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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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jai    jar    jas    jav    jea    jel    jew    joi    jud    

(Dempwolff: *bazu)

jacket₁:   shirt, jacket

Tagalog bároʔdress for upper part of body
Ngaju Dayak bajushirt, jacket
Malay bajushirt, jacket
Toba Batak bajushirt, jacket
Old Javanese baju, wajujacket
Javanese bajushirt, jacket
Makassarese bajushirt, blouse, bodice
Erai harujacket with long sleeves

Borrowing, ultimately from Persian.


Makassarese babuʔkind of jacket
Rembong bambujacket

Borrowing from a South Sulawesi source. Makassarese can reflect any of a number of original final consonants.

jackfruit Artocarpus spp.

Ilokano anaŋkájackfruit
  náŋkajackfruit: Artocarpus integrifolia
Isneg laŋkáthe jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, L.; its burned wood yields a black dye
Bontok láŋkajackfruit: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Morac.)
Ibaloy daŋkajackfruit: tree of the mulberry family that bears the largest fruit in the world (taboo for new mothers to eat)
Pangasinan láŋkajackfruit, a tree with large cylindrical fruit up to two feet long and about half as wide, the outer surface of which is covered with a honeycomb of raised pointed protuberances
Kapampangan yaŋkaʔnanca fruit, breadfruit
Tagalog laŋkáʔjackfruit
Remontado naŋkáʔjackfruit
Bikol laŋkáʔjackfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus heterophylla Linn.
Hanunóo laŋkáʔjackfruit (Artocarpus heterophylla Lam.), the tree and its fruit
Agutaynen láŋkajackfruit (the fruit can be eaten cooked or uncooked; when cooked it is often mixed with coconut milk, or used in a dish called laoya, with boiled beef
Hiligaynon láŋkaʔjackfruit
Cebuano náŋkaʔjackfruit, a medium-sized tree cultivated for its large spiny fruit, which may reach 70 lbs and is eaten unripe cooked, and raw when ripe. The seeds are eaten as a vegetable, roasted or boiled: Artocarpus heterophyllus Linn.
Mansaka láŋkaʔjackfruit
Lun Dayeh lakaʔjackfruit
Kelabit buaʔ nakan M small jackfruit variety
Kayan nakan M the wild jackfruit
Kayan (Uma Juman) bua nakan M small jackfruit
Iban naŋkaʔlarge jackfruit, Artocarpus spp.
Malay naŋkaa fruit, specifically the jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, but covering also the soursop, durian, another jack, A. lanceaefolia, and two other plants, Mallotus macrostachyus and Nauclea purpurascens
Toba Batak naŋkaseed of the jackfruit
Old Javanese naŋkaa particular kind of tree and its fruits, Artocarpus integrifolia
Balinese naŋkabreadfruit tree, breadfruit
Sasak naŋkaArtocarpus integrifolia
Tae' naŋkaʔjackfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus heterophylla Linn.
Wolio naŋkekind of tree (its fruit used to be an important article of trade)
Muna naŋkajackfruit
Chamorro lanka, nankajackfruit
Seit naʔajackfruit

Also Malay naŋka ‘a fruit; specifically the jack, Artocarpus integrifolia; but covering also the soursop, another jackfruit, Artocarpus lanceaefolia, and two other plants: Mallotus macrostachyus and Nauclea purpurascens or Sideroxylon malaccense’, Karo Batak naŋka ‘jackfruit tree and fruit: Balinese naŋka ‘breadfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus integrifolia’, Mongondow naŋga ‘jackfruit: Artocarpus integrifolia’.

The history of this word remains somewhat unclear. Merrill (1954:153) notes that the jackfruit “although now widely distributed in the archipelago and frequently planted, was an early introduction from tropical Asia.” By ‘tropical Asia’ he presumably means India, although no further information is given. Since the word occurs in Old Javanese and has spread into a number of Philippine languages, it is likely that its introduction into the Austronesian family goes back at least a millennium. Its appearance in Chamorro presumably is due to contact with Philippine languages such as Tagalog during the centuries of Spanish occupation of the Marianas.


Old Javanese panasajackfruit
Buginese panasajackfruit

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.


Sundanese buiprisoner, captive
Javanese buijail, prison
Balinese buiprison
Sasak buiprisoner
Makassarese buijail
Bimanese buijail
Rembong buijail
Asilulu buijail
Buruese buijail

Borrowing from Dutch.

jar:   earthen jar

Itbayaten aŋaŋearthen jar (for containing water, wine, liquid, sugar, salt, rice, etc.), jug. This is the second largest among the earthenwares
Isneg aŋáŋgeneral name for jar
Itawis aŋáŋwater jar
Ifugaw aŋáŋa great earthen cooking pot in which the Ifugaw boil the food for pigs (e.g. sweet potato peels)

Borrowing from a Cordilleran language into Itbayaten.


Ilokano sampagítasmall jasmine flower, national flower of the Philippines
Cebuano sampagítaspreading and ornamental bush grown for its fragrant flowers, jasmine: Jasminum spp.
Maranao sampagitaJasminum multiflorum /Burm.F./ Andr.
Chamorro sampagitatype of flowering plant: Jasminum sambac

Also Ilokano sampága ‘Jasminium sambac, Arabian jasmine’. Although the base form may be native to some Philippine languages, the longer word with diminutive suffix appears to be a Spanish loan in both the Philippines and the Marianas.

javelin:   dart, javelin

Tagalog sulígiɁdart, small spear or lance
Iban seligiwooden javelin, spear of hardened bamboo or palm; crocodile ‘hook’
  ñeligiraging, in turmoil
Malay səligiwooden dart or javelin
Toba Batak suligibamboo lance
Sundanese suligikind of spear or javelin
Old Javanese suligia kind of spear, javelin
  a-nuligito throw the suligi
Balinese suligia mace or club of wood or iron, having a sharp point

Also Malay, Minangkabau suligi ‘dart, small spear or lance’. The final glottal stop in Tagalog shows that it is most likely a borrowing from Malay, an interpretation that may well apply to most of the other forms cited here as well.

jai    jar    jas    jav    jea    jel    jew    joi    jud    


jealousy, envy

Maranao deŋki-deŋkipetty jealousy
Iban deŋkienvy, malice, spite
Malay dəŋkiangry envy; spite; jealous malice

Borrowing from Malay.

jelly:   seaweed jelly

Iban agar-agarjelly made from edible sea-weeds (Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Sphaerococcus, and other spp.) often colored and flavored with pandan (kerupok)
Malay agar-agar(specifically) the so-called 'seaweed' from which seaweed-jelly is made; (generally) agar-agar jelly and things suggesting it such as 'Turkish delight' and gelatine
Toba Batak agar-agargelatine
Sundanese agerwell-known seaweed from which a jelly is made, gelatine
Old Javanese ager-agerkind of seaweed, Sphaerococcus lichenoides
Javanese ager-agerseaweed (jelly)
Buginese agaraʔseaweed jelly
Makassarese agaʔ-agaraʔkind of edible seaweed which is sold in blocks in stores

Borrowing, ultimately from Javanese.


Malay ubur-uburjellyfish
Bimanese ubu-ubujellyfish

jewel:   gem, jewel

Tagalog palamatábracelet made of glass beads; fancy jewelry
Malay permatagem, jewel
Makassarese paramatagemstone
Soboyo parimataeyeglasses

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *hias)

jewelry:   decoration, jewelry

Tagalog hiásgem, precious stone; jewelry; ornament, decoration
Aklanon hiásjewels, treasures
Hiligaynon hiásprecious stone, gem
Cebuano híasgood qualities, virtues not inherent in something pa-hias something used to make a woman beautiful; use jewelry or make-up
Malay hiasembellishment
  mandi ber-hiasceremonial bathing and decking out of a bride for her wedding
  men-hias-ito beautify
Acehnese hiehdecorate; ornament
Lampung hiasdecorated

Borrowing. The Philippine reflexes point to *h-, but the western Indonesian reflexes to *q-. Panganiban (1966) suggests that Tagalog hiás derives from Spanish joyas. If so, this form has spread from the Philippines into western Indonesia, like Malay biawas 'guava', and a few other words.

jai    jar    jas    jav    jea    jel    jew    joi    jud    


join together

Malay huboŋlinking; joining together
Karo Batak ubuŋlength; extend
Toba Batak ubuŋtie, bind together

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *kukut ‘joint’)


Ngaju Dayak kukutjoint of the hand (= wrist?)
Javanese kokothinge, joint

Either a chance resemblance or a Javanese loan in Ngaju Dayak. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kukut ‘joint’, but I am unable to find a Javanese form with this meaning in either Pigeaud (1938) or Horne (1974).

jai    jar    jas    jav    jea    jel    jew    joi    jud    


judge, punish

Ilokano okóm-ento judge, to try
  okómjudge, justice
Isneg uxómjudge
Bontok ʔukúma government official; to rule; to have authority
Tagalog hukómjudge
  húkum-ancourt of justice
Bikol hukómjudge
Cebuano hukúmpass judgement, give a verdict
Maranao okomcontrol
Kadazan Dusun ukumpunishment, penalty, sentence
  ukum-enbe punished
Kayan ukumto judge, to punish; punishment
Iban ukumofficial decision or order, esp. judicial; sentence, penalty
Malay hukumdecree; doom; that which is ordained. Moslem law in contrast to customary law (adat)
Leti ukmupunishment, penalty
Buli ukumpass judgement, punish

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)