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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    

packet of cooked rice

Kamarian atuatcontainer woven of coconut leaves in which one cooks rice to a firm mass
Malay ketupatsquare or polygonal packet of cooked glutinous rice (taken, like our sandwiches, for food on a journey)
Chamorro atupat, katupatwoven container used for cooking rice, a box-like container woven from coconut leaves, into which rice is placed, then submerged into boiling water for cooking

Probably borrowing from Malay. Chamorro atupat, Kamarian atuat suggest an etymon *qatubat, but the Chamorro variant in k- and the unexplained loss of *b (expected //h//) in Kamarian leave borrowing as the best alternative.

pail:   bucket, pail

Cebuano baldipail; fetch water in a pail
Kayan beledibucket
Iban beledibucket, pail
Malay baldipail, galvanized iron bucket

Borrowing, ultimately from Portuguese balde in Indonesia. The similar form in Philippine languages probably was borrowed independently from Spanish.


Iban pasaŋpair
Malay pasaŋpair; (slang) to couple
Old Javanese pasaŋyoke
  sa-pasaŋone yoke or pair; one cart
Makassarese pasaŋpair, couple, set
Wolio pasapair (e.g. of shoes), team (of horses), set; make a pair, match well, be well suited, be alike, be equal
Muna pasaŋapair (in yoke); to yoke animals

Borrowing from Malay.

pair, matching part

Ilokano ag-pádisto be similar, equal; match
  i-pádisto compare
  ka-pádisequal, match, equivalent
  pag-pádis-ento equalize; balance out; compare
Ibaloy parissomething that goes with something else to make a pair of matching set
  i-paristo put something with something else in order to make a pair
  man-paristo be a pair, matching set
  san-parisa pair
Pangasinan parespair of sponsors at wedding, baptism, etc. Each pair is composed of a man and a woman, who thereby attain the relationship of compadre and comadre respectively to the parents of the child or couple involved
Tagalog párisa pair; a set of two: two that go together; a couple; like; as; in the same way as; as well as
Bikol pádisa pair
  mag-pádisto pair off; to go in pairs
  mag-pádis-pádisto pair many things together
  pádis-pádiscard game
  pag-pádis-onto pair together, to match
Binukid padis ~ parispair; the other one (of a pair); the thing that matches (something else); partner (in doing something); to pair off; to go with, match
Mansaka parispair; to match
Chamorro parespair; divisible by two; placenta, afterbirth

Borrowing of the plural form of Spanish par ‘even, equal; pair; couple’.

(Dempwolff: *palaŋka 'palanquin')


Ilokano paláŋkachair, movable seat
Isneg paláŋkachair
Ifugaw paláŋkamovable chair
Tagalog palaŋkálever, pole for carrying a weight
Maranao palaŋkaʔstage, platform
Ngaju Dayak palaŋkaframe in the form of a bedstead decorated with carved designs, esp. of birds on which offerings to the spirits are placed; also a framework in the front of a boat where the leader of a war party sits
Iban papan pelaŋkasleeping platform, bedstead; open wooden box on four ornamental legs ... used in SAUT ritual
Old Javanese palaŋkapalaŋka-ncouch, seat, bench, throne
  palyaŋkaparyaŋkabed, couch, sofa, litter, palanquin, seat, bench, throne
Balinese pelaŋka-nbench to rest on; table
Sasak pelaŋkarectangle of bamboo lathes for climbing plants
Tae' palaŋkaraised floor on the left side of a house.

Borrowing. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *palaŋka 'palanquin', but marked it as a Sanskrit loan. Zoetmulder (1982) gives a similar etymology for Old Javanese palaŋka, palyanka, paryanka. If the original meaning was 'palanquin' and all of the items included here are related, it is remarkable how semantically divergent the reflexes of this form have become. Moreover, if it is a loan it is striking how culturally integrated the Ngaju Dayak word appears to be. Karo Batak pelaŋkah 'feeding trough for pigs; trough in which gambier is crushed by trampling; coffin carved from a tree trunk', Toba Batak palaŋka 'wooden trough' are best treated as chance resemblances.

(Dempwolff: *pucat ‘pale’)


Ngaju Dayak musatpale (rarely used alone, and often added for further emphasis after kalas ‘pale’)
Malay pucatpallor; wan
  pucat mukapallor through fear, anger or shame
Javanese pucetpale, wan

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pucat ‘pale’.

palm wine

Ilokano lambanógwhite wine made from coconut juice
Casiguran Dumagat lambanugnipa wine (after it has been refined after being run through a still)
Tagalog lambanógwine made from coconut or palm juice
Cebuano lambanúg ~ lambánugalcoholic drink made from the water taken from the nipa palm bud that has been fermented and diluted

Borrowing from Tagalog.

palolo worm

Tanga parurpalolo worm: Palolo viridus
Fijian balolosea-worm appearing on the reefs at the end of October and end of November ... It is cooked and eaten as a dainty
Tongan palolosea-worm
Samoan palolokind of sea-annelid (Eunice sp.) ... They are collected for food

Tanga parur is assumed to be a loan, presumably from a Polynesian source.

(Dempwolff: *taŋgiliŋ ‘anteater, pangolin’)


Iban təŋgiliŋscaly anteater: Manis javanica
Malay təŋgiliŋscaly anteater: Manis javanica
Javanese t<r>əŋgiliŋ ~ təŋgiliŋanteater

Based only on forms in Malay and Javanese Dempwolff (1938) posited *taŋgiliŋ ‘anteater, pangolin’. However, it is now clear that PAn *qaRem (q.v.) meant ‘pangolin’, with specific reference to the Manis pentadactyla of Taiwan, but later applied to the Manis javanica throughout much of Borneo.

(Dempwolff: *betik)


Iban betikpawpaw, papaya (Malay loan)
Malay betékpapaya or pawpaw, Carica papaya, of which Malays recognize three varieties
Karo Batak m)betik, bertikpapaya tree and fruit
Dairi-Pakpak Batak betikpapaya tree and fruit
Toba Batak botikthe papaya fruit: Carica papaya

Borrowing. The papaya is not native to Southeast Asia, but was introduced from the New World during the Age of Exploration (source: ). Wilkinson (1959) suggests a derivation from the Arabic word for 'watermelon', borrowed into Portuguese as pateca, and then applied to the papaya. Minangkabau buah ketéla ('Castilian fruit') suggests a Spanish introduction, a not unlikely possibility given the clearly Spanish origin of the word in most Philippine languages (papayas, kapayas, etc.).

parrot sp.

Old Javanese (h)atatgreen parrot
Javanese atata variety of parrot
Balinese atatgreen parrot
Ambai atatbird with blue feathers that nests in the holes of trees

pass slowly, of time

Ngaju Dayak lambatsluggish, indolent; delayed; to drag on; too late
Iban lambatslow; late (in coming)
Malay lambatslow; taking time; behind time (of a dull learner, a slow eater, etc.)
Toba Batak lambatslow, lingering
  pa-lambatextend the time for doing something
Old Javanese lambattenacious, difficult to move
Javanese lambatold, from earlier time, long ago (Pigeaud)

Probably borrowing from Malay.

passion, excitement

Maranao asikleap for joy or anger, agitated
Malay ashiklover; impassioned. Of sexual passion, religious ecstasy; over-devoted to some pastime, such as cockfighting
Malay (Jakarta) asikearnest

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.


Maranao birahiʔlove, unprincipled, deviate
  biraiʔattract, distract
Iban berailanguish, pine for, miss
Malay berahi, birahistrong feeling; passionately in love or excited. Usually of sexual love or love-madness but also of the feelings excited by music, e.g. of people stirred by it to get up and dance, and even of a stimulus such as money-making
Sundanese birahibe in the period that one can be in love; pleasure, enjoyment
Javanese bira(h)i/brahisexual passion
Balinese birahilove
Sangir birahipassionate about
Makassarese birahiinfatuated, passionate

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *lalu ‘to pass by’ )

past, done, gone

Tagalog láloʔ ~ lalúʔmore, increasingly
Malagasy lálugone beyond, passed
  man-dáluto pass by
Malay laluput through; done; past; afterwards
  sə-lalualways, continually
Old Javanese laluto pass, go by, elapse, continue, proceed; thereupon, subsequently; passing the limit, going too far, too much
  l<um>aluto go on regardless of the consequences, determinded to face (difficulties, death, etc.); to pass by, ignore
Kambera laluvery

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *lalu ‘to pass by’ (Vorbeigehen).

(Dempwolff: *lepa ‘plaster’)


Malay lepaplastering, daubing
Old Javanese lepaointment, unguent, plaster
Javanese lépaa mixture for filling or patching
Balinese lépaplaster, plaster-work
Sasak (Sewela) lepacement; to cement

Borrowing from Sanskrit. Based on the Malay and Javanese forms Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *lepa ‘plaster’.

patron:   customer, patron

Itbayaten sokicustomer
Ilokano súkifrequent, faithful customer
Pangasinan súkiregular and favored customer; vendor or merchant whom one patronizes regularly
Tagalog súkiɁan old or regular customer or client
Bikol súkiʔreferring to the relationship of trust between a buyer and a seller; a steady customer
Aklanon súkiʔregular customer; regular agent or dealer; to always do business with
Cebuano súkisteady customer or seller; be in the súki relation, i.e. that of a seller and buyer
Maranao sokiʔpatronize
Mansaka sokiɁto be a customer; to be in one’s debt
Tausug sukiɁa regular customer or purchaser
  mag-sukiɁto take someone as a regular customer

Borrowed from Hokkien (Southern Min).

pattern:   cloth with checkered pattern

Maranao palikatcloth with checkered pattern
Malay pelékatPulikat on the Coromandel Coast. Once the site of a Dutch factory and fort, and a port of shipment for print-fabrics and painted cloths, esp. headcloths and handkerchiefs
Acehnese palikatcheckered cloth imported from the Palikat region of India (north of Madras)

Borrowing from Malay.


Maranao bidakpawn in chess
Malay bidakpawn in chess

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

pawn:   pledge, pawn

Tiruray sandapawn something for cash
Minangkabau sandapledge, pawn
Old Javanese sandapledge, security, pawn
Balinese sandapawn, pledge
  sanda-haŋbe caused to pawn

Also Mapun sandaʔ ‘the amount loaned to someone who pawns or mortgages something as collateral; the thing that someone pawns or mortgages’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sandaʔ ‘to pawn something; to borrow money leaving some object of value as security’, Maranao sandaʔ ‘mortgage, security, pawn’, sandaʔ-i ‘pawnbroker, pawnshop; pawn, pledge’, Tboli sandaʔ ‘to pawn something’, Tausug sandaʔ ‘pledge, that which is pawned, security’, Yakan sandaʔ ‘a pawned item, a pawn’. Almost certainly a loan distribution, presumably borrowed from Malay before Malay itself replaced this word with gadai.

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    



Itbayaten manipeanut
Ilokano manipeanut; clitoris
Bontok manipeanuts; to gather peanuts
Casiguran Dumagat manepeanut
Ibaloy manipeanut
Pangasinan manipeanuts
Kapampangan maníʔpeanut; (metaphor) clitoris
Tagalog maníʔpeanut
Bikol manípeanut; clitoris
Hanunóo maníʔpeanut: Arachis hypogaea Linn.; known but not grown in Hanunóo country
Aklanon mani(h)peanut
Agutaynen manipeanut
Mansaka maniʔpeanut
Tiruray maniʔa general term for peanut: Arachis hypogaea Linn.
Yakan manipeanut

Borrowing of Spanish maní ‘peanut’, an Amazonian cultigen. The meaning ‘clitoris’ is clearly secondary, and based on physical similarity.


Ilokano mutiácharm; gem; amulet; muse, goddess
Tagalog mutyáʔamulet; charm; pearl; jewel; darling
Hanunóo mutyáʔbezoar stone amulet
Maranao montiaʔjewel, gem
  montiaʔ-anbejeweled person; diamond mine
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) muntiyaʔan object, as a stone or a pig’s tusk which is considered to have supernatural power and is kept as a fetish or charm
Mansaka motyaʔgem; pearl
Mapun mutsaʔa pearl
Malay mutiapearl; shell
Old Javanese mutyapearl
Sangir montia ~ muntiathe impersonal magical force known as ‘mana’
Mongondow munsia-nkind of gemstone

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit.


Ilokano lápispencil
  i-lápisto write down with a pencil
  lapís-anto pencil in the eyebrows
Bontok lápispencil
Casiguran Dumagat lápispencil
Pangasinan lápispencil
Tagalog lápispencil; graphite, black lead
Bikol lápispencil
  mag-lápisto write something in pencil
Tiruray lafisa pencil

From Spanish lapiz ‘pencil, graphite’.

(Dempwolff: *tanzuŋ ‘peninsula, cape’)

peninsula cape

Ngaju Dayak tanjoŋriverbank
Malay tanjoŋcape; headland; promontory
Toba Batak pulo tanjuŋpeninsula
Javanese tanjuŋcape, promontory, peninsula
Balinese tanjuŋcape, promontory, protruding point

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tanzuŋ ‘peninsula, cape’ (Halbinsel, Kap).

(Dempwolff: *peliR ‘penis’)


Malay pəlirmale organ of generation
Javanese pelipenis

Despite its basic semantics, and the regular sound correspondence of r in Malay to zero in Javanese, this comparison is almost certainly a product of borrowing from Malay. Apart from being in competition with PAn *qutiN ‘penis’, it is not reported in Old Javanese (Zoetmulder 1982), and is not known in any other language. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *peliR ‘penis’.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋgul ‘stand out, project’)

pennant:   banner, pennant

Tagalog tuŋʔólpennant, banner, streamer
Ngaju Dayak pa-tuŋgulflag, banner
Malay tuŋgulstandard, banner
Toba Batak toŋgola single-colored flag, military flag
Old Javanese tuŋgulbanner, standard
Javanese tuŋgulbanner, flag

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋgul ‘project; standard, banner’ (hervorragen, Standarte).

(Dempwolff: *siriq ‘pepper, betel pepper’)

pepper:   betel pepper

Tagalog sílipepper; chili; green pepper (Spanish chile)
Ngaju Dayak sirihbetel leaves
Malay sirehbetel vine, Piper betle; betel leaf, betel leaf prepared for chewing (with areca nut, gambier and lime)
Javanese suruhthe betel plant; betel leaves, used for chewing

Dempwolff (1938) posited *siriq ‘pepper, betel pepper’, but this comparison is misguided. Tagalog síli, like the similar word in many other Philippine languages (Ilokano síli ‘hot chili pepper: Capsicum sp.’, Bontok sili ‘chili pepper’, Bikol síli ‘chili pepper, hot pepper’, etc.) is borrowed from Mexican Spanish chile, itself a loanword from Nahuatl. The Javanese form is irregular, and the Ngaju Dayak word may well be a Banjarese loan.

pepper (black)

Casiguran Dumagat ládahot, peppery, pungent, stinging, biting (of the taste of something)
Palawano ladaʔchili pepper
Kadazan Dusun hadopepper, chili
Kelabit ladəhred chili pepper
Malay ladapepper; (sometimes) capsicum; peppercorn (i.e. candareen) as a measure of weight; black pepper
Karo Batak ladapepper
Toba Batak ladablack pepper
Nias ladapepper
  lada sebuaSpanish pepper
  lada nihasmaller native pepper

Borrowing from Malay.

period in which a widow may not remarry

Malay édahperiod during which a widow or divorced woman may not remarry
Sasak édahperiod during which a widow may not remarry
Gorontalo idatime in which a widow may not remarry

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.


Malay izinpermission
Toba Batak isinpermission
Sundanese idinpermission
Balinese ijinpermission
Mandar isiŋpermission
Rembong isinpermission

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

(Dempwolff: *uRaŋ)


Iban uraŋperson, people
Malay oraŋperson; human being; numeral coefficient for human beings
Toba Batak uraŋchild; have a child
Old Javanese woŋ, wwaŋhuman being, man (woman), people, servant, attendant
Javanese woŋperson; adult; man(kind); someone, a person
Makassarese uraŋcompanion, fellow

A late innovation in western Indonesia, with borrowing from Malay into some languages (including at least Makassarese). Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to include Ulawa ule- 'brother, sister, cousins of all sorts' under *uRaŋ is almost certainly in error.

peso (unit of Spanish currency)

Itbayaten piisospeso
Ilokano písospeso; one hundred centavos
  ma-mísosworth one peso
  sag-pi-písosone peso each
Isneg písosone peso
Bontok písuspeso
Kankanaey písusone peso; half a dollar
Ifugaw píhu ~ píhhuone peso
Casiguran Dumagat písupeso
Ibaloy pisosone peso
  me-misosone peso each
Pangasinan pisoone peso note
Kapampangan pésusone peso
Tagalog písoone peso; one hundred centavos
Bikol péso ~ písopeso, pesos
Hanunóo písusa monetary unit equal to 80 centavos (rather than 100 centavos, which is the standard value of the peso in most other parts of the Philippines); one peso
Aklanon píso ~ písospeso
  ma-mísoat one peso each
Waray-Waray písopeso
Agutaynen pisopeso
Hiligaynon písospeso bill
Cebuano písupeso, the Philippine unit of currency
Binukid pisupeso, the Philippine unit of currency
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pisuspeso
Mansaka pisospeso

Also Isneg pésoɁ ‘peso’. Borrowing of Spanish peso ‘one hundred centavos’.


Amis parparto beat out grain or beans from the shells or husks
Puyuma parpartwo-ended pestle for shelling (remove seeds from a stalk)

Probably an Amis loan in Puyuma.

(Dempwolff: *pin(tT)a ‘to request’)

petition:   request, petition

Tagalog pinta-kasimutual aid, esp. in certain rural tasks
Iban pintaʔrequest, petition, demand; ask for
Malay pintaasking; applying for
  mntato apply for; to seek; to request
Karo Batak pintato invite
Toba Batak pintarequest, petition
Old Javanese pintarequest
  a-pintato have a request, ask for
  a-mintato ask for, beg for

Borrowing from Malay into non-Malayic languages. Based on the Tagalog, Malay, and Toba Batak forms given here Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pin(tT)a ‘to request’, although he acknowledged that the Tagalog form is a loan.

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    


pheasant:   Argus pheasant

Malay kuauArgus pheasant: Argusianus argus
Toba Batak uoArgus pheasant

Probably early borrowing.

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    


pick up, take with fingers

Tagalog dampótact of picking up with the hand from the floor or ground
  damput-anplace from which something is picked up
Ngaju Dayak jumputpick up, take
  katip jumputfire tongs
Iban jeputtake a pinch or single piece
  sa-jeput semakaua pinch of tobacco
Malay jemputa grasp; pinch; pressure between the cushion of the thumb (jempul) and the fingertips; (whence) pressure such as is used in greeting a visitor; greeting
Toba Batak man-jomputpick something up with two or three fingers
Old Javanese j<um>umputto take or hold between forefinger and thumb, pinch
Javanese jumputtweezers, small pincers

Also Ngaju Dayak sumput ‘pick up, take’. Tagalog dampót cannot be reconciled with the Ngaju Dayak or Javanese forms, and the latter cannot be reconciled with Malay jemput. Moreover, Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian covu-ta ‘to break or cut food small; to peck at’, which appears to be unrelated. All things considered, then, this comparision is most likely to be a product of borrowing from Malay.

pickaxe, mattock, hoe

Itbayaten pikopickaxe
Ilokano pikopic ax, spout
Isneg pikothe pick mattock
Ibaloy pikomattock, pick ax used to loosen earth
Tagalog pikopickaxe; a heavy tool with a sharp point for breaking up dirt, rocks, etc.
Bikol píkopick, pickaxe
Aklanon píkomattock, hoe
Agutaynen pikopickaxe
  mag-pikoto break things up with a pickaxe
Cebuano píkupickaxe; dig with a pickaxe
Maranao pikomattock

Borrowing of Spanish pico ‘pickaxe’.

(Dempwolff: *acar)

pickles, to pickle

Itbayaten asalmarinate (using vinegar, sugar)
Kapampangan atcárapickled salad
Hiligaynon atsárapickled green papaya
Cebuano atsal, atsar, atsárapickles made of shredded green papaya and various other vegetables cut in slices
Iban acarIndian spiced pickles of fruit or vegetable
Malay acharpickle; preserve in acid
Sundanese acarpickled
  ŋ-acarto pickle
  paŋ-acarwhat is used for pickling
Javanese acarpickle(s)
  ŋ-acarmake into pickles
Madurese acarpickle (usually pepper or onion which is pickled with vinegar)
Balinese acarpickles; pickled (not sweet)
Makassarese acaraʔpickled, of raw fruits (e.g. grated papaya), thin-sliced cucumber, peeled onion, Spanish pepper and flying fish eggs rolled into marble-sized balls and steeped in vinegar
Hawu ahapickles; sour

Borrowing, ultimately from Hindi or a related Indian source.

pickled fish

Casiguran Dumagat búrupickled iponpickled ipon fish (pickled in salt brine); to pickle fish
Tagalog búropickled or salted
Cebuano búrucover something all over with salt, sugar, flour (as meat); serve, eat fish with lots of salt; small dried fish with more salt than the ordinary
Malay (Kedah, Kelantan) buduanchovies pickled in brine after being dried and partially decayed
  tempayan budupickle-tub
Acehnese budhéenkind of preserve of small fish in brine (much eaten in Daya)
Nias budukind of dried fish
Sundanese bodoa snack eaten by the Baduy people which consists of small fermented fish which are cooked, salted and preserved in a bamboo internode’
Kambera buduto ferment, pickle
  ia budusalted fish
  pa-budustew until ripe (as bananas)
Tetun budu, budunto pickle
  budu tabakuplace tobacco in a heap so that after the necessary ingredients are added it may assume the desired color, strength, and aromatic flavor; sour conserves, pickles budu-an an unwashed strong-odored body, or to stay at home

Borrowing from Malay. Unlike many Malay loanwords in Philippine languages which diffused from Brunei, probably in connection with the trading arc that linked Borneo with the Moluccas through Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, this word is not attested anywhere in the southern Philippines. Its distribution suggests instead that it was introduced by peninsular Malay traders whose base of operations was the entrepot at Manila Bay first established by the Fukienese, and jointly maintained by the Spanish during the three and one half centuries of the Manila Galleon (1565-1815).

(Dempwolff: *acar)

pickles, to pickle

Itbayaten asalmarinate (using vinegar, sugar)
Kapampangan atcárapickled salad
Hiligaynon atsárapickled green papaya
Cebuano atsal, atsar, atsárapickles made of shredded green papaya and various other vegetables cut in slices
Iban acarIndian spiced pickles of fruit or vegetable
Malay acharpickle; preserve in acid
Sundanese acarpickled
  ŋ-acarto pickle
  paŋ-acarwhat is used for pickling
Javanese acarpickle(s)
  ŋ-acarmake into pickles
Madurese acarpickle (usually pepper or onion which is pickled with vinegar)
Balinese acarpickles; pickled (not sweet)
Makassarese acaraʔpickled, of raw fruits (e.g. grated papaya), thin-sliced cucumber, peeled onion, Spanish pepper and flying fish eggs rolled into marble-sized balls and steeped in vinegar
Hawu ahapickles; sour

Borrowing, ultimately from Hindi or a related Indian source.

piece (of cloth...)

Itbayaten ka-pidaasopiece, portion, part
Ibaloy pidasopiece, one unit of multiple things (as coins, lumber, etc.)
Pangasinan pidáso‘piece’, unit for selling certain commodities, including dried guláman (extract from agar-agar seaweed from which a jelly-like dessert is prepared)
Tagalog pirasoa bit, a piece; fragment; a piece of something broken; portion
Agutaynen pidasoa single, whole piece of something
Maranao pidasobolt of cloth

From Spanish pedazo ‘piece, fragment, bit’.

(Dempwolff: *lemba(r) ‘material, fabric; piece’)

piece, numeral classifier

Malay lembarthread; strand; sheet
Javanese lembarcounting unit for flat things (as sheets of paper)

Based only on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch *lemba(r) ‘material, fabric; piece’ (Stoff, Zeug, ‘piece’ (as a numeral classifier)). However, cognates are known in very few languages, and the Malay and Javanese words are not phonologically compatible, Javanese having a schwa in the penult, but Malay having a mid-front vowel that could only come etymologically from *i. Despite the vocalic disagreement, this is best treated as a Malay loan distribution.

pier:   dock, pier, wharf

Itbayaten pantalanpier, wharf
Ilokano pantalánwharf; pier
Tagalog pantalánwooden or bamboo pier; quay; wharf
Bikol pantalánpier, dock
Agutaynen pantalanwharf, pier
Palawan Batak pantálanharbor, channel, pass
Maranao pantalanwharf, dock, pier

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *cukup ‘be sufficient’.

piety:   works of piety, charity

Maranao amalspiritual desire, spiritual goal
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amalundertake a quest for supernatural help or power by means of self-inflicted difficulty
Iban amalpractices for acquiring strength or beauty
  ŋ-amalfast or perform the proper ceremonies to become strong
Malay amalputting into operation, esp. of practical piety, whether in religious observances or in good works
Sundanese amala meritorious work (generally applied to the giving of alms or to lending assistance)
Javanese amalcharity; charitable donation
Sasak amalwork, deed, act (in a theological sense)
Sangir amaleʔundergo self-chastisement, torment oneself in order to repulse the assaults of demons on body and property
Makassarese amalaʔperform good works in the expectation of a reward in the Hereafter
Wolio ʔamalagood work, pious deed, charity, meditation
Bimanese amagood works, spiritually meritorious deeds
Buruese amalincantation to render someone receptive to amorous advances

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.


Ansus tapuypig
Serui-Laut tafuipig

pigeon, dove (domesticated)

Ilokano kalapátipigeon, dove; wedding dance
  babai a kalapátieasy girl, whore
Kankanaey kalupátipigeon, dove
Ifugaw kalupátipigeon, or a bird that resembles a dove
Casiguran Dumagat palapátipigeon
Tagalog kalapátidove; pigeon
Bikol salampáti ~ sarampátidove
Cebuano salampátigeneral term for pigeons; prostitute (euphemism)
Maranao marapatikdomesticated dove, dove, pigeon
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) merepatikdomestic dove
Mansaka sarampatipigeon
Tiruray marafatia domesticated pigeon: Columba livia Gmelin
Malay mərpatidove, pigeon, esp. the imported pigeon and not the wild (Sanskrit bharyapati)

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit, presumably through the medium of Malay.

(Dempwolff: *saka ‘post, pillar’)

pillar:   post, pillar

Malay sakapillar, post; in Java a saka is the main house pillar; in Malaya it is used of the extreme outer post of a kelong fish trap (large marine fishtrap with three or more triangular or heart-shaped compartments into which the fish are led along a line of screened fishing stakes
Old Javanese sakapost, pillar
Javanese sakapillar supporting a roof
Balinese sakapost, pillar, column
Sasak sakapillar, column

Dempwolff (1938) posited *saka ‘post, pillar’, but Zoetmulder (1982) gives Old Javanese saka as a borrowing of Sanskrit sākhā ‘branch’. Even if its loan status from Sanskrit is not established, its antiquity in the Austronesian family is far from demonstrated with this geographically restricted distribution.

pinching off, shearing off

Ngaju Dayak katipthe pinching of crabs
Malay kətipnip or bite of small insects such as gnats, mosquitos and bugs

Also Ngaju Dayak kutip ‘pinching with the fingernails; pinched off’. Dempwolff compared the Ngaju Dayak and Malay forms with Fijian koti ‘to clip, to shear’, Tongan kosi ‘to cut with scissors or shears or clippers, to clip or shear; to cut grass with a lawn-mower; (of rats) to gnaw through, to gnaw a hole in’, Samoan oti ‘to cut (with scissors, clippers, etc.)’, but these are better assigned to *ketil.


Ngaju Dayak kanaspineapple
Toba Batak honaspineapple
  honas-honas-ansick from overeating pineapple

Borrowing, ulitmately from Portuguese ananas, which in turn acquired in from a Tupian language of Brazil.


Maranao nanaspineapple
  nanas-anpineapple plantation or field
Tiruray nanaspineapple
Iban nanaspineapple
Malay nanaspineapple
Javanese nanaspineapple
Sasak nanaspineapple

Borrowing, ulitmately from Portuguese ananas, which in turn acquired in from a Tupian language of Brazil.

pipe:   smoking pipe

Amis ʔoŋtopipe for smoking
Puyuma Huŋtuysmoking pipe (from Min hun-chhui)
Paiwan quŋtsuytobacco-pipe (Min)
Yami (Iranomilek) unsuitobacco pipe, esp. bamboo water-pipe
Cebuano hunsúypipe for smoking
Maranao onsoipipe
Tboli unsuytobacco pipe
Tausug huŋsuytobacco pipe
Singhi Land Dayak usoipipe
Malay unchu, unchuiChinese tobacco-pipe
Rejang ucuʔipipe, cigarette-holder
Madurese oncuytobacco pipe

Borrowing from Southern Min, probably during the Ming dynasty.

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    


place:   village, place of residence

Saisiyat ʔasaŋvillage
Bunun asaŋvillage

Although this appears initially to be a straightforward comparison Saisiyat /s/ can only reflect PAn *C and Bunun /s/ can only reflect *s or *S. The similarity of Atayal qalaŋ, Truku Seediq alaŋ ‘village’ to these and to one another also cannot be accounted for by recurrent sound correspondences.

place, spot

Ilokano lugárplace, position, spot; room (for containment)
  i-lugárto place something, put in the proper place; find space for; employ
  l<um>ugárto stay; a resident
Bikol lugára place, spot; room, space
Cebuano lugárgeographical place; proper place, occasion for something
Central Tagbanwa lugarplace
Tiruray lugara place, a location

Borrowing of Spanish lugar ‘place, spot; town, village’.

plan something, prepare

Itbayaten mi-handato prepare
Tagalog naka-handáʔready, prepared

Apparently a Tagalog loanword in Itbayaten.

(Dempwolff: *keTem ‘wood plane’)

plane:   carpenter’s plane

Ilokano katámcarpenter’s plane, jack plane
  katam-énto shave with a plane
Bontok katáma carpenter’s plane (said to be from Ilokano)
Ifugaw katáma carpenter’s plane (said to be from Ilokano)
Casiguran Dumagat katámcarpenter’s plane; to plane wood
Ibaloy katamplane, tool for smoothing wood
  katam-ento smooth lumber with a plane
Tagalog katámplane; a carpenter’s tool with a blade for smoothing wood
  katam-ínto plane; to smooth wood or metal with a plane
Bikol katámplane (tool)
  katam-ánto plane
  katam-ónto plane down a particular spot
Mapun katama hand plane (a carpenter’s tool used for smoothing wood)
Tausug katama plane (the carpenter’s tool used for smoothing wood)
  katam-anto plane (something)
Kadazan Dusun katamto plane; a tool for smoothing a surface
  katam-anto plane for
  katam-onto be planed
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) katama wood plane
  ŋatamto plane wood
Melanau (Mukah) kətəmwood plane
Ngaju Dayak katamwood plane; what is planed or smoothed
Iban ketamcarpenter’s plane
Malay kətamcarpenter’s plane (regarded as a chisel nipped into a groove)
Nias katawood plane
  mo-katato plane wood
Balinese katamplane (tool))
Bare'e katawood plane
Buginese mak-kattaŋto plane wood
Makassarese kattaŋwood plane
Kambera katiwood plane

Also Toba Batak otom ‘wood plane’, maŋ-otom ‘to plane wood’, Tae' gattaŋ ‘to plane wood’, Muna hatamu ‘(carpenter’s) plane’. Borrowing from Malay. In Philippine languages this presumably began with Tagalog, from whence it spread to several other coastal languages, including Ilokano, and from Ilokano it was borrowed into various of the mountain languages of northern Luzon. Dempwolff (1938) posited *keTem ‘wood plane’, and included Javanese keṭem in this meaning, but I am unable to locate such a term either in modern Javanese (Pigeaud 1938, Horne 1974), or in Old Javanese (Zoetmulder 1982).

planed lumber

Ilokano táblaplank, board
Casiguran Dumagat tablaplaned lumber, sawn lumber; board
Tagalog tabláboard; a broad, thin piece of wood
Maranao tablalumber, board

Borrowing of Spanish tabla ‘board, plank; tablet, slab’.

plank:   gunwale, side plank on canoe

Mansaka ampaʔboard used to increase freeboard of boat
Sangir ampathe plank that is fixed on the baule (unfinished hull of a boat) to give it more freeboard

Borrowing from Sangir.

plant sp.

Iban paŋgila tree: Clerodendron album Ridl.
  pe-paŋilgrass sp.
Malay paŋgila shrub: Clerodendron paniculatum
Karo Batak paŋgil-paŋgilplant with red, plume-shaped flower
Old Javanese paŋgilplant sp.

Borrowing, probably from Malay.

plant:   safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

Ilokano kasumbásafflower: Carthamus tinctorius
Maranao kasombasafflower: Bixa orellana L.
Malay kəsumbageneric for trees yielding yellowish-red dyes; safflower Carthamus tinctorius
Old Javanese kasumbasafflower: Carthamus tinctorius, from which a bright red dye is made
Sasak kəsumbaplant with red fruits that are used as a coloring agent (safflower): Carthamus tinctorius

Borrowing from Malay (ultimately from Sanskrit).

(Dempwolff: *sulur ‘offshoot, shoot of a plant’)

plant:   offshoot shoot of a plant

Kalagan suloloffshoot
Ngaju Dayak sulohto sprout; a sprout or offshoot
Malagasy súlua substitute
  sulú-anato be substituted, to be replaced
Iban sulurproject, stick out (in succession), hence go one after another; new growth (of cut plants)
Malay sulurturning or rising upward; shoots; of the roots of certain species of Ficus, but used in Malay of runners for plants, shoots on a tree trunk, upturned crockets, upward extensions of a boat’s ribs, etc.
Sundanese sulurto replace; a replacement
Old Javanese sulurshoot of a creeper; aerial root
Javanese suluraerial roots hanging down from tree branches
Balinese sulurto climb in a spiral (creeper)
Samoan suluthe true son of a chief (Pratt 1893)

Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Javanese, Malay, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy and Samoan, Dempwolff proposed *sulur ‘offshoot, shoot of a plant’. However, I am unable to find Tagalog sulol in Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), the Samoan form probably is a chance resemblance, and several of the remaining forms show contradictory reflexes for the final consonant, Ngaju Dayak supporting *R, but Old and Modern Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese supporting *r.

(Dempwolff: *gambir ‘refreshing’)

plant chewed with betel that invigorates

Tagalog gambilvery fresh
Maranao gambirvim, vigor
Ngaju Dayak gambirgambier, plant chewed with betel
Malay gambirgambier, a decoction from the leaves of Uncaria gambir, consumed by Malays with betel
Karo Batak gamberthe gambir plant, Uncaria gambir Roxb.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gamber ~ gambirUncaria gambir Roxb.
Toba Batak gambirUncaria gambir, the leaf of a plant that is chewed with areca leaves and lime
Nias gambea plant with leaves and sap that are chewed with betel to color it red
Old Javanese gambira small, white, fragrant flower, a kind of jasmine
Javanese gambira certain vine; the fragrant white-and-yellow blossom of this vine; a plant whose leaves are used as a betel-chewing ingredient and in tanning hides; the betel-chewing mixture made from this leaf
Balinese gambirthe name of a species of bushy plant
Sasak gambirgambier: Uncaria gambir Roxb.
  bə-gambirto use gambier (in the betel chew)
Wolio gambibox for carrying smoking utensils and papers (in the old days used only by people of the highest nobility)
Muna gambiwooden betel nut container with compartments for betel leaf, areca nut, lime, gambier and tobacco (now obsolete)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *gambir ‘refreshing’, but it is now clear that this is a loan distribution due to borrowing from Malay. The Tagalog form, which he cited from Laktaw (1914) does not appear in modern dictionaries.

plant shoot:   young leaf, plant shoot

Kapampangan lábuŋyoung leaf, bamboo shoot
  ma-lábuŋleafy (healthy)
Tagalog labóŋtender and edible bamboo shoot
Hanunóo lábuŋleaf

Probably a borrowing of Malay reboŋ ‘bamboo shoot when young, soft and edible’.

plant sp., turmeric, Curcuma longa

Ilokano kal-kaláwagtwining shrub with globose fruits: Rivea sp.
Tagalog kaláwaga species of shrub; a plant with a yellowish juice which is used to color food
Bikol kaláwagturmeric (plant producing a root from which a yellow coloring is obtained; also used as a seasoning: Curcuma longa)
Binukid kalawagturmeric; yellow color
Mansaka karawagkind of plant (used for seasoning, similar to ginger, but not hot tasting)

Borrowing from Tagalog. The PMP and PPh term for ‘turmeric’ was *kunij.

plant: Leucaena leucocephala

Tagalog táŋan-táŋancastor oil plant: Ricinus communis
Bikol taŋán-taŋáncastor oil plant: Ricinus communis
Chamorro taŋan-taŋana large bush that proliferates on many of the high islands in Micronesia, good for cattle feed and fuel: Leucaena leucocephala

Since the Leucaena leucocephala is native to southern Mexico and northern Central America it must have been introduced to the Marianas islands during the Spanish colonial period. The name for it presumably was borrowed from speakers of Tagalog, who compared it with the more familiar castor oil plant, itself a likely earlier introduction to insular Southeast Asia from India.

plant: Spilanthes spp.

Tausug gataŋ-gataŋa plamt: Spilanthes iabadicensis
Malay gətaŋcertain Compositae used medicinally, esp. Spilanthes acmella

plate dish

Ibatan piŋgana plate
Ilokano piŋgánplate
  ag-piŋgánto use a plate
  i-piŋgánto put on a plate
  pag-piŋgan-ánto use as a plate
Isneg piŋgána kind of white xúsi jar (earthenware jar of Chinese origin); a plate
Casiguran Dumagat péŋgantin plate; to take plates along
Kapampangan píŋgandishes
Tagalog piŋgándish; plate
  pá-miŋgan-anrack or shelf for plates and other kitchen utensils
  piŋgan-ana set of plates or dishes
Bikol piŋgána plate
  pi-piŋgan-áncupboard, pantry
Hanunóo piŋgándish, plate, usually of porcelain
Maranao piŋganplate, China
Tausug piŋgana bowl, concave container for food
Kadazan Dusun piŋganplate
Ida'an begak piŋganplate
Lun Dayeh bigana dish, plate
Kelabit biganplate, dish
Kayan pigencolored border of plate or cup
Kiput pikaanplate
Iban piŋgaiChina plate or dish, usually large and valued
Malay piŋganplate, usually of porcelain or earthware plates
Karo Batak piŋganplate, dish, porcelain
Toba Batak piŋganplate
Sundanese piŋgana cup, bowl, or dish with a foot
Old Javanese piŋgana deep bowl
Javanese piŋganbowl or basin used for food preparation
Balinese piŋgandeep bowl, cauldron
Sasak piŋgənimported plate
Tae' pindanplate, dish of earthenware or porcelain
Tetun bikanplate
Yamdena mbinanplate, earthenware
Leti piknaplate
Asilulu pikalplate, crockery
Buruese piganplatter

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Persian via Tamil. This loanword corresponds roughly to the area of Malay cultural influence immediately prior to the arrival of European colonizers.

plate, dish

Malay piriŋshallow-rimmed platter or plate (usually of metal)
Buli piriŋplate

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *pentas ‘platform’)


Tagalog pantasbench in front of the house door (Laktaw)
Malay pəntassleeping platform (on posts or legs)
Toba Batak pontashigher floor in a house (a kind of gallery in front of the house where the chiefs are fond of sitting)

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) positied Uraustronesisch *pentas ‘platform’.


Tagalog pala-palagangplank; temporary shed; trellis, arbor
Cebuano palaʔpálaʔhorizontal trellis for plants to grow on; temporary shed without walls
Malay para-paraa shelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptacle for cooking pots
Toba Batak para-paraa wooden shelf that runs from the door entirely around the interior of a Batak house
Fijian vara(not in Capell)

Borrowing of Malay parapara, which itself reflects PAn *paRa ‘storage shelf above the hearth. Dempwolff (1938) also included Sa'a para ‘fence’, and Fijian vara, but the first of these probably is unrelated, and the second cannot be found in any modern dictionary.

playing cards

Ngaju Dayak buyaŋEuropean playing cards
Tae' buyaŋplaying cards
Makassarese buyaŋplaying cards; banknote

Borrowing, probably from Makassarese. van der Veen (1940) considers the Tae' word a borrowing of Buginese ujaŋ, but if so the phonetic discrepancy between these forms and the agreement of the Tae' and Ngaju Dayak forms remains unexplained. Although the referent of this term is a European introduction, the word itself appears to be native, evidently reflecting *buyaŋ 'bark cloth?'.

(Dempwolff: *inak 'agreeable')

pleasant, agreeable

Malay énakenjoyable, delicious
Old Javanese k-énakthe best thing, the most convenient
  m-énakat ease, relieved, satisfied; easy, smooth, untroubled; pleasant, agreeable, comfortable
  inakwell-being, peace, ease, enjoyment, satisfaction; easy (smooth, untroubled) course (e.g. of a battle)
Javanese énak, inakpleasing to the senses, esp. taste, smell
Balinese énakbe pleasant (taste, smell), enjoyable
  k-énakhealthy, recovered from illness

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *inak 'agreeable', but the comparison in question is best explained as a relatively recent innovation or a loan distribution in western Indonesia.

pledge, pawn

Tiruray sandapawn something for cash
Minangkabau sandapledge, pawn
Old Javanese sandapledge, security, pawn
Balinese sandapawn, pledge
  sanda-haŋbe caused to pawn

Also Mapun sandaʔ ‘the amount loaned to someone who pawns or mortgages something as collateral; the thing that someone pawns or mortgages’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sandaʔ ‘to pawn something; to borrow money leaving some object of value as security’, Maranao sandaʔ ‘mortgage, security, pawn’, sandaʔ-i ‘pawnbroker, pawnshop; pawn, pledge’, Tboli sandaʔ ‘to pawn something’, Tausug sandaʔ ‘pledge, that which is pawned, security’, Yakan sandaʔ ‘a pawned item, a pawn’. Almost certainly a loan distribution, presumably borrowed from Malay before Malay itself replaced this word with gadai.

plough:   harrow, plough

Toba Batak salagawooden piece on the neck of a buffalo to which the plough is attached
Madurese salagaplough
PSS *salagaharrow (tool)
Buginese salagaharrow (for rice field)
Makassarese salagaharrow, of which one with short, thick teeth is used to plough, and one with long, slender teeth is used to rake up grass and stubble

Probably a loan distribution. The Madurese form is very likely borrowed from Buginese or Makassarese, but under this hypothesis the Toba Batak form is unexplained.


Amis kaŋkaŋa plow
  mi-kaŋkaŋto plow a field
  pi-kaŋkaŋ-antime to plow; field to be plowed
Puyuma a kaŋkaŋa plough
  k<əm>aŋkaŋto use a plough
Paiwan kaŋkaŋa plow (Min?)
  k<m>aŋkaŋto plow

Most likely a loanword spread from one or another or these languages to the others. The ultimate source of the morpheme remains unclear.


Ilokano arádoplow
  ag-arádoto plow
Agutaynen aradoplow
  mag-aradoto plow

From Spanish arado

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    



Bontok bulsápocket
Ifugaw bolhápurse, pocket
Casiguran Dumagat i-búlsaput something in a pocket
Pangasinan búlsapacket
Malay bolsaclothes bag

Borrowing from Spanish (Philippine forms) and Portuguese (Malay).

point; direction

Itbayaten pontadirection
Ilokano púntapoint, purpose
Bikol púntaa promontory, or point of land; point (as of a pencil)
  mahiŋ-púntato aim at
Aklanon punta(h)point, end (top part)
Maranao pontapoint, as point of a plow

From Spanish punta ‘point, tip, end; headland’.

(Dempwolff: *pa(n)tik ‘be pointed’)


Ngaju Dayak pantikspines on certain kinds of fish
Malagasy fántsi ~ fatsispur of a cock
Malay patekpoisonous or dangerous fin or spike on certain fish
Karo Batak pantikpierce with a pointed implement; bore through
Toba Batak pantikfirmly penetrating into something
Fijian batia tooth; a sharp edge; the border of a

The Fijian form is best assigned to POc *bati ‘canine tooth’, and its connection with the other forms given here remains dubious. The remaining forms are most like products of borrowing from Malay. On the basis of this set Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *pa(n)tik ‘be pointed’.

(Dempwolff: *tazak ‘pointed implement’)

pointed implement

Tagalog tárakto stab with a knife, dagger or the like, and leave the weapon sticking in the victim
Malay tajakgrass cutter (like a short-handled golf club)
Toba Batak tajaka machete (said to be from Malay)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tazak ‘pointed implement’ (spitzes Werkzeug).


Casiguran Dumagat lásunpoison; to take poison
Hanunóo lásunpoison, but not venom or arrow poison
Agutaynen lasonpoison
  mag-lasonto poison a person or animal
  l<in>asonto be poisoned
Tausug lassunpoison
  mag-lassunto commit suicide by taking poison
Lun Dayeh recunpoison
  ŋe-recunapply poison, spray weed killer
Malay racunstomach poison (in contrast to venom, sepsis or blood poison)
  mə-racunto poison

Borrowing from Malay.

pole:   mast, pole

Ilokano pálomast of a ship; flagpole
Tagalog pálopole; mast of a boat
Bikol (Camarines Sur) pálopole; mast
Hanunóo pálumast, pole
Cebuano pálumast, pole

Borrowing of Spanish palo ‘mast’.

(Dempwolff: *cemeD ‘impure’)

polluted:   defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean

Ngaju Dayak samara sickness that comes about because one has eaten something that is prohibited or taboo; soiled, defiled, polluted
Malay cemardirt; polution. Of dirty bits of road; a vile disposition; days of uncleanness (hari cemar kain ‘menstrual period’)
Toba Batak somorunwilling, reluctant
  anak somor-somora bad son who causes grief to his parents
  imbulu somor-somorhair on the human body (or horses) which shows that the possessor is unworthy; in general: unworthy
Sundanese cemerlose one’s power, influence or purity; become ordinary or impure
Old Javanese a-cemerunclean, foul, low
  a-nemer-ito defile
  c<um>emer-ito defile
Javanese cemersoggy, messy, muddy
  c/r/emedto tell dirty stories; to talk obscenely or coarsely
Balinese cemerceremonially unclean
  ñemer-into defile, make ritually unclean
Sasak cemerfoul, impure; damp, moist; unsafe (because of sorcery)
Wayan somobe dyed black or brown (using traditional dyes made from black mud or leaves); black or brown dye
  somo-ni ~ somo-tidye something, stain something black or brown; weave a mat with dyed strips
Fijian somostained, of sinnet
  somo-tato stain sinnet black, generally by burying it in black earth or mangrove mud
  somo-somo-a ~ somo-somo-tadirty
  taka-somosomo-takato dirty, blacken with earth
Samoan somogum (secreted by the eyes, etc.)
  somo-abe gummy

Dempwolff reconstructed *cemeD ‘impure’, but there is little evidence for such a proto-form outside of Malay, Javanese and languages that have borrowed from either or both of these. The cognation of the Toba Batak form with the others appears doubtful, and the proposed connection of the Oceanic forms to these is completely unconvincing, making this comparison partly attributable to borrowing and partly to chance. The evidence for *-D was based entirely on the second Javanese form, which contains an unexplained stem-internal /r/.

pomegranate: Punica granatum L.

Tagalog dalimapomegranate: Punica granatum L. (Madulid 2001)
Maranao dalimaʔpomegranate: Punica granatum L.
Tausug dalimaʔpomegranate: Punica granatum L.
Iban dəlimapomegranate: Punica granatum
Malay delimapomegranate: Punica granatum L.
Old Javanese dalima, dālimapomegranate: Punica granatum
Saparua dalimapomegranate: Punica granatum L.
Asilulu dalimapomegranate: Punica granatum
Larike dalima-tapomegranate: Punica granatum L.
Wakasihu dalimapomegranate: Punica granatum

Also Maranao dalimaɁ ‘pomegranate: Punica granatum L.’. This plant is native to the Middle East, and must have been introduced to insular Southeast Asia after the Austronesian settlement of the region. Zoetmulder (1982) gives Old Javanese dalima, dālima as a borrowing of Sanskrit dāḍima ‘pomegranate’, and Wilkinson (1959) attributes Malay dəlima to the same source. It therefore seems likely that this fruit was introduced during the Indianization of Sumatra, Java and the Malay peninsula. From there it presumably would have spread through Malay trade contacts both to the Moluccas, where a Malay presence in connection with the spice trade began by at least the 7th century AD, and to the Philippines, where Malay-speaking Islamic missionaries had begun to penetrate shortly before the arrival of the Spanish.


Amis fanawlake, pond
Ilokano banaáwlake, pond; pool (in a stream)
  banʔáwpool in a stream
Ifugaw bannodam of stones; pond

poor:   ignorant, uneducated; poor

Palawano awamignorant
Mapun awamignorant, unaware
Yakan awamto be ignorant, uninformed
Tboli awamignorant, uneducated; poor

This is a very mysterious comparison. Given its gloss, which almost certainly implies a literate society, the distribution seen here must be a product of borrowing, but its source, and why it is known so far only in Palawano and Tboli among members of the Philippine subgroup, is still unresolved. Given their mobility, this may have originated with the Sama-Bajaw, and spread by borrowing from them to a few select land-based populations.

porcelain, chinaware

Ilokano lósachinaware; porcelain; tiled slab
Cebuano lúsaplate made of metal coated with enamel

Borrowing of Spanish loza ‘china, porcelain; crockery’.

(Dempwolff: *keren ‘charcoal basin’)

portable stove

Tagalog kalánstove
Bikol kalánclay, wood-burning stove
Cebuano kálan ~ kalánsmall portable stove made of clay; to make into such a stove
Malay kəranchafing dish; portable stove

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *keren ‘charcoal basin’, but this clearly is borrowed throughout the Philippines, and is most plausibly traced to a Malay source.

(Dempwolff: *paŋkat ‘elevation, rank’)

position:   rank, position

Tagalog paŋkátsection; a division of a book; a portion; segment; batch, group of people; unit (as in the army); any group of persons or things considered as one
Maranao paŋkathigher; excel; promotion; prestige
Mansaka paŋkatstory, floor of a building
Mapun paŋkatfloor levels; a story of a building
  mag-paŋkatto stack; make something higher; to add another level; to be stacked on top of each other (as lumber)
  paŋkat ma-maŋkatfrom generation to generation
Tausug paŋkatlineage; a story (of a building)
  mag-paŋkatto place something heavy over something else; to pile, heap into a pile (as plates, books or pillows)
Ngaju Dayak paŋkatwood in stacks
  ma-maŋkatto stack up (wood)
Iban paŋkatrank, position
Malay paŋkattier; stage; floor; grade; rank; school standard
Karo Batak paŋkat ~ aŋkatrank, office
Toba Batak paŋkatrank, position (in a hierarchy)
Rejang pakeutrank, station, status, position
Sundanese paŋkatrank, grade
Old Javanese ma-paŋkatin formation, in well-ordered arrangement, lined up
Javanese paŋkatrank, position, status; grade in school
Balinese paŋkatrank, status
Mongondow paŋkatrank
  p<in>aŋkatone appointed to a given rank; the exalted one (used esp. of the spirits of the dead)
Tae' paŋkaʔrank, position
Makassarese paŋkaʔrank, class, age-grade
  sam-paŋkaʔof the same rank, of the same class
Muna paŋka ~ paŋkat-irank, (high) position
Kambera pàŋgatuposition, rank, station

Also Sasak paŋkət ‘sort into layers (of objects)’. Most of this comparison almost certainly is due to borrowing from Malay. However, the semantic divergence of the Tagalog, Mapun, Mansaka, Tausug, Ngaju Dayak, and Sasak forms, along with the phonological divergence of the latter, raise the possibility that this is an older word that underwent semantic changes in Malay, and then spread by contact. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *paŋkat ‘elevation, rank’.

possessions:   goods, belongings, things, possessions

Kayan bareŋequipment, things
Melanau (Mukah) bareŋthing
Ngaju Dayak baraŋthings, goods
Malay baraŋthing; stuff; wares; goods
  baraŋ-baraŋthings of all sorts; impediments, the usual things
Toba Batak baraŋgoods, moveable property
Javanese baraŋthing, object, stuff, matter, goods
Balinese baraŋthing, property, matter
Sangir baraŋstuff, belongings
Buginese waramparaŋgoods, possessions
Makassarese baraŋ-baraŋgoods, possessions
Manggarai baraŋ-kanithings, belongings
Rembong baraŋpossessions, property, equipment
Hawu ɓaragoods
Buli baraŋgoods

Borrowing from Malay. The term *baraŋ apparently was found in PMP as a marker of indefiniteness. The meaning 'things, goods, possessions' evidently was a late innovation in western Indonesia, which, together with the reduplicated form of the word, was widely disseminated through borrowing from Malay.

possessions:   wealth, possessions

Maranao artaʔequipment, tools
Iban retaproperty, inheritance, estate
Malay hartaproperty; wealth
Karo Batak erta-erta, reta-retatreasured goods, gems
Toba Batak artaproperty and goods
Sundanese (h)artawealth
Old Javanese arthaaim, purpose; advantage, utility; object of the senses; substance, wealth, money
Javanese artamoney
Balinese artamoney
Sasak artapossessions, wealth

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *saka ‘post, pillar’)

post, pillar

Malay sakapillar, post; in Java a saka is the main house pillar; in Malaya it is used of the extreme outer post of a kelong fish trap (large marine fishtrap with three or more triangular or heart-shaped compartments into which the fish are led along a line of screened fishing stakes
Old Javanese sakapost, pillar
Javanese sakapillar supporting a roof
Balinese sakapost, pillar, column
Sasak sakapillar, column

Dempwolff (1938) posited *saka ‘post, pillar’, but Zoetmulder (1982) gives Old Javanese saka as a borrowing of Sanskrit sākhā ‘branch’. Even if its loan status from Sanskrit is not established, its antiquity in the Austronesian family is far from demonstrated with this geographically restricted distribution.

(Dempwolff: *puŋku(rR) ‘rear end, posterior’)

posterior:   rear end, posterior

Malay puŋkurposterior; buttocks
Old Javanese puŋkurbehind, back
  muŋkurto turn one’s back on
  ka-puŋkurto turn one’s back on something, have something at one’s back; leave something behind
Javanese puŋkurlast, past, previous; the back (body part)
Balinese huŋkurbehind, afterwards, later
  puŋkurback (said to be < pa-huŋkur); have one’s back to

Borrowing from Malay or Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian buku ‘the raised end of a thing, as of shell, and hence in some dialects the tail’, and posited Uraustronesisch *puŋku(rR) ‘rear end, posterior’ (Hinterteil). I take the Fijian form to be a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *kendi ‘water jug’)

pot:   water pot

Maranao kendiʔkettle
Iban kendiformerly round earthenward cooking pot, usually with spout; now bell-mouthed brass pot with spout or lip, or a modern kettle
Malay kəndiwater goblet
Toba Batak hondiwater jug
Nias kundriwater pitcher
Javanese kenḍilarge earthenware water carafe with a spout

Also Toba Batak gondi ‘water jug’. Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Hindi. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kendi ‘water jug’.

pothole, hole in road

Tagalog lubáka hollow, depression, or pothole in the ground, in a road, or on the surface of a road, etc.
  lubák-lubákrough (as a bumpy road); potholed
Aklanon eubák-eubákholes in the road
Agutaynen lobakbumps in a road
  lobak-lobakuneven area of road with many bumps and potholes; rough road

Since this word can only apply to situations in which wheeled vehicles are used, it is assumed to be a late innovation that was spread by contact.

powder, face powder

Maranao bedakpowder, face powder
Tiruray bedaka face powder purchased in block form
Tboli bedakface powder made by pounding rice into a fine powder. After a little water is added it is pounded again. Then it is formed into small, marble-sized balls, dried in the sun, and stored in a tightly covered container for a time before using
Iban bedakface powder
Malay bedakface-powder; toilet-powder. A cosmetic of rice-flour mixed with a small quantity of other ingredients; kept in powder-form and watered when needed for use
Acehnese beudaʔwhitener, ointment (rubbed into the body of a sick person as medicine
Rejang bedoʔface powder
Sundanese bedakaromatic powder of rice meal and rosewater, used as face powder or whitener
Old Javanese weḍakpowder (a cosmetic of rice-flour, scented water and other ingredients, having a cooling effect on the body and used for medicinal purposes)
Javanese weḍakpowder
Balinese wedakointment
Buginese bedakface powder
Rembong bedakface powder
Sika bédaka powder, like talcum, rubbed in after bathing
Alune bedapowder

Borrowing from Malay.

power, venom

NGA bhisamagic, sorcery; magician, sorceror; efficacious; miraculous; wise; intelligent; crafty, cunning; to predict, prophesy; to help; yes, really
Kapampangan bísaʔwant to
Tagalog bísaʔefficacy, potency; force
Aklanon bísaeffect, result
Maranao bisapoison, venom
Mansaka bisaʔsnake venom; stingray venom
Tiruray bisapoisonous; a poison
Kelabit bisaʔgreat, fantastic, terrific
Kenyah bisapoisonous
Iban bisastrong, powerful, effective; poisonous (as a snake); fierce (as a hornet's sting)
Malay bisablood-poison; anything that gives a septic wound; venomous
Malay (Jakarta) bisavenomous; ability to do, can
Acehnese bisapoison, venom (esp. of animals)
Simalur bisopoison; poisonous
  ma-misa-eto poison
Karo Batak bisapoison, poisonous (as a snake)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bisaforce, power
Toba Batak bisaanimal poison; also used of poisonous animals such as snakes, caterpillars, scorpions, insects, as well as the externally applied poison prepared by a shaman (in contrast with rasun, which must be imbibed)
Nias bisabe able to do something, know how to do
Rejang biseyinsect bite, poison injected through a wound
Sundanese bisacan, able to, smart, knowledgeable, capable, experienced, have an understanding of, knowledgeable
Old Javanese a-miṣabe powerful?, be poisonous?
  b-in-isaskilled, skilful
  ka-bisa-nskill, ability
Javanese bisacan, be able, know how to
  m-isato poison
  wisapoison, venom
Balinese bisabe able because one has knowledge or skill
Sasak be-bisaall poisonous things
Sangir bisavenom; venomous
Mongondow bisapower (both good and evil)
Gorontalo bisaanimal venom
Banggai bisasupernaturally powerful
Bare'e bisaclever; very wealthy; possess secret power
Buginese bisaproved by experience, tried
  bisa bisasaintly, working miracles
Makassarese bisahave a powerful effect (as a medication)
Wolio bisasorcerer, magician, healer, medicine man or woman; be efficacious, effective ɓisa poison; poisonous
Bimanese βisahaving magical power; clever
Rembong bisacan, able
Sika bisawise, learned
Asilulu bisacan; poison,
Buruese bisapotent (as magic, a weapon); can, may
  bisa-npotency, strength (of a potient)
Buli bisavenomous (as a snake)

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit. This comparison is remarkable for at least two reasons: 1) although it seems clearly to be a Sanskrit loan which acquired much of its attested distribution as a result of borrowing from Malay, it originally referred to animal (particularly snake) venom, a referent for which a native term would normally be expected, 2) the word is very widespread in the Philippines and both western and eastern Indonesia, and has acquired a variety of secondary meanings including that of general force or power, skill, knowledge and ability. In Malay and some other languages (e.g. Rembong) this abstraction and generalization of the original concrete nominal sense has gone even further, leading to the use of bisa as an auxiliary verb meaning 'can, be able'.

power force

Hanunóo kuwátpower, force(?)
Ngaju Dayak kuatstrong
Malay kuatphysical strength
Karo Batak kuatstrong, of the body (from Malay)
Toba Batak huatstrong, fast, as a horse (said to be from Malay)

Borrowing from Malay, and ultimately from Arabic. Conklin (1953:154) gives Hanunóo kuwát ‘power, force(?)’ with a questionable gloss, cross-referencing it somewhat obscurely to baliŋkuwát ‘lever, i.e. a prying instrument for raising heavy objects’. The resemblance between it and forms in western Indonesia may thus be a product of chance.

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    



Sambal (Botolan) pórito praise someone
Tagalog púri ~ pa-púripraise; fame; honor; name; reputation
  ka-purih-ánhonor; credit; praise
Iban pujipraise, flattery; (Christian) adoration, praise; to glorify
Malay pujipraise; laudation
Toba Batak ma-mujito praise
Rejang pudaypraise, laud, extol
Old Javanese pujistanding out high above the others, lofty; arrogant, haughty
  a-mujito extol, praise
Balinese pujiworship, glory, honor, reverence, praise; compliment
Sasak pujipraise (to God); charm, spell
  pujiʔto praise, extol
Mongondow mo-mujito praise, extol

Also Balinese puja ‘worship, respect, reverence’, puja:n ‘sacrifice, worship, honor’. Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit.

prayer:   afternoon prayer

Maranao asarsecond prayer in afternoon; late afternoon
Malay asarafternoon
  waktu asarwith special reference to the afternoon prayer
Simalur asar falaltime of the Moslim afternoon prayer, between about 3:30 and 6 P.M.
Sundanese asarthe afternoon prayer prescribed by Islam, around 3:30 P.M.
Javanese asarthird daily Moslim prayer; the time (between 3 and 5 P.M.) when this prayer takes place
Sasak asarafternoon; afternoon prayer
Sangir asareʔtime of the afternoon prayer, around 4 P.M.
Gorontalo asaritime of the afternoon prayer
Bare'e asáratime of the third daily prayer of Moslims, around 3:30 P.M.
Mandar asartime of the afternoon prayer, from about 3:15 to 6:00 P.M.
Makassarese asaraʔtime of the afternoon prayer
Wolio ʔasara(time for) the afternoon prayer
Bimanese asaIslamic prayer time, around 4 P.M.
Asilulu asarthe time and ritual of the Muslim prayer about 4 P.M.

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

prayer, worship

Ilokano simbá-anchurch, chapel
Tagalog mag-simbáto go to church
Bikol mag-símbato go to church
Cebuano símbato to attend church services; adore, regard with respect and affection; know someone’s innermost thoughts
Maranao simbaobeisance; pray; prayer
  simba-Ɂanchurch; worship; pray to; godlike, godhead, title of nobility
Ngaju Dayak sembahoffer one’s humble veneration (by making a deep bow with palms pressed together and elbows extended out; also by kneeling and touching someone’s feet)
Malay səmbahobeisance; gesture of worship or homage; speech accompanied by such a gesture
Toba Batak sombaworship, reverence; also a small offering as an expression of reverence
Sundanese səmbahraise the hands with palms pressed together and thumbs against the nose (a sign of homage or reverence)
Old Javanese səmbahworship, veneration, reverence
  a-nəmbahto worship, revere, pay respect to, pay homage to
Javanese sembaha gesture of high esteem made to a superior by holding the hands before the face, palms together, thumbs approaching the nose, and bowing the head slightly
Balinese sembahthe bow with palms together of an inferior to a superior; to greet a superior
Sasak səmbahreverential homage or greeting
  ñəmbahto revere, pay homage to
Sangir ma-nəmbahto make an offering
  sa-səmbahan offering
Makassarese sombatitle of princes; mark of homage made by bringing the palms together in a gesture of respect

Borrowing, probably from Javanese into Malay, and from Malay into Philippine languages, where the sound correspondences are irregular, as they also are in Makassarese.

(Dempwolff: *tepat ‘right, correct’)

precise:   exact, precise

Tagalog ma-tapátdevoted; loyal; faithful; sincere, genuine; real; honest; staunch; steadfast, loyal
Malay təpatexactly, precisely, fully
Old Javanese təpətexact, correct, right, true, sincere; direct, straight ahead, undeviating, steadfast, firm
Balinese tepettake care of, take care about; hence: exactly

Borrowing from Malay into Tagalog, and possibly from Javanese into Malay. Dempwolff also included Fijian tovo ‘custom, manner, habit, disposition, quality, character’, and proposed PAn *tepat ‘right, correct’, a reconstrucion that fails to account for the final vowel of the Old Javanese, Balinese or Fijian forms.

predilection:   leaning, inclination, predilection

Itbayaten ma-hiligfond of, inclined to
Tagalog híligliking; appetite; a desire; inclination; predilection
Cebuano (dialectal) híligto be leaning, tilted to one side; to develop a tendency, inclination

Borrowing from Tagalog into Itbayaten.

prefix indicating 'from a place'

Ilokano tagá-indicating origin or citizenship
  taga-ano-kaWhere are you from?
Casiguran Dumagat tága-native or resident of; occupation
Tagalog tága-prefix joined to the name of the place to connote “native of,” “resident of,” “hails from,” “comes from”; also used to express occupation
Bikol tagá-from, indigenous to, native to; to come from; also indicates the agent or doer of the action expressed by the verb base, equivalent to the English ‘-er’ and ‘-or’ in words like ‘singer’ and ‘actor’
Aklanon tagá-noun prefix denoting a place of origin or where a person hails from, often thought of as an equivalent for the English preposition “from”
Cebuano taga-prefix added to words that refer to a place to form nouns which mean: 1. one who is from [such-and-such] a place, 2. one who is associated with a certain group
Maranao tagaparticle to indicate origin or location of domicile
Mansaka taga-locational; resident of

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution in the northern Philippines.


Malay buntiŋ padi"rice grain in ear", a simile for a lovely leg
  buntiŋpregnancy; be with child; fetus; unborn child. Usual of animal pregnancy; when applied to human beings it is not courteous (cf. the politer hamil and meŋandoŋ) but is familiar rather than rude
Acehnese buntéŋpregnant, with young; also used of rice when the head is on the point of appearing
Toba Batak bunteŋpuffed out, of the cheeks; pregnant
Rejang butiŋpregnant
Bare'e buntia medical condition of young girls in which the menstruation fails to materialize, and the abdomen becomes bloated
Rembong buntiŋpregnant (of animals)
Manggarai bontéŋpregnant; swollen, of the belly

Borrowing from Malay.

prepare:   plan something, prepare

Itbayaten mi-handato prepare
Tagalog naka-handáʔready, prepared

Apparently a Tagalog loanword in Itbayaten.


Casiguran Dumagat halagaprice, value
Tagalog halagáprice
Maranao argaʔcost, price, value
Tiruray lagaʔa price, an equivalent; to set the price of something
Tausug halgaʔprice, cost (of something); value
Kiput ləkihprice
Melanau (Mukah) rəgaprice

princess, noble woman

Ilokano dáyaŋname given to a Muslim princess
Tagalog dáyaŋprincess; noble woman; lady
Palawano dayaŋprince or princess; daughter of a king; rich person
Malay dayaŋgirl; damsel; maid at court
Toba Batak deaŋyoung woman

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano biláŋgobailiff
Tagalog bilaŋgóʔprisoner, captive
Bikol biláŋgoʔofficer of the peace, constable, sheriff
  mag-biláŋgoʔimprison, incarcerate
Aklanon bilaŋgó-anprison, jail
  biláŋgoʔto imprison, jail
Cebuano bilaŋguʔ-ánprison
Tboli belaŋguʔprisoner
Malay beleŋgu, beluŋgufetters; shackles for the feet
Makassarese paʔ-balaŋgu-aŋimprisonment, confinement in shackles
  balaŋgufetters, shackles (specifically iron shackles for the feet)

Borrowing, ultimately from Tamil.


Malay belalaiproboscis; pendent fleshy mass. Of an elephant's trunk, the shorter trunk of a tapir, the pendent upper lip of a rhinoceros, the lobes of a turkey, etc.
Karo Batak bulélétrunk of an elephant, proboscis of a beetle or butterfly
Dairi-Pakpak Batak buleletrunk of an elephant
Toba Batak buleletrunk of an elephant, proboscis of a butterfly or mosquito
Minangkabau bulalaiproboscis
Makassarese bulaletrunk of an elephant (found only in tales translated from Malay)

prod into action:   incite, prod into action

Ilokano sulsúl-anto incite
Casiguran Dumagat súlsulto incite someone to do something bad, to tempt
Tagalog sulsólinstigation, prodding or urging on to do something evil or some improper act; incitement; stirring up or rousing; egging on
  s<um>ulsólto foment; to cause, promote or foster trouble, rebellion, etc.
Masbatenyo súlsolurging, incitement
  in-sulsúl-anto urge, incite
Waray-Waray sulsólthe act of goading; instigation; the act of urging someone to do something
Agutaynen mag-solsolto stir up; prod somebody to do something; to convince; to incite; make people discontented with the way things are
Cebuano sulsúlurge, egg someone into doing something bad

Also Tagalog súhol ‘bribe’. The forms in non-Central Philippine languages are assumed to be borrowings of Tagalog sulsól.

profit, gain, fortune, luck

Tontemboan untuŋprofits, gain; victory; prosperity
Maranao ontoŋluck, fortune, blessing
Tausug untuŋprofit, gain
Kadazan Dusun untuŋgain, profit
Kayan utuŋprofits, gains
Iban untoŋprofit; unexpected gain, windfall
Malay untoŋfate, destiny
Bahasa Indonesia untuŋprofit, gain
Simalur untuŋfate, destiny, lot
Toba Batak untuŋgain, profit, fortune
Javanese untuŋlucky; profit, gain
Sasak untuŋluck, fortune, chance
Sangir untuŋgain, profit, fortune, luck
Mongondow untuŋprofit, gain
Kambera utuŋuadvantage, profit, gain
Buli untuŋluck, fortune, profit
Numfor untuŋwindfall, piece of good luck
Kowiai/Koiwai untuŋprofit; to win

Widespread borrowing from Malay.

profit, gain

Maranao labagain, profit
Malay labamuch gain; good returns
Toba Batak labaprofit, advantage
Old Javanese lābhaacquisition, gain, profit
  a-lābhato be successful
Balinese laba-anwages, gain, interest; what is given by a higher person

Borrowing from Sanskrit through Malay, which shows its own loan status in the sequence aba, since in native words this normally became awa.

(Dempwolff: *ta(n)zuk ‘to stand out, project’)

project:   stand out, project

Ngaju Dayak tajokanything that projects
Iban tajokframe or whole awning of boat
Malay tajokshort upward projection such as an aigrette or a tholepin; tuft; ornament on head

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *ta(n)zuk ‘to stand out, project’ (Hervorstehen).


Malay buktiproof, evidence
Lampung buktievidence
Sundanese buktibe or become real, be fulfilled; the realization of something; the proof of something; to prove
Old Javanese a-muktito enjoy, savor, taste (also said of unpleasant things), have to suffer or endure
  bhuktiwhat is enjoyed; food
Javanese buktiproof, evidence; food; to eat
Balinese buktifood, enjoyment, advantage, profit, increase, right of ownership, condition, honor; eat; to prove
Wolio bukutiiproof, evidence
Rembong butiproof, evidence

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

prop, support, boom of a sail

Ibanag sukoŋsupport, prop, buttress; (speak) in support of, second a motion
Maranao sokoŋrod used as leash or harness; control by the nose; boom of sail
Tiruray sukuŋa boom on a sailboat
Malay sokoŋprop; shoring up; underpinning; buttressing; supporting at an angle; spinnaker-boom; sprit
  layar sokoŋspritsail
Javanese ñokoŋto support financially or contribute support
  sokoŋ-anfinancial support or contribution
Balinese sokoŋsupport, prop up
Sasak sokoŋto help, support

The mid-back vowel in Javanese, Balinese and Sasak, and the meaning in languages of Mindanao suggest strongly that this comparison is a product of borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *patut ‘proper, fitting’)

proper, fitting, appropriate

Maranao patotproper, fitting, due
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) patutfitted for something; deserving of something, whether good or bad
Tiruray fatut(of the way one does something), in the morally correct way
Ngaju Dayak patutwhat must be done, what is proper or seemly
Malay patutfit; proper; suitable
Toba Batak patutwhat is right and proper; decent, becoming
Old Javanese tut ~ tūtfollowing
  pa-tūtfollowing, along, concordant, in harmony, in accord; appropriate, apposite, right, fitting
Javanese patutsuitable, well-advised, appropriate

Borrowing from Javanese into Malay, with subsequent wide dispersal via Malay. Dempwolff (1938) compared the Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Javanese and Toba Batak forms with Tagalog patot ‘proper, fitting’ and posited Uraustronesisch *patut ‘proper, fitting’, but I have been unable to find the last of these forms in any modern dictionary. Note the close semantics and probable origin in Javanese with subsequent spread by Malay for both this form and Malay pantas, etc.


Maranao imoproperty, article, furniture, utensil
Tboli kimuproperty; material

Though of limited geographical distribution, this form does not appear to be a recent Danaw loan in TAGA (apparently pointing to earlier *qimu). I assume that the distribution is ultimately a product of borrowing, although details remain obscure.

prostitute, whore

Ilokano pampámprostitute; whore; easy girl
Bikol pampámprostitute, whore, harlot
  magin-pampámto become a prostitute
Cebuano pampámprostitute (slang); become a prostitute
  pa-mampámto patronize a prostitute
Maranao pampamharlot, prostitute

Presumably a loan, although a source is yet to be determined.

protective:   talisman, protective charm

Maranao adimatamulet, talisman, charm
Kadazan Dusun gimattalisman or charm that gives strength, power
Kayan gimeta pagan protective charm (loanword, Malay)
  jimata protective charm --- occult practice (loanword, Malay)
Iban jimattalisman, amulet
Malay jimatcharm; talisman for self-protection
Toba Batak man-jimatto pacify

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic, but through the medium of Malay. Ironically, Kayan gimet is described as part of a pagan practice, although it was acquired through contact with Malay, which is the source of Islam for all native peoples of Borneo.


Malay boŋkakarrogant; self-assertive
Balinese boŋkakproud

Borrowing from Malay.

proud, arrogant

Ilokano taŋsítarrogance
  na-taŋsítarrogant, proud, haughty, conceited
Ibaloy e-taŋsitproud, haughty, arrogant, conceited
Ayta Abellan ma-taŋhitproud

The Ayta Maganchi word probably is an Ilokano loan.

provided that:   origin, cause, provided that

Lamaholot asaorigin, lineage
  asaʔonly if, provided that
Tagalog ásalbehavior, manners; custom, habit
Maranao asal-asalprecedents dating very far back; very old status, of people or things
  asarif, provided
  asalformer; custom; customary
Kenyah asal, asanorigin
Iban asalorigin, race; habit, peculiarity
Malay asalsource, origin; proviso or foundation for a statement; provided that
Acehnese asayorigin, provenance; provided that
Simalur asalorigin, cause; provided that
Karo Batak asalprovided that; origin, village of origin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak asalorigin; provided that
Toba Batak asalprovided that; origin, the substance from which something is made
Sundanese asalorigin, cause; provided that
Javanese kuṭa asal akumy home town; if, provided that
  asal(place of) origin; source.
Balinese asalorigin; customary, usual
Sasak asalorigin; provided that
Sangir asaleʔfamily, lineage, origin; provided that
Mongondow asalorigin, cause, beginning; that from which one stems, ancestor; provided that
Gorontalo asaliplace of origin; provided that
Buginese assaleŋorigin
Makassarese assalaʔorigin; provided that
Wolio asalaorigin, source
Bimanese asaorigin, cause, reason
Asilulu asaorigin; as long as; however, whereas

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

prune, trim

Ilokano labráto prune, trim; cut wood
Agutaynen mag-labrato shave, make straight and smooth a piece of wood with a bolo or knife

Borrowing of Spanish labrar ‘to work, fashion; carve’.

pai    pal    pan    pap    par    pas    pat    paw    pea    pen    pep    per    pes    pet    phe    pic    pie    pig    pil    pin    pip    pla    ple    plo    poc    poi    pol    pom    pon    poo    por    pos    pot    pow    pra    pre    pri    pro    pru    pul    pum    pun    pur    pus    put    


(Dempwolff: *tarik ‘to pull’)


Ngaju Dayak tarikwhat is thrown; be thrown away
Malagasy mi-tárikato drag, to draw, to lead, to entice
  vua-tárikadragged, drawn along
Iban taritpull, draw out, pull tight
Malay tarekdrawing (towards oneself or after oneself); to pull
Toba Batak tarikstretch out straight, pull straight, as a rope
Javanese ke-tarikto get pulled or drawn
  narikto pull, draw
  tarik-ana trailer; a pull, tug, jerk

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tarik ‘to pull’.

(Dempwolff: *tunda ‘to drag, pull’)

pull:   drag, pull

Tagalog tundáʔto fish with fishhooks (not with a net)
Cebuano tundaʔ-ansmall boat usually towed behind the stern of a a larger boat, used for putting into shore where the larger boat can’t put in
Maranao tondaʔpull after, drag, lead
  tondaʔ-antrailer, tow
Ngaju Dayak tundadrag, slide
Malagasy mi-tundrato carry, to lead, to take
Malay tundadrawn or following in the wake; being towed
  panciŋ tundato troll (in fishing)
PSS *tundato pull, drag

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tunda ‘to drag, pull’ (schleppen).

pull up

Casiguran Dumagat búnutpull up young rice seedlings (for transplanting)
Tagalog búnotunsheathing, uprooting, pulling out
Cebuano búnutpull something that is in between something; pull out something rooted, stuck in something (as a nail); pull something out as if uprooting weeds; draw a weapon

Borrowing into Casiguran Dumagat from a GCPh source, probably Tagalog.


Ilokano mutóna pulley
Tagalog mutóna pulley, pulley block
Cebuano mutúna metal or wooden case containing a pulley or pulleys
Maranao motonpulley
Mansaka motona pulley

From Spanish motón ‘a pulley’.


Itawis bómbapump
Pangasinan bombápump
Kapampangan búmbapump; spray
  i-búmbaspray something for someone
  ma-múmbaspray something
Tagalog bómbawater pump; air blower
Bikol bómbapump
  mag-bómbato pump
  paŋ-bómbaplunger; sprayer
Aklanon b-in-úmbawas pumped by
  búmbato pump (water, gas)
  búmba(h)pump (for water, gasoline, etc.)
Cebuano búmbah-a aŋ púsupump the well!
  búmbapump; spray gun; erotic show; engage in sexual intercourse
Malay bombapump; hose of a fire engine; squirt; syringe

Borrowing from Spanish (Philippine languages) and Portuguese (Malay).

punish:   judge, punish

Ilokano okóm-ento judge, to try
  okómjudge, justice
Isneg uxómjudge
Bontok ʔukúma government official; to rule; to have authority
Tagalog hukómjudge
  húkum-ancourt of justice
Bikol hukómjudge
Cebuano hukúmpass judgement, give a verdict
Maranao okomcontrol
Kadazan Dusun ukumpunishment, penalty, sentence
  ukum-enbe punished
Kayan ukumto judge, to punish; punishment
Iban ukumofficial decision or order, esp. judicial; sentence, penalty
Malay hukumdecree; doom; that which is ordained. Moslem law in contrast to customary law (adat)
Leti ukmupunishment, penalty
Buli ukumpass judgement, punish

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.


Bikol mag-sílotto punish someone (as for a sin); to extract retribution from someone (as after a confession); to make someone bear the consequences of his actions; to penalize someone (as after losing a game)
Agutaynen mag-silotto punish
Cebuano sílutpenalty for a crime; penalty in a game for an infraction of the rules; impose a penalty for a crime or in sports
Binukid silutpunishment, penalty (for a crime); to punish, impose a penalty (on someone)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) silutto punish
Mansaka silotto punish

Probably a Cebuano loan in Agutaynen if so this form is most likely a Central Philippine innovation.


Iban beresiclean
Malay berséhclean, free from impurities
Karo Batak bersih ukurupright, pure of heart
Dairi-Pakpak Batak em-bersihholy, clean, undefiled
Toba Batak borsifiery, strong, of rice wine
Sundanese beresihpure, undefiled, clean
Javanese bersihclean; cleansed; clean a grave and place offerings of flowers on it
Balinese bersih, bresihclean, pure
Sasak bersipure, clean
Sangir buresiclean, pure
  ma-muresicleanse, purify

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano morádopurple, violet-colored; a variety of banana; mulberry
Tagalog murádopurple, violet
Cebuano murádureddish purple

From Spanish morado ‘purple, mulberry-colored’.

purse, money belt

Atayal hopaupocket
Ilokano upáwsmall leather bag attached to the girdle, and used to hold money and other valuables
Tagalog húpawmoney-belt (Chinese)
Malay (h)opauChinese belt-purse of beadwork

Borrowing from Chinese.


Tagalog andá1jostle, push
Malay endalstuff, push (something in a bag, etc.)

Borrowing from Malay.

put:   arrange, put in order

Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) aturcommand
Ilokano atór-enstraighten, correct, amend; to mend
Kapampangan átuldecision
Tagalog hatolsentence pronounced by a judge in court; counsel; medical prescription for an ailment
Aklanon hátœto judge, render judgment
Maranao atororder sequentially
  ator-anpave with stones; governor, order, arrangement
  ator-enarrange, careful, fix up
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aturcare about, look out for
Mansaka atolestablish order, arrange
Tiruray feg-aturtake responsibility for some specific task
  ʔatura responsibility
  ʔatur-anresponsible for some specific task; something ordered or commanded by a person in authority
Tboli atulplan; idea; decision
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-atulaim with a gun; put in order, arrange; legislate
Kelabit aturan order, command; arrangement, organization
  ŋ-aturto order, command, arrange, organize
Berawan (Long Terawan) atonarrange
Melanau (Mukah) aturarrange, put in order
Ngaju Dayak (h)atohreflection, consideration; advice, counsel
  m-atohconsider, give advice, put in order
  (h)atoraccusation; treachery
Banjarese aturarrange
  ba-aturput in stacks
  ba-atur-anto order, arrange
Iban aturarrangement, order, decision; arrange, set in order, decide
Malay (h)aturorder, arrangement
  atur galaŋsticks laid horizontally in a ricefield to mark the divisions between different types of seedlings
  atur-andisposition; regulation; method
  ber-aturarranged in order
Karo Batak aturarrangement, regulation
  ŋ-aturregulate something
Toba Batak aturorderly, in order
  atur-anorder; sequence, succession, plan
  maŋ-aturput in order
Sundanese aturarrange, regulate, put in order
  ŋ-aturarrange, place (as troops), set out (as food)
Javanese ŋ-aturtell, inform; show something; advise
  aturwhat someone says (to an exalted person); ask someone to do something
Sangir atuleʔto order, regulate; teach; admonish
Mongondow atorregulate, give orders
  ator-aŋrule, regulation, order; custom, practice
Gorontalo a:turuorder, regulation
  moŋ-a:turuto order, regulate
Uma atur-acustom, practice
Buginese atuorder, arrangement
  atu-atucustomary behavior or practice
Makassarese aŋŋ-atoroʔto arrange, order, classify
  ator-aŋorder regulation
  atoroʔkind of poem

Borrowing from Malay.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)