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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    

idiot, fool

Ilokano uŋásderogatory expression for males: stupid, rude; crude
Tagalog uŋásstupid, ignorant; ignoramus, nitwit
Aklanon uŋásidiot, fool

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

idiotic:   stupid, idiotic

Casiguran Dumagat haŋálstupid, idiotic; a loud person
Bikol haŋálstupid, idiotic
Aklanon háŋgaejoke, trick
Cebuano haŋalinattentive to what one is about

Borrowing into Casiguran Dumagat from a GCPh source (probably Tagalog).

idle:   lazy, idle

Casiguran Dumagat tamádto feel lazy, to not feel like working; lazy
Tagalog tamádlazy; idle; indolent; sluggish; slothful
  ka-támár-anlaziness; idleness; indolence; sloth
Bikol ma-tamádbe reluctant or disinclined to do something
Aklanon tamádto feel lazy, not feel like working; a lazy person
  ka-támadlaziness, indolence
  ma-támadlazy, inactive, indolent

The Casiguran Dumagat form is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog or Bikol.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    


ignorant, uneducated; poor

Palawano awamignorant
Mapun awamignorant, unaware
Yakan awamto be ignorant, uninformed
Tboli awamignorant, uneducated; poor

This is a very mysterious comparison. Given its gloss, which almost certainly implies a literate society, the distribution seen here must be a product of borrowing, but its source, and why it is known so far only in Palawano and Tboli among members of the Philippine subgroup, is still unresolved. Given their mobility, this may have originated with the Sama-Bajaw, and spread by borrowing from them to a few select land-based populations.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    


ill:   seriously ill

Malay parahdangerous or serious, of a wound
Dairi-Pakpak Batak parahextremely sick
Sundanese payahvery sick, extremely sick or painful; seriously or dangerously ill
Mongondow pahaserious, of an illness

Probably a Malayo-Chamic innovation that has been borrowed from Malay into Dairi-Pakpak Batak and Mongondow.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    


(Dempwolff: *tiru ‘to imitate, copy’)

imitate, copy

Malay tirufollowing in the lines of; imitating; copying
  mə-niruto copy; after; on the lines of; taken from
  tiru-animitation; model or design for copying
Toba Batak tiruto copy, imitate; counterfeit
Sundanese tiruimitate, copy
Old Javanese (m)a-tiruto follow, imitate, take for a model
  maka-tiruto serve for a model
  t<um>iruto follow, imitate, take after, copy
Javanese tiruto resemble; to imitate, copy
  tiru-tiruto copy, mimic
Balinese tiruto mimic, imitate, copy; a model, copy (for imitation)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiru ‘to imitate, copy’ (nachnahmen).

imported vase or jar of Chinese origin

Ilokano gúsichina vase or jar; burial jar (also used to store rice wine)
Isneg xúsian earthenware jar of Chinese origin, used for storing bási (rum). It is usually provided with four (rarely two or six) ears, that consist in a kind of knob or broad projection, more ornamental than useful.
Tagalog gúsiʔlarge china vase or jar; Chinese burial jar
Malay (Brunei) gusik.o. jar with six handles; outside surface dull, inside smooth and crackled. Believed by Brunei Malays to be made and buried by spirits.
Malay guchi ~ gəmunchia water vessel
Makassarese gucik.o. imported stone pot with a small opening, used to store oil, etc.

As the glosses in several languages indicate, this is a Chinese loan, although the Chinese language from which it comes and the time of borrowing remain unclear.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    


in harmony, synchronized

Ilokano kumpásrhythm; compatibility; harmony; gesticulation, expressive motion
  i-kumpásto keep to the rhythm, synchronize
Ibaloy kompas-anto act in rhythm, in synch, in time with something (as dancing to the beat of the drums); to be appropriate (as what one says to the topic of conversation)
Tagalog kompás ~ kumpásthe beat or time in music; the act of beating time
Cebuano kumpásbeing in harmony or correct timing with something else

Borrowing of Spanish compas ‘in time, rhythmically’.

(Dempwolff: *aji)


Tagalog ŋadyiʔ, paŋadyiʔprayer
Ngaju Dayak kajilearning, study
Malay ajia secret magical formula (Java)
Toba Batak ajipoison, magical charm
  maŋ-ajito read
Old Javanese ajiholy writ, "the scriptures", sacred text (containing e.g. rules of conduct for a brahman; instructions on administration, politics, the practice of arms, the writing of poetry, etc.); sacred or magically powerful formula
Javanese ajiincantation, magic spell
Balinese ajimantra, religious formula (allegedly in Sanskrit)

Borrowing, ultimately from Javanese, but with likely mediation through Malay in the case of Tagalog (pa)ŋadyiʔ. Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Sa'a jäsi-kana'a cycle of songs dealing with the herœs of Old Malau, containing reputedly good teachinǵ, and Fijian kaci 'call, invite', but these are far more convincingly treated as chance similarities.


Casiguran Dumagat butáwurge people or animals to fight (esp. in cockfighting, to get two cocks to fight)
Tagalog butáwpitting roosters against each other in cockfighting

Borrowing from Tagalog.

incite, prod into action

Ilokano sulsúl-anto incite
Casiguran Dumagat súlsulto incite someone to do something bad, to tempt
Tagalog sulsólinstigation, prodding or urging on to do something evil or some improper act; incitement; stirring up or rousing; egging on
  s<um>ulsólto foment; to cause, promote or foster trouble, rebellion, etc.
Masbatenyo súlsolurging, incitement
  in-sulsúl-anto urge, incite
Waray-Waray sulsólthe act of goading; instigation; the act of urging someone to do something
Agutaynen mag-solsolto stir up; prod somebody to do something; to convince; to incite; make people discontented with the way things are
Cebuano sulsúlurge, egg someone into doing something bad

Also Tagalog súhol ‘bribe’. The forms in non-Central Philippine languages are assumed to be borrowings of Tagalog sulsól.

inclination:   leaning, inclination, predilection

Itbayaten ma-hiligfond of, inclined to
Tagalog híligliking; appetite; a desire; inclination; predilection
Cebuano (dialectal) híligto be leaning, tilted to one side; to develop a tendency, inclination

Borrowing from Tagalog into Itbayaten.


Cebuano bumbáyIndian, Hindu; kind of large goat with a long beard and curved horns
Malay bombeBombay, associated in Malay with penal transportation kueh bombe an Indian cake

Borrowing from Tamil.

indigo dye

Itbayaten anilindigo, blue dye
Ilokano anilindigo dye
Bikol anyílbluing, indigo
Cebuano anyílbluing for wash
Maranao anilbluing, anil

Borrowing of Spanish añil ‘indigo plant; indigo; indigo blue’.

Indonesia:   Chinese born in Indonesia

Malay babacolonial born, creole; a descriptive honorific formerly given to Portuguese gentlemen, colonial-born European, Eurasian and Chinese males to distinguish them from men born in Europe or China; a descriptive name applied specifically to male Straits-born Chinese
Mandar babaʔChinese
Buginese babakname for Chinese born in Indonesia
Makassarese babaʔname for Chinese born in Indonesia

Borrowing from Malay.

induced, tricked

Casiguran Dumagat búyutricked, deceived, induced (as to go to someone's house to see him, and arrive to find him gone)
Tagalog buyóinduced; seduced
  i-buyóinduce someone to be or to do something
Aklanon buyó(h)to deceive about, conceal one's real intentions

Borrowing from Tagalog into Casiguran Dumagat.

(Dempwolff: *buDak)

inferior:   social inferior

Malay budaklad; lass. Associated sometimes (1) with immaturity; (2) very commonly with service (e.g. budak dalam "palace slave girls", budak jogét "dancing girl", budak-budak gembala "herd-boys")
Acehnese budaʔchild, lad, boy
Simalur budaʔslave, servant
Toba Batak budakslave (used only as a term of abuse)
Rejang budoʔservant, slave
  matey budoʔdie in childbirth
Sundanese budakchild in general (either boy or girl); fetus; manservant, slave maŋsa budak in one's youth ŋaran budak childhood name, given name
Javanese buḍakslave

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano t<um>alábto take effect
Sambal (Botolan) talábeffects, influences
Tagalog talábeffective (said of medicine, advice, etc.)
  t<um>alábto take or have effect

Borrowing from Tagalog.

inheritance:   heir, inheritance

Maranao warisrelatives of the bride who apportion her dowry
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) weris-anif a man marries and the price for his bride is paid by someone who is not his father, mother, or relative, the bride price paid to this man at some future time for a daughter born to him will be shared with the one who helped him marry. This daughter is the werisan of the one who helped her father marry
Iban arisline, family
Malay warisheir; inheritor or potential inheritor
Acehnese warehconsanguineal kin
Simalur warisheir
Toba Batak warisheir; next of kin
Balinese warisheir, joint heirs
  waris-anestate, inheritance
Makassarese warisiʔheir; inheritance (following Islamic law)
Manggarai warisrelatives, same family

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

(Dempwolff: *maneq ‘heritage, inheritance’)

inheritance; heirloom

Malay manahprized; valued; heirloom; survival from the past
Toba Batak por-mano-mano-ana gift by which one thinks of someone

Probably a Malay loan. Based on this slender comparison Dempwolff (1934-1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *maneq ‘heritage, inheritance’.

injustice, oppression

Tagalog anyáyaʔaccident; mishap; injury; misfortune
Maranao aniayarob, steal, cheat
Malay aniayainjustice, oppression; wrong inflicted by the strong on the weak
Sundanese aniyayaoppression; also harsh, of treatment
Old Javanese anyayaunjust action, the wrong way of acting; impropriety
Balinese aniayatyranny, unjust treatment
Sasak aniayaevil, anger, injustice

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.


Itbayaten tintaink
Ilokano tíntaink
Pangasinan tíntaink
Bikol tíntaink
  mag-tíntato smear with ink

From Spanish tinta ‘ink’.

insight:   conscience, mind, insight

Yami (Iranomilek) budi, budiʔdeceit; deceive, entrap; kindness, generosity, gratitude
Hiligaynon mag-búdhiʔbetray, be faithless, be disloyal
  búhhiʔconscience, inner self
Maranao bodhiʔjealousy; jealous
Kayan bayen budirepay a kindness
Malay budiqualities of mind and heart; kindly acts and ways; character; graciousness and charm. Budi Implies prudence and discretion ... but it is more closely identified with the doing of kindly acts, e.g. balas budi 'to repay kindness; to show gratitude'; kenaŋ-kan budi 'remember gratefully'; budi often means 'character': busok budi 'of a hateful character' budi-man possessed of budi, i.e. self-respecting, wise, prudent, sensible
Acehnese budi, budi-manexhibit good behavior, sensible, wise
Lampung budiʔtrick someone
Sundanese budimind, heart, nature, disposition, character, humor; reason, understanding; view haseum budi sour outlook, unfriendly, surly
Old Javanese buddhi-mānwise, perspicacious
  buddhithe power of forming and retaining general notions, intelligence, reason, mind, discernment; opinion, notion, idea; character, nature, disposition; intention, purpose
Javanese budicharacter, temperament; exert power; a certain tree under which Buddha sits and meditates
Balinese budidesire, wish, hope
Sasak budi beriŋinname of a holy place in Sembalun
Sangir budiintelligence, understanding; disposition (rare)
  budi-maŋa common proper name
Wolio budimind, insight, intelligence, reason, wisdom
  budi manaŋkatasmartness in debate
  hina budibad in character
Asilulu budiproper behavior

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit. Iban budi, budiʔ shows secondary final glottal stop, and two polarized clusters of meaning, evidently connected with the existence of a former system of speech disguise based on antonymy (Blust 1981).

intelligence, craft, scheme

Maranao akaltrick, fool, plan
  akal-akaltrick a person without mercy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akalbetray
Mansaka akaltrick; crafty procedure or practice
Berawan (Long Terawan) akanknowledge, intelligence
Ngaju Dayak akaladvice, redemption; cunning deceit
  m-akalcheat, deceive, outwit
Iban akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence; deceive, delude
Maloh akalintelligence, cunning
Malay akalwit; intelligence. Properly 'mind as the organ of thought' (in contrast to hati or 'mind as the subject of consciousness'); reasoning. In common speech: trick, dodge, stratagem
Javanese akalidea, scheme
  ŋ-akalseek, find a solution; take advantage of someone
Balinese akalintend, be intended for; mind, intention
Mandar akalwits, thoughts; intelligence
Asilulu akalmind, attitude; deceptiveness, chicanery
Buruese akalscheme, trick, ruse, stratagem

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

(Dempwolff: *pinte(rR) ‘clever’)

intelligent:   clever, intelligent

Ida'an begak pintorsmart
Ngaju Dayak pintarclever, intelligent; judicious; sly, crafty
Malay pintarknowing; sharp (mind)
Toba Batak pintorright; upright, honest
Sundanese pintərintelligent, sensible; wise; knowledgeable
Javanese pintersmart; educated; skilled
  ka-pinter-ancapability, skill
Makassarese pintaraʔclever, knowledgeable

Borrowing from Malay. Based on data from Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese, Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pinte(rR) ‘clever’.

intended:   water not intended for drinking

Malay ban-ufermented coconut water used in dyeing; water in which rice has been washed; water for use as ink, etc.
Old Javanese ban-uwater
Javanese ban-uwater; fluid; tamarind (orange, etc.) juice
Madurese ban-ourine
Balinese ban-uwater
Komodo banuwater; tears

Except for Komodo, these form a restricted cognate set; Komodo is a loan from Javanese or Balinese.

interest on a loan

Pangasinan pátoŋan extra piece or amount added to something bought (as a bonus); small increase in price
Tagalog pátoŋlayer; one thickness; one fold; one thing placed over another; interest on a loan or debt
Bikol pátoŋa penalty or extra interest imposed on an overdue account or loan

Borrowing from Tagalog

(Dempwolff: *sedaŋ ‘middling amount’)

intermediate:   medium, average, intermediate

Ngaju Dayak sadaŋmoderate, reasonable
Malagasy éranafull, complete measure, that which fills
  ma-néranato fill a place, to pervade
Malay sədaŋintermediate; in the meantime; the happy mean; medium, average; in the midst of
Gayō sədaŋaverage, middling
Toba Batak tar-sodaŋunfit, unsuitable, improper
Sundanese sədəŋintermediate (as between high and low; average, mean; sufficient
Old Javanese səḍəŋright time (not too early or too late); right moment, right measure (not too big or too small); just, just while, while
Javanese səḍəŋjust right, adequate
  səḍəŋ-anaverage, medium
Balinese sedeŋenough, right; the right moment; just when, at just the moment when
  seḍeŋmoderation, what is fitting; suitable, proper, fitting, moderate; to fit, suit well (clothes)
Sasak sədəŋmoderate, middling; sufficient; exact (enough)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sedaŋ ‘middling amount’, leaving the last-syllable vowel of the Javanese form unexplained. Since the same problem is found with several other languages, it appears more economical to assume that Malay borrowed Javanese səḍəŋ, with subsequent spread of the loanword into other languages after the merger of last-syllable schwa and *a.


Casiguran Dumagat biyásbamboo container for water or for carrying rice seeds as one walks about planting mountain rice
Kapampangan biyása segment of sugarcane
Tagalog biʔás, biyásinternode (on cane or cane-like structures); a joint (of bone) with or without meat
Bikol biʔásinternode of cane-like structures such as sugarcane, bamboo; bone length between two joints
Aklanon biʔásjoint; notch (of finger); internode (of flora -- the part between the joints of flowers and plants)
Cebuano biʔáswater container made of one internode of a bamboo tube; make into a bi?ás

Borrowing into Casiguran Dumagat and Kapampangan from Tagalog.

interpretation:   explanation, interpretation

Maranao pitoaʔexplain, discourse, talk, explanation
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pituwaʔto explain a situation to someone so that he will understand the reason for one’s apparent lack of concern or helpfulness for him
Malay pətua ~ pətuahrule for the guidance of others; instructions received from experts of any sort, even on such matters as the best way to snare game
Sundanese pituahadvice, counsel, lesson; admonition; indication
Sangir pituafortune-telling
Mongondow pituaexplanation, interpretation (of a dream, etc.); information; prophecy

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic. This presupposes that the Malay word still permitted prepenultimate /i/ at the time of borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *suŋsaŋ ‘turned around’)

inverted:   turned around, inverted

Malay suŋsaŋinversion; upside-down
Karo Batak suŋsaŋopposite to the usual direction, turned around
Toba Batak suŋsaŋturned around, inverted, upside-down
Old Javanese suŋsaŋupside-down, reversed
  s<um>uŋsaŋto be upside-down
Javanese suŋsaŋthe other way around (as in sleeping with your head where your feet should be and vice versa)

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) posited *suŋsaŋ ‘turned around’ based on the data considered here minus Karo Batak and Old Javanese.

investigate:   examine, investigate

Ilokano usísainquiry
  usisá-ento examine; inspect; interview
Casiguran Dumagat usisato inquire
Tagalog usísaʔinquiry; investigation
  mag-usísaʔto inquire; to ask questions
  ma-usísaʔcurious, inquisitive
Hanunóo ʔusísa ~ usísaʔnvestigation, looking into a matter
  ʔusísa ~ usísaʔnvestigation, looking into a matter
Agutaynen mag-osisato investigate; search, research; examine; question; interview

Also Bikol mag-usísa ‘to cross-examine; to interrogate, question, quiz; to probe’. Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

(Dempwolff: *gambir ‘refreshing’)

invigorates:   plant chewed with betel that invigorates

Tagalog gambilvery fresh
Maranao gambirvim, vigor
Ngaju Dayak gambirgambier, plant chewed with betel
Malay gambirgambier, a decoction from the leaves of Uncaria gambir, consumed by Malays with betel
Karo Batak gamberthe gambir plant, Uncaria gambir Roxb.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gamber ~ gambirUncaria gambir Roxb.
Toba Batak gambirUncaria gambir, the leaf of a plant that is chewed with areca leaves and lime
Nias gambea plant with leaves and sap that are chewed with betel to color it red
Old Javanese gambira small, white, fragrant flower, a kind of jasmine
Javanese gambira certain vine; the fragrant white-and-yellow blossom of this vine; a plant whose leaves are used as a betel-chewing ingredient and in tanning hides; the betel-chewing mixture made from this leaf
Balinese gambirthe name of a species of bushy plant
Sasak gambirgambier: Uncaria gambir Roxb.
  bə-gambirto use gambier (in the betel chew)
Wolio gambibox for carrying smoking utensils and papers (in the old days used only by people of the highest nobility)
Muna gambiwooden betel nut container with compartments for betel leaf, areca nut, lime, gambier and tobacco (now obsolete)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *gambir ‘refreshing’, but it is now clear that this is a loan distribution due to borrowing from Malay. The Tagalog form, which he cited from Laktaw (1914) does not appear in modern dictionaries.

invulnerability:   charm for invulnerability

Maranao paliasmagic power giving invulnerability
Tiruray feliyosa charm that causes any projectile aimed at the owner to miss him
Iban peliasamulet for deflecting weapons and missles
Malay peliasa form of invulnerability, the body being made (magically) so evasive or slippery that all weapons miss it or slide off it.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    



Ilokano yódoiodine
Tagalog yódoiodine
Bikol yódoiodine

Borrowing of Spanish yodo ‘iodine’.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    



Tagalog tayu-basiiron filings
Melanau (Mukah) beseyspear
Ngaju Dayak wasiiron
Malagasy viiron
Iban besiiron
Singhi Land Dayak bosiiron
PCha *pəsəyiron
Malay besiiron; instrument made of iron, such as a branding-iron or a horse-shoe
Acehnese besiiron
Simalur besi(x)iron
Karo Batak besiiron; made of iron
Dairi-Pakpak Batak besiiron; made of iron; kinds of iron
Toba Batak bosiiron; firm, hard as iron
  tuŋkaŋ bosismith
Rejang beseyiron
Sundanese beusiiron
  tukaŋ beusismith
Old Javanese wesiiron
Javanese tukaŋ wesiblacksmith
Balinese besiiron
Sasak besiiron
Tae' bassiiron
Mandar bassiiron
Buginese bessiiron; spear
Makassarese bassiiron; iron spear, iron tool for cutting wood
Bimanese βesiiron
Komodo besiiron
Manggarai beciiron; grass cutter
Rembong besiiron
Kambera báhiiron
Rotinese besiiron; made of iron
Tetun besiiron

Almost certainly a Proto-Malayo-Chamic (PMC) innovation which has been borrowed from Malay into various other languages of Indonesia and the Philippines (Dempwolff's inclusion of Fijian vesi 'a very hard tree: Intsia bijuga' is rejected on both formal and semantic grounds). It is assumed that PMC was spoken in southwest Borneo, and that populations speaking PMC dialects began to expand into eastern Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and coastal regions of the Gulf of Thailand as far north as the central portions of modern Vietnam in the first or second century B.C. It is noteworthy that at least two of the indigenous languages of Borneo have doublets, one reflecting an earlier, and the other a later loan, thus supporting Borneo as the geographical locus of this innovated lexical item.

As noted by Bellwood (1985:xyz) the expansion of Austronesian speakers into mainland Southeast Asia may be correlated with archaeological evidence of innovations in ironworking technology which were taking place in southwest Borneo in the centuries immediately preceding the beginning of Indian contact. Although a word for 'iron' (*bariS) may be much older in Austronesian (Blust 1976), the older term could well have referred to unprocessed iron ore which had no utilitarian function. Under this interpretation *besi could be correlated with the smelted ore, and hence with those innovations in ironworking technology which Bellwood has noted in the archaeological record.

irregular behavior

Ilokano ampáŋsilly, foolish, wanton, loose (said of women)
Malay empaŋ-empaŋeccentric, half-cracked; behavior that is not quite seemly

Borrowing from Malay.

idl    ign    ill    imi    imp    in    inc    ind    inf    inh    inj    ink    ins    int    inv    iod    iro    irr    isl    


Islamic:   slaughter in accord with Islamic law

Ngaju Dayak sambalihslit the throat of a sacrificial animal
Malagasy (Taimoro) sombilislaughter in a ritual way
Malay səmbəlehto slaughter ritually (as cattle are slaughtered by cutting the throat)
Toba Batak ma-nambolito slaughter
  tar-sambolbe slaughtered
Javanese sembelèhto butcher, slaughter
  belèh-anslaughtering place

Arabic, through the medium of Malay. For a detailed account of the Malagasy term as a Malay loan cf. Adelaar (1989:4-6).

(Dempwolff: *pulaw ‘island’)


Tagalog pulóʔisland
  ka-pulu-ánarchipelago; a group of many islands
Maranao poloisland
Tausug pūʔisland
Ngaju Dayak pulawisland
Malay pulawisolated patch; island; of patches of land in the sea
Toba Batak puloisland
  ha-pulo-ansurrounded by enemies
Old Javanese puloisland
Javanese puloisland
Balinese puloisland

Borrowing from Malay. On the basis of data from Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *pulaw ‘island’.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)