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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    


Hanunóo lamísaa raised table of the usual four-legged wooden type found in Christian Filipino homes; seen but not used by the Hanunóo
Maranao lamísatable
Tiruray lamesaa table

Borrowing from Spanish.

taboo:   forbidden taboo

Iban pantaŋforbidden, not done or avoided for fear of evil consequences; ritual restriction or activity
Malay pantaŋtaboo; thing not done; prohibition due to custom or superstition
  mə-mantaŋto find fault with
Karo Batak pantaŋwhat is forbidden by traditional custom or law
Toba Batak pantaŋforbidden, taboo
Banggai pantanforbidden

Apparently a Malay loan outside Malayic.

taboo:   forbidden, prohibited, taboo

Casiguran Dumagat bawálto forbid, prohibit; taboo, forbidden
Tagalog báwalprohibited, forbidden, taboo
  ka-bawál-anrestriction; a limiting condition or rule
Bikol báwalforbidden, prohibited, taboo
Agutaynen bawalprohibited; forbidden; taboo to do

Borrowing from Tagalog into Casiguran Dumagat and Agutaynen.

take with fingers:   pick up, take with fingers

Tagalog dampótact of picking up with the hand from the floor or ground
  damput-anplace from which something is picked up
Ngaju Dayak jumputpick up, take
  katip jumputfire tongs
Iban jeputtake a pinch or single piece
  sa-jeput semakaua pinch of tobacco
Malay jemputa grasp; pinch; pressure between the cushion of the thumb (jempul) and the fingertips; (whence) pressure such as is used in greeting a visitor; greeting
Toba Batak man-jomputpick something up with two or three fingers
Old Javanese j<um>umputto take or hold between forefinger and thumb, pinch
Javanese jumputtweezers, small pincers

Also Ngaju Dayak sumput ‘pick up, take’. Tagalog dampót cannot be reconciled with the Ngaju Dayak or Javanese forms, and the latter cannot be reconciled with Malay jemput. Moreover, Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian covu-ta ‘to break or cut food small; to peck at’, which appears to be unrelated. All things considered, then, this comparision is most likely to be a product of borrowing from Malay.

talisman:   amulet, talisman

Kapampangan antíŋ-antíŋtalisman
Tagalog antíŋ-antíŋamulet
Bikol antíŋamulet, charm, fetish, talisman
  antíŋ-antíŋamulet, charm, fetish, talisman
Aklanon ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, charm (supposedly possessing a secret power allowing a person to avoid injury); power of invulnerability
Hiligaynon ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, talisman
Cebuano antiŋ-antiŋcharm, amulet; wear, have, make into an amulet
Maranao antiŋ-antiŋcharm, talisman, amulet

Probably a GCPh innovation borrowed into Kapampangan. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to relate Tagalog antíŋ-antíŋ 'amulet' to Malay antiŋ-antiŋ 'ear-ring' and similar forms in other western Indonesian languages through a meaning 'pendant' is unconvincing.

talisman, protective charm

Maranao adimatamulet, talisman, charm
Kadazan Dusun gimattalisman or charm that gives strength, power
Kayan gimeta pagan protective charm (loanword, Malay)
  jimata protective charm --- occult practice (loanword, Malay)
Iban jimattalisman, amulet
Malay jimatcharm; talisman for self-protection
Toba Batak man-jimatto pacify

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic, but through the medium of Malay. Ironically, Kayan gimet is described as part of a pagan practice, although it was acquired through contact with Malay, which is the source of Islam for all native peoples of Borneo.

tamarind:   fruit tree, tamarind, Tamarindus indica

Itbayaten sampaloktamarind: Leguminosae, Tamarindus indica Linn.
Tagalog sampáloka tropical tree and its fruit: tamarind
Bikol sampáloka tree producing an edible fruit whose pulp is used in cooking and may also be made into a jam or candy: Tamarindus indicus
Wolio sampalutamarind tree and fruit
Muna sampalutamarind tree; tamarind (used in flavoring meat and fish)

The tamarind tree is native to Africa, and is believed to have reached western India via human transport several millennia before the Christian era. It presumably was introduced to insular Southeast Asia during the Indianization that began some 1,800-2,000 years ago. Madulid (2001) reports that forms related to Tagalog sampálok are found in “many languages” of the Philippines, but I have found only a few examples in the available dictionaries. The Itbayaten term is almost certainly a loan from Tagalog.

tang of a knife or bolo

Itbayaten oteŋprotruding piece of iron from the blade (to be firm with the handle), protuberance of blade of bolo
Ibatan oteŋthe tongue of the protruding part of the blade that forms part of the handle (of a knife, etc.)
Ilokano utéŋtang, tongue of a knife
Ifugaw útoŋtang beneath the blade of a spear or knife, driven into the shaft or handle
Casiguran Dumagat utéŋbutt of a bolo or knife, which fits into the wooden handle

Probably an Ilokano loan in the Batanic languages.

taro variety

Hanunóo kaládiʔa variety of gábi (taro), by Hanunóo classification; its leaves are white and tough: family Araceae, genus Caladium or Colocasia
Palawano kaladitaro: Colocasia esculenta (Madulid 2001)
Malay kəladigeneric for many aroids, esp. Colocasia antiquorum (the Polynesian taro); used medicinally

Probably a Malay loan, although it is unclear if this is true why a loanword from far south of the Philippines would be concentrated only in the region of Palawan and Mindoro.


Casiguran Dumagat lásatasty (of the good taste of viand)
Hanunóo lásataste
Cebuano lásataste
Maranao rasacoating, nutricious part of food
Mansaka lāsaappetite
Iban rasataste; feeling, sensation
Malay rasataste; feeling, sensation

Borrowing from Malay.

tattle, tell on

Ayta Abellan homboŋto tell on, to report
Tagalog sumbóŋaccusation, complaint
Bikol mag-sumbóŋto tattle or squeal about; to report about

Probably a Tagalog loan in Ayta Abellan.

(Dempwolff: *kenceŋ ‘taut’)


Ngaju Dayak kancaŋtenseness; be stretched taut
Malay kencaŋsteady and strong, of motion; taut
Javanese kenceŋtight, without slack

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kenceŋ ‘taut’.

tax, toll

Malay béatoll; impost
Nias beotribute, toll, tax
Sundanese béatax or excise on articles of consumption, impost, duty
Old Javanese béaexpenses, contribution
Javanese béacost, charge; customs duty
Balinese béapayment for work; payment for a religious festival; customs-duty, toll; cost, expense
Sasak béacompensation
Sangir béatoll, duty, excise, tax
Mongondow beatax
Gorontalo béatax, duty
Mandar béatax
Makassarese béa(harbor) duty, tax on incoming and outgoing goods
Komodo béatax; tribute
Manggarai béaŋtax
Rembong béatax, tribute
Sika beatax
Hawu ɓeawages, pay
Rotinese beatax, toll
Buruese beatax
Soboyo beatax

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit vyaya. This item has the same historical source as the various forms of biaya cited under 'monetary support' (cf. Old Javanese byaya 'expenses, contribution'). The attested distribution of both sets of forms almost certainly is the result of borrowing from Malay, which in turn acquired the word twice, the first time directly from Sanskrit with relatively minor phonetic modifications, and the second time through Javanese. The two words so acquired were then transmitted, probably as a linguistic by-product of Islamic proselytization, from Malay into various other languages of Indonesia and the Philippines.

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    



Cebuano yátia large tree of waste spaces, teak: Tectona grandis
Tausug jatiʔteak
Malay kayu jatiteak
Old Javanese jatiteak tree
Javanese jatiteak
Balinese jatiteak

A Malay loan in Philippine languages.

tear into pieces

Amis pispisto tear in pieces (paper or material)
Puyuma pispistear into many pieces

Probably an Amis loan in Puyuma.


Bintulu -bəlasformative for numerals from 11-19
Melanau (Mukah) -belasformative for numerals from 11-19
Ngaju Dayak walasten (only in combination in the numbers 11-19)
Iban -belassuffix to the numbers 1-9 which makes them mean the numbers 11-19
Malay -belasa component in framing numerals from 11 to 19
Acehnese -blaïhformative for numerals from 11-19
Dairi-Pakpak Batak -belassuffix in empat-belas'fourteen'
Lampung -belasnumeral formative: -teen
Sundanese wəlasformative in the numbers from 11 to 19
Javanese -belas-teen (variant used with 4, 6)
Balinese welassuffix used to form numerals from 11-19 (but not 18)

Borrowing from Malay, probably associated with the expansion of trade during the period of the Sriwijaya empire (7th-12th centuries AD).

tell:   divine, find by divination, tell fortunes

Tagalog tanóŋquestion; interrogation; inquiry
Iban nenoŋto divine, find by divination (Scott 1956)
Malay tənoŋabstraction; being plunged in thought; absent-minded, as a seer is absent-minded
Sundanese tənuŋclairvoyance (of a magician or soothsayer); prophesying by means of astrology
Old Javanese tənuŋdivining magic (esp. as performed with a cock?)
Javanese tenuŋblack magic; practitioner of black magic
Balinese nenuŋpractice magic, cast spells, prophesy
Sasak tənuŋtell fortunes

Borrowing from Malay.

tell on:   tattle, tell on

Ayta Abellan homboŋto tell on, to report
Tagalog sumbóŋaccusation, complaint
Bikol mag-sumbóŋto tattle or squeal about; to report about

Probably a Tagalog loan in Ayta Abellan.

temptation; to tempt

Pangasinan tóksotemptation
Sambal (Botolan) toksóʔto tempt
Ayta Abellan tokhoto be tempted in one’s heart to do something evil
Kapampangan tuksuʔto tease someone
Tagalog tuksótemptation; allurement; seduction
Hanunóo tuksúʔtemptation
Central Tagbanwa mag-tuksoto tempt, entice

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution, although in this case the agreement of the final glottal stop in widely separated languages is unexplained.


Bontok tuldacanvas; tent
Cebuano tuldatent; pitch a tent
Maranao toldatent; tent material --- canvas
Tausug tuldaa tarpaulin, tent

term of address for girls

Malay endokfriendly form of address used by a woman to a female friend or by a man to his wife
Manggarai endukMiss, form of address used with a young woman

Borrowing from Malay.

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    


(Dempwolff: *kenTel ‘viscous’)

thick (of fluids), viscous

Malay kəntalthick (of liquid); viscous
Rejang keteaviscous, thick
Sundanese kəntəlthick, of fluids
Javanese kenṭelfirm, strong (as tea), solidified (as oil that has frozen), thick, viscous (as syrup); close, intimate
Balinese kentelsolidify, become stiff, coagulate; no longer liquid, thick, coagulated
  kentel-aŋbe thickened, stuffed full, crammed
  kentel-inbe thickened, condensed
Sasak kəntəlcoagulated

Also Balinese hentel ‘thick, close, dense, solid’. Given its distribution only on Java, Bali and Lombok and in Malay, but not in the Batak languages or other languages of northern Sumatra, or in Borneo, this is most likely to be a loan from Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kenTel ‘viscous’.

thief:   bandit, robber, thief

Ilokano tulisánthief, robber
  ag-tulisánto rob, steal
Casiguran Dumagat tulisanbandit, burglar, outlaw
Tagalog tulisánhighway robber; brigand; bandit; outlaw
Bikol tulisánbandit, highwayman

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

(Dempwolff: *maliŋ ‘to steal’)


Ngaju Dayak maliŋthief
Malay maliŋthief; of theft generally, but with a suggestion of surreptitious purloining, esp. at night
Old Javanese maliŋthief; thievish; stealthy
Javanese maliŋthief; to steal
Balinese maliŋsteal
  ma-maliŋto be a thief, to steal

Also Balinese paliŋ ‘to steal, rob, take away’. Borrowing, probably from Javanese into Malay and then from Malay into other languages. Dempwolff (1934-1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *maliŋ ‘to steal’.


Ilokano didálthimble
  ag-didálto wear a thimble, use a thimble
Tagalog didálthimble
Bikol dedálthimble
  mag-dedálto wear a thimble
Agutaynen didalthimble
Cebuano didálthimble; use a thimble
Maranao didalthimble

From Spanish dedal ‘thimble’.

(Dempwolff: *ku(r)us ‘slender’)

thin, slender, skinny

Melanau (Mukah) kuruihthin, of animate beings
Ngaju Dayak kurusnarrowness in the waist
Iban kurus(of people, animals) thin; meagre, poor
Malay kurusthin, attenuated, esp. of a person being lean or skinny

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(r)us ‘slender’.

(Dempwolff: *tipis ‘thin’)

thin (of materials)

Malay tipisthin; delicate
Javanese tipisthin (not thick)
Balinese tipisthin, fine (linen, paper)
Sasak tipisthin

Presumably a back-formation from *ma-nipis, with borrowing from Malay into Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tipis ‘thin’ (dünnsein).

(Dempwolff: *tilem ‘mattress’)

thin cover to sleep on:   quilt mattress thin cover to sleep on

Ngaju Dayak tilammattress for sleeping
Malay tilamquilt mattress, used with a sleeping mat by Malays of the better class
Sundanese tilamsomething used to cover or protect something else, as a mat or cloth on which an object is then set; slip, cover
Old Javanese tilammattress, sleeping mat; bed, bedstead
Javanese tilamthin sleeping mat
Balinese tilammattress, bed

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tilem ‘mattress’ (Matratze), basing the last vowell on Javanese tiləm ‘to sleep, go to bed’, but the latter form differs from reflexes in all other languages, including Old Javanese.

things:   goods, belongings, things, possessions

Kayan bareŋequipment, things
Melanau (Mukah) bareŋthing
Ngaju Dayak baraŋthings, goods
Malay baraŋthing; stuff; wares; goods
  baraŋ-baraŋthings of all sorts; impediments, the usual things
Toba Batak baraŋgoods, moveable property
Javanese baraŋthing, object, stuff, matter, goods
Balinese baraŋthing, property, matter
Sangir baraŋstuff, belongings
Buginese waramparaŋgoods, possessions
Makassarese baraŋ-baraŋgoods, possessions
Manggarai baraŋ-kanithings, belongings
Rembong baraŋpossessions, property, equipment
Hawu ɓaragoods
Buli baraŋgoods

Borrowing from Malay. The term *baraŋ apparently was found in PMP as a marker of indefiniteness. The meaning 'things, goods, possessions' evidently was a late innovation in western Indonesia, which, together with the reduplicated form of the word, was widely disseminated through borrowing from Malay.

thirst, thirsty

Ngaju Dayak hausdesire, long for something (including water)
Banjarese hausthirsty
Jarai mehaothirsty
Rhade mhaothirsty
Malay hausthirst
Simalur aothirsty
  maŋ-aobe thirsty
Karo Batak uasquenching of thirst .. m-uas thirsty
Toba Batak uasthirst .. ma-uas thirsty
Javanese austhirsty
Sasak austhirsty

Borrowing from Malay.The relation of the Chamic forms to those in other languages probably is convergent.

(Dempwolff: *aŋen)

thoughts, mind

Pangasinan áŋanbelieved, thought by
Maranao aŋanto suspect
  aŋan-aŋansuspicion, doubt
Malay aŋan-aŋanthoughts; mind. Of a girl being always in her lover's thoughts ... and conversely of a girl's mind being centered on a man's good looks
Rejang aŋan-aŋanideal, hope, idle thoughts, daydream
Sundanese aŋenheart, mind; also stomach; further; to wish, desire, long for di-aŋen-aŋen be thought about
Old Javanese aŋen-aŋenthoughts, considerations, reflections; the seat of the thoughts, intellect, mind, heart, spirit
Javanese aŋenthought, idea
Balinese aŋenliver, 'heart'; consider, meditate on
  ulun aŋensolar plexus, pit of the stomach

A late innovation in western Indonesia, with borrowing from Malay into some Philippine languages. Aklanon aŋán-aŋán 'wait a little while, spend some time idling', and similar forms in some other Greater Central Philippines languages, appear to be distinct.

(Dempwolff: *antih)

thread:   spin cotton thread

Kadazan Dusun ganti-ancolored thread
Ngaju Dayak kantihwhat is spun or twined (yarn)
  maŋ-antihto spin, twine
Malay antéh, meŋ-antéhto spin. The meaning covers the whole process of spinning. Possibly from a root kantéh
Toba Batak gantispin, make cotton thread
Sundanese antéhcotton thread; also: to spin
Old Javanese antih-antih-anspider-web
  aŋ-antihto spin
Javanese di-antihbe spun, be woven
  k-antihthread spun on a spinning wheel
  ŋ-antihto spin (thread); to weave
Madurese antetwisting, twining, making thread or string

A relatively late innovation in western Indonesia, with probable borrowing from Malay into some of the other languages cited here.


Bintulu banduldoorsill
Iban bendulcross-beam
Malay bendulcross-beam (from house pillar) supporting the floor of a house; whence the term bendul yaŋ empat '(the four cross-beams), i.e. the "four walls" of a house within which the owner is master' masok ka bendul cross the threshold (of a house)
Karo Batak bendulthe rectangular framework with which the plank floor of the rice granary is fastened
Toba Batak bondul ni pintuthreshold

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano tipíteconomical, not wasteful
Sambal (Botolan) mag-tipídto be thrifty
Tagalog ka-tipir-ánconservation, avoiding waste
  mag-tipídto economize; to cut down expenses
  tipídconservation; avoiding waste; saving; way of saving money, time, etc.; thrift; thriftiness; absence of waste
Bikol ma-tipídthrifty; parsimonious; austere
Agutaynen mag-tipidto be thrifty, careful with finances and other resources

Borrowing from Tagalog.

through:   bore through

Iban tebokhole or hollow carved out, mortise (to fit tenon); bore a hole
Malay təbokboring a hole into; sinking a shaft or well; shaft; cylindrical hole
  təmbokperforated; holed; rotten or hollow (of teeth); worm-eaten (of planking); eaten through by white ants; corroded by rust
Toba Batak ma-tombukpierced through, bored through
Rejang tebuʔa hole, a cavity (as thorugh the ear), nostril, anus
Fijian tobua pool in a river, bathing hole; a well

Apart from Iban the western Indonesian forms are likely Malay loans, and the resemblance of the Fijian form to the others cited here is best attributed to chance.

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    



Bintulu mə-kəliʔto itch
Iban geliʔamused, entertained, ‘tickled’
Malay gəlitickled; amused; inclined to laugh; restlessness as the result of words or mere sound

Borrowing into Bintulu from Malay (possibly from Malay (Sarawak)).

(Dempwolff: *si(r)at ‘fasten or tie to’)

tie:   fasten or tie to

Ngaju Dayak siratwhat is bound or woven tightly
Malay siratmesh; network
Toba Batak siratdesign on the edge of a cloth

Dempwolff (1938) posited *si(r)at ‘fasten or tie to’, but support for this reconstruction is limited, and until stronger evidence is found, the comparison is best attributed to a borrowing from Malay.

tied:   drawn, tied, even in score

Ibaloy tabdatie, no winner or loser, even score
  man-tabdato tie
Pangasinan tábladraw, tie (in a game)
Tagalog tabládrawn; tied
  maka-tabláto draw; to tie; to break even
Tausug tablaeven, equal, tied (as in a game or contest)

Borrowing of Spanish tablas ‘stalemate, draw’, with irregular loss of -s. David Zorc has noted in a personal communication that although -s is commonly added to Spanish words borrowed in Philippine languages (e.g. Pangasinan apáyas, Bikol tapáyas, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kepayas < Spanish papaya), it is also sometimes dropped, as in the present case. It is likely that borrowing of this word from Spanish took place directly only in Tagalog, and that it then spread to other Philippine languages from this secondary source.

tight-fisted:   stingy, tight-fisted

Ilokano kuríputstingy, miserly
Itawis kuríputstingy, tight-fisted
Tagalog kurípotniggardly; miserly; stingy; mean about money; close
Bikol kurípotstingy; a tightwad
Tausug kuriputmean in spending or giving money, stingy

Apparently a Tagalog loan distribution, from a form that must originally have had an intervocalic voiced alveolar stop.

(Dempwolff: *tambat ‘bind tightly’)

tightly:   bind tightly

Ngaju Dayak tambata rope at the back of a boat used to moor it when landing
Malagasy a-támbatrato be joined to, to be connected to something
  ma-námbatrato join, to connect, to place together
Malay tambattethering
  mə-nambat-kanto tie up, to fasten up (of fowls with their legs tied together, etc.)
Toba Batak tambatbound tightly; to tie to

Probably identical to PWMP *tambej ‘tie up, bind tightly’, but with borrowing of the Malay form tambat into the other languages cited here. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tambat ‘bind tightly’.

time limit:   deadline, time limit

Ilokano taníŋlimit; deadline
Sambal (Botolan) i-tániŋto set a date
Tagalog tániŋlimit; fixed time; time limit; to fix a time limit for a certain work
Aklanon taníŋlimit (to life); predestination
Agutaynen taniŋa certain amount of time left to live; for one’s life to be limited, have a limit or end point

tin can

Ilokano látatin can; can
Ifugaw látatin can; an empty láta may be used as a coconut cup, or as a recipient of urine when someone is very ill
Casiguran Dumagat látatin can
Ibaloy datatin can; five-gallon kerosene can --- a unit of measure
Pangasinan látatin can; dipper
Kapampangan látatin can
Tagalog látatin; any box, pan or pot made of tin; can; a container
Bikol látatin (metal); a tin or a can
Maranao lataʔtin, can of tin
Tboli latatin can, usually referring to a 5 gallon kerosene can

From Spanish lata ‘tin plate; can; tin’.

(Dempwolff: *lelaq ‘tired’)


Ngaju Dayak lela-nhave little desire; have a disgust or revulsion for something
Malay ləlahtired; weariness
Javanese lelahslow in doing something (walking, working, etc.)
Sasak ləlahtired, listless

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff cited the first three forms and posited Uraustronesisch *lelaq ‘tired’ (Müdesein).

tired of

Ayta Abellan hawato be tired of doing something
Kapampangan sawáʔtired of something; more than enough of something (as eating too much ice cream)
Tagalog sawáʔsick; weary or tired of; fed up with
Cebuano sawʔafeeling uneasy when one stops doing things he usually does

title, yield, results

Ngaju Dayak asilyield, income, tax
Banjarese hasilrent, tax
Iban asiltithe, tribute, revenue, reward, profit, returns
Maloh asilyield, result
Malay hasilusually: rent, tax; products of the country, exports
Dairi-Pakpak Batak (h)asilrent, tax
Sundanese hasilfruits of the earth; harvest; profit; advantage
Javanese asilincome; product; results
Balinese asilresult, crop, yield
Sasak (h)asilyield, result

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

title of rank

Maranao bagindaʔfortunate; title
Malay bagindaa title accorded to the Prophet and the four Caliphs, princely personages, Hindu divinities, etc.
Sundanese bagindatitle for foreigners of princely rank

Borrowing ultimately from Sanskrit.

title (to land)

Ayta Abellan titololand title
Bikol títulotitle, deed (as to land)
Agutaynen titololand title; deed of purchase

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    


toast (in drinking)

Ilokano tágaya toast (with drinks)
  i-tágayto make a toast to
Tagalog tagáya toast (in drinking wine)
  tagay-ánwine glass
Agutaynen mag-tagayto pour liquor into individual glasses

Borrowing from Tagalog.


Puyuma tamakutobacco
Kavalan tbakutobacco
Atayal tbakuʔtobacco
Pazeh tamakutobacco
Amis tafaktobacco
Paiwan tjamakutobacco
Ilokano tabakotobacco
Isneg tabákotobacco
Bontok tabákotobacco
Ifugaw tabákotobacco
Ifugaw (Batad) tabāʔutobacco
Ibaloy tabakotobacco
Pangasinan tabákotobacco
Kapampangan tabákuʔtobacco
Tagalog tabákotobacco
Agutaynen tabakotobacco
  t<ar>abako-ancontainer used to hold tobacco
Cebuano tabákuʔtobacco
Binukid tabákuʔtobacco
Mansaka tabákoʔtobacco
Tiruray tabakuʔa general term for tobacco: Nicotiana tabacum Linn; to raise tobacco
Malagasy tambákotobacco
Malay təmbakawtobacco
Toba Batak timbahotobacco
Sangir tabakotobacco
Mongondow tabakuʔtobacco
Bare'e tabakotobacco
Tae' sambakotobacco
Makassarese tambakotobacco
Manggarai mbakotobacco
Kambera hambaku ~ mbakutobacco
Erai tabakutobacco
Selaru tabaktobacco
Yamdena tabakutobacco
Tolai tabaka ~ topekatobacco
Kilivila tombaikutobacco
Roviana tabaikatobacco
Toqabaqita tabiikotobacco
'āre'āre tapaikatobacco
Fijian tavakotobacco
Tongan tapakatobacco
Samoan tapaʔatobacco
Hawaiian pakatobacco

toll:   tax, toll

Malay béatoll; impost
Nias beotribute, toll, tax
Sundanese béatax or excise on articles of consumption, impost, duty
Old Javanese béaexpenses, contribution
Javanese béacost, charge; customs duty
Balinese béapayment for work; payment for a religious festival; customs-duty, toll; cost, expense
Sasak béacompensation
Sangir béatoll, duty, excise, tax
Mongondow beatax
Gorontalo béatax, duty
Mandar béatax
Makassarese béa(harbor) duty, tax on incoming and outgoing goods
Komodo béatax; tribute
Manggarai béaŋtax
Rembong béatax, tribute
Sika beatax
Hawu ɓeawages, pay
Rotinese beatax, toll
Buruese beatax
Soboyo beatax

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit vyaya. This item has the same historical source as the various forms of biaya cited under 'monetary support' (cf. Old Javanese byaya 'expenses, contribution'). The attested distribution of both sets of forms almost certainly is the result of borrowing from Malay, which in turn acquired the word twice, the first time directly from Sanskrit with relatively minor phonetic modifications, and the second time through Javanese. The two words so acquired were then transmitted, probably as a linguistic by-product of Islamic proselytization, from Malay into various other languages of Indonesia and the Philippines.


Ibatan kamatisa tomato
  mag-kamatisto lie to someone
  k<in>amatis-anwas lied to by someone
Ilokano kamátistomato
  ag-kamátisto become swollen like a tomato (said of a circumcized penis)
  kamatís-anto add tomatoes to
Bontok kamátistomato: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (Solanac.)
Ifugaw (Batad) kamātisa tomato plant, Lycopersicum esculentum (grown in upland fields and dry pond fields; the fruit of a tomato plant
  kamatis-anfor someone to add tomatoes to something as a condiment
Casiguran Dumagat kamátistomato plant and its fruit
Ibaloy kamatistomato (folk remedy for skin burns)
Pangasinan kamátistomato
Tagalog kamátisthe tomato plant itself, or the tomato fruit
  mag-kamátisto plant, use or eat tomatoes
  mag-muraŋ kamátisto eat green tomatos, but now used only figuratively of an old man who is courting a very young girl
  ma-ŋamátisto become red and swollen (figurative sense)
  kamatís-anto add tomatoes to some dish
  kámatis-an, kámatis-ána tomato patch
Bikol kamátistomato
Hanunóo kamátisa naturalized form of semiwild tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller) with small (1 - 1.5 cm. in diameter) round, smooth-skinned fruits
Romblomanon kamātis ~ tamātisa tomato plant or fruit: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.
Masbatenyo kamátistomato, tomato plant
  kamatís-anto mix in tomatoes
Aklanon kamátistomato: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.
Hiligaynon kamátistomato
Cebuano kamátistomato; cook something with tomatoes; be green or red like a tomato; for a penis just circumcized to swell like tomato
Subanon komantistomato
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kəmantistomato fruit or plant: Lycopersicum esculentum
Mansaka kamatistomato
Tiruray kamaŋkisa general term for tomato: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.
Mapun kamantistomato; the tomato plant
  ŋamantisto be swollen (as someone’s lip that has been stung by a wasp)
  kamantis-anto add to or put tomatoes in something
Yakan kamatistomato: Lycopersicum esculentum
Tboli kmatiʔtomato: Lycopersicon lycopersicum
Bahasa Indonesia buah tomattomato: Solanum lycopersicum (probably < Dutch tomaat)
Mongondow samatettomato
Bare'e tomateLycopersicum esculentum, tomato (still a novelty to the interior peoples, but generally planted today)
Wolio ntaamatetomato
Muna ntamatetomato (probably < Bahasa Indonesia tomat)
Palauan tomátotomato (< English)
Chamorro tumatestomato: Solanum lycopersicum (< Spanish)
Manggarai tomattomato (< Bahasa Indonesia)
Tetun tamatitomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (< Port. tomate)
Hawaiian kamako ~ komakotomato: Lycopersicon esculentum (< English; the word today is ‘ōhi’a)

Since it is a native of Mexico the tomato was almost certainly first introduced into Southeast Asia through the Spanish presence in the Philippines, and more specifically through the annual Manila Galleon voyages that connected Manila, a source of Chinese silks, with Acapulco, a source of Mexican and Peruvian silver, from 1565-1815. The tomato would then most likely have made its landfall in the Philippines in one of the returning galleons that brought its cargo into Manila Bay, where the native population was Tagalog-speaking. Presumably the name was misheard and bruited about in the form kamátis, in which form it eventually spread throughout the Philippines, but not beyond (note that Chamorro, spoken in Guam, which was a regular galleon stopover, does not show this sporadic change).

The Tetun word almost certainly derives from Portuguese, and the same may be true of the word in various languages of Sulawesi. By contrast, the Malay/Indonesian word appears to derive from Dutch tomaat, itself a loanword from Spanish or Portuguese. Needless to say, the sporadic prenasalization in Western Bukidnon Manobo, SUBAN, Mapun and Tiruray is part of a much larger phenomenon of ‘pandemic irregularity’ characteristic of sound change in hundreds of the languages in insular Southeast Asia (Blust 1996a).


Ilokano lápidatombstone
Bikol lápidaany stone tablet bearing an epitaph for the dead; tablet, tombstone, headstone
Agutaynen lapidasomething made of marble or polished stone and engraved with a name, usually a gravestone or a name marker on a person’s office desk
Cebuano lapidatombstone; make a tombstone, put a tombstone on

Borrowing of Spanish lápida ‘memorial stone, tablet’.

tomorrow:   morning, tomorrow

Malay bésoktomorrow
  ésokmorrow, tomorrow
Sundanese isukearly morning
Old Javanese ésuk, m-ésukmorning; the next morning
  in-isuk-ando something in the morning (early), start early
Javanese ésukmorning, early in the morning

Borrowing from Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *saŋkal ‘handle of a tool’)

tool:   handle of a tool

Malay saŋkalhandle of a hammer or adze
Old Javanese saŋkalthe handle of an adze
Javanese saŋkalthe handle of a certain tool
Balinese saŋkalcarpenter’s plane, the wooden part of a plane

Dempwolff (1938) posited *saŋkal ‘handle of a tool’, but this form appears to be confied to Malay and a few languages of western Indonesia that have borrowed from Malay.

tool for sawing:   saw, tool for sawing

Casiguran Dumagat lagárisaw (carpenter’s); to saw
Kapampangan lagáriʔcarpenter’s saw
Tagalog lagáriʔcarpenter’s saw
Bikol lagádiʔsaw (carpentry)
Agutaynen lagadihandsaw
  mag-lagadito saw something with a handsaw
Palawano lagadisaw
Mansaka lagarisaw
Tiruray lagariʔa saw; to saw wood

Borrowing of Malay gərgaji ‘a saw; to saw’, ultimately from Sanskrit krakaca.


Kapampangan buŋállacking front teeth
Tagalog buŋáltoothless (i.e. without the incisors)

Borrowing from Tagalog.

torment, torture

Tagalog dálitaʔtorment, suffering
Malay men-deritato endure, to put up with

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *ku(r)a ‘milt, spleen, land turtle’)

tortoise, land turtle

Iban kuraʔtortoise
Malay kura-kuratortoise, esp. Cyclemys spp.
Toba Batak hura-huraland turtle, tortoise
Rejang kuyatortoise: Testudo elongata
Lampung kuyaturtle
Sundanese kuyafreshwater turtle
Old Javanese kuratortoise
Javanese kuraa certain land tortoise

Borrowing from Malay, where it evidently replaced PAn *qaCipa. However, this explanation assumes that borrowing took place in both Lampung and Sundanese before the distinctive sound change *R > y (from *kuRa). Somewhat enigmatically, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(r)a ‘milt, spleen, land turtle’, combining two very distinct senses in a single gloss.

tortoise shell

Bikol káratortoise shell
Malay karahpatchy in coloring, of tortoise shell

Probably a Malay loan based on trade in the shell of the hawksbill turtle.

torment, torture

Tagalog dálitaʔtorment, suffering
Malay men-deritato endure, to put up with

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    



Ilokano baniágacommerce, trade, traffic
Tagalog banyágaʔforeign
Aklanon banyágaʔcriminally-inclined, evil-minded
Cebuano banyágaʔrascal, scoundrel
Maranao baniagaʔperson of low social rank, servant, slave
Tiruray baniyagaʔslave
Malay baniagabeniagatrade, commerce
Old Javanese banyagamerchant, captain of a merchant-vessel; merchant-vessel; to trade
Bare'e waniagamerchant, foreigner
Makassarese baniagaforeign merchant

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.The semantic developments in some Philippine languages provide an interesting commentary on the atmosphere in which trade apparently was conducted between Malay merchants and the local population.

trade:   cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?)

Maranao kaŋgangingham
Binukid kaŋganred cloth (of symbolic significance)
Iban kain kaŋganblack cotton cloth; Chinese black calico

Presumably a loan from southern Chinese, although a plausible source word is yet to be identified. Thanks to Yen-ling Chen for tracing the history of this form, and drawing my attention to the suggestion that the name may derive from a reduplicated form of Malay kain ‘cloth’: kain-kain > kankan > kaŋkan > kaŋgan.

trade cloth (bright red)

Casiguran Dumagat kundímansolid red cloth (a favorite cloth for G-strings)
Tagalog kundímanmuslin (textile) with blood-red color
Hanunóo kundímanred trade cloth
Cebuano kundímankind of red cotton cloth of a cheap variety, commonly used for pillows

Presumably borrowing from Tagalog.

transport ship

Old Javanese banawak.o. large double-hulled watercraft
Javanese banawaboat
Makassarese banawalarge outrigger canoe used for transporting cattle and horses

Borrowing from Javanese or Old Javanese. This comparison was first noted by Dempwolff (1920).

trap:   deadfall trap

PAty *daŋartrap
Thao danarlarge deadfall log trap traditionally used to catch wild pig and barking deer

Thao danar is a loan, possibly from Atayal or Bunun, although lexicographic resources for the latter language are inadequate to determine the matter with certainty.


Tausug tabaka single-legged (brass, silver, or in folktales gold) tray, esp. used by royalty
Iban tabakround metal stand or tray with foot; tray without foot = talam
Malay tabakpresentation tray or casket; a polite description of the gift of food made by a raja to his guests to take home with them after a feast

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

(Dempwolff: *talam ‘dish, bowl’)

tray:   serving tray

Maranao talambrass tray
Tausug talama brass tray (without legs)
Kadazan Dusun talama tray
Tombonuwo talamcopper tray
Ngaju Dayak talamcopper dish (said to be Banjarese)
Iban talamtray, usually round and metal (formerly brass)
Malay talamplatter, tray (without pedestal)
Toba Batak talamsmall clay pan
Javanese talamserving tray
Balinese talama tray; the leaf on which food is presented to a guest
Sasak talamlarge wooden serving tray

Borrowing from Tamil through Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *talam ‘dish, bowl’ (Schüssel).

(Dempwolff: *tiŋtiŋ ‘loosen by shaking’)

tray:   shake grains on winnowing tray

Ngaju Dayak tintiŋpurify by shaking
Malay tintiŋto winnow with a swaying motion so as to separate grain from chaff or sand from alluvial gold; (fig.) to refine; to retain only the best
Javanese tintiŋto sort grains according to size by shaking them on a broad shallow tray

Borrowing from Malay. Despite the consistent shapes of the forms cited here Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiŋtiŋ ‘loosen by shaking’ (durch schütteln losemachen). His inclusion of Tongan sisiŋ-i ‘hit oneself on the head’ (sich auf den Kopf klopfen) is puzzling, as I find no such form in Churchward (1959), and even if it could be found, the semantic connection with the above forms is strained beyond credibility.

tray of low table.

Ilokano dúlaŋlow table
Ibaloy dólaŋlow table designed for use by those sitting on shetmog seats (low stools)
Pangasinan dúlaŋlow table for use of people squatting on floor
Tagalog dúlaŋlow dining table
Hanunóo dúlaŋshallow wooden tub or basin
Tausug dulaŋa tray laden with food
Malay dulaŋwooden tray, base or platter, usually rimmed and of foreign origin

Borrowing from Malay.

tread:   step, tread

Ngaju Dayak tinjakbe trampled
Malay tijakstepping; treading

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) included Tagalog tindak ‘to tread’, tirak ‘to tread’, and Malagasy tsindzaka ‘dance in which one stamps’, but neither form appears in any dictionary I have consulted. With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.

tree sp.

Malay aŋsanaAnsenna tree: Pterocarpus indicus
Sundanese aŋsanakind of tree which produces a very concentrated latex
Old Javanese asanaa tree: Terminalia tomentosa, with deep golden, fragrant flowers; it plays a prominent role in descriptions in kakawins
Javanese sanakind of tree with heavy dark wood used to make furniture
Balinese aŋsanaspecies of tree
Sasak aŋsanaa tree: Terminalia tomentosa, from which a beautiful marbled wood is obtained for kris sheaths; the flowers are golden yellow
Buginese asanayellow sandalwood tree
Wolio asanasandalwood: Santalum album

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

tree sp.

Lau oneonetree sp.: Heritiera littoralis
'āre'āre oneonelittoral tree with berries (eaten by pigeons)
Sa'a oneonea littoral tree, light-colored leaves, pigeons eat the berries
Arosi oneonelarge tree with bright-colored foliage
Rennellese oneonea tree, Cananga odorata, with white trunk and large buttresses

Borrowing. The Rennellese word probably is a survival from the aboriginal Southeast Solomonic "Hiti" language of the island (Elbert 1987, Blust 1987).

tree sp., Cananga odorata

Cebuano ilaŋ-ílaŋkind of medium- to large-sized tree which produces a multitude of fragrant flowers, esp. in May and June: Cananga odorata
Palauan chiráŋylang-ylang tree: Cananga odorata

Borrowing from some Philippine language into Palauan.

(Dempwolff: *eRu 'name of a tree')

tree sp., Casuarina equisetifolia

Malay erua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Toba Batak orua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned these two forms to *eRu 'name of a tree'. However, Malay eru regularly reflects *aRuhu (q.v.), and Toba Batak oru clearly is a borrowing of the Malay form with the normal phonological adjustment made in the assimilation of non-native words with shwa.

(Dempwolff: *se(n)tul ‘name of a tree’)

tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape

Itbayaten santola tree (not found in Itbayat?) with edible fruit
Ilokano santóltree with yellowish acidic fruits, eaten salted and dried: Sandoricum koetjape
  pa-nantol-enkind of tall tree valuable for its timber
Isneg santólthe sandal tree, Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr., a meliaceous tree with trifoliate leaves and large, globose, yellowish fruits
Itawis santólsantol fruit (fruit of the Sandoricum koetjape)
Kapampangan santúla fruit and tree: Sandor indicum
Tagalog santólsandor tree and its fruit
Hanunóo santúlthe ketjape or santol tree: Sandoricum koetjape [Burm. f.] Merr.
Maranao santola tree: Sandoricum koetjape
Mansaka santolsantol or kechapi (fruit)
Tiruray santoltree bearing edible fruit: Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
Malay səntula lofty tree producing an edible sour fruit: Sandoricum indicum
Old Javanese səntula particular kind of tree with edible fruit: Sandoricum indicum
Balinese sentula tree from whose leaves a much-used medicine is made
Sasak səntultree with sour edible fruit and good timber: Sandoricum indicum
Makassarese sattuluʔtree with sour fruit the size of a tennis ball and bark used medicinally: Sandoricum koetjape

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *se(n)tul ‘name of a tree’, but all Philippine forms appear to be loans from Malay, and this may be true of some forms in western Indonesia as well.

tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor

Ilokano mabúloDiospyros discolor, a tree with edible brown, hairy fruits
Tagalog mabúlotree with hard dark-colored wood and edible fruit
Cebuano mabulumedium-sized tree of the primary forest, cultivated for its fruit; the wood is hard and used for furniture, the heartwood being nearly black: Diospyros discolor

Evidently a commercial name in the Philippines reflecting *ma- ‘stative’ + *bulu ‘hairy’. For what is presumably the original name cf, *kamaguŋ.

(Dempwolff: *lansat ‘name of a tree and its fruit’)

tree and its fruit: Lansium domesticum

Ngaju Dayak lasata fruit tree: Lansium domesticum
Malay laŋsata variety of Lansium domesticum; the laŋsat fruit is globular; the duku (another variety of Lansium domesticum) is more elliptical
Karo Batak laŋsatthe well-known tree, Lansium domesticum
Toba Batak lansata tree with pale yellow fruit that is somewhat sour
PMin *lansatfruit sp., Lansium domesticum

The history of this word is problematic. Western Indonesian languages point clearly to *laŋsat, but many Philippine languages have forms such as Bikol lansónes ‘small edible fruit growing in bunches, possessing a leathery yellow skin and a white segmented inside: Lansium domesticum’. The plant is native to Southeast Asia, but variants of the names duku and laŋsat (cf. Malay) are found in Thai and Burmese, as well as Austronesian languages. This leaves little doubt that it is a loanword, but the source remains unknown. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *lansat ‘name of a tree and its fruit’.

tree with yellow fruit: Lucuma nervosa

Sambal (Botolan) tísaʔa tree and its fruit, which is dry and very yellow
Cebuano tísaʔkind of single-seeded fruit, the size and shape of a small pear with bright yellow, inedible skin and flesh which is sweet and fleshy but dry: Lucuma nervosa
Maranao tisaheart-shaped fruit with yellow flesh

Apparently from Spanish, as this fruit is native to Peru and Ecuador, and must have been introduced to the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period.

(Dempwolff: *ma(r)anti ‘kind of tree’)

tree: Shorea spp.

Malay mərantigeneric for many trees (mostly Shorea spp.), yielding a good timber, light and easily worked
Toba Batak marattia hardwood tree much used in building, and for roof shingles

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1934-1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *ma(r)anti ‘kind of tree’.

trees:   bare (of trees)

Ngaju Dayak bulusbare part of a tree stem from the base to the first branches; more particularly the trunks of palm trees
Malay bolosstripped (of hair, leaves, feathers, etc.); fallen off (of a string-winding or wrapping); bare; bald; leafless; (fig.) left desolate

Chance, or borrowing from Malay.

trick, ruse, scheme, wits

Maranao akaltrick, fool, plan
  akal-akaltrick a person without mercy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akalto betray
Mansaka akaltrick; crafty procedure or practice
Tiruray ʔakara trick, a crafty or cheating action
  feg-akarto trick (someone)
  tag-akar-enalways tricky
Tausug akkalintellect, intelligence, wisdom, ability
  maŋ-akkalto fool, trick, dupe, deceive (someone)
  paŋ-akkal(someone) prone to fool people; one who tricks, dupes, or deceives people
  akkal-unto use one’s mind, wisdom, intellect (to do something)
Lun Dayeh akalshrewdness, cleverness; deception; an excuse
Iban akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence
Malay akalwit; intelligence
  bər-akalclever, resourceful
Gayō akalintelligence, but in an unfavorable sense: clever trick, subterfuge, pretext
Javanese akalidea, scheme (as to solve a problem)
  akal budicommon sense
  akal kojaa convincing lie; skilled at deception
  di-akal-ito take advantage of someone
Balinese akalmind; intention
Sasak akaltrick, ruse, deceit
  bər-akalclever, smart, ingenious
Banggai akaltrick, ruse, deceit, fraud, artifice
Mandar akalwits, ideas, thoughts, cleverness
  pe-akaldeceptive, not honest
Wolio Ɂakalaguile, trick, ruse, device, artifice, way out, resource, means, reason, intellect, spirit
Muna akalamind, intellect; way, tactic, strategy, deceit
  akala-i ~ akala-hito deceive with cunning, trick
Bimanese akawits, intelligence
  mbora akaconfused, losing one’s wits, not understanding
  mboto akaclever, sharp-witted, brainy
Rembong akalwits, intelligence; deceive, lie to

A Malay loanword, ultimately from Arabic. Note how the positive features of the meaning in Malay assume a more negative cast in most other languages.

tricked:   induced, tricked

Casiguran Dumagat búyutricked, deceived, induced (as to go to someone's house to see him, and arrive to find him gone)
Tagalog buyóinduced; seduced
  i-buyóinduce someone to be or to do something
Aklanon buyó(h)to deceive about, conceal one's real intentions

Borrowing from Tagalog into Casiguran Dumagat.

trickery:   deceit, trickery, fraud

Tagalog dáyaʔdeceit; fraud; dishonest dealing; dodge; a trick to cheat or deceive
  mag-dáyaʔto cheat, defraud
Bikol dáyaʔdeceit, guile
  mag-dáyaʔto cheat, dupe, fool
Hanunóo dáyaʔsorcery; deceit, fraud
  mag-dáyaʔto cheat, defraud
Agutaynen mag-dayato cheat in a game; to cheat a person
Hiligaynon dáyaʔdeceit, trick, dishonesty
  mag-dáyaʔto trick, to cheat, to deceive
Malay dayaartifice, dodge, way --- usually a tricky way ---of doing something

Borrowing from Malay into Tagalog, and then from Tagalog into Hanunóo, and perhaps other languages.

trim:   prune, trim

Ilokano labráto prune, trim; cut wood
Agutaynen mag-labrato shave, make straight and smooth a piece of wood with a bolo or knife

Borrowing of Spanish labrar ‘to work, fashion; carve’.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋku ‘trivet’)


Tagalog tuŋkóʔtripod, three stones in an open fireplace roughly forming a kind of tripod to hold pots or other cooking containers
Ngaju Dayak tuŋkoan iron frame, or just a mound of earth, or three sticks planted in the earth on which pots are set over the fire
Malagasy túkua trivet
  tukú-anaa vessel on the fire with victuals in it
Iban tuŋkuʔtrivet for cooking pot (originally three stones, or five for two pots, now iron tripod ring
Malay tuŋku dapur, batu tuŋkuhearthstone used for supporting a cooking pot (Malay cooking is done on three stones (for one pot) or five (for two), the fire burning in between
Javanese tuŋkubrick fireplace with a grill for cooking things over a wood fire

Given its meaning one would not expect this to be a loan distribution. However, three independent pieces of evidence show that the words in Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy and Javanese are almost certainly Malay loans. First, Tagalog shows -Ɂ corresponding to Malay final vowel. Second, the word is unknown in any language of the Philippines apart from Tagalog. Third, PMP *dalikan is a far better candidate for the meaning ‘trivet, three stones of the hearth’.

Zorc (1996) took the correspondence of final glottal stop in Tagalog to final glottal stop in Iban to be evidence for *, and so presumably would posit *tuŋkuɁ. However, as shown in Blust (2013; sect., there are serious problems with the proposal that * existed in PAn, PMP, or any early Austronesian proto-language.

The agreement between Iban and Tagalog in this case appears instead to be entirely fortuitous: Iban added to many words that originally ended in a vowel (or, in some cases a -VC sequence that first monophthongized), and Tagalog acquired a final glottal stop in loanwords from Malay (mostly Brunei Malay). Many Malay loanwords entered the Philippines through a trading colony in Manila Bay, where Tagalog was spoken natively (Wolff 1976), and in the present case this loan evidently got no further.

Finally, *dalikan ‘trivet’ is unquestionably native, and is found from the Batanes islands, to northern Sumatra, to southern Sulawesi, to the Mariana islands, to Timor in the Lesser Sundas, showing that a better candidate exists for this meaning. A loanword of this kind suggests that Malay contact with the Philippines was rather intimate rather than distant. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋku ‘trivet’ (Dreifuss).

trouble, worry, difficulty

Ngaju Dayak susahdifficult, tiring (Malay)
  susah ataimiserable, troubled
  ka-susahwearisome, tiring
  ma-ñusahcause trouble, make difficulties for
Banjarese susahpoor
Iban tusahtroubled, anxious, sad
  nusahto trouble, cause sadness or worry
Malay susahuneasy; disquieted; difficult
  susah hatidisquiet of mind; worry
  ke-susah-anto experience trouble
Acehnese susahtrouble, burden, distress, worry, grief, adversity
Karo Batak susah ~ suhsahtrouble, worry, difficulty
  ke-susah-enbe in difficult straits; difficulty
Toba Batak susaburden, worry, concern, care, sorrow (Malay)
  ma-nusa-ito cause trouble or worry for someone
  ha-susa-anburden, trouble
Sundanese susahtrouble, anxiety, worry; burden; adversity; distress, grief, sorrow; anxious, worried, sorrowful
Old Javanese susahdisturbed, in disorder, in confusion, stirred
  a-nusahto disturb, confuse, stir up, rouse, move
Javanese susahsad
  ñusahto sadden, cause sorrow for
  ke-susah-ansorrow, grief, trouble

Dempwolff (1938) posited this form as ‘Uraustronesisch’, but its distribution is restricted to Malay and other languages of western Indonesia that have borrowed from Malay. It is therefore best considered a Proto-Malayic innovation that has been borrowed over much of the area that it is found, and is indicated as such in at least two of the sources cited here. In addition, Dempwolff included Malagasy usa ‘cowardly, timid, faint-hearted; feeble, weak’ in his comparison, but this appears to be unrelated.


Tontemboan wutulcorrect, right
Maranao betoltrue, truth
Tboli betolstraight, as straight hair
Melanau (Mukah) betulcorrect
Iban betulexact
Malay betulstraight; direct; accurate; true; right; just so

Borrowing from Malay.


Ilokano baúltrunk, chest, locker
Bontok baulclothes trunk
Ibaloy baoltrunk, footlocker
Tagalog baóltrunk or clothes chest
Bikol báʔolfootlocker, trunk

Borrowing of Spanish baúl ‘trunk (for clothes)’.

trust, confidence (in lending money)

Ilokano piártrust, confidence
  ag-piárto have confidence in
  piar-énto trust, have confidence in
Agutaynen mag-piarto lend money or other things with trust, believing it will be handled carefully or will be repaid

From Spanish confiar ‘trust’.

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    


(Dempwolff: *kenTaŋ ‘tuber’)


Ngaju Dayak kantaŋpotato (doesn’t grow in Borneo --- this is a Malay name)
Malay (Jakarta) ubi kəntaŋpotato: Solanum tuberosum
Javanese kenṭaŋpotato

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited *kenTaŋ ‘Erdfrucht’ (‘tuber’), without further specification of the type of tuber intended, which clearly could not have been the Peruvian potato.

tuck something in at the waist

Ayta Abellan hokbitto stick money, etc. inside belt or waist band; to tuck something in at waist; money in belt
Tagalog sukbítthing placed or kept under one’s belt, or at the waist, or under the top of skirts, trousers, etc.
Bikol mag-sukbítto wear a gun, bolo; strap on a holster, scabbard, knife sheath

Also Bikol hukbít ‘wear a gun, bolo, etc.’. Probably a Tagalog loan in Ayta Maganchi.

tuna:   fish sp.: tuna

Chamorro wahutype of fish: Acanthocybium solandri (family scombridae). Wahoo, type of tuna
Sa'a waieuthe bonito fish
Arosi waiaubonito; a fish of sacred character with many customs and ceremonies connected with it

The Oxford English Dictionary gives wahoo (origin unknown) 'a large marine fish, Acanthocybium solandri, belonging to the family Scombridae and found in tropical seas'. The citations which follow this definition suggest that the word was widely used in the western Pacific in the nineteenth century. Borrowing from some local language into Spanish or English,with subsequent borrowing from Spanish or English into other local languages seems to be the most likely source of transmission.


Itbayaten pontotune
Ayta Abellan pontopitch (of a song), intonation
Tagalog púntoaccent; intonation; tone; a particular way of speaking
Bikol púntoaccent; inflection

Apparently from Spanish punto ‘point, dot’.

(Dempwolff: *buTek)


Javanese buṭek(of water) not clear, riled up
Komodo butéʔturbid, muddy
Fijian butodark, darkness

KOM butéʔ is assumed to be a Javanese loan. The resemblance of FIJ butō to these forms is attributed to chance.


Ilokano páboturkey
Kapampangan pábuturkey
Tagalog páboturkey
Bikol páboturkey
Aklanon páboturkey
Agutaynen pabogoose
Cebuano pábuturkey
Maranao paboturkey
Binukid pabuturkey
Mansaka paboturkey

A borrowing of Spanish pavo ‘turkey’.

turmeric: Curcuma longa:   plant sp., turmeric, Curcuma longa

Ilokano kal-kaláwagtwining shrub with globose fruits: Rivea sp.
Tagalog kaláwaga species of shrub; a plant with a yellowish juice which is used to color food
Bikol kaláwagturmeric (plant producing a root from which a yellow coloring is obtained; also used as a seasoning: Curcuma longa)
Binukid kalawagturmeric; yellow color
Mansaka karawagkind of plant (used for seasoning, similar to ginger, but not hot tasting)

Borrowing from Tagalog. The PMP and PPh term for ‘turmeric’ was *kunij.

(Dempwolff: *suŋsaŋ ‘turned around’)

turned around, inverted

Malay suŋsaŋinversion; upside-down
Karo Batak suŋsaŋopposite to the usual direction, turned around
Toba Batak suŋsaŋturned around, inverted, upside-down
Old Javanese suŋsaŋupside-down, reversed
  s<um>uŋsaŋto be upside-down
Javanese suŋsaŋthe other way around (as in sleeping with your head where your feet should be and vice versa)

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) posited *suŋsaŋ ‘turned around’ based on the data considered here minus Karo Batak and Old Javanese.

turnip:   Mexican turnip, Pachyrrhizus erosus

Itbayaten siŋkamaskind of plant with carbohydrate
Ilokano siŋkámasjícama root (Pachyrrhizus erosus)
Tagalog siŋkamásan edible, turnip-like tuber
Bikol siŋkamásyam bean (species of root crop, Pachyrrhizus erosus)
Hanunóo siŋkamása climbing herbaceous plant with edible, turnip-like, watery tubers (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.); now pantropic, this plant originated in tropical America
Romblomanon siŋkamasa vine (Pachyrrhizus erosus); its turnip-like roots are commonly eaten raw as a snack food
Masbatenyo síŋkamasa turnip-like vegetable: Pachyrrhizus erosus (from Spanish)
Aklanon siŋkamástuber --- yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus)
Hiligaynon siŋkamásturnip
Cebuano siŋkamáskind of vine cultivated for its fleshy and juicy turnip-shaped root, widely eaten raw and cooked: Pachyrrhizus erosus
Maranao siŋgamasyam bean: Pachyrrhizus sp.
Binukid siŋkamasyam bean
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) siŋkamaskind of vegetable (this food, which is eaten raw, comes from turnip-like tubers of a climbing herbaceous plant)
Tiruray siŋkamasa yam bean, Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.
Mapun siŋkamasyam bean
Yakan siŋkamasyam bean, Pachyrrhizus erosus (a vine cultivated for its fleshy and juicy turnip-shaped root)
Tboli siŋkamasPachyrrhizus erosus, yam bean (from Tagalog)

This native of Mexico, known in English as the ‘Mexican yam’, the ‘yam bean’, or the ‘Mexican turnip’, was introduced during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, along with its name (jícama), ultimately from Nahuatl xīcamatl. Given the importance of the Manila Galleon trade, which connected Manila and Acapulco by annual voyages from 1572 to 1815, the introduction of this plant and its name almost certainly took place through Tagalog, with subsequent borrowing into other Philippine languages from the region of Manila Bay. It is noteworthy that it evidently was not introduced into Guam despite this island being a regular stopover in the Galleon trade. The borrowing of nouns in their plural form is common to many Spanish loanwords in both Philippine and Mexican Indian languages (Lopez 1965).

turnip bean: Pachyrrhizus erosus

Isneg siŋkamásthe turnip bean or yam bean, cultivated for its fleshy roots and green pods used for vegetables: Pachyrrhizus erosus
Tagalog siŋkamásan edible, turnip-like tuber
Bikol siŋkamása root crop, the yam bean: Pachyrrhizus erosus
Hanunóo siŋkamása climbing, herbaceous plant with edible, turnip-like, watery tubers: Pachyrrizus erosus Linn.; now pantropic, this plant originated in tropical America
Cebuano siŋkamásk.o. vine cultivated for its fleshy turnip-shaped root, widely eaten raw and cooked: Pachyrrhizus erosus

Borrowing of Spanish jícama. This Mexican plant must have been introduced to the Philippines during the period of the Manila galleon (1565-1815).

(Dempwolff: *ku(r)a ‘milt, spleen, land turtle’)

turtle:   tortoise, land turtle

Iban kuraʔtortoise
Malay kura-kuratortoise, esp. Cyclemys spp.
Toba Batak hura-huraland turtle, tortoise
Rejang kuyatortoise: Testudo elongata
Lampung kuyaturtle
Sundanese kuyafreshwater turtle
Old Javanese kuratortoise
Javanese kuraa certain land tortoise

Borrowing from Malay, where it evidently replaced PAn *qaCipa. However, this explanation assumes that borrowing took place in both Lampung and Sundanese before the distinctive sound change *R > y (from *kuRa). Somewhat enigmatically, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(r)a ‘milt, spleen, land turtle’, combining two very distinct senses in a single gloss.

tak    tal    tam    tan    tar    tas    tat    tau    tax    tea    tee    tel    tem    ten    ter    thi    tho    thr    tic    tie    tig    tim    tin    tir    tit    toa    tob    tol    tom    too    tor    tra    tre    tri    tro    tru    tub    tuc    tun    tur    twi    



Casiguran Dumagat kambáltwin, double, pair
  ka-kambálone of a pair
Kapampangan kámbaltwin
Tagalog kambáltwin; twins; double
Bikol kambáltwins
Malagasy kámbanatwins; union of two; fig. resemblance
Malay kəmbarforming a match or pair, not of two who supplement one another, e.g. bride and bridegroom; but of mere equality or similarity, e.g. of twin children, or a worthy foe
Toba Batak hombarnear, close by; similar, comparable
Old Javanese kəmbartwin, alike in appearance
Javanese kembarof similar or identical appearance; twin(s)
  ŋembarto make thing alike
  kembar-andressed alike; opposite number, counterpart
Balinese kembartwins, two things of the same sort
  kembar-anone’s like, match
Makassarese kambaraʔa pair or a whole formed of two or more things or persons that resemble one another; twins

A loan from Malay, which itself acquired the word from a Mon-Khmer source.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)