

ləmifive (PAN: *lima)

ləmi-ŋ-urufifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

lisound, language; say, speak (PMP: *liŋ₂)

liecave, cavern (PMP: *liaŋ)

liŋito pour (PCEMP: *liŋi)

loɗosun; day (PMP: *qalejaw)

lousea (PCEMP: *laur) *lahud

lumusoft (PMP: *lumu₂)

lumusoft (PMP: *lumut)

madaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada ɗyarapath, pathway (PMP: *mata nu zalan) *maCa

mada ñiueye of a coconut (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madedead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

maduto vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

mahuto enter, go inside (PMP: *p<um>asuk) *pasuk

maito come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

mamato chew (PMP: *mamaq)

mama kenanato chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

Hawu (120 / 227)

m-aŋudry (PCEMP: *ma-Raŋu) *Raŋu

marilaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

me-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

méared (PCEMP: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

medaʔuto fear, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

menaŋamouth of a river (PMP: *minaŋa)

mənifine, thin (PMP: *ma-nipis) *Nipis

meñifatty, greasy (PMP: *miñak)

me-ñilusour (PMP: *ma-ñilu) *ñilu

mo-beniwoman (PAN: *ma-b<in>ahi) *bahi

m-urilive; grow (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

na moneB (w.s.) (PMP: *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki) *aNak

naŋi ~ naŋeto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

nawasurf, wave of sea (PMP: *nabek) *Nabek

na weniZ (m.s.) (PMP: *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi) *aNak

naʔosteal (PMP: *nakaw)

nito dream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

ninivery small kind of midge (PCEMP: *ñiñik) *ñikñik

ninivery small kind of midge (PMP: *ñikñik)

ninivery small kind of midge (PMP: *niniq₂)

Hawu (140 / 227)

niʔibat (PMP: *paniki)

njukaprop, support (ROOT)

ŋaraname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋetubend, bow, curtsy (ROOT)

ŋ-inuto drink (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

onibee (PMP: *wani)

padabroken (PMP: *pataq)

panawarm, warmth (PMP: *panas₁)

papaplank (PMP: *papan)

peDasick; sickness, pain (PMP: *hapejes)

peɗubitter (PAN: *qapejux)

pe-ilato separate, of man and wife (PMP: *qilaŋ)

pekisqueaking of mice (PMP: *pikik)

pe-madekill (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

pe-marilaugh, giggle (PCEMP: *malip)

pe-murilifetime, lifespan (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

pe-rairun, flee, run away (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

pərihow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pihishake water off the hands (PMP: *picik)

pudiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

Hawu (160 / 227)

rablood (PAN: *daRaq)

rairun, run away, flee (PAN: *laRiw)

ratuprince (PMP: *datu)

renafemale, of animals; large woman; broad, heavy (PMP: *ra-ina) *ina

rəŋihear; understand (trans.) (PMP: *diŋeR)

rəŋi ~ rəŋeto hear, understand (PMP: *deŋeR)

ruhurib (PAN: *Rusuk)

ru hurutorch made of bundled leaves (PMP: *suluq)

ruibone, bony (PMP: *duRi)

(ru)laitail (PMP: *lawi₁)

rutuknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₁) *tuduS

soheoar, paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

ta huhusuck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tamishield (PMP: *tamiŋ)

ta-tiuto blow (Fox, J. n.d.) (PMP: *tiup)

tauyear (Fox n.d.) (PMP: *taqun)

ta wohe koato paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

ta wuhuto clean cotton (PMP: *busuR₂)

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

tunuburn; fry, grill, roast (as a chicken); to light, ignite (as a lamp) (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

Hawu (180 / 227)

udipenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

udithat part of a knife blade which is in the haft; the binding of haft and blade (PMP: *utiŋ)

udulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uhuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

ujucape of land (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ulirudder of a boat (PMP: *qulin)

uruearlier; handle (of a knife) (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

uʔivagina (PAN: *puki)

wato flood, inundate (PCEMP: *baaq) *baSaq

walung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

wawest, the island of Sumba (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

wadustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

waketie around the waist; belt (PMP: *bakes₁)

warawhite, bleached white (PMP: *balaR₁) *balaR

wariturn, change (PMP: *balik₂)

wàriagain (PMP: *balik₂)

wariturn, change (PMP: *bali₅)

wawabeneath, under (PMP: *babaq₁)

wawipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

widusword grass: Imperata cylindrica (PCEMP: *bitu)

Hawu (200 / 227)

wihuabscess (PMP: *bisul)

wihu wuduboil, running sore (PMP: *bisul)

winiseed (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

wini areseed-rice (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

wini louof foreign origin (lit; ‘sea seed’, said of the mother if she has married in to Hawu; not of the father) (PCEMP: *laur) *lahud

wo-diluear (PMP: *tilu)

wo dimu danawatermelon (PMP: *qatimun)

wo dimu porocucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

woecrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

wonoa constellation (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

wono piduthe Seven Sisters, Pleiades (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

worerear part, posterior; rump, buttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

wousmell, odor (PMP: *bahu)

wou naki-nakistinking (PMP: *bahu)

wo-waikind of red forest fruit (PCEMP: *waiwai) *wai

wuefruit (PMP: *buaq)

wueladen, loaded with cargo (PMP: *buhat₃)

wuhubow used to clean cotton (PMP: *busuR₂)

wunito hide (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

wuriear of grain (PMP: *buliR)

Hawu (220 / 227)

wuri areear of paddy (PMP: *buliR)

wuri huhunipple of the breast (PMP: *buliR)

wuri teraeear of millet (PMP: *buliR)

wurufiber, root fiber (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

wuru madafringe, as on a table cloth, or on a Savunese blanket (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

wuwufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

yaː1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

204. Helong (37) CMP [heg] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

aifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

bahamouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

balunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

baseto wash (PMP: *baseq)

blatiearthworm (PMP: *bulati)

b-liŋincold (PMP: *ma-diŋin) *diŋin

bulanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulufeather (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

dalablood (PAN: *daRaq)

daninear (PMP: *adani)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

galito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

ilunose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

kaim1pl. excl., we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kaloto scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

lakoto walk (PMP: *lakaw)

lakoto walk (PMP: *lakaw)

lelosun (PMP: *qalejaw)

Helong (20 / 37)

leoneck (PAN: *liqeR)

manubird (PMP: *manuk)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mutiwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

nihisthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

nihisthin (of materials) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ŋalaname, kind; descent group (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋalaname (PMP: *ŋajan)

padiyounger sibling (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

palueight (PAN: *walu)

sawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

silasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

tiluthree (PAN: *telu)

tudry (PMP: *tuquR)

ulasnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

High Balinese (5) WMP. see: Balinese (High)

Highland Murut (1) WMP. see: Murut (Highland)

205. Hiligaynon (677) WMP (Motus 1971) [hil] Philippines

abútarrive, reach, come to (PPH: *qábut)

agáw-unbe grabbed, seized, taken by force (PPh: *qaRaw-en) *qaRaw

ágdaask, invite (NEAR)

akú1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

álakhard drink, liquor (LOAN)

alaŋ-álaŋdoubtful; immature (PPH: *alaŋ-alaŋ₂) *alaŋ

amáyfather (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

amính-annorth (PPh: *qamihan-an) *qamiS

-aninfinitive benefactive-locative focus affix; noun formative affix designating a container or a place where an action occurs (PAN: *-an)

anádusual; sophisticated; used to (PPH: *anad)

anákchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anák-unbear a child, give birth; be a godparent to a child during a baptism or confirmation (PWMP: *anak-en) *aNak

ánaytermite (PAN: *aNay)

ániharvest, produce (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

ani-unto harvest, to reap (PPh: *qanih-en) *qaniS

ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, talisman (LOAN)

ántudfetid, of odor, burnt (PPh: *qaŋ(e)téj)

a-núwhat? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

ánuddrift, float with the current (PAN: *qañud)

anud-undrift, float with the current (PPh: *qañud-en) *qañud

Hiligaynon (20 / 677)

anu-unbecome, do with (PPh: *anu-en) *-nu

áŋayappropriate, becoming (PPH: *aŋáy)

apasfollow, go after (NOISE)

ápatfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

árihere (short form to mean near the speaker) (PWMP: *ari)

asáwawife (PAN: *qasawa)

asáwa-untake a wife, marry (PPh: *qasawa-en) *qasawa

asínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

áslumsourness (PWMP: *qalesem)

asúsmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

asúgiquicksilver, mercury (LOAN)

atatarócaterpillar (PWMP: *qantatadu)

atáyliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atsárapickled green papaya (LOAN)

atúbaŋto face, confront, stand before (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubáŋ-anin front of (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

a-tu-túliearwax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

ayágto sift, screen, strain (PWMP: *qayag)

ba-báyifemale, woman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bágaember (PMP: *baRah)

Hiligaynon (40 / 677)

bagat-nansouth (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

bágaything, idea, notion, effects (PPH: *bágay)

bágsakbedbug (NEAR)

bágtiŋto ring a bell, to toll (ROOT)

bagú, bagʔúbefore; new (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

báhoʔsmell, odor; stink; odorous, pungent, acrid smelling, stinking (PMP: *bahuq)

bahúgfood for pigs (PWMP: *bahuR)

bahúna sneeze (PPH: *bahén)

bákhawmangrove (PWMP: *bakehaw)

banáʔagdawn, early morning, rays of the sun (PMP: *banaqaR)

bántugrenowned, famous, eminent, distinguished, noted (PPH: *bantug)

bantug-unto be rumored, to be considered a hearsay; to become well-known (PPH: *bantug)

banwátown, community; a compactly settled area usually larger than a village but smaller than a city (PMP: *banua)

báŋkaycorpse, dead body (PWMP: *baŋkay)

báŋunarise, get up from bed, get up from a lying position (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

basáʔwet, soaked (PMP: *baseq)

basáʔ-unto wet, soak with liquid (PWMP: *basaq-en) *baseq

básbasof plants and trees, to cut, to trim (PWMP: *basbas₃)

bátaʔchild (usually below the age of ten) (PWMP: *bataq)

batíʔisleg, shin (PWMP: *baties)

Hiligaynon (60 / 677)

batúrock, stone, pebble (PMP: *batu) *batux

báyadpayment (PMP: *bayaD)

bayád-unto pay, settle an account; spend (PMP: *bayaD)

bayáwbrother-in-law, sister-in-law (PWMP: *bayaw)

bayúʔuŋbag made of woven palm leaves (PWMP: *bayuquŋ)

bíbiduck (LOAN)

bibíglower lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bíhagcaptive, hostage (PWMP: *bihaR)

bihág-uncapture, abduct, kidnap; to attract, to bait (PPh: *bihaR-en) *bihaR

bílaŋconsider, esteem as (PAN: *bilaŋ₁)

bilaŋ-unto consider (as in ‘I was considered a member of the family’) (PPH: *bilaŋ₂)

bilásspouse’s sibling-in-law (PPH: *bilas)

bilícost, amount, price (PMP: *bili)

bílinrequest, last words (PWMP: *bilin)

bilínbalance account, remainder, left over (PWMP: *bilin)

bílugpiece, part (LOAN)

bilúground, circle (LOAN)

bínhiʔseedling, plant grown from seed (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bísʔakof wood, to cleave, to split (PMP: *biseqak)

bítadto open, to unfold, spread out so as to see closely (as a cloth for inspection) (PWMP: *bitaD)

Hiligaynon (80 / 677)

bítayhang, string up, suspend (PPh: *bítay)

bitay-unhang, string up, suspend (PPh: *bitay-en) *bítay

bítbitbring along, carry (as a basket) (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bitbit-unbring along, carry (PWMP: *bitbit-en) *bitbit

bitíkflea, tick (PMP: *bitik₁)

bitíkflea, tick (NOISE)

bitínsnake (PPh: *bítin)

bitúʔunstar (PAN: *bituqen)

bólaball, round object (LOAN)

bubúna well (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

bubuŋ-ánroof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

bugásunhusked rice grains (PMP: *beRas)

búgkusbundle, string used to tie a package (PMP: *beRkes)

búgsayoar (PMP: *beRsay)

búgsukto erect by driving into the soil, thrust through with force to make it stand (as a post being driven into the soil) (PMP: *buRsuk)

búgʔatheavy, burdensome, cumbersome (PMP: *beReqat)

búhatdo, make, perform (PMP: *buhat₂)

búhhiʔconscience, inner self (LOAN)

buhístax, levy (PWMP: *buhis) *buhís

buhis-ánto levy a tax (PWMP: *buhis) *buhís

Hiligaynon (100 / 677)

buhúkhead hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buhúkhair (on the head) (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

búkadopen, unfold, bloom; undo a package (PWMP: *bekaj)

bukálbubble, froth (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukásopen, candid; to open, unfold, begin (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

búkawowl (PWMP: *bukaw)

bukáʔopening, crack; open, cut, split, cracked (PMP: *bekaq)

bukáʔopening, crack; open, cut, split, cracked; to cut open, to crack (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

búkbukweevil (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bukbuk-uncrush, grind, make into powder (PWMP: *bukbuk-en) *bukbuk₃

búkidhill, mountain (PAN: *bukij)

búktuthunchback (PWMP: *beketut)

búktuthunchback (PPh: *buk(e)tút)

bukúnode, joint (PMP: *buku)

buku-bukújoint, ankle (PMP: *buku buku) *buku

bukúllump, swelling, protuberance; of plants, bud (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buládspread out, dry in the sun (PWMP: *belaj)

buladúrkite (LOAN)

bulágblind; beggar (PAN: *bulaR₁)

búlagdivorce, sever, separate, depart (NOISE)

Hiligaynon (120 / 677)

búlakflower, blossom; cotton fibers (PWMP: *bujak)

búlanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

búlan-búlanmonthly, every month (PMP: *bulan-bulan₂) *bulaN

buláwangold, raw gold metal (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

buláʔbubble, froth, foam (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

búlighelp, assist, aid (PWMP: *bulig)

búligbunch of banana fruits intact on the trunk (PMP: *buliR)

bulíŋsoot (PWMP: *budiŋ)

bulíʔanus, buttocks, rear (PMP: *buliq₂)

bulíʔanus, buttocks, rear (NOISE)

bulúŋmedicine, drug, cure (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

búnakto wet, to dampen (NOISE)

bunálwhip, lash (PWMP: *benal)

bunálwhip, lash (PPh: *bunal)

bunúkheavy rain, downpour (NOISE)

bunútcoconut husk; scrub made from coconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

bunut-anremove the husk from a coconut; scrub the floor with a coconut husk (PPh: *bunut-an) *bunut₁

bunuʔ-únstab with a sharp instrument, pierce (PWMP: *bunuq-en) *buNuq₂

búnyagbaptism (PPh: *buniag)

búŋafruit, consequence, result (PMP: *buŋa)

Hiligaynon (140 / 677)

buŋátspeak out, utter (PPh: *beŋát₂) *beŋát

búŋkagdemolish, take apart, destroy, dismantle (as a house) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

búŋkagdemolish, take apart, destroy, dismantle (PMP: *buŋkaR)

buŋúldeaf (PMP: *beŋel)

búŋutbeard, whiskers, moustache (PPh: *beŋet₂)

búŋutbeard, whiskers, moustache (PWMP: *buŋut)

búsbuscut open, perform a Caesarian operation (PMP: *busbus)

búskadspread open, as a flower; unfold (PPh: *bes(e)káj)

busúgsatiated, full, satisfied with food (PAN: *besuR)

busúŋpregnant, with child (PWMP: *busuŋ)

búsʔakchop wood, chop wood for firewood (PPh: *bus(e)qák)

butísmallpox (PPh: *butí)

butíʔto pop like a grain of corn or rice (PPh: *butíq)

bútkunarm (PWMP: *beteken)

bútonesbutton (LOAN)

butúdbloated, distended (PWMP: *buntuD)

buyúgbumblebee (PPh: *buyug)

buʔáyacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

buʔúlheel (PPh: *buqel)

búʔuŋbreak into small pieces, scatter into fragments (PPh: *búquŋ)

Hiligaynon (160 / 677)

bwástomorrow, next day (PPh: *buás)

dagámihay, straw (PMP: *zaRami)

dágatsea, ocean (PMP: *daRat)

dagátseasickness, nausea (PMP: *daRat)

dagayaʔmany, plentiful, teeming, swarming (PWMP: *daRayaʔ)

dagumsewing needle; injection needle (PAN: *zaRum)

dáhunleaf (PMP: *dahun)

dalágaunmarried girl between the age of about fifteen to thirty (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

daláganrun, dash, dart, scamper (PPH: *dalágan)

dálanstreet, road, path, cleared path (PMP: *zalan)

dapítnear (PWMP: *dapit)

dapítnear (PPH: *dapít)

dáplusslide off (ROOT)

dapúgstove, fireplace, fire pit (PMP: *dapuR₁)

dasúkto fill (as a bag with clothes), to crowd (PWMP: *da(ŋ)sek)

dáyaʔdeceit, trick, dishonesty (LOAN)

dáʔanold, used, worn out; beforehand, first of all, right away (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

dáʔutto injure, to hurt; to harm, to damage (PWMP: *zaqet)

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

díŋdiŋwall of a building (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

Hiligaynon (180 / 677)

dúgmukcrush, break by pressure (<*-muk?) (ROOT)

dugúʔblood (PMP: *zuRuq)

duhátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dúkdukpound, grind (PMP: *dekdek)

d<um>áldalto backbite, to spread false malicious talk, to talk against (PPH: *daldál)

duŋúghonor, fame, reputation (PMP: *deŋeR)

dúyanswing, cradle, crib, hammock (PPH: *dúyan)

gábitaro (PPH: *gabi)

gabúkrotten, decayed (PMP: *Rabuk)

gábutpull out, weed, extract, uproot (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

gábʔinight, evening (PMP: *Rabiqi)

gamútroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

gatúshundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gi-nháwabreath, respiration (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gin-pa-káʔunto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

gubángroup, brigade, caravan (ROOT)

gúlaŋage, maturity (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gúntiŋscissors; haircut (LOAN)

hágdanstairs, ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

hákuphandful, fistful (PWMP: *hakep)

Hiligaynon (200 / 677)

hákuphandful, fistful (ROOT)

hákutcarry to another place, bring in successive loads, transport (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

halígipost, pillar (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

hálintransfer to another place (PMP: *halin)

halúkkiss, peck on the cheek (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

hálʔumortar, pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

hámpakbeat, whip, whack (PPh: *hampak)

hámpaŋplay, clown around, gamble (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

hampáŋ-antoy (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

hándumwish, desire, ambition (PMP: *handem)

hándumwish, desire, ambition (ROOT)

haŋádto look up to, to honor, to admire, raise one’s eyes to (PPH: *háŋad)

háŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

háŋusgasp for breath, pant, breathe fast and with difficulty (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

hápdiʔpainful, smarting pain; pain sting (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

hapíndiaper, lining, cover (PMP: *hapin)

háplitto blow, to strike, to hit (PPh: *hap(e)lít)

háplusrub with ointment, smear (PPh: *hap(e)rus)

hátaggift, donation (PPH: *hátaR)

hatd-unbe delivered personally; what is delivered personally (PWMP: *hateD-en) *SateD

Hiligaynon (220 / 677)

hatd-unbe delivered personally; what is delivered personally (PWMP: *hateD-en) *SateD

hatúddeliver personally, carry a message (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument (LOAN)

hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument (NOISE)

háwakwaistline (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

háwanto clear, clean from obstruction, clear a crowded area (PWMP: *hawan)

háyupanimal (PPh: *hayep)

hiásprecious stone, gem (LOAN)

hígupsip, suck up, slurp, as a soup (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

higútrope, string (PPh: *hiRét)

híkaptouch with the hand, feel (ROOT)

hílutmidwife; to massage, rub (PPh: *hílut)

hílut-unto massage, rub (PPh: *hílut-en) *hílut

hináwwash hands or feet (PMP: *hiñaw) *Siñaw

híniŋshiny, polished (ROOT)

hiŋapústo end, finish, complete, terminate (ROOT)

hípagsister-in-law, brother-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

hítaʔthigh, crotch (PPh: *hitaq)

híwaʔchunk, sliced piece, one slice (PPh: *híwaq)

hubásevaporate, dry up (PPh: *hebás)

Hiligaynon (240 / 677)

hubúngroup (PMP: *hebun)

hubúngroup (PMP: *hubun₂)

hugakúmclasp in the fist (ROOT)

húgaswash hands and other objects except clothes (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

húgpuŋbundle, bouquet (ROOT)

hugúttight (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

hulámborrow (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

hulam-unto borrow (PPh: *hedam-en) *Sezam

húlidlie alongside, lie together (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

húlugfall down, tumble (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

humáyrice plant (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

hunáʔ-hunáʔthoughts, ideas, opinion (PPh: *henaq)

hunísound, chirp, whine (PMP: *huni) *Suni

húnusdraw out, pull out, as a drawer (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

hunússhelf, drawer (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

huragúksnore (ROOT)

húyaŋrickety, shaky (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

huyáʔshame, disgrace (PMP: *heyaq) *Seyaq

huyúpblast, blow, breath (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

húyʔabyawn, to yawn (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

Hiligaynon (260 / 677)

húʔuyes, affirmative particle (PMP: *heqe)

-iimperative benefactive-locative focus suffix (PAN: *-i₁)

i-general proposed action instrumental affix (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

ía3sg. pre-position source pronoun (PAN: *ia₁)

specifier distinguishing particle used before or after a deictic, noun, or pronoun chosen to be emphasized (PAN: *qia)

ibánother, some other (PMP: *ibah-an) *ibaS

íbughave a passion for, crave for (PMP: *ibeR)

ika-ápatfourth (PPh: *ika-epat) *Sepat

i-ka-isáfirst (PWMP: *ika-isa) *isa₁

ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

ika-pitúseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

iká-tluthird (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

i-káwyou (singular second person nominal pronoun) (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

ílatheir, theirs (PMP: *ida)

iláelusive, untamed, undomesticated (PMP: *ilah)

i-layáhinterland, remote area (PAN: *daya)

íligflow, current (PWMP: *qiliR)

ílig-anditch, drainage (PWMP: *qiliR-an) *qiliR

íluorphan (PWMP: *ilu)

ímuyour, yours (second person sg. pre-position source pronoun) (PMP: *imu) *Simu

Hiligaynon (280 / 677)

iníthis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

ínitheat, temperature, heat of the sun; anger (PWMP: *qinit)

inít-ansunshine (PWMP: *qinit)

inúmdrink, beverage, liquor (PMP: *inum)

ínutfrugal, stingy, thrifty (PWMP: *qinut)

ípitcompress, squeeze, press between (PMP: *qipit)

isáone (PAN: *isa₁)

ísipnumber, count (PPh: *ísip)

ísip-unto count, reckon, enumerate (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

ísulretreat, move back so as to make way (PPh: *isul)

ítikduckling (PWMP: *itik₂)

ítik-unto tickle (PWMP: *qitik₂)

itúmblack, dark, dark in complexion (PMP: *qitem)

ka-adjective formative affix designating comparative and superlative degrees of comparison: ka-tahúm sa ímu ‘How beautiful you are!’ (cp. ma-tahúm ‘beautiful, pretty’) (PPH: *ka-₃)

kayou (short form of ikáw) (PMP: *ka₄)

ka-ápat-anforty (PWMP: *ka-epat-an) *Sepat

kágawgerm, microbe (PWMP: *kaRaw₂)

káhigto rake, to shovel (PWMP: *kahiR)

káhuytree, wood, timber (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-ímunjealousy, envy (PPh: *qímun)

Hiligaynon (300 / 677)

kalámayrefined sugar (PWMP: *kalamay)

kamáligbarn (PMP: *kamaliR)

kamátistomato (LOAN)

ka-patáy-undeath (PWMP: *ka-p-atay-en) *aCay

kapínmore than, moreover, in addition (PWMP: *kapin)

ka-pitú-anseventy (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

kápuytiredness, exhaustion (PPH: *kápuy)

kapúy-unto be tired, to be exhausted (PPH: *kápuy)

ka-talúmsharpness (PWMP: *ka-tazem) *Cazem

ka-ta-tlu-anthirty (PWMP: *ka-telu-an) *telu

káwaydangle; wave a hand; wave in the wind (PMP: *kaway₁)

kaʔúneat, devour (PAN: *kaen)

kaʔun-unto eat, to devour (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

kibúnsurround, besiege (ROOT)

kilálaacquaintance, person with whom one has a facial acquaintance (PAN: *kilala)

kilátlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kílayeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray)

kímpitpincer, prong; hairclip (PAN: *kipit)

-kuI, me (short form of nákun) (PAN: *-ku)

kúdlitline, mark (ROOT)

Hiligaynon (320 / 677)

kukúfinger or toe nail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kúlonclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kulúbinverted, upset, turned over (PWMP: *kureb)

kusúgenergy, strength (PAN: *keseR)

labánbesides, except, moreover, furthermore (PWMP: *laban₁)

lábutbusiness, concern (PPH: *labut)

lágpitrat trap (ROOT)

lakáttrip, walk, business trip (PAN: *lakat₂)

lalákimale, man, boy, male illicit lover (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

lampásurag, mop, scrub (LOAN)

lamúkmosquito (PMP: *lamuk₂)

laŋonly, also, just (PPH: *laŋ)

láŋawa fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

láŋitheaven, sky, outer space (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láŋkaʔjackfruit (LOAN)

laŋuy-únto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

lapítnear, close, intimate (PWMP: *lapit)

lásuribbon; trimming (LOAN)

láwaʔspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

láyagsail (for a boat) (PAN: *layaR)

Hiligaynon (340 / 677)

likúdback (PAN: *likud)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

límuggargle (ROOT)

línugearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

líŋasto distract, confuse, upset, make noise (PWMP: *liŋas)

líŋliŋpeep through a small hole, observe secretly through an aperture (PWMP: *liŋliŋ)

líʔugneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lúhaʔtear (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lúkutwind up, roll, crumple (PMP: *lukut)

lúkutwind up, roll, crumple (PMP: *rekut)

lúmutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

lupúkto burst, blow out, erupt (PWMP: *lepuk)

lupúthave loose bowel movement, have diarrhea (PMP: *leput)

lutákclay (PWMP: *lutak)

lutákclay (PWMP: *lutak)

lutáswean; detach affection for something longed for (PMP: *rutas)

lútuʔcooked food, prepared food; cooked, ripe (PWMP: *lutuq)

luwásaside from, except, outside of (PMP: *luas₁)

lúyluyto hang down, droop (PPH: *luylúy)

ma-asínsalty (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

Hiligaynon (360 / 677)

ma-áslumsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

ma-búgʔatheavy, burdensome, cumbersome (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

ma-dálumdeep (PAN: *ma-dalem) *dalem

ma-gabúkto be rotten, to decay (PMP: *Rabuk)

mag-ágawgrab, seize, take by force, usurp (PAN: *qaRaw)

mag-águmto obtain, attain, achieve, possess (PPH: *águm)

mag-alaŋ-álaŋto hesitate (PPH: *alaŋ-alaŋ₂) *alaŋ

mag-anákbear a child, give birth; be a godparent to a child during baptism or confirmation (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mag-ániharvest, reap (PAN: *maR-qani) *qaniS

mag-áŋayto be well matched, to be equal (PPH: *aŋáy)

mag-asáwatake a wife, marry (PWMP: *maR-qasawa) *qasawa

mag-bahúgto feed swine, or any animal; of people, to eat mixed foods simultaneously (PWMP: *bahuR)

mag-bántalto bundle or wrap together with a piece of cloth or clothing (PWMP: *bantal)

mag-basáʔto wet, soak with liquid (PPh: *maR-baseq) *baseq

mag-bayúto box, to maul, to pound (PAN: *bayu)

mag-bíhagcapture, abduct, kidnap, attract, to bait (PWMP: *bihaR)

mag-bílinto enjoin, to leave behind (PPh: *maR-bilín) *bilin

mag-bítbitbring along, carry (PWMP: *maR-bitbit) *bitbit

mag-búdhiʔbetray, be faithless, be disloyal (LOAN)

mag-bugáto belch forth, to spit out, as a volcano belching forth lava (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

Hiligaynon (380 / 677)

mag-búgsayto row, strike the water with an oar (PMP: *beRsay)

mag-búhatdo, make, perform (PWMP: *maR-buhat) *buhat₂

mag-bukálto boil, to bubble (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

mag-bukáʔto cut open, to crack (PMP: *bekaq)

mag-búkbukcrush, grind, make into powder (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

mag-búlakto bloom, to flower (PWMP: *bujak)

mag-búlaŋparticipate in a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

mag-buláʔto bubble, to foam (as beer), to spume at the mouth (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

mag-búligto help, assist, aid (PPh: *maR-búlig) *bulig

mag-bulúŋto cure, to doctor (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

mag-bunálthrash, strike with a whip (PWMP: *benal)

mag-búnalthrash, strike with a whip (PPh: *bunal)

mag-bunúʔstab with a sharp instrument, pierce (PWMP: *maR-bunuq) *buNuq₂

mag-búnyagsprinkle, water plants, baptize (PPh: *buniag)

mag-búŋabear fruit, result in (PWMP: *maR-buŋa) *buŋa

mag-butúdbecome bloated, suffer from the wind (PWMP: *buntuD)

mag-bútuŋto pull, to drag (PPH: *beteŋ₃) *beteŋ₂

mag-dakúpto catch, to trap, to snare, to capture; to arrest (PAN: *dakep)

mag-dálumto deepen, become deep (PMP: *dalem)

mag-dáyaʔto trick, to cheat, to deceive (LOAN)

Hiligaynon (400 / 677)

mag-dílapto lick, to lap, to drawl the tongue like a dog (PWMP: *dilap₂)

mag-dugúʔto bleed (PMP: *zuRuq)

mag-dúha-dúhato doubt, to hesitate, to waver (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

mag-dúhulto give personally, to hand (PPH: *dúhul)

mag-dukútto stick to, to paste on (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

mag-dúmdumto think, to recollect, to remember, to bear in mind, to recall (PAN: *demdem₁)

mag-dúsdusto push, to shove; to mix (PPH: *desdés)

mag-dúyanto rock a cradle, to swing (PPH: *dúyan)

mag-gi-nháwato breathe, to take in air (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

mag-gúlaŋto be old, to become mature, to ripen (as fruit) (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

mag-gúntiŋto cut with scissors (LOAN)

mag-gúyudto tug along, to drag along, to pull, to trail along the ground (as in pulling a reluctant goat) (PWMP: *Ruyud) *guyud

mag-hálabto feed like animals on grass, to pasture, to graze (PPH: *hárab₂)

mag-hátagto give, to make a gift, to bestow, to assign, to award (PPH: *hátaR)

mag-háwʔasto take out of, to remove from inside (PPH: *haq(e)was)

mag-higutto bind, tie, secure, fasten with a string or a rope (PPh: *hiRét)

mag-hubásevaporate, dry up (PPh: *maR-hebás) *hebás

mag-hunáʔ-hunáʔthink, have the idea, consider (PPh: *henaq)

mag-huyúpblow, breathe upon, expel breath (PWMP: *maR-heyup) *Seyup

mag-kagátto bite, to snap, to catch between the teeth (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

Hiligaynon (420 / 677)

mag-kálito dig up (as sweet potatoes) (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

mag-kapútto hold onto, to grasp, to clutch (PPH: *kapét)

mag-kaʔúnto eat, to devour (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen

mag-kímpitto pick with a pincer, to pin hair together (PAN: *kipit)

mag-kubá-kubáto throb, to palpitate, to beat like the heart (PPH: *kebá)

mag-kusúgto become strong, to be energetic (PAN: *keseR)

mag-lakátto walk, to go, to leave (PAN: *lakat₂)

mag-lálato weave, to weave together (PWMP: *laja)

mag-lampásuto mop, to scrub the floor (LOAN)

mag-laŋúyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

mag-lápasto violate, to disobey an order (PWMP: *lapas)

mag-lápdusto hit with a strong force (PPH: *lap(e)des)

mag-latayto cross a narrow footbridge without support; to balance oneself on a narrow board (PPH: *latay)

mag-láyasto run away, to flee from. to go away without permission, to run away from home (PPH: *layas₁)

mag-likáwto shun, avoid, to detour (PAN: *likaw)

mag-likúʔto turn the corner, to turn a street corner (PMP: *likuq)

mag-línugto have an earthquake, to shake like an earthquake (PAN: *linuR)

mag-liŋáwto distract, to bother, to amuse, to relax (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

mag-lúmpatto jump, to leap, to dive down (PWMP: *lumpat)

mag-lútuto mourn, to wear the black mourning attire (LOAN)

Hiligaynon (440 / 677)

mag-luwásto free, to redeem, to save (PMP: *luas₁)

mag-matáto awaken (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mag-nipísto be thinner, to reduce in volume or thickness (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

mag-níwaŋto reduce in weight, become thinner (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

mag-pákpakto beat off, as to brush off dust or ants from a dress (PAN: *pakpak₁)

mag-pa-nihúlto whistle (PMP: *sihul)

mag-páypayto fan for air; to beckon to, to call back with a hand gesture (PPH: *paypáy)

mag-pihákto cut in two parts, divide in half (PWMP: *pihak)

mag-pílitto insist, to urge, to force, to compel (PPH: *pílit)

mag-pilítto stick on, to paste on (PMP: *pilit₁)

mag-púkanto cut a tree down (PPH: *púkan)

mag-punúʔto fill to capacity (PAN: *peNuq)

mag-putúlto sever, cut off; to break off (as wood) (PMP: *putul) *putun

mag-sábɁugto scatter, to sow (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

mag-sábwagto scatter (as ashes), to sow (as seeds) (PPH: *sabuag)

mag-sábʔitto hang to accidentally, to put on (as a flower in the hair) (PMP: *saqebit)

mag-ságʔubto draw water from a well, to fetch water (PPH: *saR(e)qeb)

mag-saláʔto make a mistake, commit an error (PWMP: *maR-salaq) *salaq₁

mag-sámbitto refer to, to mention (PWMP: *sa(m)bit)

mag-sánagto be clear, to shine (of the sun) (PMP: *sanaR) *saheNaR

Hiligaynon (460 / 677)

mag-sánlagto fry, to cook in oil (as in frying peanuts) (PMP: *saŋelaR)

mag-sápsapto chop so as to make even, to smoothen (PWMP: *sapsap)

mag-sapúputo take care of (as a small child) (PPH: *sapúpu)

mag-síkuto elbow, to nudge (PAN: *sikux)

mag-sílakto shine brightly (PMP: *silak₁) *silak

mag-sílakto shine brightly (PMP: *sirak₁)

mag-sípitto carry under the arm (PAN: *sipit)

mag-sítsitto hiss at, to produce a long hissing sound so as to call attention (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

mag-súbliʔto inherit (PPH: *sub(e)liq)

mag-súgbuto jump overboard, to dive into (PPH: *sug(e)bu)

mag-súkato vomit, to throw up (PPH: *suka₂)

mag-súlitto test, to repeat, to do again (PPH: *sulit₂)

mag-súluŋto raid (PWMP: *suruŋ)

mag-súŋayto gore, to pierce with a horn (PPH: *súŋay)

mag-súŋsuŋto close an opening with a stopper or a cork (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

mag-súsuto nurse from the breast or bottle (PAN: *susu₁)

mag-sútsutto make a hissing sound to call attention (PPH: *sutsut₃)

mag-tábanrun away with, take away, elope (PWMP: *maR-taban) *tabaN

mag-tábanto run away with, to take away, to elope (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

mag-tábasto sew, to cut cloth (PWMP: *tabas₂)

Hiligaynon (480 / 677)

mag-tábugto drive away, using arm gestures (PPH: *tabuR₂)

mag-tágayto put out, to offer (PPH: *tágay)

mag-táltalto loosen, especially with a jackscrew or a hammer (PWMP: *taltal₁)

mag-tanúmto plant, to allow to grow (PWMP: *maR-tanem) *CaNem

mag-tánʔawto see, to watch, to look at (PPH: *taq(e)náw)

mag-taŋísto cry, to lament (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

mag-tawágto call, to beacon (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

mag-tayáʔto bet, to put up as stake (PPH: *tayáq)

mag-táʔasgrow tall; raise, increase (PMP: *atas) *aCas

mag-títiʔsuck the breast, feed from a bottle (PMP: *titiq)

mag-tubúdto leak, flow in small drops (PAN: *Cebuj)

mag-túbuʔto grow, germinate, sprout (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

mag-túdluʔto point out, to teach (PPh: *tulduq)

mag-túgunto request to get, to give a message, to ask (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

mag-tukádto ascend, go up (PAN: *tukad₂)

mag-tulúdto push (as a car to get it started) (PPH: *tulúd)

mag-túluʔto drip, to leak, to fall in drops (PAN: *tuduq)

mag-tuŋáʔto divide in two (PMP: *teŋaq)

mag-túpadto be at the side of, to sit beside someone (PPH: *tupáj)

mag-úbato take off, especially clothing, to denude (PPH: *úba)

Hiligaynon (500 / 677)

ma-hípusquiet, silent, still (PPH: *hipes)

ma-húlugfall down, tumble (PWMP: *ma-huluR) *SuluR

ma-íbughave a passion for, crave (PWMP: *ma-ibeR) *ibeR

ma-ilubecome an orphan, be orphaned (PWMP: *ilu)

ma-ímunfeel jealous (PPh: *qímun)

ma-initwarm, hot, in rage, passionate (PPh: *ma-qinit) *qinit

ma-kusúgstrong, energetic, healthy (PAN: *ma-keseR) *keseR

ma-láwʔayugly, offensive, repulsive (PPH: *law(e)qay)

ma-lipátto forget, to lose the memory (PPH: *lipat)

manalso, too; fine (PPH: *man)

ma-nipísthin, reduced in volume (PMP: *ma-nipis) *Nipis

ma-níwaŋlean, thin, of animals and people (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

manúkchicken (PMP: *manuk)

maŋ-ayámto hunt (PWMP: *qayam₂)

maŋ-libákto backbite; to deride (PPH: *libák)

ma-paʔítbitter (PMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-pilítsticky, clammy (PMP: *pilit₁)

ma-píntascruel, harsh, brutal (PPH: *pintás)

ma-putíʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

ma-sakítpainful; sorrowful (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

Hiligaynon (520 / 677)

ma-sánagbright, shiny (PMP: *sanaR) *saheNaR

ma-sáwɁaimmoral, indecent (PWMP: *saweqaq)

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tábʔaŋtasteless, of liquid consistency, light, mild (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

ma-talúmsharp, as of knives and blades (PWMP: *ma-tazem) *Cazem

ma-táwuto be born (PPh: *ma-tau) *Cau

m-atáydie, pass away (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-túlugto go to sleep, to fall asleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

ma-túnawto melt (as ice), to digest, to dissolve (PPH: *túnaw)

naalready, still, yet (Alás dos na ‘It is already two o’clock’) (PMP: *na₄) *Na₂

n-átunour, ours (incl.) (PPH: *n-aten) *iten

nipis-únto be thinner, to reduce in volume or thickness (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

níwaŋthinness (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

niyúgcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ŋálanname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋípuntooth, teeth (PAN: *ŋipen)

paparticle: still, yet (PAN: *pa₁)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pag-túbuʔgrowth (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

pag-túdluʔteaching (PPh: *tulduq)

Hiligaynon (540 / 677)

págutrave, be furious, gnash the teeth while asleep (PWMP: *pagut)

págutrave, be furious, gnash the teeth while asleep (ROOT)

pákpakfeather, wing (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pala-affix designating habitual state of being or repeated action (NOISE)

p<al>ákpakclapping of the hands (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pálayrice plant (PAN: *pajay)

páluŋto put out, to extinguish, to blow out (PAN: *padeŋ)

palússlip off, free from grip (ROOT)

pa-músʔunto move the bowels (PPH: *pus(e)qun)

panáʔarrow, bow (PAN: *panaq)

pa-nihúla whistle (PMP: *sihul)

pa-nihul-anto be whistled at (PMP: *sihul)

pánitskin, leather, bark; to skin, to peel something off (PWMP: *panit)

páŋpaŋbrink, edge, coast, area close to a river or sea (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

p-atáydead person, dead plant or animal, corpse (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pawíkansea turtle (PPH: *pawíkan)

páʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

paʔítbitterness (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

paʔúnbait, decoy (PAN: *paen)

pihákother side, reverse, pair, half (PWMP: *pihak)

Hiligaynon (560 / 677)

pikítof clothes, tight (PMP: *pikit)

piláhow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pilít-unto insist, to urge, to force, to compel (PPH: *pilit-en) *pílit

písospeso bill (LOAN)

pitúseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

púgaʔto squueze so as to extract liquid (PAN: *peReq)

pukán-unto cut a tree down (PPH: *pukán-en) *púkan

púliŋto have a foreign object in the eye (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

púluhandle of a knife (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

púluʔisland (PPH: *pujuq)

púnuʔtree trunk; leader, chief (PMP: *puqun)

punúʔfull to capacity (PAN: *peNuq)

punúʔ-anbeginning, start; authority, leader (PMP: *puqun)

punúʔ-unto fill to capacity (PWMP: *penuq-en) *peNuq

púŋgulcut off from a plant, prune (PWMP: *puŋgel)

púŋgulcut off from a plant, prune (PMP: *puŋgul)

púŋkuʔsit down (ROOT)

púsudnavel, belly button (PMP: *pusej)

púsuʔheart; banana flower (PMP: *pusuq₁)

putíʔwhite, fair in complexion (PMP: *putiq)

Hiligaynon (580 / 677)

púʔasto calm, to ease, to become less strong (PMP: *puqas)

saby, on, at, in, relational particle (PAN: *sa₂)

sabúdscatter, sow (PWMP: *sabuD)

sagúpsave, rescue (PMP: *saRep)

sakítillness, pain; grief, sorrow (PMP: *sakit)

salápidbraid (PWMP: *salapid)

saláʔmistake, crime, sin, error (PMP: *salaq₁)

salúgfloor (PMP: *saleR)

sámbudwind, bind, roll (ROOT)

sánagbright, shiny (as the sun) (PMP: *sanaR) *saheNaR

sánagbright, shiny (ROOT)

sándukladle; big spoon (PWMP: *sanduk)

sandúk-unto dig or scoop out (PWMP: *sanduk)

saŋábranch, bough, twig (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sapáɁcreek, brook; lake (PAN: *sapaq₁)

saríclass, kind (LOAN)

sári-sáridifferent, of mixed kinds, combined (LOAN)

sipersonal name marker (PAN: *si₁)

sígato glow, shine (PMP: *siga)

síkadto kick with the foot (PPH: *síkad)

Hiligaynon (600 / 677)

síkoelbow (PAN: *sikux)

síkúʔ-unto elbow, to nudge (PWMP: *siku-en) *sikux

sílakrays of the sun, heat of the sun (PMP: *silak₁) *silak

sílakrays of the sun, heat of the sun (PMP: *sirak₁)

silák-anto shine brightly (PMP: *silak₁) *silak

símbugto mix, dilute liquids (ROOT)

siŋkamásturnip (LOAN)

sipíɁone piece, as one piece of an orange (PPH: *sipíq)

siʔúdfish trap; loop (PWMP: *siqud)

súkaspew, vomit (PPH: *suka₂)

súksukhouse lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

sulúʔtorch (PMP: *suluq)

súmpaʔoath, sworn statement, vow (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpáʔ-unto take an oath, to swear, to make a big promise (PWMP: *sumpaq)

súŋayhorn (PPH: *súŋay)

súŋsuŋstopper, cork (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

súŋuantennae of insects (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

súputpaper sack or bag (PPH: *súput)

súsumammary gland, breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tabán-onbe carried off, taken away, as in elopement (PWMP: *taban-en) *tabaN

Hiligaynon (620 / 677)

tabídlink together with a rope or string, attach to (PWMP: *ta(m)bid)

tádtadto chop (as meat); to mutilate (PWMP: *tadtad)

tadtad-únto chop; to mutilate (PPH: *tadtad-én) *tadtad

tagúmblue (PMP: *taRum)

tahíʔsewing, stitch (mag-, -un) (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

támaʔcorrect, well, extremely, excessively (PMP: *tamaq₁)

támbalmedicine, cure, remedy (PMP: *tambar)

tamíŋarmor, shield (PMP: *tamiŋ)

tanúmplant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanum-unto plant, to allow to grow (PAN: *CaNem-en) *CaNem

táŋisa cry, a lament (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋis-unto cry, to lament (PWMP: *taŋis-en) *Caŋis

tápiʔwood, board, lumber (PPH: *tapiq₁)

tapúsfinished, completed (PAN: *tapus)

tátluthree (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tawágcall, telephone call, beacon (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

táwuman (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tayáʔstake, bet (PPH: *tayáq)

táʔastall (PMP: *atas) *aCas

tíkomclose the lips, mouth (ROOT)

Hiligaynon (640 / 677)

tikúʔcrooked, bent, curved (PWMP: *tikuq₁)

ting-ulánrainy season (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

tisúkstick into (PWMP: *tisuk)

tisúkstick into (< *-sek?) (ROOT)

títiʔnipple, feeding bottle (PMP: *titiq)

tiyánstomach, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tubúsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tubúdleak, drop, flow (PAN: *Cebuj)

túdluʔfinger (PPh: *tulduq)

túgutto permit, to allow, to agree (PWMP: *tuRut)

túhudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tukúnpole used for support (PMP: *teken)

tuláya bridge (PPH: *tuláy)

túlugsleep, slumber (PAN: *tuduR)

túluʔone drop, one drip (PAN: *tuduq)

túlʔanbone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

tuŋáʔmiddle, center; half; between (PMP: *teŋaq)

tuwáyclam (PMP: *tuay)

túʔawcry out, exclaim (PWMP: *tuqaw)

úaŋhowl loudly, yelp like a helpless dog (PAN: *quaŋ₂)

Hiligaynon (660 / 677)

uganúttough (meat) (ROOT)

úgbus(of plants) bud (PPH: *ugbús)

úgtunoon (PPh: *ugtu)

ulánrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uláŋlobster, freshwater shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

ulípunpoor man, servant (PWMP: *qudipen)

ulún-anpillow (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

-um-verbal affix designating completed action (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

únatductile, stretchable (ROOT)

uŋá1drawl, howl (ROOT)

uŋáldrawl, howl (PMP: *quŋal)

upábran, chaff (PWMP: *qepah)

úpakpeeling, skin of fruits (PWMP: *upak₁)

wágkusbelt, sash, waist band (<*-kus?) (ROOT)

wásayaxe, hatchet (PWMP: *wasay)

wáswasshake out clothes (PPh: *waswás₁)

yágpislanky, thin (ROOT)

206. Hitu (55) CMP [htu] Indonesia (Maluku)

ato eat (PAN: *kaen)

aileg, foot (PAN: *qaqay)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aninwind (PMP: *haŋin)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ateʔroof (PMP: *qatep)

aufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

elestand (PMP: *kedeŋ)

halashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

ha-təluthick (PCEMP: *təlu)

hatustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

hihimouth (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

hulufeather (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

ianfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ilu-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

lalablood (PAN: *daRaq)

lalanpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

lanitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

Hitu (20 / 55)

lau-leaf (PMP: *dahun)

lawa-lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

lete hahaabove (PCMP: *letay₁)

lulibone (PMP: *duRi)

lumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

ma-hinafemale; woman (PAN: *ma-b<in>ahi) *bahi

mamato chew (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

manidream (PWMP: *maŋ-hipi) *Sipi

maniʔithin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

manubird (PMP: *manuk)

matadie, dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matato die; dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

nalaname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nanuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

nikitooth (PMP: *ŋisi)

pahu-wanaright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

pa-matakill (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

pilito choose (PAN: *piliq)

Hitu (40 / 55)

saʔato ascend (PMP: *sakay₄)

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tarinaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tasisalt (PMP: *tasik)

ta-tanito weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

teruegg (PMP: *qateluR)

tiabelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tunuto burn (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

ulanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uliskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

waelwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

waʔatroot (PMP: *wakat)

y-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

207. Hiw (11) OC [hiw] Vanuatu

gusuwərat (POC: *kusupe)

mitiγto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mʷatasnake (POC: *qumata)

mwatasnake (POC: *mwata)

nə-gogəMacaranga tanarius (POC: *koka)

sabad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

titbreast (PMP: *titiq)

titto suck (NOISE)

toyear (PMP: *taqun)

tuto stand (POC: *tuqur₁) *tuqud

wakəcanoe (POC: *waga) *waŋka

208. Hoanya (40) Form. [ppu] (Papora-Hoanya) Taiwan

abikiareca nut (PAN: *Sawiki)

ada ~ alachild (PAN: *aNak)

(a)-sianine (PAN: *Siwa)

atudog (PAN: *asu₁)

babupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

batustone (PAN: *batux)

bulasmoon (PAN: *bulaN)

bulbulbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

dzalanroad (PAN: *zalan)

dzapufire (PAN: *Sapuy)

k<am>itato see (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita

lasənvegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lipuntooth (PAN: *lipen)

ma-baliwindy (glossed as ‘wind’ in Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *ma-bali₁) *bali₃

magicome (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

mamafather (PAN: *mamah)

mamisweet (PAN: *ma-hemis) *hemis

ma-pasato die (PAN: *pa-aCay) *aCay

masaeye (PAN: *maCa)

Hoanya (20 / 40)

matala-gasutone hundred (matala = ‘one’) (PAN: *RaCus)

ma-tulusleep (PAN: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

mudzasto rain (glossed as ‘rain’ in Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *q<um>uzaN) *quzaN

padzarice plant (PAN: *pajay)

paiwoman; female (PAN: *bahi)

pa-itikfew (PAN: *qitik₁)

saŋilaear (PAN: *Caŋila)

sauperson (PAN: *Cau)

sibussugarcane (PAN: *CebuS)

sikanfish (PAN: *Sikan)

suaziyounger sister (PAN: *Suaji)

s<um>aito defecate (glossed ‘feces’ in Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *C<um>aqi) *Caqi

tiat ~ chiasbelly (PAN: *tiaN)

t<um>mālato hear (PAN: *t<um>umaNa) *tumaNa

tutufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

uluhead (PAN: *quluh)

usago, leave (PAN: *uSa)

usulouse (PAN: *kuCux)

vakigrandfather (PAN: *baki₂)

zazum ~ salumwater (PAN: *daNum)

209. Hoava (22) OC [hoa] Solomon Islands

γami1pl. excl., we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

γamu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

γita1pl. incl., we (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

goeyou (sg.) (POC: *koe)

γutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

iγanafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

-in-nominalizing infix (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

limafive (PAN: *lima)

luato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

maeto come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

manivisithin (PMP: *ma-nipis) *Nipis

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mateto die; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

mbatuhead (POC: *batuk) *batuk₃

meatongue (POC: *maya)

nunu-female breast (POC: *nunu₃) *nunuh

ŋuzumouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

raneday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

ruaneck (POC: *Ruqa)

tia-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Hoava (20 / 22)

tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty (PMP: *ŋa)

vua γatofruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

210. Hote (2) OC

kalakringworm (POC: *karak₂)

vaubear a child, give birth; bear fruit (POC: *pasu₃)

211. Hoti (12) CMP (Stresemann 1927) [hti] Indonesia (Maluku) [aka: Hotti]

faf-apig (PAN: *babuy₃)

lawa-lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

lisi-tooth (PMP: *ŋisi)

ma-hina-awoman (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

malabandicoot (PCEMP: *mansar)

okitto fart (PMP: *qetut)

phaka-tree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

phakuaintestines (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

phal-ahibiscus (PMP: *baRu)

tamichew (PMP: *tamis)

tamichew (PMP: *tamiq)

toph-asugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

Hotti (12) CMP. see: Hoti

212. Huaulu (2) CMP [hud] Indonesia (Maluku)

haha-manawife-givers (PMP: *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki) *aNak

haha-pinawife-takers (PMP: *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi) *aNak

213. Hukua (3) OC

mʷatasnake (POC: *qumata)

mwatasnake (POC: *mwata)

suapaddle (PEMP: *suak)

Hukua, Tasiriki, Valpei, Piamatsina (21) OC. see: Cape Cumberland

214. Hula (51) OC

aɣefoot (POC: *waqe) *waqay

aɣito weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

aɣibreeze (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aivacentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

araname (POC: *acan) *ajan

arawaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

autree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

ɣiato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

ɣulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ɣunav-ito scale fish (POC: *qunap-i) *quSeNap

ɣurashrimp (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

iawe (incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

iɣutail (PAN: *ikuR)

inamother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

inaɣebowels (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

kaluhalf-ripened coconut (POC: *karut₂)

keruback of the head (POC: *keju)

konesand (POC: *qone) *qenay

Hula (20 / 51)

kovumist (POC: *kaput₂) *kabut

kunubreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

lamu-lamuhair of human body, hair of animals (POC: *lamu₂)

maeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maashamed (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

maɣuriliving (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mauto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

nahuchild (PEMP: *natu)

nanuwater (POC: *ranum) *daNum

niucoconut (PMP: *niuR)

nividream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

paewashark (POC: *bakewak)

pepebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

poɣinight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

punedove (POC: *bune) *punay

rasail (PAN: *layaR)

rabiasago (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

ramuroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

rarablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

rauleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

Hula (40 / 51)

rua-ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rururib (PAN: *Rusuk)

uputo grow (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

vanuɣaland (POC: *panua) *banua

vavinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

virahow much/how many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

voito barter (PEMP: *poli) *beli

vuafruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vuamoon (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

vuibody hair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

vuronavel (POC: *pusoc) *pusej

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 3/28/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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