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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


Loanwords are a perennial problem in historical linguistics. When they involve morphemes that are borrowed between related languages they can provoke questions about the regularity of sound correspondences. When they involve morphemes that are borrowed between unrelated languages they can give rise to invalid reconstructions. Dempwolff (1934-38) included a number of known loanwords among his 2,216 ‘Proto-Austronesian’ reconstructions in order to show that sound correspondences are often regular even with loanwords that are borrowed relatively early, but he marked these with an ‘x’, as with *xbazu ‘shirt’, which he knew to be a Persian loanword in many of the languages of western Indonesia, and (via Malay) in some of the languages of the Philippines. However, he overlooked a number of cases, such as *nanas ‘pineapple’ (an Amazonian cultigen that was introduced to insular Southeast Asia by the Portuguese). Since widely distributed loanwords can easily be confused with native forms I have found it useful to include them in a separate module of the dictionary.

A fairly careful (but inevitably imperfect) attempt has been made to identify and document loanwords with a distribution sufficient to justify a reconstruction on one of the eight levels of the ACD, if treated erroneously as native. While this has been done wherever the possibility of confusion with native forms seemed real, there is no reason to include obvious loans that would never be mistaken for native forms.

This issue is especially evident in the Philippines, where hundreds of Spanish loanwords from the colonial period that began late in the 16th century, are scattered from at least Ilokano in northern Luzon to the Bisayan languages of the central Philippines and some of the languages of Mindanao (as Subanon). Comparisons like Ilokano kamarón ‘prawn’, Cebuano kamarún ‘dish of shrimps, split and dipped in eggs, optionally mixed with ground meat’ < Spanish camarón ‘shrimp’, or Ilokano kalábus ‘jail, prison’, Cebuano kalabús, kalabúsu ‘jail; to land in prison, in jail’ < Spanish calabozo ‘dungeon’ seem inappropriate for inclusion in LOANS, but introduced plants have generally been admitted. Some of these, as ‘tomato’ may be widely known as New World plants that were introduced to the Philippines by the Spanish, but others, as ‘chayote’, may be less familiar. As already noted, Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *nanas and *kenas as doublets for ‘pineapple’, completely overlooking the fact that this is an Amazonian plant that could hardly have been present in the Austronesian world before the advent of the colonial period. This example shows that errors in the semantic domain of plant names can sometimes escape detection by scholars who are otherwise known for their careful, meticulous work, and for this reason all borrowed cognate sets involving plant names are documented as loanwords to avoid any possible misinterpretation.

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Ilokano abúsoto abuse; bother, irritate
  abusú-ento irritate someone, annoy someone
Ayta Abellan abohoabuse
Tagalog abúsoabuse; an evil custom; maltreatment
Agutaynen mag-abosoto create a disturbance, often using insulting language or cursing

From Spanish abuso ‘abuse’.

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    


(Dempwolff: *tarima ‘receive, accept’)

accept, receive

Javanese (Krama) trimahto accept without protest, to resign oneself to
Maranao tarimaʔaccept, receive; believe (in religious contexts)
Mansaka tarimato presume; to take for granted
Iban terimaʔto receive, accept
Malay tərimato receive; acceptance; acknowledgement
Toba Batak ma-narimato give, dole out
Sundanese tarimato receive, accept, take, be pleased to get something
Old Javanese tarimareceiving, accepting; gratefulness
  a-tarimato accept, receive gratefully, be grateful
  t<um>arimato receive, accept, take; to be presented with gifts; to allow, tolerate, resign oneself to, submit to, yield to, suffer
Javanese trimato accept without protest, to resign oneself to
  trima-na woman who is given (especially by a monarch) in marriage as a reward
Balinese terimareceiving, thanks; to receive, accept, take over, find pleasure in; buy wholesale
Sasak terima(ʔ)to receive, accept
Mongondow tarimato receive, accept, approve of, allow, permit
Banggai tarimato receive
Bare'e man-tarimato receive, as a penalty, an amount in money (used in legal contexts, and said to be from Malay)
Tae' tarimato receive, accept
Makassarese tarimathank you (in the expression tarima-kasi, from Malay)
Wolio tarimato take, receive (also visitors)
Muna tarimato receive

Borrowing from Malay, perhaps ultimately from Old Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tarima ‘receive, accept’.

accusation, blame

Maranao dawa-ininexperienced; blame
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dawaʔblame; offense
Yakan daʔawaexcuse, pretext
  mag-daʔawato deny (an accusation)
Kelabit dawaʔa libel suit
  ŋə-dawaʔto sue someone
Iban dawareport, inform on
Malay dawaarraignment under the law; lawsuit
Sundanese dawalawsuit; accusation
Javanese dakwaaccusation
  nakwato accuse
Madurese daʔwaaccusation
  men-daʔwato accuse

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic, but with the Bornean and Philippine forms acquired indirectly through the medium of Malay.


Casiguran Dumagat bihásaexpert, skilled; become accustomed to, be skilled at doing something
Kapampangan byása, biyásaknow how
Tagalog bihásaaccustomed, used to
Malay biasahabitual; acquainted with or accustomed to
Acehnese biasaordinary, customary, in the habit of; experienced, practiced
Simalur biasobe in the habit of doing something, used to, accustomed; practiced in something; be able to
Dairi-Pakpak Batak biasaaccustomed, used to
Lampung biasausual; usually
Sundanese biasatraining, practice, habit, custom; used to, accustomed
Javanese biasausual, ordinary; familiar with, accustomed to
Balinese biasausual, ordinary; usually
  biasah-aŋget accustomed to
Sangir biasacustomary, usual
  ma-miasato accustom
Mongondow biasacustomary, usual; accustomed to; expert
Gorontalo biasaaccustomed, used to
Bare'e biasausual, customary; accustomed to; habit, custom, practice
Tae' biasausual, customary; accustomed to
  kam-biasa-nhabit, custom
  maʔ-biasa-asato accustom, get used to
Mandar biasaoften, usual, ordinary
Buginese a-biasa-ŋhabit, custom
  biasausual, ordinary
  pab-biasato accustom
Makassarese biasaaccustomed, used to; habit, custom
Wolio biasabe used to (something), get accustomed
Rembong biasaaccustomed, used to
Sika biasacustom, habit; accustomed
Asilulu biasaordinary behavior, usual custom; sense of being accustomed to something; usually
Buruese biasausually, ordinarily
Buli biasausual, customary

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.


Ibaloy alasace in cards
Bikol alásace
Agutaynen alasace, as in playing cards
Cebuano alasace, a card or die marked with a single spot

Borrowing of Spanish el as ‘ace’.


Cebuano asiduacid
Maranao asidoacid
Chamorro ásiduacid

Borrowing of Spanish ácido.

acquired:   cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?)

Maranao kaŋgangingham
Binukid kaŋganred cloth (of symbolic significance)
Iban kain kaŋganblack cotton cloth; Chinese black calico

Presumably a loan from southern Chinese, although a plausible source word is yet to be identified. Thanks to Yen-ling Chen for tracing the history of this form, and drawing my attention to the suggestion that the name may derive from a reduplicated form of Malay kain ‘cloth’: kain-kain > kankan > kaŋkan > kaŋgan.

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address:   term of address for girls

Malay endokfriendly form of address used by a woman to a female friend or by a man to his wife
Manggarai endukMiss, form of address used with a young woman

Borrowing from Malay.

adept:   skilled, adept

Sambal (Botolan) likhíto be skilled in
Tagalog liksíquickness, agility
Bikol ma-liksíʔagile, deft, nimble

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

administrative unit:   district, administrative unit

Ilokano purókvillage; community; group, cluster, assembly, company, meeting
Tagalog purókdistrict; locality; neighborhood; place; area
Bikol purókdistrict

Apparently a Tagalog loan distribution from a form that must originally have had an intervocalic voiced alveolar stop.

admit fault, confess

Ilokano amínto confess one’s guilt or error; admit defeat, concede
Casiguran Dumagat amínto admit fault
Tagalog um-amínto own up; to confess
Agutaynen mag-aminto admit to doing something; to confess a wrong or sin

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    


aerial root

Ngaju Dayak tunjaŋvarious trees that send out leafless shoots from their roots that reach two or three feet in length and vary from the thickness of a finger to that of an arm; also refers to these shoots
Malay akar tunjaŋroots such as those of the mangrove that rise out of the mud and then re-enter it

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    


afternoon prayer

Maranao asarsecond prayer in afternoon; late afternoon
Malay asarafternoon
  waktu asarwith special reference to the afternoon prayer
Simalur asar falaltime of the Moslim afternoon prayer, between about 3:30 and 6 P.M.
Sundanese asarthe afternoon prayer prescribed by Islam, around 3:30 P.M.
Javanese asarthird daily Moslim prayer; the time (between 3 and 5 P.M.) when this prayer takes place
Sasak asarafternoon; afternoon prayer
Sangir asareʔtime of the afternoon prayer, around 4 P.M.
Gorontalo asaritime of the afternoon prayer
Bare'e asáratime of the third daily prayer of Moslims, around 3:30 P.M.
Mandar asartime of the afternoon prayer, from about 3:15 to 6:00 P.M.
Makassarese asaraʔtime of the afternoon prayer
Wolio ʔasara(time for) the afternoon prayer
Bimanese asaIslamic prayer time, around 4 P.M.
Asilulu asarthe time and ritual of the Muslim prayer about 4 P.M.

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

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Maranao omorlongevity; demise
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) umurthe span of life; to reach the end of one's life
Kadazan Dusun umulage
Malay umurage, duration of life
Makassarese umuruʔlifespan, age
Bimanese umuage
Rembong umurage
Leti umruage
Soboyo umun-age

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.


Casiguran Dumagat ayúnagree to, to favor, conform to, be in accord with
Kapampangan áyunagree with, go along with
Tagalog áyonagreement
Aklanon ayonbe in favor of, support, agree with
Maranao aionagree, accept, concede

Probably a GCPH loan in Casiguran Dumagat and Kapampangan.

(Dempwolff: *inak 'agreeable')

agreeable:   pleasant, agreeable

Malay énakenjoyable, delicious
Old Javanese k-énakthe best thing, the most convenient
  m-énakat ease, relieved, satisfied; easy, smooth, untroubled; pleasant, agreeable, comfortable
  inakwell-being, peace, ease, enjoyment, satisfaction; easy (smooth, untroubled) course (e.g. of a battle)
Javanese énak, inakpleasing to the senses, esp. taste, smell
Balinese énakbe pleasant (taste, smell), enjoyable
  k-énakhealthy, recovered from illness

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *inak 'agreeable', but the comparison in question is best explained as a relatively recent innovation or a loan distribution in western Indonesia.


Maranao samayaɁoath; to swear, take an oath
Iban semayapromise, agreement
Old Javanese semayacoming together; mutual understanding, agreement, promise; meeting (as agreed on); appointed or fixed time
Balinese semaya ~ sumayaagreement, alliance, promise, covenant
Sasak semayaɁto deceive, victimize

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

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ailment:   eye ailment

Casiguran Dumagat buléglégan eye ailment (an acute, highly contagious conjunctivitis), pink eye; to get pink eye
Tagalog buliglíginflammation of the eyes (of fowls and animals)

Borrowing from Tagalog.

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(Dempwolff: *arak)

alcohol, distilled liquor

Ilokano árakwhisky, gin, whisky, etc. The fermented juice of grapes and any alcoholic beverage obtained by distillation
Bontok ʔálakstore bought hard liquor, as gin
Kankanaey álakwine, gin, whisky; alcohol
Casiguran Dumagat alákwine
Pangasinan álakliquor
Kapampangan álakliquor
Tagalog álakwine, liquor; distillate, alcohol
Bikol árakwhiskey, liquor, booze; wine
Hanunóo ʔálakwine, refering to bottled wine of various commercial brands; known from contact with lowland people; the term does not apply specifically to such native fermented beverages as intús
Aklanon áeakto distil (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage)
Hiligaynon álakhard drink, liquor
Cebuano álakliquor, strong alcoholic beverage
Tiruray ʔarakgeneral term for a distilled alcoholic beverage
Kadazan Dusun t-alakarrack
Kelabit arakthe spirit distilled from rice wine
Ngaju Dayak arakdistilled liquor
Malagasy árakarum (Provincial)
Iban arakarrack, rice spirit, distilled from a fermented mash
Moken ælapalcohol
Malay arakarrack, distilled alcoholic liquor
Sundanese arak-arak-anhold a drinking party
Old Javanese arakarrack, a distilled alcoholic liquor
Javanese arakalcoholic beverage made by allowing liquid to ferment
Balinese arakspirit (drink)
Sasak arakarrack. On Lombok four kinds are known: a. beras (from rice), a. duntal (from lontar palm), a. nao (from sugar palm), a n-iur (from coconut palm)
Chamorro arakdistilled liquor made from fermented coconut sap
Bimanese aradistilled liquor, rice wine
Manggarai aragin, rice wine
Rembong arakgin
Kambera arakuhard liquor
Leti arkaarrack
Wetan arkaarrack, and strong liquor in general
Kei arakgin distilled from sago pith
Ujir arekMalay-introduced rice wine

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic. Dempwolff treated this form as native, but Jones (1978) regards it as a borrowing of Arabic ʔaraq 'strong drink'. This interpretation is supported by the initial consonant of Wolio ʔara 'arrack, brandy (made from sago juice, or the nectar of nipah-palm blossom)', and by numerous irregularities in the sound correspondences, although the appearance of forms of the word in Old Javanese and Malagasy is in need of further study. Such Philippine languages as Casiguran Dumagat, Kapampangan, Hanunóo, and Aklanon appear to have acquired the word through TAGA, but Ilokano and Bikol evidently acquired it directly from speakers of Malay. Throughout much of eastern Indonesia the word appears to have been borrowed through the mediation of Malay, and the same may be true of Chamorro arak, although Ilokano árak is another plausible source.

This term is defined more by the process of distillation, which marks it off from native forms of brewing liquors by simple fermentation, than by any distinctive ingredient. Its wide distribution and integration into the morphological system of some languages shows how easily loanwords can take on the characteristics of native forms. Somewhat ironically, Old Javanese arak must have been borrowed during the earliest period of Islamization, as it is one of the few Arabic loans in the Old Javanese material.

alert:   quick, ready, alert

Ibaloy alistoquick, ready, alert, enthusiastic, zealous, smart, prompt, aggressive
Cebuano alistuenergetic; shrewd, clever; do something well

Presumably a Spanish loan, although the source is yet to be determined.

all at once:   sudden(ly), all at once

Ilokano gólpesudden blow; strike; all at once, wholesale
  gulpí-ento do all at once
Agta (Eastern) gúlpisudden, quick; very large amount of something; suddenly get everything of something
Tagalog gúlpi ~ gólpea hit or strike
  gulpi-h-into beat up; to beat to helplessness; to pummel
Bikol mag-gúlpito strike or hit
Hanunóo gúlpicontract labor
  gulpí-h-anto be done by contract labor
Aklanon gulpi(h)sudden(ly), quick(ly), without warning; to be taken aback, surprised, be a victim of a sudden act
Agutaynen golpisuddenly; immediately; instantly
Maranao golpimoney given by winner to his friends

Borrowing of Spanish golpe ‘blow, stroke, hit; clash, shock; crowd, throng; accident; surprise’, de golpe ‘suddenly’.

alloy:   copper-gold alloy

Tagalog tumbágacopper and gold alloy
Bikol tumbágacopper
Cebuano tumbágacopper, or a copper alloy that is still copper-colored
Tausug tumbagabrass, copper, bronze
Malay təmbagabrass; copper; copper-colored
Simalur tambagocopper
Sundanese tambagared copper
Tontemboan tambagacopper
Mongondow tambagacopper
Tae' tambagared copper
Makassarese tambagared copper
Wolio tambagacopper, bronze; copper-colored: brown, yellow, orange, red, blond
Muna tambagacopper, bronze

Borrowing from Sanskrit. For a detailed account of the complex history of this word, which generally refers to copper in island Southeast Asia, but to a copper-gold alloy in the archaeological cultures of the Andes cf. Blust (1992a).


Ilokano limósalms; stipend for mass; funeral fee
Ayta Abellan limohalms, offering
Agutaynen limosalms; money or goods given as charity to people
Binukid limusalms, voluntary contribution; to give alms, voluntary donations

Borrowing of Spanish limosna ‘alms’.

alright, go ahead!

Ilokano dálego ahead!
Kapampangan dáleokay
Tagalog dálego ahead!

Apparently a borrowing of Spanish darle/dale ‘go ahead!’.

although, even if

Tagalog maskí (na)even if, even then, even though
Bikol máskialthough, even if, even though
Cebuano maski(n)even, including; even though, nevertheless
Malay məski (pun)although, even if, even though

Philippine forms are from Spanish mas que ‘although, even so’, and the Malay form is evidently from the similar expression in Portuguese. Surprisingly, the same expression is also found in Tok Pisin maski ‘although’. Why this particular collocation was so readily borrowed remains unclear.

(Dempwolff: *tawas 'alum')


Ilokano táwasalum, alum powder
Casiguran Dumagat táwasa type of divination or augury (done by breaking an egg in a glass of water, to find out who or what has caused a sickness)
Pangasinan táwasperformance of ritual designed to cure sickness
Sambal (Botolan) táwasa way of determining sickness using oil and leaves
Tagalog táwasalum
  tawás-into burn alum together with some small article belonging to a sick person to determine (superstitiously) the origin or nature of his illness
Agutaynen tawasalum
Malay tawascrude alum (as used in the Malay pharmacopia); double sulfate of aluminum and potassium

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) proposed PAn *tawas 'alum'.

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Maranao ambarperfume
Malay ambarambergris
  ambar ikantrue ambergris, believed by scientists to be a morbid secretion derived from the sperm-whale, but by Malays to be produced by fish that have eaten the sap of the pauh jaŋgi. Prized by Orientals for perfume-making
Sundanese ambarambergris
Javanese ambarfragrance
Balinese ambarkind of jewelry; musk civet
Sasak ambararomatic oil; ambergris
Makassarese ambaraʔambergris, used in medicines and perfumes
  ambaraʔ-sibatuambergris-ball, kind of ornament
Wolio ʔambaraambergris, term for certain sea products which in pursuance of the sara Jawa belonged to the ruler
Bimanese ambaambergris; jewel

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

amulet, talisman

Kapampangan antíŋ-antíŋtalisman
Tagalog antíŋ-antíŋamulet
Bikol antíŋamulet, charm, fetish, talisman
  antíŋ-antíŋamulet, charm, fetish, talisman
Aklanon ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, charm (supposedly possessing a secret power allowing a person to avoid injury); power of invulnerability
Hiligaynon ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, talisman
Cebuano antiŋ-antiŋcharm, amulet; wear, have, make into an amulet
Maranao antiŋ-antiŋcharm, talisman, amulet

Probably a GCPh innovation borrowed into Kapampangan. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to relate Tagalog antíŋ-antíŋ 'amulet' to Malay antiŋ-antiŋ 'ear-ring' and similar forms in other western Indonesian languages through a meaning 'pendant' is unconvincing.

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    



Maranao bina-binataŋbeastly
  binataŋbeast animal
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) binataŋa derogatory term meaning to have no shame, as an animal has no shame
Mansaka binataŋcreature, animal
Tiruray binataŋa subdivision of the animal world that includes all four-legged, warm-blooded animals, including monkeys
Bintulu binataŋanimal
Iban binataŋanimal
Malay binataŋanimal, beast (as a term of abuse); thing, whether animate or inanimate
Acehnese binataŋanimal, beast; cattle (opposed to manusia 'people')
Simalur binataŋanimal
Karo Batak binataŋdisguised speech form for mice that destroy the rice
Dairi-Pakpak Batak binataŋanimal, four-footed animal
Toba Batak binataŋanimal, wild animal, beast, used as a common term of abuse
Lampung binataŋanimal
Sundanese binataŋanimal, living creature
Javanese binataŋ, binantaŋanimal (pejorative term)
Sangir binataŋ(< Malay) animal; term of abuse, as is often the case with Malay loanwords; the Sangirese themselves have no general term for animal
Mongondow binataŋanimal (Malay?)
Gorontalo binataŋianimal
Bare'e binata, binataŋireplacement term for pig
Sika binataŋanimal, beast
Tetun binatanstock, domestic animals
Asilulu binataŋanimal; common term of abuse

Borrowing from Malay. No general term for 'animal' has been reconstructed for any early AN proto-language, and the Malay term binataŋ was thus free to fill a gap in the semantic systems of many languages in Indonesia and the southern Philippines. As is often the case with terms for 'animal' in natural languages, this word functioned both as a category marker and as a term of abuse.

animal:   stomach of an animal

Maranao babatbelly
Banjarese babattripe
Malay (Jakarta) babadtripe
Sundanese babatstomach of a ruminant
Balinese babadstomach of an animal

Maranao assumed to be a loan from some dialect of Malay.

Anona:   sugar apple: Anona squamosa

Tagalog átessugar apple, sweetsop
Bikol átissugar apple: Anona squamosa
Hanunóo ʔatísthe sweetsop (Anona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatice and very sweet fruits
Aklanon átisa fruit, the sugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Cebuano átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Anona squamosa
Maranao atissugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Tiruray ʔatissweetsop: Anona squamosa Linn.
PSan atissoursop (Anona squamosa)
Sangir atiseʔtree sp.: Anona squamosa
Chamorro atesplant sp.: sweetsop, sugar apple: Anona squamosa

Merrill (1954:152) notes that all members of the genus Annona which are found in Southeast Asia are natives of tropical America. The plant evidently was introduced by the Spanish into the central Philippines, and probably into Guam during the same period. From there it spread southward through borrowing from Austronesian sources, leaving telltale phonological irregularities in Tiruray and the Sangiric languages (Sneddon 1984:122).

(Dempwolff: *sau(dj) ‘to answer’)


Javanese sauroral reply
  se-saur-anto answer back and forth
Balinese sahutanswer
  sahut-inbe answered

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sau(dj) ‘to answer’, including Malay saut ‘to answer’. However, the latter word does not appear in Wilkinson (1959), in Moeliono et al. (1989), or in Hapip (1977). This appears to be a late innovation in western Indonesia with possible borrowing from Javanese into Balinese.

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appearance:   face, looks, appearance

Maranao parasface, looks, appearance
Tiruray falascolor, form, appearance; a face
Malay parasgood looks; appearance
Karo Batak parasbeautiful; worthy

Borrowing from Malay.

apple:   sugar apple: Anona squamosa

Tagalog átessugar apple, sweetsop
Bikol átissugar apple: Anona squamosa
Hanunóo ʔatísthe sweetsop (Anona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatice and very sweet fruits
Aklanon átisa fruit, the sugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Cebuano átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Anona squamosa
Maranao atissugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Tiruray ʔatissweetsop: Anona squamosa Linn.
PSan atissoursop (Anona squamosa)
Sangir atiseʔtree sp.: Anona squamosa
Chamorro atesplant sp.: sweetsop, sugar apple: Anona squamosa

Merrill (1954:152) notes that all members of the genus Annona which are found in Southeast Asia are natives of tropical America. The plant evidently was introduced by the Spanish into the central Philippines, and probably into Guam during the same period. From there it spread southward through borrowing from Austronesian sources, leaving telltale phonological irregularities in Tiruray and the Sangiric languages (Sneddon 1984:122).

(Dempwolff: *pantas ‘be successful, effective’)

appropriate:   becoming, fitting, appropriate

Tagalog pantássage; wise person; a specialist in a particular line of academic knowledge; scholarly; learned; erudite
Ngaju Dayak pantasbeautiful; well; graceful
Malagasy fántatraknown, recognized
Iban pantasquick; sharp; attentive
Malay pantasbecoming; neat; graceful (in Malaya it connotes nimbleness or speed)
Toba Batak pantasingenious, intelligent; prudent
Old Javanese pantəsfitting, appropriate, only right, only to be expected; in style, becoming, in accordance with all the rules; immaculate; adroit; in keeping with custom
Javanese pantesappropriate; deserving; suitable; becoming
Balinese pantesright, fitting, proper; handsome, polite, pleasant
  pantes-anrightness, fittingness
Sasak pantəsproper, becoming, fit; appropriate (of an article of clothing)

Borrowing from Javanese into Malay, and then diffusion through Malay to a wider set of languages. Dempwolff (1938) positied Uraustronesisch *pantas ‘be successful, effective’ (Erfolgreichsein).

(Dempwolff: *patut ‘proper, fitting’)

appropriate:   proper, fitting, appropriate

Maranao patotproper, fitting, due
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) patutfitted for something; deserving of something, whether good or bad
Tiruray fatut(of the way one does something), in the morally correct way
Ngaju Dayak patutwhat must be done, what is proper or seemly
Malay patutfit; proper; suitable
Toba Batak patutwhat is right and proper; decent, becoming
Old Javanese tut ~ tūtfollowing
  pa-tūtfollowing, along, concordant, in harmony, in accord; appropriate, apposite, right, fitting
Javanese patutsuitable, well-advised, appropriate

Borrowing from Javanese into Malay, with subsequent wide dispersal via Malay. Dempwolff (1938) compared the Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Javanese and Toba Batak forms with Tagalog patot ‘proper, fitting’ and posited Uraustronesisch *patut ‘proper, fitting’, but I have been unable to find the last of these forms in any modern dictionary. Note the close semantics and probable origin in Javanese with subsequent spread by Malay for both this form and Malay pantas, etc.

approximate:   guess, approximate

Malay agakguesswork; conjecture; more or less; about; at a venture
Simalur agaʔopinion, presumption
Karo Batak agakopinion, guess
Dairi-Pakpak Batak agakapproximately; more-or-less
Toba Batak agakapproximately; to estimate
Rejang agaʔabout, approximately
Javanese agakthought, opinion, guess
Balinese agakattitude, manner

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *kira ‘to presume, surmise, suspect’)


Ngaju Dayak kiraabout, approximately
Malay kiraestimating; calculating; thinking out
Toba Batak hiraapproximate, to a certain degree
Old Javanese kira-kirathoughts which one fosters, ideas; plan, scheme, devices and designs
  a-kira-kirato plan, think out how best...., intend
Javanese kirathought, guess, opinion
  ŋirato think, have an opinion, guess
Balinese kirathought
Sasak kira-kiraapproximately (< Malay)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kira ‘to presume, surmise, suspect’.

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Ilokano damaraimprovised shelter (for wedding ceremonies)
Kapampangan damarashade, grove, arbor

Rubino (2000:150) lists this as a variant of ramada, from Mexican Spanish ramada ‘a shelter’.

areca nut cutter

Tagalog kalakatia tool like small shears for cutting betel nuts
Malay kələkatiareca nut cutter

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Tamil.

argue, blame

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dawaʔblame; offense
Kadazan Dusun ɗawato argue, summon
Malay dawaarraignment under the law, lawsuit

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

Argus pheasant

Malay kuauArgus pheasant: Argusianus argus
Toba Batak uoArgus pheasant

Probably early borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *tepis ‘go around the edge’)

around:   circumambulate, go around the edge

Toba Batak topisgo around the edge
Javanese tepisedge, border, boundary

Borrowing from Javanese? Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepis ‘go around the edge’.

(Dempwolff: *suŋsaŋ ‘turned around’)

around:   turned around, inverted

Malay suŋsaŋinversion; upside-down
Karo Batak suŋsaŋopposite to the usual direction, turned around
Toba Batak suŋsaŋturned around, inverted, upside-down
Old Javanese suŋsaŋupside-down, reversed
  s<um>uŋsaŋto be upside-down
Javanese suŋsaŋthe other way around (as in sleeping with your head where your feet should be and vice versa)

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) posited *suŋsaŋ ‘turned around’ based on the data considered here minus Karo Batak and Old Javanese.

arrange, put in order

Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) aturcommand
Ilokano atór-enstraighten, correct, amend; to mend
Kapampangan átuldecision
Tagalog hatolsentence pronounced by a judge in court; counsel; medical prescription for an ailment
Aklanon hátœto judge, render judgment
Maranao atororder sequentially
  ator-anpave with stones; governor, order, arrangement
  ator-enarrange, careful, fix up
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aturcare about, look out for
Mansaka atolestablish order, arrange
Tiruray feg-aturtake responsibility for some specific task
  ʔatura responsibility
  ʔatur-anresponsible for some specific task; something ordered or commanded by a person in authority
Tboli atulplan; idea; decision
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-atulaim with a gun; put in order, arrange; legislate
Kelabit aturan order, command; arrangement, organization
  ŋ-aturto order, command, arrange, organize
Berawan (Long Terawan) atonarrange
Melanau (Mukah) aturarrange, put in order
Ngaju Dayak (h)atohreflection, consideration; advice, counsel
  m-atohconsider, give advice, put in order
  (h)atoraccusation; treachery
Banjarese aturarrange
  ba-aturput in stacks
  ba-atur-anto order, arrange
Iban aturarrangement, order, decision; arrange, set in order, decide
Malay (h)aturorder, arrangement
  atur galaŋsticks laid horizontally in a ricefield to mark the divisions between different types of seedlings
  atur-andisposition; regulation; method
  ber-aturarranged in order
Karo Batak aturarrangement, regulation
  ŋ-aturregulate something
Toba Batak aturorderly, in order
  atur-anorder; sequence, succession, plan
  maŋ-aturput in order
Sundanese aturarrange, regulate, put in order
  ŋ-aturarrange, place (as troops), set out (as food)
Javanese ŋ-aturtell, inform; show something; advise
  aturwhat someone says (to an exalted person); ask someone to do something
Sangir atuleʔto order, regulate; teach; admonish
Mongondow atorregulate, give orders
  ator-aŋrule, regulation, order; custom, practice
Gorontalo a:turuorder, regulation
  moŋ-a:turuto order, regulate
Uma atur-acustom, practice
Buginese atuorder, arrangement
  atu-atucustomary behavior or practice
Makassarese aŋŋ-atoroʔto arrange, order, classify
  ator-aŋorder regulation
  atoroʔkind of poem

Borrowing from Malay.

arrange, put in order

Malay urusdeal with, e.g., under the laws; put in order
Makassarese urusuʔregulate, adjust, arrange
Komodo uruto command
Manggarai urusarrange, put in order

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano baŋgáfight with side arms; to fence; fight, give battle
Tagalog baŋgáʔcollision
Aklanon baŋgáʔambush; collide, hit together
Cebuano baŋgáʔcontest of any sort for a winner; bump into something with force
Maranao baŋgacollide; compete; contest
Old Javanese bhaŋgabreaking or destroying the laws of dharma (of social relations, etc.); arrogant, conceited, insolent, brutal, rude, reckless
Balinese baŋgaboastful, proud; resistant, recalcitrant
Sasak baŋgádisobedient or heedless toward God or parents

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

arrogant:   proud, arrogant

Ilokano taŋsítarrogance
  na-taŋsítarrogant, proud, haughty, conceited
Ibaloy e-taŋsitproud, haughty, arrogant, conceited
Ayta Abellan ma-taŋhitproud

The Ayta Maganchi word probably is an Ilokano loan.


Kavalan siwararrow
Saisiyat siwalʸarrow

At first sight this comparison looks flawless, but Saisiyat siwaL can only reflect *Ciwal, and Kavalan siwar must reflect *siwal or *Siwal, making a reconstruction impossible. To date a similar form has not been found in any other Formosan language, and although this forms clearly shows greater similarity than can be expected from chance the conditions under which borrowing might have taken place remain obscure.

(Dempwolff: *tazi ‘artificial cockspur’)

artificial cockspur

Itbayaten tarimetal spur for cockfighting
Casiguran Dumagat tárispur (of a rooster); to fit a steel spur onto a fighting cock
Pangasinan tárispur of rooster, blades added to spur for cockfight
Tagalog táriʔbladed spur attached to the leg of a fighting rooster; gaff
Maranao tariʔplace gaff on fighting cock
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tadiʔartificial spur of a fighting cock; to place such a spur on a cock
Mansaka táriʔmetal spurs put on fighting cocks’ legs for fighting
Ida'an begak taddiʔspur
Ngaju Dayak tajimetal cockspur
Iban tajisteel blade spur for fighting cock
Malay tajiartificial spur for fighting cock
Toba Batak tajimetal cockspur
Old Javanese tajia sharp, pointed instrument; a metal cockspur, a spike on a fish
Javanese tajisharp blade attached to the attacking part of a fighting animal for contests, e.g. a game cock’s spurs
Balinese tajithe steel spur fastened to a game cock’s foot
  taji-ninbe fitted with steel spurs
Sasak tajimetal cockspur for fighting cock
  bə-tajifitted with a metal cockspur
Tae' tadiartificial spur for a fighting cock
  tadi-iattach an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock
Makassarese tajiartificial spur for a fighting cock
Muna tadhicockspur (artificial); hit someone with a cockspur

Borrowing from Malay. The direction of borrowing for this term strongly suggests that cockfighting was introduced into the Austronesian world in western Indonesia, and from there spread northward into the Philippines and eastward to Sulawesi. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tazi ‘artificial cockspur’ (Kunstsporn).

Artocarpus:   jackfruit Artocarpus spp.

Ilokano anaŋkájackfruit
  náŋkajackfruit: Artocarpus integrifolia
Isneg laŋkáthe jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, L.; its burned wood yields a black dye
Bontok láŋkajackfruit: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Morac.)
Ibaloy daŋkajackfruit: tree of the mulberry family that bears the largest fruit in the world (taboo for new mothers to eat)
Pangasinan láŋkajackfruit, a tree with large cylindrical fruit up to two feet long and about half as wide, the outer surface of which is covered with a honeycomb of raised pointed protuberances
Kapampangan yaŋkaʔnanca fruit, breadfruit
Tagalog laŋkáʔjackfruit
Remontado naŋkáʔjackfruit
Bikol laŋkáʔjackfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus heterophylla Linn.
Hanunóo laŋkáʔjackfruit (Artocarpus heterophylla Lam.), the tree and its fruit
Agutaynen láŋkajackfruit (the fruit can be eaten cooked or uncooked; when cooked it is often mixed with coconut milk, or used in a dish called laoya, with boiled beef
Hiligaynon láŋkaʔjackfruit
Cebuano náŋkaʔjackfruit, a medium-sized tree cultivated for its large spiny fruit, which may reach 70 lbs and is eaten unripe cooked, and raw when ripe. The seeds are eaten as a vegetable, roasted or boiled: Artocarpus heterophyllus Linn.
Mansaka láŋkaʔjackfruit
Lun Dayeh lakaʔjackfruit
Kelabit buaʔ nakan M small jackfruit variety
Kayan nakan M the wild jackfruit
Kayan (Uma Juman) bua nakan M small jackfruit
Iban naŋkaʔlarge jackfruit, Artocarpus spp.
Malay naŋkaa fruit, specifically the jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, but covering also the soursop, durian, another jack, A. lanceaefolia, and two other plants, Mallotus macrostachyus and Nauclea purpurascens
Toba Batak naŋkaseed of the jackfruit
Old Javanese naŋkaa particular kind of tree and its fruits, Artocarpus integrifolia
Balinese naŋkabreadfruit tree, breadfruit
Sasak naŋkaArtocarpus integrifolia
Tae' naŋkaʔjackfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus heterophylla Linn.
Wolio naŋkekind of tree (its fruit used to be an important article of trade)
Muna naŋkajackfruit
Chamorro lanka, nankajackfruit
Seit naʔajackfruit

Also Malay naŋka ‘a fruit; specifically the jack, Artocarpus integrifolia; but covering also the soursop, another jackfruit, Artocarpus lanceaefolia, and two other plants: Mallotus macrostachyus and Nauclea purpurascens or Sideroxylon malaccense’, Karo Batak naŋka ‘jackfruit tree and fruit: Balinese naŋka ‘breadfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus integrifolia’, Mongondow naŋga ‘jackfruit: Artocarpus integrifolia’.

The history of this word remains somewhat unclear. Merrill (1954:153) notes that the jackfruit “although now widely distributed in the archipelago and frequently planted, was an early introduction from tropical Asia.” By ‘tropical Asia’ he presumably means India, although no further information is given. Since the word occurs in Old Javanese and has spread into a number of Philippine languages, it is likely that its introduction into the Austronesian family goes back at least a millennium. Its appearance in Chamorro presumably is due to contact with Philippine languages such as Tagalog during the centuries of Spanish occupation of the Marianas.

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    



Malay bikuBuddhist monk of old Malaya
Rejang bikewapical clan ancestor
Old Javanese biku, wikuperson who has a religious status or function, a person devoted to a religious life, holy man, sage; priest, monk, nun, ascetic, hermit
Javanese biku, wikuascetic learned man
Balinese wikulearned, wise; learned man, doctor, priest
Bare'e bikudrink no palm wine

Borrowing, ultimately from Prakrit.


Maranao tapadevout --- religiously
Sasak tapapractice asceticism through seclusion or renouncing material things

aspire:   wish, aspire

Casiguran Dumagat haŋádreason, purpose, ambition, wish, goal, aim; intend, try to aspire to/for
Hanunóo haŋádwish, desire
Aklanon haŋádintend, try, aspire (for/to)

Borrowing from a GCPh source into Casiguran Dumagat.

(Dempwolff: *kampuŋ ‘meeting, assembly, gathering’)

assembly:   meeting, assembly, gathering

Ngaju Dayak kampoŋ(often intensified by kawalafter it), be under the control of a chief
  ma-ŋampoŋto be a chief over someone, rule someone as a chief
Iban kampoŋforest never yet cleared and usually extensive, virgin forest
Malay kampoŋgrouping; gathering together; (living) compound
Gayō kampuŋvillage, settlement
Simalur kampuŋvillage, settlement
Toba Batak hampuŋ(short for kapala kampuŋ ‘village head’)
Sundanese kampuŋneighborhood, district, hamlet, small village
Javanese kampuŋslum area in or near a city; yard around one’s house
Sasak kampuŋcoastal inhabitant of another ethnicity; however, not Banjarese

Almost certainly a product of borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938), who reconstructed *kampuŋ ‘meeting, assembly, gathering’, included Tongan kapu ‘to surround, etc.’, Futunan kāpu-i ‘encircle’, Samoan Ɂapu ‘a cup or dish made of a leaf’ in this comparison, but there seems to be little reason to treat the similarity of the Oceanic forms to those in western Indonesia as anything other than chance resemblances. For the unexpected Iban gloss cf. Blust (1980b).


Malay ləŋaŋsparse (of population); poor (of the attendance at a feast or at mosque); also of a cemetery being deserted at some particular moment
Toba Batak loŋaŋastonished
Old Javanese leŋeŋa state of daze, of being unaware of about one, rapture, ecstasy; being enraptured by beauty or love
Javanese ləŋəŋbe mute with astonishment

Probably a Malay loanword that has since disappeared in Malay.

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    


(Dempwolff: *tempuq ‘fall upon, attack’)

attack suddenly, fall upon

Ngaju Dayak tampohpushing, shoving, colliding (with horns, buffalo, etc.)
Malagasy mi-tepu-tepupulsate, palpitate
Iban tempohassail; break through (as a fence); storm a house (in attack)
Malay me-nəmpohto assail, of charges, storming attacks, etc.
Toba Batak tompusuddenly
Javanese ke-tempuhto get hit
  nempuhto face up to, confront
  pa-nempuh(head on) attack; collision
Balinese nempuhtouch something; sway about (in the wind); be struck (by illness); stroke along something; be responsible

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *tempuq ‘fall upon, attack’.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋgu ‘be attentive’)

attentive:   be attentive, stand guard

Ngaju Dayak tuŋgowatchman, lookout
Malay tuŋguwatching; guarding
  bər-tuŋguto be on the lookout
  tuŋgu-ito watch over
Toba Batak tuŋguto admonish, call attention to a fault
Old Javanese (m)a-tuŋguto stay and wait on, keep watch over, guard, be a guardian
Javanese tuŋguto wait for; to keep watch over, look after

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋgu ‘be attentive’ (aufpassen).

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    



Malay bibiaunt; aged female relative (in Malayo Javanese literature)
Sundanese bibithe younger sister of one's father or mother; MBW, FBW; aunt
Old Javanese bibimother; my dear, as form of address to a woman (wife, beloved, etc.)
Makassarese bibiʔaunt (used by Makasarese-speaking Chinese); also used of rice peddlars (originally mostly Javanese or Madurese women)

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    


(Dempwolff: *sedaŋ ‘middling amount’)

average:   medium, average, intermediate

Ngaju Dayak sadaŋmoderate, reasonable
Malagasy éranafull, complete measure, that which fills
  ma-néranato fill a place, to pervade
Malay sədaŋintermediate; in the meantime; the happy mean; medium, average; in the midst of
Gayō sədaŋaverage, middling
Toba Batak tar-sodaŋunfit, unsuitable, improper
Sundanese sədəŋintermediate (as between high and low; average, mean; sufficient
Old Javanese səḍəŋright time (not too early or too late); right moment, right measure (not too big or too small); just, just while, while
Javanese səḍəŋjust right, adequate
  səḍəŋ-anaverage, medium
Balinese sedeŋenough, right; the right moment; just when, at just the moment when
  seḍeŋmoderation, what is fitting; suitable, proper, fitting, moderate; to fit, suit well (clothes)
Sasak sədəŋmoderate, middling; sufficient; exact (enough)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sedaŋ ‘middling amount’, leaving the last-syllable vowel of the Javanese form unexplained. Since the same problem is found with several other languages, it appears more economical to assume that Malay borrowed Javanese səḍəŋ, with subsequent spread of the loanword into other languages after the merger of last-syllable schwa and *a.

acc    ace    aci    acq    add    ade    adm    aer    aft    age    agr    ail    alc    ale    all    alm    alr    alt    alu    amb    amu    ani    ano    ans    app    arb    are    arg    aro    arr    art    asc    asp    ass    ast    att    aun    ave    awa    axe    


awareness:   understanding, awareness

Itbayaten himaŋmaŋidea of recognizance
Tagalog himanmáncomprehension of and learning what is taught; rest, relief
Hanunóo himánmanconsciousness, thought; be aware of, be conscious of

Probably a Tagalog loan in Itbayaten.

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Ilokano palakólaxe
Tagalog palakólaxe
Bikol parakólaxe, hatchet
Aklanon parakóeaxe
Cebuano palakúl, palákulaxe, hatchet
Maranao parakolaxe, hatchet
Tiruray felakulWestern-style axe

Borrowing. Ilokano palakól is almost certainly a Tagalog loan. Similarly, Schlegel (1971) gives Tiruray felakul as a borrowing from Tagalog. Whatever the source of the Tiruray word, it is clearly a loan, and the remaining languages all belong to the Central Philippines subgroup.


Ifugaw pútawkind of axe with a wider blade than the commonly used axes called wáhe, or wáhay
Tagalog putháwhatchet; a small axe
  puthaw-ínto cut, chop or hack with a hatchet
Cebuano putháwiron, steel

Borrowing of Hokkien pú-thâu ‘axe’. This comparison was pointed out by Daniel Kaufman.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)