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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    

O.K.!:   go ahead!, O.K.!

Pangasinan sígiexpression equivalent to ‘O.K.’, ‘go ahead!’, ‘all right’
Tagalog síge!go on! go ahead!
  i-sígito go ahead in doing some particular thing
  s<um>ígeto go ahead
  sigíh-anto go ahead and do something; to go on doing something
Tiruray sigito proceed, to continue
Tausug sigi-sigigoing on in rapid succession, happening over and over again, repeated often, continually

From Spanish sigue.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


(Dempwolff: *siliq ‘obligation, duty’)

obligation, duty, commitment

Ngaju Dayak silihdebt
Malay silehto replace; to make good
Old Javanese silihone another, each other, mutually; in turn, alternating
  a-nililto take over, borrow, use for a time
  s<um>ilihto succeed, take over; in turn
Javanese silihborrowed; to do vicariously
  baraŋ silih-ana borrowed item

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *siliq ‘obligation, duty’, but the limited distribution of this form among languages that have long been in contact is better explained as a product of borrowing.


Ilokano aráŋ-ento block, obstruct, blockade; seize by surprise, ambush, waylay
Casiguran Dumagat háraŋobstacle; to delay, to head off, to step in front of someone to stop him from continuing
Tagalog haráŋa bar; a barrier; an obstacle
  haraŋ-into hold up; to stop by force and rob
Tiruray ʔalaŋto block the way of someone or something

Borrowing of Malay (h)adaŋ ‘blocking the way; lying in wait to intercept, as robbers waylaying travellers’.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


(Dempwolff: *kenciŋ ‘odor of urine’)

odor of urine

Ngaju Dayak kasiŋrepulsive odor (used mostly of cat urine and rotted tobacco)
Malagasy hántsinaan odor as of dead bodies, a stench; infection
Malay kənciŋto pass urine
Javanese kenciŋurine; to urinate

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kenciŋ ‘odor of urine’.

odorata:   tree sp., Cananga odorata

Cebuano ilaŋ-ílaŋkind of medium- to large-sized tree which produces a multitude of fragrant flowers, esp. in May and June: Cananga odorata
Palauan chiráŋylang-ylang tree: Cananga odorata

Borrowing from some Philippine language into Palauan.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


of rice:   badly cooked, of rice

Puyuma dapəŋrice badly cooked because of lack of fire
  ma-dapəŋbe badly cooked
Paiwan djapeŋsomething overcooked or gone to nothing

Probably a Paiwan loan in Puyuma

of time:   pass slowly, of time

Ngaju Dayak lambatsluggish, indolent; delayed; to drag on; too late
Iban lambatslow; late (in coming)
Malay lambatslow; taking time; behind time (of a dull learner, a slow eater, etc.)
Toba Batak lambatslow, lingering
  pa-lambatextend the time for doing something
Old Javanese lambattenacious, difficult to move
Javanese lambatold, from earlier time, long ago (Pigeaud)

Probably borrowing from Malay.

official:   religious official

Malay bilalmuezzin; caller to prayer
Acehnese bileuenofficial enjoined with calling the faithful to prayer, and with the upkeep of the mosque
Rejang bileabeadle, lowest ranked mosque official
Sundanese bilalname of the first Islamic muezzin; also muezzin in general (but seldom used)
Javanese bilalperson whose task it is to announce the five daily Moslem prayer times
Sasak bilalmuezzin, caller to prayer
Sangir biraleʔmuezzin; caller to prayer
Mongondow bilal(e)muezzin; caller to prayer
Gorontalo bilalemuezzin; caller to prayer
Bare'e bilalaperson whose task it is to announce the five daily Moslem prayer times
Buginese bilalaʔmuezzin; caller to prayer
Makassarese bidalaʔofficial of the mosque whose duties include calling the faithful to prayer; moreover, like other mosque officials he functions as a leader in all types of religious obligations where customary law requires the presence of one or more religious officials (as at funerals or weddings)
Manggarai bilamuezzin; caller to prayer

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic (βilal = the personal name of the first muezzin).

(Dempwolff: *sulur ‘offshoot, shoot of a plant’)

offshoot shoot of a plant

Kalagan suloloffshoot
Ngaju Dayak sulohto sprout; a sprout or offshoot
Malagasy súlua substitute
  sulú-anato be substituted, to be replaced
Iban sulurproject, stick out (in succession), hence go one after another; new growth (of cut plants)
Malay sulurturning or rising upward; shoots; of the roots of certain species of Ficus, but used in Malay of runners for plants, shoots on a tree trunk, upturned crockets, upward extensions of a boat’s ribs, etc.
Sundanese sulurto replace; a replacement
Old Javanese sulurshoot of a creeper; aerial root
Javanese suluraerial roots hanging down from tree branches
Balinese sulurto climb in a spiral (creeper)
Samoan suluthe true son of a chief (Pratt 1893)

Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Javanese, Malay, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy and Samoan, Dempwolff proposed *sulur ‘offshoot, shoot of a plant’. However, I am unable to find Tagalog sulol in Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), the Samoan form probably is a chance resemblance, and several of the remaining forms show contradictory reflexes for the final consonant, Ngaju Dayak supporting *R, but Old and Modern Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese supporting *r.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    



K-K puraevil spirit; Caucasian
Malay bota, butaogre; evil spirit preying on man. Constantly mentioned in literature, and practically indistinguishable from the raksasa and gergasi, the three being often bracketed together as 'ogres of all kinds'; bota beloh, buta beloh big-eyed ghost, possibly the owl kokok belok
Sundanese butaa fabulous being: giant, titan
Balinese butaevil spirit, esp. those haunting burial places
  buta kalademon
Sasak butaa monster that, in spite of its name "dark green" is entirely red, and has flaming red hair
Makassarese botademon (known only in stories translated from Malay)

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


ointment:   salve, ointment

Ngaju Dayak kasaysalve, ointment; cosmetic
Malay kasaya cosmetic used as a hairwash a cosmetic generally, of which two kinds are recognized: the “heating” and the “cooling”

Borrowing from Malay.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


one's:   do one's utmost

Malay pala-palaout-and-out; quite
  sa-pala-palaas thoroughly as possible
Karo Batak er-pala-palado one's utmost
Makassarese sa-pala-palaif it must be

Karo Batak er-pala-pala is assumed to be a natively affixed borrowing of Malay pala-pala. The Makassarese form may also be borrowed from Malay, or a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *sadiRi 'house post')

oneself:   self, oneself

CRAM treybody
Yami (Iranomilek) diriʔself, oneself
Jarai dreybody
Malay diriself, oneself
Karo Batak diri(rare = iba) self
Minangkabau diriperson, individual
Sundanese diriself
Javanese ḍirioneself, one's identity
Madurese diriʔself, oneself
Balinese dihiself, person (said to be 'the true Balinese form of the commoner diri', the latter borrowed from Javanese)
Sasak diriʔself

Apparently a late innovation in western Indonesia, perhaps spread in part by borrowing from Malay. The agreement of Iban and Sasak in pointing to final suggests that this form is distinct from *sadiRi 'house post', although the two cognate sets were combined by Dempwolff (1934-38).


Ilokano sibúyasonion
Bikol sebólyas ~ sibuyasonion
Binukid sibuyasonion

From Spanish cebollas, like most Spanish nouns, borrowed in its plural form.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    



Tagalog apyánopium
Bikol apyánopium
Maranao ampion, apion, apiomopium
Ngaju Dayak ampionopium
Malay apiunopium
Acehnese apiunopium
Toba Batak apiuŋtype of tobacco
Sundanese apiunopium
Javanese apyunopium
Balinese ampiun, apiunopium
Bare'e apiuopium
Makassarese apiuŋopium
Bimanese afioopium
Manggarai piuŋopium

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

oppression:   injustice, oppression

Tagalog anyáyaʔaccident; mishap; injury; misfortune
Maranao aniayarob, steal, cheat
Malay aniayainjustice, oppression; wrong inflicted by the strong on the weak
Sundanese aniyayaoppression; also harsh, of treatment
Old Javanese anyayaunjust action, the wrong way of acting; impropriety
Balinese aniayatyranny, unjust treatment
Sasak aniayaevil, anger, injustice

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


or, either

Sambal (Botolan) etawaor
Maranao atawaor, else
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) etawaor
Kadazan Dusun antawaeither
Ngaju Dayak atawaor
Banjarese atawaor
Maloh atawaor
Malay atauor
Simalungun Batak atawaor
Lampung ataw(a)conjuction: or
Old Javanese athawaor (between both parts, or after the second part); and also
Balinese atawaeither, or
Sasak atawaor
Wolio atawaor

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

orange:   Bitter orange Seville orange: Citrus aurantium

Itbayaten kahilan edible species of Philippine orange an edible species of Philippine orange
Ilokano kahélspecies of orange tree with sweet or sour fruit (said to be from Spanish cahel through Tagalog)
Casiguran Dumagat kahílk.o. citrus tree and its fruit
Tagalog kahélspecies of orange tree and its fruit, usually sweet, but sometimes sour
Bikol (Camarines Sur) kahélcitrus fruit, similar to a grapefruit: Citrus aurantium
Hanunóo kahíla native orange tree and its sour, tight-skinned fruit: Citrus aurantium Linn.
Aklanon kahílnative pomelo orange: Citrus maxima
Cebuano kahílsmall, green, somewhat bitter orange which turns yellow when overripe: Citrus aurantium

From Spanish cajel ‘Bitter orange, Seville orange (also called ‘blood orange’), a native of the Mediterranean region that must have been imported into the Philippines directly from Spain, rather than through the usual Mexican route for plants introduced during the Spanish colonial period.

orangutan: Simia satyrus

Malay mawasorangutan: Simia satyrus
Karo Batak mawasorangutan: Simia satyrus
Toba Batak maosorangutan: Simia satyrus

Probably a Malay loan, although the orangutan is native to both Borneo and Sumatra

orchid sp.

Itbayaten waliŋ-waliŋan orchid (Orchidaceae)
Aklanon wáliŋ-wáliŋorchid
Cebuano wáliŋ-wáliŋan orchid that is grown ornamentally: Vanda sanderiana
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) waliŋ-waliŋtype of orchid

Itbayaten normally palatalizes *ŋ adjacent to a high-front vowel, and the absence of palatalization here is an indication that this form almost certainly is borrowed from a Central Philippine source, most likely Tagalog. I am indebted to Alexander Smith for bringing this to my attention.

order:   arrange, put in order

Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) aturcommand
Ilokano atór-enstraighten, correct, amend; to mend
Kapampangan átuldecision
Tagalog hatolsentence pronounced by a judge in court; counsel; medical prescription for an ailment
Aklanon hátœto judge, render judgment
Maranao atororder sequentially
  ator-anpave with stones; governor, order, arrangement
  ator-enarrange, careful, fix up
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aturcare about, look out for
Mansaka atolestablish order, arrange
Tiruray feg-aturtake responsibility for some specific task
  ʔatura responsibility
  ʔatur-anresponsible for some specific task; something ordered or commanded by a person in authority
Tboli atulplan; idea; decision
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-atulaim with a gun; put in order, arrange; legislate
Kelabit aturan order, command; arrangement, organization
  ŋ-aturto order, command, arrange, organize
Berawan (Long Terawan) atonarrange
Melanau (Mukah) aturarrange, put in order
Ngaju Dayak (h)atohreflection, consideration; advice, counsel
  m-atohconsider, give advice, put in order
  (h)atoraccusation; treachery
Banjarese aturarrange
  ba-aturput in stacks
  ba-atur-anto order, arrange
Iban aturarrangement, order, decision; arrange, set in order, decide
Malay (h)aturorder, arrangement
  atur galaŋsticks laid horizontally in a ricefield to mark the divisions between different types of seedlings
  atur-andisposition; regulation; method
  ber-aturarranged in order
Karo Batak aturarrangement, regulation
  ŋ-aturregulate something
Toba Batak aturorderly, in order
  atur-anorder; sequence, succession, plan
  maŋ-aturput in order
Sundanese aturarrange, regulate, put in order
  ŋ-aturarrange, place (as troops), set out (as food)
Javanese ŋ-aturtell, inform; show something; advise
  aturwhat someone says (to an exalted person); ask someone to do something
Sangir atuleʔto order, regulate; teach; admonish
Mongondow atorregulate, give orders
  ator-aŋrule, regulation, order; custom, practice
Gorontalo a:turuorder, regulation
  moŋ-a:turuto order, regulate
Uma atur-acustom, practice
Buginese atuorder, arrangement
  atu-atucustomary behavior or practice
Makassarese aŋŋ-atoroʔto arrange, order, classify
  ator-aŋorder regulation
  atoroʔkind of poem

Borrowing from Malay.

order:   arrange, put in order

Malay urusdeal with, e.g., under the laws; put in order
Makassarese urusuʔregulate, adjust, arrange
Komodo uruto command
Manggarai urusarrange, put in order

Borrowing from Malay.

origin, cause, provided that

Lamaholot asaorigin, lineage
  asaʔonly if, provided that
Tagalog ásalbehavior, manners; custom, habit
Maranao asal-asalprecedents dating very far back; very old status, of people or things
  asarif, provided
  asalformer; custom; customary
Kenyah asal, asanorigin
Iban asalorigin, race; habit, peculiarity
Malay asalsource, origin; proviso or foundation for a statement; provided that
Acehnese asayorigin, provenance; provided that
Simalur asalorigin, cause; provided that
Karo Batak asalprovided that; origin, village of origin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak asalorigin; provided that
Toba Batak asalprovided that; origin, the substance from which something is made
Sundanese asalorigin, cause; provided that
Javanese kuṭa asal akumy home town; if, provided that
  asal(place of) origin; source.
Balinese asalorigin; customary, usual
Sasak asalorigin; provided that
Sangir asaleʔfamily, lineage, origin; provided that
Mongondow asalorigin, cause, beginning; that from which one stems, ancestor; provided that
Gorontalo asaliplace of origin; provided that
Buginese assaleŋorigin
Makassarese assalaʔorigin; provided that
Wolio asalaorigin, source
Bimanese asaorigin, cause, reason
Asilulu asaorigin; as long as; however, whereas

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

origin:   source, origin

Tagalog muláʔsource; the place from which anything comes or is obtained
Ngaju Dayak mulaoriginally
Malay mularoot; origins; source; beginnings
Karo Batak mulabeginning, origin of something
Toba Batak mulabeginning, origin
Old Javanese mūlabasis, foundation, cause, origin, beginning
Javanese mulaoriginally; from the beginning
Balinese mulaoriginal, not an imitation
Sasak mulabeginning, origin

Borrowing from Sanskrit, in most cases through Malay.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


outrigger:   cross-stick for outrigger

Yamdena barecross-stick of the outrigger
Fordata varacross-stick for outrigger
Kei warcross-sticks for the outrigger
Buli baraoutriggers of a boat

Buli is assumed to be a loan from some CMP source.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    



Cheke Holo bitistone oven
Eddystone/Mandegusu biti-bitikind of oven
Bugotu bitinative oven; volcano; sulphur
Nggela mbiticook in a native oven; hot spring; volcano;
  mbiti-mbitipool of water heated by red-hot stones for cooking
Lau to cook in a stone oven; a bambooful of cooked food, etc.; packet, parcel, bundle
Arosi cook with hot stones; to dye, soak in dye and boil; to stew bii-bii fold up, make a parcel of (usually in a leaf)

Probably early borrowing.

obl    obs    odo    of    off    ogr    oin    one    oni    opi    opp    or    ora    orc    ord    ori    out    ove    ox    


(Dempwolff: *banTiŋ ‘wild cow’)

ox:   wild ox

Ngaju Dayak bantiŋkind of wild bovid living in Borneo
Iban bantiŋwild ox (temadau)
Malay bantéŋsmaller wild ox, Bos sondaicus … of doubtful occurrence in the Peninsula
Sundanese bantéŋwild cow
Old Javanese banṭèŋ ~ banṭyaŋspecies of wild buffalo, Bos sundaicus
Javanese banṭèŋwild cow/bull; fighter for or champion of (a cause)
Balinese banṭéŋbovine, cow, bull (High Balinese)

Dempwolff posited *banTiŋ ‘wild cow’, but the available evidence suggests that this form originated in Java and spread from there to Malay and to languages that were in close contact with Malay . Wild bovids are found both on the island of Mindoro in the Philippines and in Borneo, and permit the reconstruction of PWMP *tamadaw ‘kind of wild ruminant.’

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)