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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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Berawan (Long Terawan) beŋeceʔrace, ethnic group
Malay baŋsarace; descent; family; in ancient Malaya of ‘caste’ (still so in Bali)
Mandar bassarace
Makassarese bansapeople, nation, class, kind

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.


Kapampangan labanúsradish
Tagalog labanósradish; a small, crisp root used as a relish
Cebuano labanúsradishes; the white (Chinese) radishes are the variety most commonly grown in Cebu

From Spanish rábano ‘radish’, with the usual borrowing of Spanish nouns in their plural form.


Ilokano pa-ríparaffle
  ripa-ento draw numbers; to draw lots
Bikol ríparaffle
  ripá-onto raffle something off
Aklanon ríparaffle; chance (on a raffle)
  pa-rípato have a raffle

Borrowing of Spanish rifa ‘raffle’.


Itbayaten kapootiraincoat
Ayta Abellan kapotiraincoat
Tagalog kapoteraincoat
Aklanon kaputi(h)raincoat

From Spanish capote ‘coat’.

raise:   lift, raise

Ilokano alsáRise! Revolt!
  um-alsáto rise up; revolt; become puffed up (boxer’s eyelids)
  alsa-ento lift; raise; erect; revolt
Tagalog alsáa rising, as of dough; strong protest
Agutaynen mag-alsato raise, lift something up; to carry something by lifting it up; to elevate something

From Spanish alzar ‘to raise, lift, build’.

(Dempwolff: *lantak ‘to hit, ram into’)

ram into:   hit, ram into

Tagalog lantákviolent attack, onset or onslaught
Ngaju Dayak lantakbe nailed firmly together (with iron or wooden nails)
Malay lantakramming down, as large piles in dam-construction; pounded to bits
Javanese lantakramrod for cleaning a gun barrel
Sa'a ladato thrust

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *lantak ‘to hit, ram into’. However, the Tagalog and Sa'a forms cannot convincingly be related to the others cited here, and the others could easily be a product of borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano ramíramie plant; fiber from the ramie plant
Bikol ramíramie, a woody Asian plant having broad leaves; the flaxlike fiber from the stem is used in making fabrics and cordage: Boehmeria nivea
Aklanon ramífibers woven into cloth: Boehmeria nivea L.

Apparently a Tagalog loan distribution, from a form that must originally have had an intervocalic voiced alveolar stop.

rank:   title of rank

Maranao bagindaʔfortunate; title
Malay bagindaa title accorded to the Prophet and the four Caliphs, princely personages, Hindu divinities, etc.
Sundanese bagindatitle for foreigners of princely rank

Borrowing ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *paŋkat ‘elevation, rank’)

rank, position

Tagalog paŋkátsection; a division of a book; a portion; segment; batch, group of people; unit (as in the army); any group of persons or things considered as one
Maranao paŋkathigher; excel; promotion; prestige
Mansaka paŋkatstory, floor of a building
Mapun paŋkatfloor levels; a story of a building
  mag-paŋkatto stack; make something higher; to add another level; to be stacked on top of each other (as lumber)
  paŋkat ma-maŋkatfrom generation to generation
Tausug paŋkatlineage; a story (of a building)
  mag-paŋkatto place something heavy over something else; to pile, heap into a pile (as plates, books or pillows)
Ngaju Dayak paŋkatwood in stacks
  ma-maŋkatto stack up (wood)
Iban paŋkatrank, position
Malay paŋkattier; stage; floor; grade; rank; school standard
Karo Batak paŋkat ~ aŋkatrank, office
Toba Batak paŋkatrank, position (in a hierarchy)
Rejang pakeutrank, station, status, position
Sundanese paŋkatrank, grade
Old Javanese ma-paŋkatin formation, in well-ordered arrangement, lined up
Javanese paŋkatrank, position, status; grade in school
Balinese paŋkatrank, status
Mongondow paŋkatrank
  p<in>aŋkatone appointed to a given rank; the exalted one (used esp. of the spirits of the dead)
Tae' paŋkaʔrank, position
Makassarese paŋkaʔrank, class, age-grade
  sam-paŋkaʔof the same rank, of the same class
Muna paŋka ~ paŋkat-irank, (high) position
Kambera pàŋgatuposition, rank, station

Also Sasak paŋkət ‘sort into layers (of objects)’. Most of this comparison almost certainly is due to borrowing from Malay. However, the semantic divergence of the Tagalog, Mapun, Mansaka, Tausug, Ngaju Dayak, and Sasak forms, along with the phonological divergence of the latter, raise the possibility that this is an older word that underwent semantic changes in Malay, and then spread by contact. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *paŋkat ‘elevation, rank’.

rat:   mouse, rat

Manobo (Dibabawon) ambowrodent, as a mouse or rat
Cebuano ambawkind of small mouse
Mansaka ambawmouse, rat
Tiruray ʔambawcommon field rat, bush rat; calf of the leg

Borrowing in Tiruray from a GCPh source.

(Dempwolff: *tikus ‘rat’)


Bonggi sihutrat
Bisaya (Lotud) tikusrat
Ida'an begak sikutrat, mouse
Bisaya (Limbang) tikusrat
Malay tikusrat; mouse; generic for Muridae and Sorecidae, and specific for the common black rat, Mus rattus
Toba Batak tihusrat
Old Javanese tikusmouse, rat
Javanese tikusmouse, rat

As noted in Blust (2010:71) this form was most likely an innovation in Proto-Greater North Borneo. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tikus ‘rat’.

rattan sp.

Ilokano palásanvariety of or species allied to Calamus mollis. Blanco, the common rattan
Casiguran Dumagat palásanspecies of rattan used for tying fences
Tagalog palásanunsplit rattan, often used as a walking stick
Hanunóo parásantall, mature type of rattan: Calamus maximus Blanco
Cebuano palásankind of rattan with a stem as big around as the arm

Borrowing. The Ilokano and Casiguran Dumagat forms appear to be loans from Tagalog.


Ilokano labáha(s) ~ nabáhasrazor
Bikol labáha ~ nabáharazor
Cebuano labáhastraight razor; shave someone with a straight razor
Maranao labaha ~ labasarazor

From Spanish navaja ‘razor, jack-knife’.

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ready:   quick, ready, alert

Ibaloy alistoquick, ready, alert, enthusiastic, zealous, smart, prompt, aggressive
Cebuano alistuenergetic; shrewd, clever; do something well

Presumably a Spanish loan, although the source is yet to be determined.

(Dempwolff: *puŋku(rR) ‘rear end, posterior’)

rear end, posterior

Malay puŋkurposterior; buttocks
Old Javanese puŋkurbehind, back
  muŋkurto turn one’s back on
  ka-puŋkurto turn one’s back on something, have something at one’s back; leave something behind
Javanese puŋkurlast, past, previous; the back (body part)
Balinese huŋkurbehind, afterwards, later
  puŋkurback (said to be < pa-huŋkur); have one’s back to

Borrowing from Malay or Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian buku ‘the raised end of a thing, as of shell, and hence in some dialects the tail’, and posited Uraustronesisch *puŋku(rR) ‘rear end, posterior’ (Hinterteil). I take the Fijian form to be a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *tarima ‘receive, accept’)

receive:   accept, receive

Javanese (Krama) trimahto accept without protest, to resign oneself to
Maranao tarimaʔaccept, receive; believe (in religious contexts)
Mansaka tarimato presume; to take for granted
Iban terimaʔto receive, accept
Malay tərimato receive; acceptance; acknowledgement
Toba Batak ma-narimato give, dole out
Sundanese tarimato receive, accept, take, be pleased to get something
Old Javanese tarimareceiving, accepting; gratefulness
  a-tarimato accept, receive gratefully, be grateful
  t<um>arimato receive, accept, take; to be presented with gifts; to allow, tolerate, resign oneself to, submit to, yield to, suffer
Javanese trimato accept without protest, to resign oneself to
  trima-na woman who is given (especially by a monarch) in marriage as a reward
Balinese terimareceiving, thanks; to receive, accept, take over, find pleasure in; buy wholesale
Sasak terima(ʔ)to receive, accept
Mongondow tarimato receive, accept, approve of, allow, permit
Banggai tarimato receive
Bare'e man-tarimato receive, as a penalty, an amount in money (used in legal contexts, and said to be from Malay)
Tae' tarimato receive, accept
Makassarese tarimathank you (in the expression tarima-kasi, from Malay)
Wolio tarimato take, receive (also visitors)
Muna tarimato receive

Borrowing from Malay, perhaps ultimately from Old Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tarima ‘receive, accept’.


Palawano t<um>erimareceive, accept
Malay tərimareceive, accept

Borrowing from Malay.


Taokas ma-tanared
Atayal (Mayrinax) ma-tanahred
Atayal (Squliq) m-talahred

Probably borrowed into Taokas from Atayal (Mayrinax), as these languages were once geographically contiguous or nearly so, and the word is unknown anywhere else.

red:   trade cloth (bright red)

Casiguran Dumagat kundímansolid red cloth (a favorite cloth for G-strings)
Tagalog kundímanmuslin (textile) with blood-red color
Hanunóo kundímanred trade cloth
Cebuano kundímankind of red cotton cloth of a cheap variety, commonly used for pillows

Presumably borrowing from Tagalog.

(Dempwolff: *biRaŋ)


Malay béraŋrising anger, fury, passion
Toba Batak beraŋanger, rage, indignation
Javanese wiraŋembarrassment, loss of face, mortification

The Toba Batak word is borrowed from Malay; the similarity of the Javanese form is due to chance.

refreshments taken with drink

Malay tambulrefreshments; properly liquid refreshments (as tea or coffee)
Karo Batak er-tambulthe eating by ghosts of food that a spritual medium has put in his mouth while in a trance
Toba Batak tambulside dish that is eaten when drinking palm wine
Sundanese tambulanything eaten alone that is usually used, or that belongs with something else, as meat without rice
Old Javanese tambulrefreshments (taken with drink)

refuse:   dregs, refuse

Malay hampasworthless residue; by-product
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ampassomething that is thrown away
Rejang apas(fibrous) waste
Sundanese hampasresidue, bagasse
Old Javanese hampasresidue after boiling
Balinese ampasremnants, left-overs; the remains of pressed sugarcane when the juice has been extracted (fed to pigs)
Sasak ampasresidue of sugarcane, bagasse
Makassarese ampasaʔcoffee grounds; dregs

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *tilik ‘consider, regard’)

regard:   consider, regard

Ngaju Dayak tilikconsideration, regard
Malagasy a-tsidikato be put in a position to be seen
  tafa-tsidikapeeped at, looked at through the door
Iban tilitgaze at, peer into, hence predict
Malay tileklooking hard and fixedly at anything, usually in the sense of casting a spell or second sight
Toba Batak ma-nilikexamine or inspect something; observe something with concern
Old Javanese a-tilikto visit, go and see how someone is getting on
Javanese nilikto pay a visit to; to approach and scrutinize

Also Iban tilik ‘gaze at, peer, take a sight, e.g. in surveying’. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tilik ‘consider, regard’ (betrachten).


Maranao agamareligion, social unit
Malay agamareligion
Acehnese agamareligion
Simalur agamofaith, belief, religion
Sundanese agamareligion
Old Javanese āgamasacred tradition, doctrine or precepts; collection of such doctrines; sacred work
Javanese agamareligion
Balinese agamareligion
Sasak agamareligion
Sangir agamareligion
  maŋa-agamacarry out religious works
Mongondow agamareligion
Mandar agamareligion, belief in God
Buginese agamareligion
Makassarese agamareligion
Wolio agamareligion
Bimanese agamareligion
Manggarai agamareligion
Kei agāmreligion
Buruese agamareligion
Buli agamareligion

Also Malay igama 'religion', ugama 'religion', Bimanese ugama 'religion'. Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

religious official

Malay bilalmuezzin; caller to prayer
Acehnese bileuenofficial enjoined with calling the faithful to prayer, and with the upkeep of the mosque
Rejang bileabeadle, lowest ranked mosque official
Sundanese bilalname of the first Islamic muezzin; also muezzin in general (but seldom used)
Javanese bilalperson whose task it is to announce the five daily Moslem prayer times
Sasak bilalmuezzin, caller to prayer
Sangir biraleʔmuezzin; caller to prayer
Mongondow bilal(e)muezzin; caller to prayer
Gorontalo bilalemuezzin; caller to prayer
Bare'e bilalaperson whose task it is to announce the five daily Moslem prayer times
Buginese bilalaʔmuezzin; caller to prayer
Makassarese bidalaʔofficial of the mosque whose duties include calling the faithful to prayer; moreover, like other mosque officials he functions as a leader in all types of religious obligations where customary law requires the presence of one or more religious officials (as at funerals or weddings)
Manggarai bilamuezzin; caller to prayer

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic (βilal = the personal name of the first muezzin).

remarry:   period in which a widow may not remarry

Malay édahperiod during which a widow or divorced woman may not remarry
Sasak édahperiod during which a widow may not remarry
Gorontalo idatime in which a widow may not remarry

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.


Ngaju Dayak ma-niwahhold a death feast for someone
Fijian divaempty, dry, of liquid

Dempwolff cites Fijian diva ‘think about those who are absent’, but this form does not appear in Capell (1968), and even if it were accepted this comparison is too weakly supported to take seriously.

(Dempwolff: *siŋku(r) ‘remote, distant’)


Malay siŋkurkicking out of the way
Javanese ñiŋkurto ignore, reject, turn one’s back on

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *siŋku(r) ‘remote, distant’, but the known forms assigned to it are extremely limited, and better explained as a product of borrowing from Malay.


Casiguran Dumagat gántito repay, to recompense, to respond back to something someone does to you, to reciprocate
Tagalog gantírequital; return; reward; retribution; a deserved punishment; a return for evil done, or sometimes for good done
Hanunóo gantírecompense; response

Borrowing from Tagalog within the Philippines, and possibly ultimately from Malay ganti ‘replacement by succession or substitution’.

(Dempwolff: *pin(tT)a ‘to request’)

request, petition

Tagalog pinta-kasimutual aid, esp. in certain rural tasks
Iban pintaʔrequest, petition, demand; ask for
Malay pintaasking; applying for
  mntato apply for; to seek; to request
Karo Batak pintato invite
Toba Batak pintarequest, petition
Old Javanese pintarequest
  a-pintato have a request, ask for
  a-mintato ask for, beg for

Borrowing from Malay into non-Malayic languages. Based on the Tagalog, Malay, and Toba Batak forms given here Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pin(tT)a ‘to request’, although he acknowledged that the Tagalog form is a loan.

residence:   village, place of residence

Saisiyat ʔasaŋvillage
Bunun asaŋvillage

Although this appears initially to be a straightforward comparison Saisiyat /s/ can only reflect PAn *C and Bunun /s/ can only reflect *s or *S. The similarity of Atayal qalaŋ, Truku Seediq alaŋ ‘village’ to these and to one another also cannot be accounted for by recurrent sound correspondences.

residue:   coconut residue

Gilbertese otacoconut after oil has been extracted, residue
Tongan ʔotaʔotarubbish, refuse, what is rejected or thrown away as worthless
Tuvaluan otawaste after coconut cream has been squeezed from grated nut
Rennellese ʔotadregs of expressed grated coconut; residue of turmeric
Hawaiian okadregs, crumbs, sediment, filings, hulls, grounds, small bits

Borrowing into Gilbertese from a Polynesian source.

residue, dregs

Tagalog látakresidue; dregs; lees; sediment; deposit liquids); solid bits of matter that settle at the bottom of a liquid
  mag-látakto form a residue or sediment
Iban latakmud, muddy
Malay lataklees; dregs; esp. oil refuse
Old Javanese latəkmud, bog

Borrowing from Malay into Tagalog.

restless, fidgety

Kapampangan balisárestless, constantly moving
Tagalog balisáanxious, restless
Cebuano balísaanxious, apprehensive
Ngaju Dayak balisarestless
Banjarese balisahrestless
Malay belisahrestless, fidgety
Toba Batak balisarestless
Old Javanese balisahrestless
Gorontalo balisarestless
Bare'e walisarestless
Tae' balisarestless

Borrowing from Malay.

results:   title, yield, results

Ngaju Dayak asilyield, income, tax
Banjarese hasilrent, tax
Iban asiltithe, tribute, revenue, reward, profit, returns
Maloh asilyield, result
Malay hasilusually: rent, tax; products of the country, exports
Dairi-Pakpak Batak (h)asilrent, tax
Sundanese hasilfruits of the earth; harvest; profit; advantage
Javanese asilincome; product; results
Balinese asilresult, crop, yield
Sasak (h)asilyield, result

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

revenge, retaliation

Karo Batak balasrepay, requite
Kambera balahu, mbalahuretaliation, compensation
Rotinese balasrequite, repay
Tetun balasrepay, recompense

Karo Batak, Kambera and Tetun are likely to be Malay loans. Kambera (m)balahu, on the other hand, appears to be native. It is possible that a PMP *balas existed alongside *bales.

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(Dempwolff: *ba(dD)ak 'rhinoceros')


Ngaju Dayak badakrhinoceros
Malay badakrhinoceros; (sometimes) the tapir (the term covers the larger or one-horned rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus; the smaller two-horned rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sumatrensis; the tapir, Tapirus indicus; the legendary badak api or badak mas, a gold-colored rhinoceros of unusual ferocity; the rhinoceros bird (burong badak), a hornbill
Gayō badakRhinoceros sumatrensis
Karo Batak badakRhinoceros sumatrensis
Toba Batak badakRhinoceros sumatrensis
Rejang badaʔRhinoceros sumatrensis
Sundanese badakrhinoceros
Old Javanese warakrhinoceros
Javanese baḍakrhinoceros
Balinese warakrhinoceros
  bahem warakrhinoceros horn (supposed to arouse potency in men)
Sasak badakrhinoceros

Also Old Javanese wadak ‘wild buffalo’. Austronesian speakers would not have encountered any type of rhinoceros until they reached Borneo. Probably the most widespread term in Borneo is a cognate set traceable to Proto-North Sarawak *təmədhuR (Kelabit təmədhur, Kenyah (Long Anap) təməto, Bintulu təməɗu, Kayan tamdoh, etc. ‘rhinoceros’. Dempwolff’s *ba(dD)ak is clearly an even later innovation, one that presumably originated in Malay and spread from there through borrowing. Balinese warak is clearly a borrowing from Old Javanese, and the belief in the medicinal value of rhinoceros horn as an aphrodisiac probably reflects Chinese contact.

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ribbon, band

Ilokano listónribbon; shoelace; adornment on the brim of a hat
Tagalog listóna hat band; ribbon; tape; shoelace
Bikol listónband (as a hat band); tape, rbbon

Borrowing of Spanish listón ‘ribbon’.


Ilokano lásoribbow, bow; tie; lasso; look; lace
Kapampangan lásuʔribbon
Tagalog lásoribbon
Bikol lásoribbon
Hiligaynon lásuribbon; trimming
Tausug lāsua ribbon

Borrowing of Spanish lazo ‘bow (of ribbons), lace; lasso’.

rice:   packet of cooked rice

Kamarian atuatcontainer woven of coconut leaves in which one cooks rice to a firm mass
Malay ketupatsquare or polygonal packet of cooked glutinous rice (taken, like our sandwiches, for food on a journey)
Chamorro atupat, katupatwoven container used for cooking rice, a box-like container woven from coconut leaves, into which rice is placed, then submerged into boiling water for cooking

Probably borrowing from Malay. Chamorro atupat, Kamarian atuat suggest an etymon *qatubat, but the Chamorro variant in k- and the unexplained loss of *b (expected //h//) in Kamarian leave borrowing as the best alternative.

rice cake

Maranao apaŋpancake
Tiruray ʔafaŋkind of rice cake
Sama (Central) apampancake
Ngaju Dayak apamsmall ball-cake of flour, sugar and sourdough, sprinkled with grated coconut
Malay apamdough-cake; hopper; chupatty (but made of rice-flour, not wheaten flour)
Karo Batak ampamsmall round cookies/pastries
Balinese apemsort of puff-cake
Gorontalo a:paŋirice cake
Mandar apaŋpastry made from rice flour and yeast
Buginese apaŋkind of pastry
Makassarese apaŋkind of rice cake

Borrowing from Tamil. The forms in Maranao and Tiruray suggest borrowing through an intermediate language in which final -m became a velar nasal. The most plausible candidates for a loan source thus appear to be Buginese or Makassarese.

rice cake

Itbayaten vi-viŋkakind of cake
Ilokano bi-bíŋkakind of soft, flat cake made of díket rice, either ground or pounded into powder, sugar and gettá
Casiguran Dumagat bi-bíŋkasweet potatoes fried with sugar; to fry sweet potatoes in sugar
Pangasinan bi-bíŋkarice-cake, usually topped with red sugar
Kapampangan bi-'biŋkarice cake delicacy of many different varieties
Tagalog bi-biŋkárice cake with coconut milk cooked with fire above and below
Bikol bi-bíŋkacassava cake, traditionally cooked in an oven with fire on top and bottom
Aklanon bíŋka(h)dessert cake
  bi-bíŋkacake made of rice or cassava, cooked between two fires
Cebuano bíŋka, bi-bíŋkarice cake made from finely ground rice mixed with coconut milk, sugar, and sometimes with other ingredients as flavoring; woman's genitalia (humorous usage); put between the devil and the deep blue sea (from the idea that the bibíŋka is baked in between two fires)
Maranao bi-biŋkaʔrice cake wrapped in banana leaf and baked
Mansaka bi-biŋkakind of native rice cake
Kayan (Busang) bikaŋkind of cake
Malay kuéh biŋkacake made of rice flour coconut milk, egg and plum sugar. These cakes are of hemispherical form and are joined in pairs so as to appear globular, whence the expression menjadi kueh biŋka 'between the devil and the deep sea'
Mandar bikaŋdelicacy made of rice flour or wheat flour moistened with coconut cream and sprinkled with sugar
Wolio bika-bikakind of cake made of the scraps of batter of other cakes
Bimanese ɓiŋkacake

Borrowing, most likely from Malay. Under this hypothesis the consistent partial reduplication in Philippine forms is unexplained, but no borrowing hypothesis in the other direction appears plausible.

rice delicacy

Bahasa Indonesia burasdelicacy made of rice and soft coconut pulp wrapped in a banana leaf
Mandar burasdelicacy made of rice and soft coconut pulp wrapped in a banana leaf
Makassarese burasaʔkind of rice croquette made of steamed rice mixed with boiled coconut cream which is then wrapped in a banana leaf, tightly bound and cooked
Bimanese βurarice which is wrapped in a young banana leaf and cooked

Borrowing from Malay.

rice:   spicy condiment side dish with rice

Ngaju Dayak sambalcondiment with rice, various fruits, vegetables, etc., raw or cooked, thoroughly mixed with salt and Spanish pepper
  ma-ñambalmake something into this condiment
Malay sambalcondiment eaten with curry (generic for peppers, pickles, grated coconut or pineapple, salt fish, fish roe, very salted eggs, very acid sliced fruits and other condiments eaten cold to give additional flavor to the curry and rice)
Acehnese sambayvarious finely chopped leaves mixed with Spanish pepper, roasted coconut, salt, etc. (a kind of condiment)
Toba Batak sambalpungent side-dish with rice
Sundanese sambalcondiment eaten with rice (as Spanish pepper)
Old Javanese sambəla hot condiment
  s<in>ambəl-anto supply with a hot condiment
Javanese sambelhot spicy sauce or paste
  ñambelto make ingredients into a hot spicy sauce or paste
Balinese sambala very frequently used sauce (green pepper, fish-paste, and lemon juice)
Sasak sambəlspices eaten with rice

Apparently an innovation in Old Javanese that was borrowed by Malay and subsequently disseminated among languages in western Indonesia that were in frequent contact with Malay traders.

rice cake

Itbayaten potokind of native rice cake
Ilokano pútorice cake made with eggs, ground rice, sugar, water, and coconut
Itawis púturice cake
Pangasinan pótocake made from rice flour
Tagalog pútoa kind of white cake made from rice flour
Bikol pútosteamed rice cake (made from ground rice flour soaked in water, baking powder, white sugar and salt)
Romblomanon pūtua steamed cake; steamed cassava cake, steamed rice cake (eaten as a breakfast food, for snacks, and as a dessert)
Masbatenyo pútorice cake
Aklanon pútorice bread
Waray-Waray pútowhite rice cake
Agutaynen potosmall, round steamed cakes made with rice flour; these are often served at birthday parties, and at other special occasions
Cebuano pútucake made of steamed starches, coconut, and other optional ingredients
  pa-mútuengage in the business of selling pútu; go somewhere to eat pútu
Maranao potocake made of grated cassava
Mansaka potokind of rice cake
Mapun putusteamed grated cassava
  mututo prepare or cook steamed cassava
  putuh-anthe pot and the coconut shell with holes in it used for steaming cassava
Yakan putusteamed cassava; balls or clumps are made of grated cassava and steamed
  mututo make steamed cassava
  putuh-ancontainer for steaming cassava
Tausug putua confection made by steaming grated cassava
  mag-pututo prepare this confection
Malay puturice cake; generic for a number of sweetmeats (Tamil loan)
Sundanese putukind of cake made of flour and sugar
Javanese puṭua confection made of rice, grated coconut, and sugar

Wilkinson (1959) identifies this as a Tamil loan in Malay. If this identification is correct then the word presumably spread through Malay contact to various other coastally accessible languages of Indonesia and the Philippines.

rice cake

Agutaynen komboa native rice cake also known by the Tagalog term bibingka
Cebuano kúmbuʔfritters made from cooking bananas, sliced crosswise, mixed with a binder of flour, and deep fried
Maranao komboʔbanana or sweet potato fritter

Apparently a Cebuano loan distribution.

rice confection

Agutaynen ibosa snack made of steamed sticky rice and wrapped in coconut palm leaves or banana leaves
Cebuano íbuscook food wrapped in coconut leaves in long sticks; food so cooked, most frequently a tidbit consisting of sticks of sticky rice with coconut and sugar
Maranao ibosrice delicacy

Probably a Cebuano loan distribution.

(Dempwolff: *sindiR ‘mockery, ridicule’)

ridicule, derision

Kadazan Dusun sindiɁa type of poetry/music that has hidden meaning
Ngaju Dayak sindirmockery, ridicule, derision
  ha-sindirmock one another
Iban sindirmake insinuations, banter or flirt (in riddles)
Malay sindirteasing; chaff by innuendo; banter
Toba Batak sindirpetty matter over which one becomes vexed; cause of a quarrel
Sundanese sindirveiled expression; indirect or figurative expression
Old Javanese sinḍiallusion, innuendo
  a-ninḍito allude to, make allusions to, hint at, intimate
Javanese sinḍén (< *sindi-an)sing to the accompaniment of the gamelan music [of female singers]
Sasak sindirallude to something, hint at

Based on data from Toba Batak, Javanese, Malay and Ngaju Dayak, Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sindiR ‘mockery, ridicule’. However, the original meaning of this term appears to have been closer to that of teasing in a flirtatious manner than to mockery or ridicule. The Kadazan Dusun form is irregular, and it is very difficult to exclude the possibility of a borrowing distribution for the remaining forms.

rifle:   butt of a rifle

Ilokano kulátabutt of a rifle
  kulatá-ento hit with the butt of a rifle
Casiguran Dumagat kulátabutt (of a rifle); to bash someone with the butt of a rifle
Tagalog kulátabutt of a rifle or firearm
  kulatá-ninto hit someone or something with the butt of a rifle
Cebuano kulátagunstock; ; maul someone, beat someone badly

Borrowed from Spanish culata ‘butt, stock (of rifle, etc.)’.

rifle:   gun, rifle

Ilokano pusílgun, rifle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pusila gun

From Spanish fusil ‘rifle’.

(Dempwolff: *teŋen ‘be right’)

right correct

Tagalog tiŋínlook; sight; view; glance; view; viewpoint; opinion; respect; esteem; appreciation
Toba Batak toŋoncorrect, true, accurate
Old Javanese təŋənthe right hand side
Javanese teŋenright (as opposed to left)
Balinese teŋenright hand, right side

The western Indonesian forms are likely loans from Malay, and the Tagalog form a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teŋen ‘be right’ (rechtsein).

(Dempwolff: *tepi ‘edge, border’)

rim:   edge, rim

Malay təpiedge, brink
  mə-nəpito edge away; to move aside, e.g. out of the way of a missile
Karo Batak tepiside of a road or river; edge of a mat
  me-tepistand on the side
Toba Batak topiban, shore; edge, boundary
Old Javanese təpiedge, border, side
  a-nəpi-nəpito go to the side, lie close to the edge
  ma-təpi-təpiedged, bordered
  pa-nəpiborder area, border, side
Javanese tepiedge, boundary, riverbank; decorative edging
Balinese tepiborder, edge, limit, coast

Also Maranao tepik ‘shore, riverbank’. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepi ‘edge, border’.


Ilokano siŋsíŋring
  siŋsiŋ-ánwearing a ring; to put a ring on someone
Bontok səŋsəŋ ~ siŋsiŋan earring, particularly an indigenous gold earring
Ifugaw hiŋhíŋring; may be applied to earrings that are real rings (said to be from Ilokano)
Pangasinan siŋsíŋring (for finger)
Kapampangan siŋsíŋring
Tagalog siŋsíŋring
  pala-siŋsiŋ-ánring finger
Hanunóo síŋsiŋfinger ring
Agutaynen sisiŋring worn on a finger
Maranao sisiŋring
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sisiŋfinger ring
Tiruray tisiŋa ring; to wear a ring
Kadazan Dusun sinsiŋring
  ko-sinsiŋ-anact of wearing a ring
Malay cincinfinger ring (symbolic of perfect fit)
Old Javanese simsimring
Javanese cincinring for the finger; thimble
Balinese simsim ~ siŋsimfinger ring

The irregularities in the final consonant suggest that this word is a loan, an inference that is supported by claims in (Rubino 2000), and (English 1986) that it is a Chinese borrowing in Ilokano and Tagalog. However, a source is yet to be identified.

(Dempwolff: *pe(rR)em ‘artificially ripen fruit’)

ripen fruit

Iban peram(of birds) to sit, incubate, (of hens) go broody, hatch eggs; (of fruit) cause to ripen, keep until ripe
Malay pəramstoring fruit to let it ripen; to store liquid in a jar to let it ferment
Toba Batak ma-moromto artificially ripen fruit by putting it in a container and covering it

Probably a Malay loanword in Toba Batak, as cognates are yet to be found in other languages outside the Malayic group. On the basis of the Malay and Toba Batak forms Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *pe(rR)em ‘artificially ripen fruit’.

(Dempwolff: *cemeD ‘impure’)

ritually:   defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean

Ngaju Dayak samara sickness that comes about because one has eaten something that is prohibited or taboo; soiled, defiled, polluted
Malay cemardirt; polution. Of dirty bits of road; a vile disposition; days of uncleanness (hari cemar kain ‘menstrual period’)
Toba Batak somorunwilling, reluctant
  anak somor-somora bad son who causes grief to his parents
  imbulu somor-somorhair on the human body (or horses) which shows that the possessor is unworthy; in general: unworthy
Sundanese cemerlose one’s power, influence or purity; become ordinary or impure
Old Javanese a-cemerunclean, foul, low
  a-nemer-ito defile
  c<um>emer-ito defile
Javanese cemersoggy, messy, muddy
  c/r/emedto tell dirty stories; to talk obscenely or coarsely
Balinese cemerceremonially unclean
  ñemer-into defile, make ritually unclean
Sasak cemerfoul, impure; damp, moist; unsafe (because of sorcery)
Wayan somobe dyed black or brown (using traditional dyes made from black mud or leaves); black or brown dye
  somo-ni ~ somo-tidye something, stain something black or brown; weave a mat with dyed strips
Fijian somostained, of sinnet
  somo-tato stain sinnet black, generally by burying it in black earth or mangrove mud
  somo-somo-a ~ somo-somo-tadirty
  taka-somosomo-takato dirty, blacken with earth
Samoan somogum (secreted by the eyes, etc.)
  somo-abe gummy

Dempwolff reconstructed *cemeD ‘impure’, but there is little evidence for such a proto-form outside of Malay, Javanese and languages that have borrowed from either or both of these. The cognation of the Toba Batak form with the others appears doubtful, and the proposed connection of the Oceanic forms to these is completely unconvincing, making this comparison partly attributable to borrowing and partly to chance. The evidence for *-D was based entirely on the second Javanese form, which contains an unexplained stem-internal /r/.

(Dempwolff: *muara ‘estuary’)

river mouth:   estuary, river mouth

Malay muaraestuary; river mouth
Toba Batak muaramouth of a river
Javanese muarariver mouth that empties into the sea

Borrowing from Malay. The PMP word for ‘estuary’ was *minaŋa. Even Malay’s close relative Iban has naŋa. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1934-1938) posited “Uraustronesisch’ *muara ‘estuary’.

rad    raf    rai    ram    ran    rat    raz    rea    rec    red    ref    reg    rel    rem    rep    req    res    ret    rev    rhi    rib    ric    rid    rif    rig    rim    rin    rip    rit    riv    roa    rob    roo    rou    row    rud    run    rus    


roast pig

Ilokano litsónroasted pig
  ag-litsónto have roasted pig; to roast a pig
  litson-ento roast a pig
Tagalog litsónroast pig (Spanish lechon means a live suckling pig, but in Tagalog usage lechon (litsón) means a pig barbecued or roasted on a spit or in an oven
Bikol letsón ~ litsóna roasted pig; roasted pork; the meat from a young pig which is traditionally placed on a spit and roasted over an open fire for five to six hours

Borrowing of Spanish lechón ‘suckling pig’.

robber:   bandit, robber, thief

Ilokano tulisánthief, robber
  ag-tulisánto rob, steal
Casiguran Dumagat tulisanbandit, burglar, outlaw
Tagalog tulisánhighway robber; brigand; bandit; outlaw
Bikol tulisánbandit, highwayman

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.


Casiguran Dumagat tandáŋrooster
Sambal (Botolan) tandáŋrooster
Ayta Abellan tandaŋrooster
Kapampangan tandaŋyoung male chicken, not yet a rooster
Tagalog tandáŋrooster; a male fowl
Central Tagbanwa tandaŋrooster

Also Kadazan Dusun tandaaʔ rooster, cock. Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

root:   aerial root

Ngaju Dayak tunjaŋvarious trees that send out leafless shoots from their roots that reach two or three feet in length and vary from the thickness of a finger to that of an arm; also refers to these shoots
Malay akar tunjaŋroots such as those of the mangrove that rise out of the mud and then re-enter it


Casiguran Dumagat bilúground
  ka-bilug-enfull moon
Tagalog bilógroundness, rotundity; circle; round, circular
Bikol bilógcircle, disk, ring, sphere; circular, globular, round, rotund, spherical; complete, entire, full (as the moon)
Hanunóo bilúgsolid, globular, in the round
  bílugbody, especially in its external, unified aspect; hence a unit classifier for people, animals, solid round fruits and vegetables (not coconuts and bananas), and many objects; roundness, sphericity; full, referring to the moon
Aklanon bilógsolid, entire, whole; full (moon)
  bílogconsolidate, unify, make into a single unit; unit
Hiligaynon bilúground, circle
  bílugpiece, part
Palawan Batak bilógbody; container; whole, entire

Borrowing into Casiguran Dumagat from a GCPh source, probably Tagalog.

row, line

Iban barisrow, line, military array
Malay barisstraight line (as in drawing up troups in line, writing, etc.)
Toba Batak barisrow; path that an animal is accustomed to follow; trace, track, rut
Old Javanese barisline, rank; various sorts of martial dances
Sasak barisrow, rank; kind of war dance
Makassarese barrisiʔline (of soldiers, books)
Rembong barisrow, line
Kei barisrow, column, series

A late innovation in western Indonesia, borrowed from Malay into Makasarese, Rembong, Kei and many other languages.

(Dempwolff: *banza(r) ‘row’)


Malay banjarrow, line, file (of ranges of hills; of men or things being in lines of ten, or of a thousand; of forming troups up in lines four or five deep)
Toba Batak banjarrow, file; row of trees, houses, etc.,; village
Sundanese banjarrow, rank
Javanese banjar(planted) in rows
Fijian basalevel or in a straight line with

Based on the Malay, Toba Batak, Javanese and Fijian forms Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *banza(r) ‘row’, but the resemblance of Fijian basa to the other forms cited here seems best attributed to chance, and the remainder of the comparison is geographically very restricted and best attributed to borrowing from Malay. Arosi hata ‘to be in line, continuous’ offers a semantically better fit with the western Indonesian forms than Fijian basa, but without collateral lines of support this, too, is best treated as a product of convergence.

row:   file, line, row

Ilokano pílaline (for waiting); row
Isneg pílato take on a file
Bikol pílaqueue, line (as before a movie theatre)
  mag-pílato line up; to stand in line
Agutaynen pilaa line, row
  mag-pilafor people to form a line; to line up one behind the other

From Spanish fila ‘row, line’.

rad    raf    rai    ram    ran    rat    raz    rea    rec    red    ref    reg    rel    rem    rep    req    res    ret    rev    rhi    rib    ric    rid    rif    rig    rim    rin    rip    rit    riv    roa    rob    roo    rou    row    rud    run    rus    



Itbayaten timonrudder
Ilokano timónhelm, rudder; joy-stick
  timon-ánto guide by a rudder
Casiguran Dumagat timónrudder; to steer a canoe with a paddle
Ayta Abellan timoncontroller or rudder of a boat
Tagalog timónrudder; a movable flat piece at the end of a boat, airplane or ship by which it is steered
Bikol timónrudder; helm or steering wheel of a boat; the steering mechanism of a plow
  mag-timónto navigate, to be at the helm
Aklanon timónrudder of a boat; to steer, man the helm
Central Tagbanwa timonrudder
Chamorro timónsteer (with a rudder), guide (with a rudder); rudder

From Spanish timón ‘rudder’.


Ngaju Dayak dayoŋa long rudder
Iban dayoŋoar, row
Malay dayuŋoar, breast fin of fish (in Java: paddle)
Toba Batak dayuŋa long rudder
Javanese ḍayuŋoar, paddle
Balinese dayuŋoar
  nayuŋto row
  dayuŋ-aŋto be rowed for, be caused to row
Sasak dayuŋoar
  bə-dayuŋto row

This limited distribution probably is due to borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *papag ‘to meet, run across’)

run across:   meet, run across, welcome

Malay mə-mapakto receive, to welcome
Javanese mapagto pick up, call for; to meet and pass (something going in the opposite direction)
  ka-papag-ana meeting from different directions
  papag-anvehicle in which someone is met, e.g. upon his arrival

Based on just these two languages Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *papag ‘to meet, run across’. However, Wilkinson gives papag as Malay variant, a form that could only be borrowed from Javanese, and there appears to be little basis for a reconstruction at even a very shallow time-depth.

ruse:   trick, ruse, scheme, wits

Maranao akaltrick, fool, plan
  akal-akaltrick a person without mercy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akalto betray
Mansaka akaltrick; crafty procedure or practice
Tiruray ʔakara trick, a crafty or cheating action
  feg-akarto trick (someone)
  tag-akar-enalways tricky
Tausug akkalintellect, intelligence, wisdom, ability
  maŋ-akkalto fool, trick, dupe, deceive (someone)
  paŋ-akkal(someone) prone to fool people; one who tricks, dupes, or deceives people
  akkal-unto use one’s mind, wisdom, intellect (to do something)
Lun Dayeh akalshrewdness, cleverness; deception; an excuse
Iban akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence
Malay akalwit; intelligence
  bər-akalclever, resourceful
Gayō akalintelligence, but in an unfavorable sense: clever trick, subterfuge, pretext
Javanese akalidea, scheme (as to solve a problem)
  akal budicommon sense
  akal kojaa convincing lie; skilled at deception
  di-akal-ito take advantage of someone
Balinese akalmind; intention
Sasak akaltrick, ruse, deceit
  bər-akalclever, smart, ingenious
Banggai akaltrick, ruse, deceit, fraud, artifice
Mandar akalwits, ideas, thoughts, cleverness
  pe-akaldeceptive, not honest
Wolio Ɂakalaguile, trick, ruse, device, artifice, way out, resource, means, reason, intellect, spirit
Muna akalamind, intellect; way, tactic, strategy, deceit
  akala-i ~ akala-hito deceive with cunning, trick
Bimanese akawits, intelligence
  mbora akaconfused, losing one’s wits, not understanding
  mboto akaclever, sharp-witted, brainy
Rembong akalwits, intelligence; deceive, lie to

A Malay loanword, ultimately from Arabic. Note how the positive features of the meaning in Malay assume a more negative cast in most other languages.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)