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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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mag    mai    mal    man    mar    mas    mat    mea    med    mee    mel    mem    mer    met    mex    mid    mil    min    mir    mis    moi    mon    moo    mop    mor    mos    mot    mou    mov    mud    mus    mut    muz    myt    

macaque:   long-tailed macaque

Tombonuwo koraʔmonkey, long-tailed macaque
Malay kramacaque; long-tailed crab-eating monkey: Macacus cynomolgus
Old Javanese kəramonkey

mace:   clove, mace

Maranao boŋa lawanexceptionally good fruit
Malay buŋa lawaŋclove-spice; mace
Acehnese buŋóŋ lawaŋclove
Toba Batak buŋa laoaŋclove
Sangir buŋa lawaŋclove

Borrowing. The distribution of this item is consistent with the hypothesis, first suggested to me by James T. Collins, that the pre-European spice trade of Indonesia was mediated by Brunei Malays in a commercial arc that linked Brunei (and peninsular Malay ports) with the southern Philippines and northern Moluccas. The maintenance of such contacts on a regular basis would have required sailing along the western and northern coasts of Sabah, through the Sulu Archipelago to southern Mindanao, and from there to Sangir-Talaud and northern Sulawesi before reaching the northern Moluccas. Given this interpretation the otherwise puzzling occurrence of apparent Philippine loanwords in Buli of southern Halmahera can be placed within a coherent historical context. There can be little doubt that the same network served the propagation of Islam.

Although some form of spice trade between eastern and western Indonesia (and points beyond) probably predated the arrival of Islam in island Southeast Asia by many centuries, there is little evidence for large-scale trade contacts with eastern Indonesia during the Indianization of western Indonesia (e.g. the Sriwijaya period). On present evidence, then, it appears most likely that a regular and systematic linkage of Moluccan clove and nutmeg suppliers with Bruneian or other Malay distributors developed in concert with the diffusion of Islam into Borneo, the southern Philippines and the northern Moluccas during the 14th and 15th centuries. If so, the Brunei of Pigafetta, with its lavish displays of wealth and rank, must have been a relatively nouveau-riche Islamic elaboration upon an older Indianized state in which the supporting trade base had only recently undergone a fundamental shift from a western Indonesian to an eastern Indonesian emphasis.

machete, bush knife

Kapampangan pálaŋbolo
Tagalog paláŋflat-nosed bolo
Melanau (Mukah) paraŋbush-knife, machete
Ngaju Dayak paraŋsaw of a sawfish
Iban paraŋlarge knife, chopper
Malay paraŋcleaver, machete; to chop
Toba Batak paraŋmachete, bush knife
Sundanese paraŋmachete
Rembong paraŋmachete

The Philippine forms and many others (Melanau (Mukah), Toba Batak, Rembong, possibly Ngaju Dayak) appear to be loans from Malay. Maranao paraŋ 'hand trowel, weeding tool' is assumed to be a semantically altered loan or a chance resemblance.

machete:   bolo, machete

Casiguran Dumagat sóndaŋbolo, large knife; to carry a bolo
Tagalog sundáŋdagger; a short machete; a heavy knife
Bikol sundáŋbolo, machete; a knife; any instrument used for cutting
Hanunóo sundáŋblunt-tipped bolo
Aklanon súndaŋknife
Maranao sondaŋsword, either wavy or straight blade; big, sharp knife or machete

Probably a Tagalog loan. Any word which implies metallurgy (as opposed to simple knowledge of iron ore) is almost certainly post-Proto-Philippines.


Pangasinan balánito attract
Tagalog balániʔmagnetism
Hanunóo balániʔmagnet, lodestone
Maranao bato-baraniʔmagnet
Ngaju Dayak batu baranimagnet
Malay batu beranibesi beranimagnet
Old Javanese wesi waranimagnetic iron
Sasak besi beranimagnetic iron
Mongondow batu baranoimagnet
Makassarese bassi baranibatu baranimagnet

Borrowing from Malay.

maid, female servant

Maranao baboʔaunt, mother-in-law
Malay babumaid-servant
  babu tétékwet-nurse
Sundanese babutitle of Eve (Babu Hawa); in general = paŋasuh (female servant)
Old Javanese babumother; older servant
Javanese babuyoung female servant; (literary, formal) mother
Balinese babudomestic servant, maid
Banggai ba-babufamily member
Wolio babufemale servant, maid (in colonial times)
Bimanese babuhouse servant

Probably a fairly late innovation in Western Indonesia, spread by borrowing from Malay or Javanese.


Pangasinan bosónmailbox
Tagalog busónmailbox
Bikol busónmailbox, postbox
Aklanon busónmail box, postal box
Cebuano busúnmailbox into which mail is dropped for collection
Maranao bosonpost office

Borrowing of Spanish buzón letter-box, pillar-box’.

(Dempwolff: *ku(dD)uŋ ‘leprosy’)

maimed (as by leprosy)

Ngaju Dayak kudoŋleprosy, causing loss of hands and feet
Malay kudoŋleft with only a stump; maimed; short and stumpy, as tailless cockroaches and transom- sterned boats

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(dD)uŋ ‘leprosy’.

male bird or chicken:   cock, rooster; male bird or chicken

Thao tamazunmale bird or chicken
Bunun tamaluŋcock, rooster; chicken

Probably a Bunun loan in Thao, although the z : l correspondence is unexpected (Blust 1996).

male homosexual

Ilokano bakláa homosexual man
Pangasinan báklahomosexual, transvestite
Tagalog bakláʔan effeminate or homosexual man; being effeminate
Bikol bakláʔeffeminate, gay, queer; a male homosexual
Aklanon bakláʔhomosexual, queer; effeminate man
Agutaynen bakláa male with feminine tendencies; effeminate; homosexual (said to be borrowed from Tagalog)

Borrowing from Tagalog.


Ngaju Dayak hampalammango tree and fruit
Iban empelanmango: Mangifera indica L.
Malay (h)əmpəlammango
Javanese pelemmango

Also Malay məmpəlam ‘mango’. Given its very restricted distribution in western Indonesia, this is assumed to be a Malay loanword.

mango: Mangifera indica

Ilokano maŋgáthe mango tree; mango fruit (leaves used in native medicine against cough and fever)
Ibaloy maŋKamango, mango tree
Pangasinan maŋgámango
Kapampangan maŋgámango
  maŋgaʔ-anmango orchard
Tagalog maŋgáthe mango tree and its fruit
  maŋgah-ánmango plantation
Hanunóo maŋgámango tree (Mangifera indica Linn.) and fruit
Tausug maŋgaMangifera indica, the common Cebu mango (yellow when ripe)
Iban maŋgamango: Mangifera indica
Malay maŋgamango: Mangifera indica

Although the mango is native to island Southeast Asia, Richards (1981) gives Iban maŋga as a borrowing of Tamil man-kay, and Wilkinson (1959:737) says the same of Malay. If this is valid then the Philippine forms must have been borrowed from Malay.

manioc:   cassava manioc

Maranao baŋgelamanioc, cassava
Binukid biŋgalacassava
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) biŋgalacassava, Manihot esculenta
Tiruray baŋgalaʔmanioc variety
Malay beŋgaladescriptive adjective for articles introduced via Calcutta (Indian onion, Gossypium vitifolium, pasture grass, potato, castor oil, etc.)
Old Javanese baŋgalaBengal

Borrowing from Malay. Cassava presumably was introduced to Southeast Asia by the Portuguese, as it is indigenous to the Amazonian region. Why the Malay name suggests a derivation from Bengal remains unclear. The manioc is an Amazonian plant, and presumably was brought to Asia by the Portuguese. The present comparison suggests that it first reached India, then Malaya before Malay merchants introduced it into the southern Philippines.

(Dempwolff: *ulaq 'employment, occupation')

manner:   way, manner

Malay olahmanner; air; way of doing things, esp. when the way is tricky or affected
Toba Batak maŋ-ulaperform work in the fields
Old Javanese ulahwhat one does, action, activity (performing, cultivating, being engaged in); way of acting, conduct; sexual intercourse
Javanese olahdo the cooking
  olah-anthings cooked, cuisine
  ulahway of conducting oneself or handling something

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1934-38) included these forms together with Samoan ula-vale 'make a nuisance of oneself, make trouble' under a proposed reconstruction *ulaq 'employment, occupation', which I reject.

manner:   ways and manner

Ngaju Dayak ka-kaiin this way, thus
Javanese kayalike, as, as if, as though

This is another of many problematic Dempwolff comparisons. The sound correspondences are irregular, and even if Ngaju Dayak had not borrowed substantially from Javanese during the Majapahit period (1293-c. 1500), a reconstruction based only on these languages could not be assigned to any of the proto-languages recognized in the ACD.

(Dempwolff: *tanDa ‘sign, signal, mark’)

mark:   sign, signal, mark

Tagalog taláʔlist, entry; thing written or printed in a book
  tandáʔsign; any mark, thing or motion used to mean, represent, or point out something
Ngaju Dayak tandaa sign, mark (from Banjarese)
Malagasy tandraa mole in the skin
Malay tandasign; token; emblem
Toba Batak tandasign; sign of recognition
Old Javanese tanḍaspecial sign on a banner belonging to each hero, ensign, standard, banner
  sa-tanḍaeach company (banner) separately
Javanese tanḍasign, mark, indication
Kambera tandasign, signal, mark
Sa'a ada-loŋafour plates of turtle shell on the shoulders of the hawksbill turtle

Borrowing, probably from old or modern Javanese, where it referred to a military ensign. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tanDa ‘sign, signal, mark’, showing some of his most extreme semantic permissiveness with the Sa'a form.


Maranao padiʔanmarket, week
  padiʔan pasaldaily market, supermarket
Mapun pasaa market
Tausug pasala market
Malay pasarbazaar; market; fair; (properly) the booths, stalls and shops making up a market
Toba Batak pasarmarketplace
Old Javanese pasarmarket, bazaar; the space of a pasar-week (five days)
  ma-pasar-pasarto come to market (as a buyer or seller)
Javanese pasarmarket(place); a five-day week
Balinese (High) pasarmarket
Sasak pasarmarket
Mongondow pasarmarket
Tae' pasaʔmarket; time between the holding of two markets
Makassarese pasaraʔmarket

Borrowed into Malay from Persian, presumably through Hindi, and then widely dispersed in island Southeast Asia through Malay trade contacts.

(Dempwolff: *buzaŋ)


Yami (Iranomilek) bujaŋyoung man, bachelor; (of men) smart, dandy
  bujaŋ babian old bachelor
Ngaju Dayak bujaŋmarriageable; bachelor, virgin
Moken bujaŋunmarried
Malay charian bujaŋproperty acquired before marriage. The word is associated also with loneliness
  bujaŋfree to marry (of a man or woman); celibate; solitary (of spinsters, widows and divorcées; also of men unattached and working on their own)
Acehnese bujaŋbachelor; squire, page, herald
  bujaŋ rajathe king's herald
Karo Batak bujaŋyoung daughter, unmarried girl, maiden, virgin; in some areas the word also means 'vulva, vagina'
Toba Batak bujaŋfemale genitals
Rejang bujaŋunmarried man, bachelor
Sundanese bujaŋyoung man; (coarse) general name for servants (both male and female)
Old Javanese wujaŋyoung (unmarried) man or woman
Javanese bujaŋbachelor
  mujaŋlive the life of a bachelor
Sasak bujaŋunmarried (of men and women)
Makassarese bujaŋbachelor; also used humorously of a man whose wife is away, as on a trip

Borrowing from Malay.

martial art (native)

Ilokano arnísnative martial art of fencing
  ag-arnísto fence with each other
Bikol arnísart of self-defense using sticks and clubs; Philippine martial art
  mag-arnísto fight in this way
Agutaynen mag-arnis-anto box or sword fight, usually in play

Probably from Spanish arnés ‘suit of armor’.

mast, pole

Ilokano pálomast of a ship; flagpole
Tagalog pálopole; mast of a boat
Bikol (Camarines Sur) pálopole; mast
Hanunóo pálumast, pole
Cebuano pálumast, pole

Borrowing of Spanish palo ‘mast’.

master, boss

Ibatan āmoboss, lord, master
Ilokano ámomaster; lord; chief; boss
  um-am-ámoto bootlick; to maintain a sycophantic relationship with the boss
Casiguran Dumagat amosuperior, head, leader, chief, master
Ibaloy amoboss, master
Tagalog ámomaster; employer; boss
Bikol ámoboss, master
  mag-ámoto lead
Aklanon ámo(h)lord, master, overseer
Cebuano ámumaster, employer

From Spanish amo ‘master of the house; master, employer; proprietor; foreman’.

(Dempwolff: *tikaR ‘mat’)


Malagasy tsíhia mat
Malay tikarmat, specifically a mat of fine material; rough floor mats are usually kəlasak

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tikaR ‘mat’ (Matte).

matching part:   pair, matching part

Ilokano ag-pádisto be similar, equal; match
  i-pádisto compare
  ka-pádisequal, match, equivalent
  pag-pádis-ento equalize; balance out; compare
Ibaloy parissomething that goes with something else to make a pair of matching set
  i-paristo put something with something else in order to make a pair
  man-paristo be a pair, matching set
  san-parisa pair
Pangasinan parespair of sponsors at wedding, baptism, etc. Each pair is composed of a man and a woman, who thereby attain the relationship of compadre and comadre respectively to the parents of the child or couple involved
Tagalog párisa pair; a set of two: two that go together; a couple; like; as; in the same way as; as well as
Bikol pádisa pair
  mag-pádisto pair off; to go in pairs
  mag-pádis-pádisto pair many things together
  pádis-pádiscard game
  pag-pádis-onto pair together, to match
Binukid padis ~ parispair; the other one (of a pair); the thing that matches (something else); partner (in doing something); to pair off; to go with, match
Mansaka parispair; to match
Chamorro parespair; divisible by two; placenta, afterbirth

Borrowing of the plural form of Spanish par ‘even, equal; pair; couple’.

material:   woven bamboo walling material

Ilokano sawáliinterwoven splits of bamboo used in walls
Tagalog sawáliʔwoven strips of split bamboo used for simple walls in native houses
Bikol sawáliʔwoven, split bamboo strips used for walling
Romblomanon sawāliʔwoven bamboo walling
Aklanon sawáliʔwoven bamboo (< Tagalog)
Agutaynen sawalisplit woven bamboo walling material
Cebuano sawálibamboo matting woven with a kind of twill weave, commonly used for walling
Tausug sawaliʔsplit bamboo woven into sheets (used for walling)

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution, as shown by the irregular lack of a final consonant in both Agutaynen (expected **sawalik), and Cebuano (expected **sawáliʔ).

(Dempwolff: *tipis ‘thin’)

materials:   thin (of materials)

Malay tipisthin; delicate
Javanese tipisthin (not thick)
Balinese tipisthin, fine (linen, paper)
Sasak tipisthin

Presumably a back-formation from *ma-nipis, with borrowing from Malay into Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tipis ‘thin’ (dünnsein).

mattock:   pickaxe, mattock, hoe

Itbayaten pikopickaxe
Ilokano pikopic ax, spout
Isneg pikothe pick mattock
Ibaloy pikomattock, pick ax used to loosen earth
Tagalog pikopickaxe; a heavy tool with a sharp point for breaking up dirt, rocks, etc.
Bikol píkopick, pickaxe
Aklanon píkomattock, hoe
Agutaynen pikopickaxe
  mag-pikoto break things up with a pickaxe
Cebuano píkupickaxe; dig with a pickaxe
Maranao pikomattock

Borrowing of Spanish pico ‘pickaxe’.

(Dempwolff: *paŋku(rR) ‘hoe’)

mattock:   hoe, mattock

Malay paŋkurbroad-bladed hoe used for digging up soft earth when a plough is not available
Karo Batak paŋkur-paŋkurtool for beating apart dirt clods
  maŋkur-ito beat dirt clods into fine dirt
Toba Batak paŋkurhoe
  ma-maŋkurwork a field with a hoe
Rejang pakuaa hoe

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *paŋku(rR) ‘hoe’.

mag    mai    mal    man    mar    mas    mat    mea    med    mee    mel    mem    mer    met    mex    mid    mil    min    mir    mis    moi    mon    moo    mop    mor    mos    mot    mou    mov    mud    mus    mut    muz    myt    


(Dempwolff: *tepuŋ ‘flour, meal’)

meal, flour

Ngaju Dayak tepoŋbaked goods, bread, cakes
Malay təpoŋflour; meal; also generic for cakes made of flour
PSS *tɨppuŋflour, meal

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepuŋ ‘flour, meal’.


Melanau (Mukah) ukurmeasurement (of length)
Ngaju Dayak ukurmeasure
Iban ukurmeasure length, calculate distance, set out (work, plan) by measurement
Malay (h)ukurlinear measurement; measure the length of anything
Toba Batak uŋkurto measure
Old Javanese ukurmeasure
Balinese ukurmeasure, measure off, survey (land); estimate, guess
Sangir ukureʔmeasure
Mongondow ukurmeasure
Bimanese ukuto measure
Kambera ukurumeasure, measure out
Rotinese ukumeasure with some measurement of capacity, both liquid and dry goods
Wetan ukrito measure, to fathom
Yamdena ukurto measure
Kei ukurmeasure
Buruese ukurmeasure
Kowiai/Koiwai uʔurmeasurement

Borrowing from Malay.

measure:   dry measure for grain etc.

Ilokano kabán75 liter dry measure; cavan
  kaban-ento place in sacks; measure in cavans
Kankanaey kabáncavan; 75 liters (measure for rice, beans, etc.)
Ifugaw kabánIfugaw pronunciation of the term caván, measure for pounded rice, beans, etc., 25 halúb
Casiguran Dumagat kabancavan, a dry measure of 125 liters, or fifty gantas (note: in other areas of the Philippines, a cavan is equivalent to twenty-five gantas)
Ibaloy kabancavan; a unit of dry measure equivalent to 75 liters, or 4 large kerosene cans (used especially for rice, both rough and milled; introduced as a measure by the Spanish in the 19th century)
Pangasinan kabáncavan, a dry measure approximately equivalent to a bushel
Tagalog kabáncavan; a Philippine measure of 75 liters or 25 gantas
Bikol kabána unit of dry measure equal to 25 ganta or 75 liters, commonly used to refer to a sack of rice
Aklanon kabáncavan (unit of measure-- 25 gantas); a sackful of grain weighing approximately 100 pounds
Agutaynen kabana measurement for rice, holds approximately one “pasong” or 25 “ganta” of rice, which is equivalent to 62.5 kilos
Cebuano kabánmeasurement equivalent to twenty-five gantas

measurement:   unit of measurement

Kapampangan takala measure
  takal-anto measure something
Tagalog tákalmeasurement by volume of liquids and of grains such as rice, wheat and sugar, and also powders, etc.
  i-tákalto use some kind of measure for measuring liquids or grains
Iban takarmeasure by volume (as rice)
Malay takara measure of capacity for oil, etc.
Sundanese takəra measure (for wet or dry goods)
Old Javanese takəra measure of capacity, amount contained in a takĕr
Javanese sa-takerone unit of a measure
  taker-anany container used for measuring; amount measured; a measureful
Balinese takera measure of volume
Asilulu takar-ana measurement of volume

Also Balinese takeh ‘measure (large amount)’, takeh-an ‘a measure of volume’. Borrowing from Malay.

meat, flesh

Malay dagiŋflesh; meat; meaty part of anything
Toba Batak dagiŋflesh; body, of men and animals
  mar-dagiŋhave a body
Old Javanese dagiŋflesh, prey
  ma-dagiŋto have the flesh (body) of, descend from )?)
Javanese dagiŋmeat, flesh
  kulit dagiŋa relative, one’s flesh and blood
Balinese dagiŋmeat, flesh; contents, what is in
  dagiŋ-inbe contained in, be filled with
Sasak dagiŋflesh

meat and vegetable pastry

Ilokano lúmpiaPhilippine eggroll, spring roll, meat, vegetables, and/or shrimps wrapped in rice starch wrappers
Tagalog lumpiyáʔa Chinese dish consisting of meat, shrimps and vegetables rolled in a rice starch wrapper
Bikol lumpiáʔspring roll, egg roll; crepe with various fillings, including meat, shrimp, and vegetables, rolled in a pancake-like wrapper made from rice flour and either fried or served fresh
Bahasa Indonesia lumpiaChinese pastry filled with meat or fish and vegetables (Echols and Shadily 1963)
Javanese lumpia(h)egg roll

A Chinese loanword. Rubino (2000:340) give the Ilokano word as a borrowing of Hokkien (Minnan) lûn pià ‘spring cake’, and Mintz and Britannico (1985) give the Bikol word as a borrowing of Hokkien lun⁵ biã⁴ ‘moist pancake’.

medal:   badge, medal

Casiguran Dumagat sapamedal, insignia (on the front of a uniform of a soldier or policeman)
Maranao sapabadge, espcially metal; washer

The meaning of this form rules out any possibility of a reconstruction. Although it may reflect Spanish chapa ‘sheet of metal; thin board’, both the semantic divergence and its absence in Tagalog, Cebuano, or Ilokano, which were more heavily exposed to Spanish influence than either the Dumagat languages or Maranao, remains puzzling.

medicine:   gunpowder, medicine

NGA obamedicine; charm, spell
Ilokano ubátkind of coarse gunpowder (obsolete)
Kapampangan ubátsulphur
Bikol úbatgunpowder
Maranao obatgunpowder
Tboli ubatbullet
Kadazan Dusun t-ubatdrug, medicine, remedy
  t-ubat do kupigunpowder
  t-ubat do pinuluammunition
Kayan ubatmedicine; charms
Bintulu uɓatmedicine
Iban ubatmedicine, drug; gunpowder; poison; spell, charm
Moken ubathealing
Malay hobat, ubatdrug; philtre; gunpowder
Simalur ufadgunpowder
Karo Batak ubatgunpowder
Toba Batak ubatmedicine; gunpowder
Rejang ubeutmedicine, drugs
Sundanese ubarmedicine
Old Javanese uwatmedicine, remedy
Balinese ubadmedicine, remedy
Bare'e ubagunpowder
Tae' ubaʔgunpowder
Mandar ubaʔtip of a match; bullet
Buginese ubaʔgunpowder
Makassarese ubaʔgunpowder
Manggarai ubatammunition
Soboyo ubagunpowder
Buli ubagunpowder
Numfor ubagunpowder
Waropen ubamedicine; gunpowder

This form appears to be native only in Malay, Sundanese, Balinese and probably Iban. Through borrowing from Malay it has been widely disseminated both in the meaning 'gunpowder' and in the meaning 'medicine'. It is best to regard it as a relatively late innovation in western Indonesia, and more importantly, as evidence that lexical borrowing from Malay affected languages extending from the northwestern Philippines> to the region of the SHWNG-OC language boundary in western New Guinea.

medicine chest

Cebuano butíkadrug store
Javanese boṭéka-nmedicine chest with small drawers

Borrowing from Spanish (Cebuano) and Portuguese (Javanese).

(Dempwolff: *sedaŋ ‘middling amount’)

medium, average, intermediate

Ngaju Dayak sadaŋmoderate, reasonable
Malagasy éranafull, complete measure, that which fills
  ma-néranato fill a place, to pervade
Malay sədaŋintermediate; in the meantime; the happy mean; medium, average; in the midst of
Gayō sədaŋaverage, middling
Toba Batak tar-sodaŋunfit, unsuitable, improper
Sundanese sədəŋintermediate (as between high and low; average, mean; sufficient
Old Javanese səḍəŋright time (not too early or too late); right moment, right measure (not too big or too small); just, just while, while
Javanese səḍəŋjust right, adequate
  səḍəŋ-anaverage, medium
Balinese sedeŋenough, right; the right moment; just when, at just the moment when
  seḍeŋmoderation, what is fitting; suitable, proper, fitting, moderate; to fit, suit well (clothes)
Sasak sədəŋmoderate, middling; sufficient; exact (enough)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sedaŋ ‘middling amount’, leaving the last-syllable vowel of the Javanese form unexplained. Since the same problem is found with several other languages, it appears more economical to assume that Malay borrowed Javanese səḍəŋ, with subsequent spread of the loanword into other languages after the merger of last-syllable schwa and *a.

(Dempwolff: *papag ‘to meet, run across’)

meet, run across, welcome

Malay mə-mapakto receive, to welcome
Javanese mapagto pick up, call for; to meet and pass (something going in the opposite direction)
  ka-papag-ana meeting from different directions
  papag-anvehicle in which someone is met, e.g. upon his arrival

Based on just these two languages Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *papag ‘to meet, run across’. However, Wilkinson gives papag as Malay variant, a form that could only be borrowed from Javanese, and there appears to be little basis for a reconstruction at even a very shallow time-depth.

(Dempwolff: *kampuŋ ‘meeting, assembly, gathering’)

meeting, assembly, gathering

Ngaju Dayak kampoŋ(often intensified by kawalafter it), be under the control of a chief
  ma-ŋampoŋto be a chief over someone, rule someone as a chief
Iban kampoŋforest never yet cleared and usually extensive, virgin forest
Malay kampoŋgrouping; gathering together; (living) compound
Gayō kampuŋvillage, settlement
Simalur kampuŋvillage, settlement
Toba Batak hampuŋ(short for kapala kampuŋ ‘village head’)
Sundanese kampuŋneighborhood, district, hamlet, small village
Javanese kampuŋslum area in or near a city; yard around one’s house
Sasak kampuŋcoastal inhabitant of another ethnicity; however, not Banjarese

Almost certainly a product of borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938), who reconstructed *kampuŋ ‘meeting, assembly, gathering’, included Tongan kapu ‘to surround, etc.’, Futunan kāpu-i ‘encircle’, Samoan Ɂapu ‘a cup or dish made of a leaf’ in this comparison, but there seems to be little reason to treat the similarity of the Oceanic forms to those in western Indonesia as anything other than chance resemblances. For the unexpected Iban gloss cf. Blust (1980b).

(Dempwolff: *labur ‘to liquefy, melt’)

melt or smelt (metals):   to melt or smelt (metals)

Ngaju Dayak raburto melt iron ore to extract the iron
Simalur laburcolor
  ma-laburto color
Nias labuto pour out (especially of molten metal)
Sundanese laburpour out, spill out
Javanese laburwhitewash

Also Malay ləbur ‘dissolution; liquefaction (especially of smelting)’. To these Dempwolff (1938) added Tagalog labol ‘iron’, a form that does not appear in modern dictionaries, and posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *labur ‘to liquefy, melt’. Only the Ngaju Dayak, Nias and Sundanese forms appear likely to be related, and these are likely loans from Malay.


Iban apalword perfect
Malay hafalknowing by heart; knowing perfectly
Rejang apeamemorize, study
Sundanese apalknow by heart
Sasak apalmemorize, recite from memory
Makassarese apalaʔknow by heart, memorize

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

merchandise for sale, to sell well

Ilokano lákomerchandise for sale
  ag-lákoto sell
  i-lákoto sell something
Bontok ʔi-lakuto buy; to sell
  l<um>akuto buy
Ibaloy man-dekoto sell
  i-dako-anto sell to someone
Tagalog lákoʔgoods being pedalled
Bikol lákoʔgoods or merchandise which are peddled
  mag-lákoʔto peddle goods

Borrowing of Malay laku ‘having value, selling well’. Arosi rao ‘to sell’ presumably is a chance resemblance.

mercury:   quicksilver, mercury

Hiligaynon asúgiquicksilver, mercury
Chamorro asugiquicksilver, mercury

Borrowing of Spanish azogue ‘mercury, quicksilver’.

(Dempwolff: *bukur)

metal basin

Malay bokorrimmed plate or shallow bowl (like soup-plate), usually of metal. On it is placed a water vessel of porous earthenware, the bokor serving to hold up any water oozing through and so to protect the table-cloth or table-matting
Sundanese bokorbowl, basin, wash basin; small pitcher or jug with or without a lid
Old Javanese bokorkind of bowl
Javanese bokorlarge bowl, usually of brass
Balinese bokormetal dish on feet, small tray
Sasak bokorcopper bowl

Borrowing from Malay.

metal tang on knife or bolo

Itbayaten oteŋprotruding piece of iron from the blade (to be firm with the handle); protuberance of blade of bolo
Ibatan oteŋthe tongue of the protruding part of the blade that forms part of the handle (of a tool or weapon)
Ilokano utéŋtang, tongue of a knife
Bontok ʔútəŋthe spur or spike on a spear or axe head which fits into the shaft
Casiguran Dumagat utəŋbutt of a bolo or knife which fits into the wooden handle

Probably an Ilokano loan in Itbayaten, and almost certainly borrowed in Ibatan.

Mexican turnip, Pachyrrhizus erosus

Itbayaten siŋkamaskind of plant with carbohydrate
Ilokano siŋkámasjícama root (Pachyrrhizus erosus)
Tagalog siŋkamásan edible, turnip-like tuber
Bikol siŋkamásyam bean (species of root crop, Pachyrrhizus erosus)
Hanunóo siŋkamása climbing herbaceous plant with edible, turnip-like, watery tubers (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.); now pantropic, this plant originated in tropical America
Romblomanon siŋkamasa vine (Pachyrrhizus erosus); its turnip-like roots are commonly eaten raw as a snack food
Masbatenyo síŋkamasa turnip-like vegetable: Pachyrrhizus erosus (from Spanish)
Aklanon siŋkamástuber --- yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus)
Hiligaynon siŋkamásturnip
Cebuano siŋkamáskind of vine cultivated for its fleshy and juicy turnip-shaped root, widely eaten raw and cooked: Pachyrrhizus erosus
Maranao siŋgamasyam bean: Pachyrrhizus sp.
Binukid siŋkamasyam bean
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) siŋkamaskind of vegetable (this food, which is eaten raw, comes from turnip-like tubers of a climbing herbaceous plant)
Tiruray siŋkamasa yam bean, Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.
Mapun siŋkamasyam bean
Yakan siŋkamasyam bean, Pachyrrhizus erosus (a vine cultivated for its fleshy and juicy turnip-shaped root)
Tboli siŋkamasPachyrrhizus erosus, yam bean (from Tagalog)

This native of Mexico, known in English as the ‘Mexican yam’, the ‘yam bean’, or the ‘Mexican turnip’, was introduced during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, along with its name (jícama), ultimately from Nahuatl xīcamatl. Given the importance of the Manila Galleon trade, which connected Manila and Acapulco by annual voyages from 1572 to 1815, the introduction of this plant and its name almost certainly took place through Tagalog, with subsequent borrowing into other Philippine languages from the region of Manila Bay. It is noteworthy that it evidently was not introduced into Guam despite this island being a regular stopover in the Galleon trade. The borrowing of nouns in their plural form is common to many Spanish loanwords in both Philippine and Mexican Indian languages (Lopez 1965).

mag    mai    mal    man    mar    mas    mat    mea    med    mee    mel    mem    mer    met    mex    mid    mil    min    mir    mis    moi    mon    moo    mop    mor    mos    mot    mou    mov    mud    mus    mut    muz    myt    



Yami (Iranomilek) bidanmidwife
Kelabit bidanmidwife
Kenyah bidanmidwife
Ngaju Dayak bidanmidwife
Malay bidanmidwife; sage-femme. A person of much importance in a Malay village; formerly entitled to maintenance as a public servant
Acehnese bidanmidwife
Simalur bidanmidwife
Buginese bidaŋmidwife

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

milt, spleen

Toba Batak limpathe liver proper; in contrast to the heart and gall
Old Javanese limpaspleen
Javanese limpaspleen
Balinese limpaliver, pancreas
Sasak limpaspleen; liver

Apparently a Malay loanword.

(Dempwolff: *aŋen)

mind:   thoughts, mind

Pangasinan áŋanbelieved, thought by
Maranao aŋanto suspect
  aŋan-aŋansuspicion, doubt
Malay aŋan-aŋanthoughts; mind. Of a girl being always in her lover's thoughts ... and conversely of a girl's mind being centered on a man's good looks
Rejang aŋan-aŋanideal, hope, idle thoughts, daydream
Sundanese aŋenheart, mind; also stomach; further; to wish, desire, long for di-aŋen-aŋen be thought about
Old Javanese aŋen-aŋenthoughts, considerations, reflections; the seat of the thoughts, intellect, mind, heart, spirit
Javanese aŋenthought, idea
Balinese aŋenliver, 'heart'; consider, meditate on
  ulun aŋensolar plexus, pit of the stomach

A late innovation in western Indonesia, with borrowing from Malay into some Philippine languages. Aklanon aŋán-aŋán 'wait a little while, spend some time idling', and similar forms in some other Greater Central Philippines languages, appear to be distinct.

mind:   conscience, mind, insight

Yami (Iranomilek) budi, budiʔdeceit; deceive, entrap; kindness, generosity, gratitude
Hiligaynon mag-búdhiʔbetray, be faithless, be disloyal
  búhhiʔconscience, inner self
Maranao bodhiʔjealousy; jealous
Kayan bayen budirepay a kindness
Malay budiqualities of mind and heart; kindly acts and ways; character; graciousness and charm. Budi Implies prudence and discretion ... but it is more closely identified with the doing of kindly acts, e.g. balas budi 'to repay kindness; to show gratitude'; kenaŋ-kan budi 'remember gratefully'; budi often means 'character': busok budi 'of a hateful character' budi-man possessed of budi, i.e. self-respecting, wise, prudent, sensible
Acehnese budi, budi-manexhibit good behavior, sensible, wise
Lampung budiʔtrick someone
Sundanese budimind, heart, nature, disposition, character, humor; reason, understanding; view haseum budi sour outlook, unfriendly, surly
Old Javanese buddhi-mānwise, perspicacious
  buddhithe power of forming and retaining general notions, intelligence, reason, mind, discernment; opinion, notion, idea; character, nature, disposition; intention, purpose
Javanese budicharacter, temperament; exert power; a certain tree under which Buddha sits and meditates
Balinese budidesire, wish, hope
Sasak budi beriŋinname of a holy place in Sembalun
Sangir budiintelligence, understanding; disposition (rare)
  budi-maŋa common proper name
Wolio budimind, insight, intelligence, reason, wisdom
  budi manaŋkatasmartness in debate
  hina budibad in character
Asilulu budiproper behavior

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit. Iban budi, budiʔ shows secondary final glottal stop, and two polarized clusters of meaning, evidently connected with the existence of a former system of speech disguise based on antonymy (Blust 1981).


Casiguran Dumagat salaminmirror, lens, glass; to look in a mirror
Maranao salamineye glasses
Malay cərminmirror, looking-glass

Borrowing from Malay, although a still to be identified Indic source is strongly suspected.

miscellaneous:   various, miscellaneous

Ilokano sari-sárismall store selling general merchandise
Casiguran Dumagat sári-sárivarious, variety, diverse
Tagalog sari-sáriʔassorted; different kinds; various, sundry
Hanunóo sari-sárivarious types; diverse
Aklanon sári-sáriassorted, varied, different; sári-sári store
  ka-sári-sáribe varied, be assorted/different
Hiligaynon saríclass, kind
  sári-sáridifferent, of mixed kinds, combined
Cebuano sariʔ-sáriʔall different types of things sold in one place; category of store which sells miscellaneous items in small quantities; be of all different types; dish made of pork with various vegetables and liver, and sautéed; dish made of various greens mixed with diced squash and eggplants and stewed; be varied or of different kinds
Maranao sari-sarismall store of mixed merchandise
Mapun sarīother, different
  pag-si-sarī-sarī-unto differentiate, set apart
  sarī manexcept, instead of, other than

Also Hanunóo sadisádi ‘miscellany; multifarious, various’. The history of this form is puzzling. Although it may have begun with the general meaning ‘various, miscellaneous’, in many languages it probably is a Tagalog loan that became widespread after the Spanish colonization and the introduction of a money economy. In any case, an assignment to Proto-Philippines would be incautious without further evidence of forms that are not likely to be borrowed.


Malay bencanamischief-making; trouble, esp. when due to tale-bearing; make mischief
Sangir binsanatemp, seduce
Makassarese bincanaangry that someone is implicated; insult; slander

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

mistress:   lover, mistress

Ilokano kabítmistress, lover
Tagalog kabítmistress, paramour (colloquial)
Bikol kabítmistress

Probably a Tagalog loan, evidently connected with kabít ‘connected, attached, fastened, united’.

mag    mai    mal    man    mar    mas    mat    mea    med    mee    mel    mem    mer    met    mex    mid    mil    min    mir    mis    moi    mon    moo    mop    mor    mos    mot    mou    mov    mud    mus    mut    muz    myt    


(Dempwolff: *leŋas ‘damp, moist’)

moist:   damp, moist

Tagalog laŋáswash off
Malagasy lenamoist, wet
Malay mə-ləŋasbecome clammy or moist (of a metal or sugary surface, of the body, etc.)

I cannot find Tagalog laŋás in any modern dictionary, and the rest of this comparison is best considered a loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *leŋas ‘damp, moist’.

(Dempwolff: *leŋas ‘moist, damp’)


Tagalog laŋáswash off
Malagasy lénamoist, wet
Malay mə-ləŋasto become clammy or moist (of a metal or sugary surface, of the body, etc.)

Probably a Malay loan. I am unable to find Tagalog laŋás in sources available to me, and even if that were possible, the penultimate vowel correspondence is irregular, suggestive of borrowing or chance resemblance. On the basis of this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *leŋas ‘moist, damp’.

(Dempwolff: *licak ‘wet and slippery’)

moist and slippery

Malagasy dítsakawet, soaked, drenched
Malay lecakmoist and slippery, as ground after rain

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *licak ‘wet and slippery’.


Ilokano LúnesMonday
  ipa-lúnesto postpone until Monday
  l<in>únesevery Monday
  lunes-ento do on Monday
Tagalog LúnesMonday
  k<in>a-lunís-anon the Monday following
  ma-lunís-anto have an unpleasant experience on a Monday
Bikol LúnesMonday
Cebuano LúnisMonday
Tiruray lúnesMonday

From Spanish Lunes ‘Monday’.

monetary support

Kankanaey biayáabundant, plentiful, high (applied to water)
Casiguran Dumagat biyáyagrace, blessing, mercy, favor (God is always the source of this concept; refers mainly to God's supplying of food),
Tagalog biyáyaʔgrace; favor; blessings, bounty
Bikol biaya, biyáyagrace, blessing; generous; show generosity toward
Malay biayadisbursement; working expenses; working capital. Of the cost of running a poultry-farm; of money spent on building a mosque; of it being impossible to spend on pleasure on earth and lay up treasure in heaven with the same money
Acehnese biayaexpenses, costs; gifts
Dairi-Pakpak Batak biayacosts, expenses (as for a feast); money to spend on a journey
Javanese biyaya(h)cost, outlay
Gorontalo biyayacosts, expenses

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.


Ngaju Dayak uaŋ, waŋten duit (monetary unit)
Malay uaŋ, waŋan obsolete coin or measure of value; collectively: a name for money generally
Toba Batak uaŋ, waŋmoney; monetary unit worth 16 duit
Javanese waŋmoney; former monetary unit worth about eight and one half cents
Tae' uaŋ, waŋarchaic coin; used today for money in general
Makassarese uaŋin earlier usage: ten duit; currently: money, coin
Bimanese tolu-ua, tolu-wa25 cents
  uaarchaic monetary unit
Manggarai uaŋancient coin; coin used in magic formula (mantra)
Bimanese sa-uaten duit

Almost certainly a borrowing of Southern Minangkabau wan, probably early in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). According to Robert Cheng (p.c.) some Minangkabau dialects, such as that of Swatow, permit only the velar nasal in final position. The final velar in uaŋ may thus have been present in the lending language. The pronunciation uaŋ is, of course, an accomodation to the predominant disyllabic canonical shape of most Austronesian languages, although a canonically atypical variant waŋ persists here and there. With the advent of Dutch colonial rule in Indonesia and English colonial rule in Malaysia the meaning of uaŋ, evidently began to shift from a specific unit of currency (which presumably was no longer used) to the more general sense which it has in most languages today.

money:   purse, money belt

Atayal hopaupocket
Ilokano upáwsmall leather bag attached to the girdle, and used to hold money and other valuables
Tagalog húpawmoney-belt (Chinese)
Malay (h)opauChinese belt-purse of beadwork

Borrowing from Chinese.

money:   cut of gambling money

Ilokano toŋbribe money; grease money
Tagalog toŋpercentage cut taken by a gambling house from the winnings of a gambler
Cebuano tuŋrake-off given by gamblers to the owner of the gambling paraphernalia used

Borrowing from Hokkien tông ‘percentage cut of gambling taken from winners’.

monkey sp.

Kelabit bedhukpig-tailed macaque,
Berawan (Long Terawan) becuʔlarge yellowish-brown monkey
Kayan berukmonkey (generic)
Bintulu bəɗuksmall gray long-tailed monkey
Melanau (Mukah) beduklarge yellowish-brown short-tailed monkey
Ngaju Dayak berokgregarious gray monkey with white spots that grows to about four feet in length
Iban berokpig-tailed macaque
Malay berokcoconut-monkey: Macacus (Inuus) nemestrinus
Lampung bexuʔkind of monkey
Balinese bedugape, large monkey

Borrowing. The route of transmission of this form remains unclear. There is every reason to believe that Bornean forms such as Kelabit bedhuk, Berawan (Long Terawan) becuʔ, Bintulu bəɗuk, Melanau (Mukah) beduk and Kayan beruk are native, and reflect a prototype of the shape *beduk. It is, moreover, likely that Malay originated from a population movement out of southwest Borneo beginning in the first or second century BC (Blust 1994). Early Malayic speakers in Borneo evidently borrowed this word from a language in which *-d- > r (as Kayan). The form is reflected with this irrgularity in Iban (a continuation of the Malayic population that remained in Borneo) in Malay, in Lampung of southern Sumatra, and in Balinese (which exhibits a second irregularity). The simplest hypothesis appears to be that speakers of Malay introduced a native Bornean monkey, and with it an irregularly altered form of its name, to Sumatra and perhaps some other parts of western Indonesia.

moody, having radical mood swings

Tagalog sumpuŋ-íncranky; moody; grumpy; disgruntled; ill-humored; capricious; fickle; guided by one’s fancy
Masbatenyo sumpúŋ-ontemperamental, bad mood
Agutaynen sompoŋ-onmoody (person); be overcome bysomething; have an attack of some kind (high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack); become temporarily crazy, insane; be overcome by one’s power to become a witch, causing one to do strange things

moody, capricious behavior

Kapampangan sumpuŋbump into something, be brought to an abrupt halt
Tagalog sumpóŋwhim; caprice; sudden change of mind without any reason; mild mania; a kind of insanity characterized by great excitement; surge of mild lunacy; spasmodic; having to do with spasm; resembling a spasm
  maka-sumpóŋto stumble on; to come upon or find by accident or chance
Bikol ma-sumpoŋ-ánto encounter; to bump into
Masbatenyo súmpoŋtemper tantrum
Aklanon súmpoŋto ‘blow up’, get/become hot-headed
Agutaynen sompoŋto be moody; to have, be in a bad mood; to act according to one’s mood, feelings
Cebuano sumpúŋbe in one of one’s bad moods, have one’s sickness or fit come over one
Mansaka sompoŋto become depressed again; to have recurring pains or feelings

Possibly a Tagalog loan in Kapampangan and Agutaynen, in which case this form may have been a Central Philippine innovation.


Itbayaten laŋpaaso ~ lampaasoidea of floor-polishing
  laŋpaaso-anto scrub the floor (with coconut husk)
Ilokano lampásoone-half coconut husk (used to polish a floor); mop
  ag-lampásoto polish a floor with a lampáso
Ibaloy dampasoouter coconut husk that is used to polish wood floors
  man-dampasoto polish floors in this way
Pangasinan lampásoto scrub
Tagalog lampásomop, floor mop
  lampasú-hinto mop; to clean with a mop
Bikol lampásoa coconut husk used for scrubbing floors
  lampasú-onto scrub with a coconut husk
  mag-lampásoto scrub with a coconut husk
Agutaynen mag-lampasoto mop a floor
  lampaso-anto mop a floor
Hiligaynon lampásurag, mop, scrub
  mag-lampásuto mop, to scrub the floor
Cebuano lampásuto polish a floor by rubbing a half coconut husk or something similar over it
Maranao lampasomop
Tausug lampasua coconut husk used for scrubbing the floor; a mop
  l<um>ampasuto scrub a floor with a coconut husk; to mop a floor

From Spanish lampazo ‘mop’. Many thanks to Lyle Campbell for filling me in on details regarding the Spanish original.

morning, tomorrow

Malay bésoktomorrow
  ésokmorrow, tomorrow
Sundanese isukearly morning
Old Javanese ésuk, m-ésukmorning; the next morning
  in-isuk-ando something in the morning (early), start early
Javanese ésukmorning, early in the morning

Borrowing from Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *pijer ‘paste, solder’)

mortar, caulking

Tagalog piralíʔlime (calcium carbonate)
Ngaju Dayak pijara patch (said to be from Banjarese Malay)
Malay pijarcrude borax imported from China for batik work and for use in working metals
Karo Batak pijarborax (for soldering)
Toba Batak pijorweld together, solder together
Old Javanese pijərmortar
Javanese pijersoldering material (Pigeaud)
Balinese pijerborax, solder

Also Balinese pijar ‘borax, solder’. Borrowing from Malay. Based on the comparison of Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pizer ‘paste, solder’.

mosquito coil

Ilokano katólmosquito coil (burned to repel mosquitos)
Cebuano katulmosquito repellant in coil form, burnt to give off smoke (from the brand name Katul)

(Dempwolff: *kulambu ‘curtain’)

mosquito net

Ilokano kulámbomosquito net
  ag-kulámboto use a mosquito net
  kulambú-anto put a mosquito net over someone
Tagalog kulambóʔmosquito net
  kulambu-ánto cover someone with a mosquito net
Hanunóo kulambúʔmosquito net; an exceedingly rare possession among the Hanunóo, but known through contact with Christians in lowland villages
Malay kəlambumosquito curtain
Toba Batak hulambumosquito net (said to be from Malay)
Balinese kulambumosquito net

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kulambu ‘curtain’.

(Dempwolff: *ibu)


Banjarese hibumother
Iban ibuʔaunt, MZ, FZ
Malay ibumother; dam (of animals); greatest or "parent" of a brood or class
Sundanese ibumother
Old Javanese ibumother; in address, for any female person
Javanese ibumother; address to one's wife or woman or higher age or social standing
Balinese ibumother
Sasak ibumother

Borrowing from Malay into at least Old Javanese and Modern Javanese, Balinese, and Sasak, The term *hibu probably originated in a language ancestral to Malay and a few of its closest relatives in western Indonesia.

motion:   seesaw motion

Ngaju Dayak uŋkalscale for weighing gold
Toba Batak uŋkalgo up, of a balance scale
Javanese uŋkallifted up (of a heavy object, block of stone)

Borrowing from Javanese.

motorboat, launch

Casiguran Dumagat lánsamotorboat, launch
Cebuano lánsalaunch; to go or travel by launch
Maranao lansalaunch, motorboat

Borrowing of Spanish lancha ‘launch; rowing boat’.

mourn; dress in black mourning clothes

Bikol mag-lútoto mourn for someone by wearing black
Hiligaynon mag-lútuto mourn, to wear the black mourning attire
Cebuano lútuto wear black clothes in mourning
Chamorro lutumourning, sorrow, grief; mourning dress, dress up in black (when a husband or wife dies)

Borrowing of Spanish luto ‘to mourn’.

mouse, rat

Manobo (Dibabawon) ambowrodent, as a mouse or rat
Cebuano ambawkind of small mouse
Mansaka ambawmouse, rat
Tiruray ʔambawcommon field rat, bush rat; calf of the leg

Borrowing in Tiruray from a GCPh source.

(Dempwolff: *landuk ‘crafty, clever’)


Ngaju Dayak landokcraftiness, deceit
Malay pəlandoksmaller chevrotain; mousedeer: Tragulus kanchil
Toba Batak si-landukthe mousedeer, which is very crafty, and so in Batak tales plays a role like that of the fox

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed *landuk ‘crafty, clever’, but the term seems to be inextricably connected with traditional tales of the cleverness of the mousedeer, which outwits its larger and stronger opponent and so earns the respect of the people. This is most likely a Malay loan distribution.


Malagasy molotralip; edge; rim (of a pot, etc.)
Malay mulutmouth

Borrowing from Malay, or possibly just a chance resemblance.

move:   budge, move slowly

Malay aŋsura little at a time, in action or motion
Sundanese aŋsurpush something toward the place where it belongs
Makassarese ansoroʔ(harbor language) move a heavy load bit by bit
Rembong aŋsurbudge a little at a time

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *tiŋkaq ‘move rhythmically’)

move rhythmically

Tagalog tikáʔact of limping
Ngaju Dayak tiŋkahaccompaniment (in playing on the slitgong, drums, etc.)
Malay tiŋkahmusical mode; character; ways
Minangkabau tiŋkahto reply, of a person answering another; also of drum answering drum
Old Javanese tiŋkaharrangement, ordering, situation, condition, state; the “how” of something, appearance or look, way of being, way of acting, what is going on, course of events
Javanese tiŋkahwhat someone does; actions, behavior

The western Indonesian forms appear to be loanwords from Malay, and the resemblance of the Tagalog word to these is best attributed to chance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiŋkaq ‘move rhythmically’ (sich rhythmisch bewegen).

mag    mai    mal    man    mar    mas    mat    mea    med    mee    mel    mem    mer    met    mex    mid    mil    min    mir    mis    moi    mon    moo    mop    mor    mos    mot    mou    mov    mud    mus    mut    muz    myt    



Malay bécakslushy; mud-patch; puddle. Of bad bits of road after rain; patches of swampy ground to be reclaimed
Mongondow bisakmud-puddle; swamp
Manggarai bicakspattered, splashed; for the foot to sink into soft mud

Borrowing from Malay.


Kapampangan bulígmudfish; (metaphor) penis
Tagalog bulígmedium-sized mudfish

Borrowing from Tagalog

mushroom variety

Kanakanabu ʔunipitype of white mushroom
Saaroa ʔunipitype of white mushroom
Rukai (Budai) unipitype of white mushroom
Rukai (Mantauran) ʔunipitype of white mushroom

Borrowing from Saaroa into Rukai. Li (1994:252) recognized Mantauran Ɂunipi as a loan from Saaroa, but until a cognate is found in at least one non-contiguous language I will assume the same for Budai unipi.

mussel sp.

Ngaju Dayak karaŋa round mussel, about two inches long and wide; somewhat coarse or rough, but its flesh is eaten
Malay kəraŋcockle shell; generic for all cockles, mostly Cardium spp., of which Malays recognize many varieties; half shells are used as ladles, cups, lamps for illuminations, etc.
Old Javanese kəraŋ ~ kraŋmussel, mussel shell: Cardulum edule
  ma--kəraŋwith mussels
Javanese keraŋa certain mussel and its shell

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano mostásamustard
Tagalog mustásamustard
Bikol mustásamustard; mustard cabbage
Aklanon mustásamustard (plant): Brassica integrifolia
Agutaynen mostasamustard
Cebuano mustásamustard, common raised as a vegetable: Brassica integrifolia
Maranao mostasamustard; broccoli
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) mustasathe leafy vegetable mustard: Brassica integrifolia

Borrowing of Spanish mostaza ‘mustard’.


Tontemboan wicumute, remain silent; never drinking palm wine, never eating certain foods, an abstainer
Maranao bisodeaf
Tiruray bisutemporary impairment of hearing caused by sudden noise or a blow on the ear bisu-nen temporarily deaf due to a sudden noise or a blow on the ear
Ngaju Dayak bisodumb (not able to speak); not want to speak
Iban bisuʔdumb, be dumb
Malay bisudumb, mute
Rejang bisewdumb
Sundanese bisudumb, mute
Old Javanese bisudumb, mute
  bisu-bisukeep mum
Javanese bisudumb (unable to speak)
Balinese bisudumb, stupid
Makassarese bicu-bicukind of ignorance or stupidity about certain things

Borrowing from Malay.

muzzle for a dog

Ilokano busálmuzzle
  busal-ánto put a muzzle on
Yogad busálrein made of rope; gag, muzzle
Tagalog busálmuzzle; a cover put over an animal’s mouth to keep it from biting
Agutaynen bosala muzzle for a dog; a halter for a horse or cow, including the bit

From Spanish bozal ‘muzzle’.

mag    mai    mal    man    mar    mas    mat    mea    med    mee    mel    mem    mer    met    mex    mid    mil    min    mir    mis    moi    mon    moo    mop    mor    mos    mot    mou    mov    mud    mus    mut    muz    myt    


mythical creature that leads people astray

Ilokano tikbálaŋlong-legged supernatural being that takes human form and leads people down wrong paths; minotaur-like creature with a human body but the head of a horse and hooves
Tagalog tikbálaŋ ~ tigbálaŋa fabulous creature in Philippine folklore supposed to have the body of an ordinary person but the feet of a horse, and is supposed to cause people to lose their way, esp. in forests or mountains

Borrowing from Tagalog.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)