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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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quality:   cotton cloth of cheap quality

Iban belacuʔcalico, any cheap, plain, unbleached cloth
Malay belacuunbleached cotton cloth
Bare'e balasuwhite cotton, of mediocre quality
Buginese balacuŋcheap white cotton cloth

Borrowing from Malay.

quarter:   fourth, quarter

Malay perapatfourth; branching in four directions
Javanese prapatfourth; quarter
Makassarese parapaʔone fourth
Wolio parapafourth part

Borrowing from Malay

quick, ready, alert

Ibaloy alistoquick, ready, alert, enthusiastic, zealous, smart, prompt, aggressive
Cebuano alistuenergetic; shrewd, clever; do something well

Presumably a Spanish loan, although the source is yet to be determined.

quicksilver, mercury

Hiligaynon asúgiquicksilver, mercury
Chamorro asugiquicksilver, mercury

Borrowing of Spanish azogue ‘mercury, quicksilver’.

(Dempwolff: *suji ‘point, prong’)


Tagalog suriɁfold, pleat, crease
Malay sujiembroidery, etymologically from the porcupine quill, formerly used as a needle
Sundanese sujiquill of a porcupine
Old Javanese sujispine, quill (of a porcupine); embroidery; embroidered piece of cloth
  a-nujilike a quill
  s<in>ujito embroider (with quill or thorn as instrument?)
Javanese sujispit (in roasting meat)
Balinese sujitoothbrush; a pointed thing; embroidery
Sasak suje-nsate stick (for skewering meat and vegetables)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *suji ‘point, prong’. However, I am unable to find his Tagalog form in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and even if it is accepted its sharp semantic divergence casts doubt on its cognation with the other words cited here. The remaining forms are best explained as a late innovation in western innovation or as products of borrowing from Malay or Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *tilem ‘mattress’)

quilt mattress thin cover to sleep on

Ngaju Dayak tilammattress for sleeping
Malay tilamquilt mattress, used with a sleeping mat by Malays of the better class
Sundanese tilamsomething used to cover or protect something else, as a mat or cloth on which an object is then set; slip, cover
Old Javanese tilammattress, sleeping mat; bed, bedstead
Javanese tilamthin sleeping mat
Balinese tilammattress, bed

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tilem ‘mattress’ (Matratze), basing the last vowell on Javanese tiləm ‘to sleep, go to bed’, but the latter form differs from reflexes in all other languages, including Old Javanese.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)