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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    

earnings, wages

Itbayaten chitaidea of earning, esp. of seeking money through work
Ilokano kitawages, salary

Apparently from Spanish quitación ‘salary, income’.

(Dempwolff: *antiŋ)


RNB antiŋearring(s)
Subanen/Subanun gantiŋ-gantiŋearring
Ngaju Dayak anti-antiŋearring (of European type; the Dayak earring is sowaŋ)
Banjarese antiŋearring
Iban antinearring
Malay antiŋpendent; hanging and swaying (of long objects)
  antiŋ-antiŋdrop earring. hantiŋ pendulous
Karo Batak antiŋearring
Toba Batak antiŋ-antiŋearrings of copper or gold
Sundanese antiŋearring, nosering. antiŋ-antiŋ earrings. antiŋ go back and forth, to and fro
Javanese antiŋsliding weight on a scale beam
  antiŋ-antiŋdangling earring(s) for unpierced ears
Balinese antiŋ-antiŋear-pendants
Sasak antiŋ-antiŋearring
Sangir anti-antiearring
Mongondow gantiŋ-gantiŋearring
Buginese antiŋ, antiŋ-antiŋearring(s)
Makassarese antiŋ-antiŋring-shaped ear ornament; pendulous flesh under the ears of certain kinds of goats
Wolio anti-antiear trinket, earring
Komodo antiŋ-antiŋear ornament

Borrowing from Malay.


Paiwan ikawearring
Casiguran Dumagat hikawearrings
Pangasinan íkawearrings
Tagalog híkawearrings
  hikáw-anto put earrings on someone
Bikol híkawearrings
  mag-híkawto wear earrings

This word cannot be directly inherited in Paiwan and Philippine languages, and suggests borrowing, either from an external source or from one Austronesian language into another. Both Panganiban (1966) and English (1986) state that Tagalog híkaw is a Chinese loan, but neither source provides any further information.

earthen jar

Itbayaten aŋaŋearthen jar (for containing water, wine, liquid, sugar, salt, rice, etc.), jug. This is the second largest among the earthenwares
Isneg aŋáŋgeneral name for jar
Itawis aŋáŋwater jar
Ifugaw aŋáŋa great earthen cooking pot in which the Ifugaw boil the food for pigs (e.g. sweet potato peels)

Borrowing from a Cordilleran language into Itbayaten.

easy:   cheap, easy

Tagalog múracheap, inexpensive
  ka-murah-ancheapness; inexpensiveness
Ngaju Dayak murahlight; easy; cheap
Malagasy múrakind, easy, liberal; cheap
Malay mudaheasy; light; trivial
  murahbounteous; plentiful; --- connoting either liberality or cheapness through abundance
Karo Batak muraheasy, easily obtained
Toba Batak mudalight, easy; frivolous
Sundanese murahcheap, inexpensive
Old Javanese a-murahcheap, copious
Javanese murahlow in price; plentiful
Balinese mudah ~ murahcheap; be a bargain
Sasak mudaʔ ~ muraʔeasy; inexpensive

Based on the Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, Toba Batak and Javanese forms given here, and Malay mudah, Dempwolff (1934-1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *mudaq ‘easy; cheap’. However, under this reconstruction the following forms are irregular: Tagalog múra (expected **múraɁ) Malay murah (expected mudah, which also occurs), and Karo Batak, Sundanese murah (expected **mudah). This is an extremely messy comparison that appears to have resulted mostly by borrowing one or the other variants in Malay, although the reasoning for the doubleting in Malay itself remains unclear.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


(Dempwolff: *surud ‘ebb’)

ebb (of water)

Ngaju Dayak surutto ebb, of water
  ma-ñuruttime when the water is ebbing
Iban surutwithdraw, ebb, subside, retreat (as the tide)
Malay surutwithdrawal; the ebbing of the tide; return to original state or condition
Gayō surutretreat; shrink, loss weight
Karo Batak surutto fall back, withdraw (in battle); of a fire, to die down
Toba Batak s<um>urutto withdraw, retreat
Sundanese surudto ebb, the ebbing of water
Old Javanese surudto diminish, decrease, draw to a close; to retreat, fall back, recede, withdraw, ebb, vanish; to be dismissed, removed
Javanese surudto ebb, recede; to die
Balinese surudebb-tide
  ñurudto decrease, subside, grow less, be left over; take away offerings when they have been presented and the gods have consumed their spiritual essence
Sasak surutdecrease, drop off

Dempwolff proposed *surud ‘ebb’, but his comparison could easily be a loan distribution from Javanese into Malay, and thence from Malay into other languages of western Indonesia. If this term were native in the Batak languages, for example we would expect Karo Batak **surun**. His inclusion of Malagasy a-tsururúka ‘to be made to fall down, as hair down the back, or water made to run down a hill, etc.’ appears misguided.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


(Dempwolff: *tepi ‘edge, border’)

edge, rim

Malay təpiedge, brink
  mə-nəpito edge away; to move aside, e.g. out of the way of a missile
Karo Batak tepiside of a road or river; edge of a mat
  me-tepistand on the side
Toba Batak topiban, shore; edge, boundary
Old Javanese təpiedge, border, side
  a-nəpi-nəpito go to the side, lie close to the edge
  ma-təpi-təpiedged, bordered
  pa-nəpiborder area, border, side
Javanese tepiedge, boundary, riverbank; decorative edging
Balinese tepiborder, edge, limit, coast

Also Maranao tepik ‘shore, riverbank’. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepi ‘edge, border’.

(Dempwolff: *te(m)biŋ ‘edge, shore’)


Ngaju Dayak tiwiŋriverbank
Iban tebiŋriver bank, shore, edge
Malay təbiŋbank (of river or canal); sandbank rising sharply from the sea
Karo Batak tebiŋthe high bank of a river
Toba Batak tobiŋedge of the water, shore
Old Javanese təmbiŋside, border, bank, flank, shore
  a-nəmbiŋto go to the side (bank, etc.)
Javanese təmbiŋcliff; rim of a ridge
Balinese tembiŋthe edge of a hole; the rim of a cliff-top; the brim of a ravine

Apart from Iban these forms are most likely borrowed from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *te(m)biŋ ‘edge, shore’ (Rand, Ufer).

(Dempwolff: *tepis ‘go around the edge’)

edge:   circumambulate, go around the edge

Toba Batak topisgo around the edge
Javanese tepisedge, border, boundary

Borrowing from Javanese? Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepis ‘go around the edge’.

edible:   tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor

Ilokano mabúloDiospyros discolor, a tree with edible brown, hairy fruits
Tagalog mabúlotree with hard dark-colored wood and edible fruit
Cebuano mabulumedium-sized tree of the primary forest, cultivated for its fruit; the wood is hard and used for furniture, the heartwood being nearly black: Diospyros discolor

Evidently a commercial name in the Philippines reflecting *ma- ‘stative’ + *bulu ‘hairy’. For what is presumably the original name cf, *kamaguŋ.

(Dempwolff: *se(n)tul ‘name of a tree’)

edible:   tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape

Itbayaten santola tree (not found in Itbayat?) with edible fruit
Ilokano santóltree with yellowish acidic fruits, eaten salted and dried: Sandoricum koetjape
  pa-nantol-enkind of tall tree valuable for its timber
Isneg santólthe sandal tree, Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr., a meliaceous tree with trifoliate leaves and large, globose, yellowish fruits
Itawis santólsantol fruit (fruit of the Sandoricum koetjape)
Kapampangan santúla fruit and tree: Sandor indicum
Tagalog santólsandor tree and its fruit
Hanunóo santúlthe ketjape or santol tree: Sandoricum koetjape [Burm. f.] Merr.
Maranao santola tree: Sandoricum koetjape
Mansaka santolsantol or kechapi (fruit)
Tiruray santoltree bearing edible fruit: Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
Malay səntula lofty tree producing an edible sour fruit: Sandoricum indicum
Old Javanese səntula particular kind of tree with edible fruit: Sandoricum indicum
Balinese sentula tree from whose leaves a much-used medicine is made
Sasak səntultree with sour edible fruit and good timber: Sandoricum indicum
Makassarese sattuluʔtree with sour fruit the size of a tennis ball and bark used medicinally: Sandoricum koetjape

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *se(n)tul ‘name of a tree’, but all Philippine forms appear to be loans from Malay, and this may be true of some forms in western Indonesia as well.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    



Iban belutworm, earthworm
Malay beluteel, specifically the common mud-eel: Monopterus albus
Karo Batak belutkind of eel
Toba Batak bolukkind of eel
Sundanese beluteel
  par-belut-belutgrope in the mud for eels (a pastime of boys)
Old Javanese welutthe common mud-eel

Borrowing from Malay. It is tempting to consider Toba Batak boluk a directly inherited form and to reconstruct *beluj. However, under this interpretation the Karo Batak, Sundanese and Old Javanese forms would all be irregular, presumably as a result of borrowing from Malay. Pending further evidence I therefore find it simpler to include Toba Batak boluk as an irregularly altered loan.

(Dempwolff: *maluŋ ‘eel’)


Malagasy a-málunaan eel
Malay maluŋconger eel

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1934-1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *maluŋ ‘eel’.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


(Dempwolff: *teruŋ ‘be cylindrical’)


Ilokano taróŋeggplant, aubergine: Solanum
  ka-taroŋ-áneggplant field
Isneg taróŋeggplant, Solanum melongena L.
Bontok talóŋeggplant, Solanum melongena L.
Kankanaey talóŋeggplant
Ifugaw (Batad) taluŋeggplant, Solanum melongena (grown chiefly in dry pondfields and upland fields)
Casiguran Dumagat taluŋeggplant, Solanum melongena
Ibaloy taroŋeggplant
Pangasinan talóneggplant
Tagalog talóŋeggplant
Bikol talóŋeggplant
Hanunóo talúŋeggplant (Solanum melongena Linn.); five varieties are know to the Hanunóo
Mansaka taromeggplant
Malay təroŋeggplant; brinjal; aubergine (generic for Solanum spp.)
Lampung tiuŋeggplant

Dempwolff (1938) recontructed *teruŋ ‘be cylindrical’ (Walzenformigsein), but this form clearly referred specifically to the eggplant, although native terms appear to be confinded to western Indonesia, with Philippine terms like Tagalog talóŋ almost certain loanwords from Malay.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


either:   or, either

Sambal (Botolan) etawaor
Maranao atawaor, else
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) etawaor
Kadazan Dusun antawaeither
Ngaju Dayak atawaor
Banjarese atawaor
Maloh atawaor
Malay atauor
Simalungun Batak atawaor
Lampung ataw(a)conjuction: or
Old Javanese athawaor (between both parts, or after the second part); and also
Balinese atawaeither, or
Sasak atawaor
Wolio atawaor

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    



Karo Batak estaan ell, that is the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger
Sundanese astameasurement from the elbow to the tip of the finger; also the length of the entire arm, woman’s ell
Old Javanese hastahand, (lower) arm; the eleventh lunar asterism; a linear measure
  aŋ-astato hold in one’s hands, govern
  ma-hastawith hands
  sa-hastaone (of flowers)
Javanese astahand
  ŋ-astato work; to bring, take, carry; to do; to hold, grasp; to handle; to teach
Balinese hastaarm, hand, forearm; cubit, ell
  hasta ginahandiwork
Sasak astalower arm; ell
  sə-astaan ell (measure from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger)

From Sanskrit hasta ‘an ell’.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


(Dempwolff: *taqan ‘to bear, endure’)

endure:   bear, endure

Tagalog pag-tahánact of ceasing or stopping (as from crying, joking, scolding or the like)
  TahánStop! (said to one who is crying)
Bikol mag-táhanto endure, withstand; to outlast
Ngaju Dayak tahanto hold out, persevere, endure
Malay tahanholding out against; resistance; restraint; to sustain
Toba Batak ma-nahanto carry, bear; to hold out, endure
Sundanese tahanhold out against, resist
Old Javanese tahənto restrain oneself with respect to, be in awe of
  t<um>ahənto hold out, stand, endure, bear, sustain, suffer; resist, restrain
Javanese tahanto (with)stand, endure
  nahanto restrain
Balinese tahanendure, put up with
  tahenbear with, endure, persist

The history of this word is unclear. A number of forms seem clearly to have been borrowed from Malay, including modern Javanese tahan. However, Old Javanese tahən suggests that this was a native word before the modern era. It is possible that the Old Javanese form was borrowed by Malay, underwent the regular merger of *a and schwa in the ultima, and then was disseminated by Malay speakers into a wider range of languages, including modern Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taqan ‘to bear, endure’.


Ilokano labatíbaenema
  ag-labatíbato have an enema
Cebuano labatíbaenema
Maranao labatibaenema; equipment for irrigating body

Borrowing of Spanish lavativa ‘enema’.

(Dempwolff: *musuq ‘enemy’)


Ngaju Dayak musohenemy
Iban munsohenemy, the enemy; to oppose in war, fight against
Malay musohfoe; national enemy (in contrast to a private enemy)
Old Javanese musuh ~ muŋsuhenemy, opponent

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1934-1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *musuq ‘enemy’.

engagement:   fiancé, engagement

Palawano tunaŋfiancé; engaged person to marry
Kenyah tunaŋdowry
Malay tunaŋplighting, pledging, esp. of engagements to marry

Palawano tunaŋ appears to be a borrowing from Malay, which indicates a fairly intense borrowing relationship.

(Dempwolff: *cukup ‘be sufficient’)

enough, sufficient

Ngaju Dayak sukupcomplete, enough
Iban cukupenough, complete
Malay cukupcomplete; sufficient; adequate
Old Javanese cukupenough, sufficiently (large, much, etc.)
Javanese cukupenough, sufficient, adequate
Balinese cukupto be complete, be enough

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *cukup ‘be sufficient’.

ensign:   banner, ensign

Tagalog pandibanner, ensign
Malay panjian honorific in Javanese titles
  panji-panjistreamer; pennant (used of long, triangular flag emblems)
Toba Batak panjifeather decoration that children stick on their heads
Old Javanese panjiname; title (used before a proper name)
Javanese panjia group of stories, depicted in shadow puppet tales, about the Javanese prince Panji; flag
Balinese panjithe name of a wanderer, hero of stories, famous for his chivalry; the inventor of the kris

Borrowed from Javanese into Malay and from Malay into other languages. Dempwolff (1938) gives Tagalog pandi ‘banner, ensign’, but I am unable to find this word in any modern dictionary.

envy:   jealousy, envy

Maranao deŋki-deŋkipetty jealousy
Iban deŋkienvy, malice, spite
Malay dəŋkiangry envy; spite; jealous malice

Borrowing from Malay.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


equal:   various, suitable, equal

Ilokano bágayagree, harmonize; fit; be fitting, suitable
Bontok bágaysuitable; fitting; right; becoming; well-matched
Kapampangan bagay-anmatch something to something else
  bágematching, compatible
Tagalog bágaybecoming, proper, fit
Bikol bágayfitting, proper, suitable
Hanunóo bágaysuitable, fitting; responsive
Cebuano bágaybefitting, becoming; for instruments to be in tune
Maranao bagaipeer, equal
Malay bagaikind, variety, species
  ber-bagaiin various ways; different kinds of; (also) comparable, -- in such expressions as tiada ber-bagai (peerless)
Acehnese bagofësort, kind, manner; just like, identical to
Toba Batak bagevarious

Despite the semantic differences that distinguish most Philippine forms from those in Indonesia, all of these items appear to be products of borrowing, ultimately from Tamil.

equal:   uniform, equal to

Bikol sampátuniform, equal; in conformity
Old Javanese sampatin a high degree, completely, perfectly, very; perfectly similar

Old Javanese sampat is said to be a borrowing of Sanskrit sampad ‘equalization of similar things; excellence, glory’.

(Dempwolff: *liŋgang ‘equal in weight’)

equal in weight

Malay leŋgaŋswaying from side to side
Javanese léŋgaŋswaying, swinging the arms

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *liŋgang ‘equal in weight’ (Gleichgewicht).

(Dempwolff: *eRu 'name of a tree')

equisetifolia:   tree sp., Casuarina equisetifolia

Malay erua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Toba Batak orua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned these two forms to *eRu 'name of a tree'. However, Malay eru regularly reflects *aRuhu (q.v.), and Toba Batak oru clearly is a borrowing of the Malay form with the normal phonological adjustment made in the assimilation of non-native words with shwa.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


(Dempwolff: *paTi ‘essence’)

essence, best part

Malay patithe ‘cream’ or ‘pick’ or finest portion of anything (as the first press of coconut cream)
  pati arakpure alcohol
  pati sireha betel quid in its first freshness
Javanese paṭistarch, powder (as of cassava); essence

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff also included Tongan matsi (= masi) ‘essence’, and assigned forms from the three languages to Uraustronesisch *paTi ‘essence’. I am unable to find an equivalent of the Tongan word in Churchward (1959), and even if it could be found, the sound correspondences are irregular, as Dempwolff himself noted.

estuary, harbor

Ilokano kuálaharbor; pier; haven; port; estuary of mud; mouth of river
Malagasy hoálaa great swampy plain
Malay kualariver mouth, estuary; place where a river debouches into anothe river or into the sea

Borrowing from Malay. The much more widely-distributed reflexes of PMP *minaŋa ‘estuary’ render the claims of this term for the same meaning unconvincing.

(Dempwolff: *muara ‘estuary’)

estuary, river mouth

Malay muaraestuary; river mouth
Toba Batak muaramouth of a river
Javanese muarariver mouth that empties into the sea

Borrowing from Malay. The PMP word for ‘estuary’ was *minaŋa. Even Malay’s close relative Iban has naŋa. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1934-1938) posited “Uraustronesisch’ *muara ‘estuary’.

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


etc.:   dry measure for grain etc.

Ilokano kabán75 liter dry measure; cavan
  kaban-ento place in sacks; measure in cavans
Kankanaey kabáncavan; 75 liters (measure for rice, beans, etc.)
Ifugaw kabánIfugaw pronunciation of the term caván, measure for pounded rice, beans, etc., 25 halúb
Casiguran Dumagat kabancavan, a dry measure of 125 liters, or fifty gantas (note: in other areas of the Philippines, a cavan is equivalent to twenty-five gantas)
Ibaloy kabancavan; a unit of dry measure equivalent to 75 liters, or 4 large kerosene cans (used especially for rice, both rough and milled; introduced as a measure by the Spanish in the 19th century)
Pangasinan kabáncavan, a dry measure approximately equivalent to a bushel
Tagalog kabáncavan; a Philippine measure of 75 liters or 25 gantas
Bikol kabána unit of dry measure equal to 25 ganta or 75 liters, commonly used to refer to a sack of rice
Aklanon kabáncavan (unit of measure-- 25 gantas); a sackful of grain weighing approximately 100 pounds
Agutaynen kabana measurement for rice, holds approximately one “pasong” or 25 “ganta” of rice, which is equivalent to 62.5 kilos
Cebuano kabánmeasurement equivalent to twenty-five gantas

eas    ebb    edg    edi    eel    egg    eit    ell    end    ene    eng    eno    ens    env    equ    ess    est    etc    eve    evi    exa    exc    exp    exu    eye    


even:   drawn, tied, even in score

Ibaloy tabdatie, no winner or loser, even score
  man-tabdato tie
Pangasinan tábladraw, tie (in a game)
Tagalog tabládrawn; tied
  maka-tabláto draw; to tie; to break even
Tausug tablaeven, equal, tied (as in a game or contest)

Borrowing of Spanish tablas ‘stalemate, draw’, with irregular loss of -s. David Zorc has noted in a personal communication that although -s is commonly added to Spanish words borrowed in Philippine languages (e.g. Pangasinan apáyas, Bikol tapáyas, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kepayas < Spanish papaya), it is also sometimes dropped, as in the present case. It is likely that borrowing of this word from Spanish took place directly only in Tagalog, and that it then spread to other Philippine languages from this secondary source.

even if:   although, even if

Tagalog maskí (na)even if, even then, even though
Bikol máskialthough, even if, even though
Cebuano maski(n)even, including; even though, nevertheless
Malay məski (pun)although, even if, even though

Philippine forms are from Spanish mas que ‘although, even so’, and the Malay form is evidently from the similar expression in Portuguese. Surprisingly, the same expression is also found in Tok Pisin maski ‘although’. Why this particular collocation was so readily borrowed remains unclear.

evil spirit, vampire, witch

Kapampangan aswáŋa frightening spirit creature, half-human, half-bird, vampire-like, said to prey on corpses and unborn children
Tagalog asuwáŋ, aswáŋfolkloric evil creature capable of assuming diverse forms, but specially human form with horse feet
Bikol aswáŋdevil or witch said to eat human flesh
Aklanon áswaŋvampire, evil creature (preying on people, sucking liver bile and leaving them weak or with some strange afflictions)
Cebuano aswáŋa person who is possessed of a supernatural force, which attacks from time to time causing him to change his form and go out, often to harm others, preying on their blood, livers, etc.
Maranao ansoaŋdemon, witch
Mansaka asoaŋdemon
Sangir ansuaŋgiant

Borrowing into Kapampangan from a GCPh source. It is possible that the suaŋgi/ of eastern Indonesia has a similar origin.

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(Dempwolff: *tepat ‘right, correct’)

exact, precise

Tagalog ma-tapátdevoted; loyal; faithful; sincere, genuine; real; honest; staunch; steadfast, loyal
Malay təpatexactly, precisely, fully
Old Javanese təpətexact, correct, right, true, sincere; direct, straight ahead, undeviating, steadfast, firm
Balinese tepettake care of, take care about; hence: exactly

Borrowing from Malay into Tagalog, and possibly from Javanese into Malay. Dempwolff also included Fijian tovo ‘custom, manner, habit, disposition, quality, character’, and proposed PAn *tepat ‘right, correct’, a reconstrucion that fails to account for the final vowel of the Old Javanese, Balinese or Fijian forms.

examine, investigate

Ilokano usísainquiry
  usisá-ento examine; inspect; interview
Casiguran Dumagat usisato inquire
Tagalog usísaʔinquiry; investigation
  mag-usísaʔto inquire; to ask questions
  ma-usísaʔcurious, inquisitive
Hanunóo ʔusísa ~ usísaʔnvestigation, looking into a matter
  ʔusísa ~ usísaʔnvestigation, looking into a matter
Agutaynen mag-osisato investigate; search, research; examine; question; interview

Also Bikol mag-usísa ‘to cross-examine; to interrogate, question, quiz; to probe’. Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.


Maranao opamaexample, instance; if, suppose
Tiruray ʔufamafor instance, suppose
Malay umpamaexample, instance
Old Javanese upamacomparison, example, illustration, likeness

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *tukar ‘to exchange, barter’)

exchange barter

Malay tukarinterchange of goods; barter, exchange
Toba Batak tuhorpurchase price
Javanese tukarto exchange one thing for another
PSS *tu(ŋ)ka(r)to exchange, barter
Tetun ta-tukargiven in exchange

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tukar ‘to exchange, barter’ (tauschen).

excitement:   passion, excitement

Maranao asikleap for joy or anger, agitated
Malay ashiklover; impassioned. Of sexual passion, religious ecstasy; over-devoted to some pastime, such as cockfighting
Malay (Jakarta) asikearnest

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

excuse oneself; greeting

Casiguran Dumagat tábi kaexcuse me (a respectful expression of request to be excused for passing between or in front of people)
Sambal (Botolan) tábiʔask to be excused when passing in front of one or more persons; ask someone to get out of the way
Tagalog bátiʔ M greeting, greetings
Bikol tábiʔplease
  maki-tábiʔto excuse oneself (as when moving through a crowd of people)
Cebuano tábiparticle of courtesty used to ask permission to leave for a second, ask a question, pass in front of someone; excuse me
Mansaka tábiʔplease excuse me
Kelabit tabiʔto greet, shake hands
Iban tabiʔgreeting; to greet, salute
Malay tabekgreeting; etymologically the utterances of the word tabek, which means ‘excuse me’ or ‘with your permission’, and is a courteous preliminary to opening a conversation
Toba Batak tabiword used to excuse oneself, and also employed as a greeting
Old Javanese tabeforgive me
Javanese tabikOccidental-style greeting (e.g. a wave of the hand, a ‘hello’)
  tabik-anto shake hands
Balinese tabénexcuse, leave, greeting
Tae' tabeʔword used to excuse oneself, as in leave-taking, etc.

Borrowing, apparently through Malay, but ultimately from Sanskrit kṣantabya ‘to be pardoned; may I be pardoned; pardon me’. Fijian tavi ‘to salute in welcome, give hospitality to’ is assumed to be a chance resemblance.

expense, expenditure

Itbayaten gastoexpense, cost, expenditure
Kapampangan gastúsexpense

Borrowing of Spanish gasto ‘expenditure, outlay’.

(Dempwolff: *balanja)


Ngaju Dayak balanjaconsumption; maintenance, support
Malay belanjaoutlay; disbursement; expenditure
Toba Batak balanjosupport, maintenance
Mongondow balanjaŋoutlay, cost
Gorontalo balanjaoutlay, expenses
Mandar balanjaoutlay, expenses
Makassarese balanjaspend to meet costs; expenses
Buli balajamoney for one's livelihood

Borrowing from Malay.

explanation, interpretation

Maranao pitoaʔexplain, discourse, talk, explanation
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pituwaʔto explain a situation to someone so that he will understand the reason for one’s apparent lack of concern or helpfulness for him
Malay pətua ~ pətuahrule for the guidance of others; instructions received from experts of any sort, even on such matters as the best way to snare game
Sundanese pituahadvice, counsel, lesson; admonition; indication
Sangir pituafortune-telling
Mongondow pituaexplanation, interpretation (of a dream, etc.); information; prophecy

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic. This presupposes that the Malay word still permitted prepenultimate /i/ at the time of borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *surak ‘to exult, cheer, celebrate’)

exult, celebrate (as a victory)

Tagalog suláksimmering; near the boiling point
Ngaju Dayak surakcheering (said to be from Banjarese)
Malagasy úraka ~ húrakaa noise, a clamor
Malay sorakcheering; applause
Toba Batak mar-surakgive out a shout of joy; to cheer, to hail
Sundanese surakto cheer, celebrate
Old Javanese surakshout, cry, roar
  a-nurakto receive with shouts, shout at, urge with shouts; jeer at
  a-surakto shout, cry, roar
Javanese surakto cheer
  ñurakto jeer at, boo
Balinese suraka shout, war-cry
Sasak surakshouting
  ñurakto shout
  te-surakto shout
Samoan sulaspeak sincerely from the very depths of one’s heart (like someone who is deeply moved); make formal acknowledgement, give thanks (for presents, honors, speeches, etc.)

Dempwolff (1938) posited *surak ‘to exult, cheer, celebrate’, but the relationship of the Tagalog and Samoan forms to the others cited here is open to question, the Malagasy form appears to reflect *kurak, and the remaining forms could be products of borrowing from Malay.

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eye ailment

Casiguran Dumagat buléglégan eye ailment (an acute, highly contagious conjunctivitis), pink eye; to get pink eye
Tagalog buliglíginflammation of the eyes (of fowls and animals)

Borrowing from Tagalog.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)