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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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und    uni    upo    uri    use    utm    

uncle; respectful term for man of father’s generation

Ilokano bápaterm of respect for (male) person one generation older than the speaker
Hanunóo bápaʔuncle (both nominative and vocative), nephew or niece (recipr.)
Maranao bápaʔuncle, father-in-law
Tausug bapaʔUncle, Dad, Sir (respectful term of address for an uncle, stepfather but not one’s own father, and any man appropriately a generation older than the speaker
Malay bapa ~ bapaʔfather (not as respectful as ayah; less familiar than pa’; also of persons in a position comparable to that of a father, as stepfather, uncle or father-in-law)

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *cemeD ‘impure’)

unclean:   defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean

Ngaju Dayak samara sickness that comes about because one has eaten something that is prohibited or taboo; soiled, defiled, polluted
Malay cemardirt; polution. Of dirty bits of road; a vile disposition; days of uncleanness (hari cemar kain ‘menstrual period’)
Toba Batak somorunwilling, reluctant
  anak somor-somora bad son who causes grief to his parents
  imbulu somor-somorhair on the human body (or horses) which shows that the possessor is unworthy; in general: unworthy
Sundanese cemerlose one’s power, influence or purity; become ordinary or impure
Old Javanese a-cemerunclean, foul, low
  a-nemer-ito defile
  c<um>emer-ito defile
Javanese cemersoggy, messy, muddy
  c/r/emedto tell dirty stories; to talk obscenely or coarsely
Balinese cemerceremonially unclean
  ñemer-into defile, make ritually unclean
Sasak cemerfoul, impure; damp, moist; unsafe (because of sorcery)
Wayan somobe dyed black or brown (using traditional dyes made from black mud or leaves); black or brown dye
  somo-ni ~ somo-tidye something, stain something black or brown; weave a mat with dyed strips
Fijian somostained, of sinnet
  somo-tato stain sinnet black, generally by burying it in black earth or mangrove mud
  somo-somo-a ~ somo-somo-tadirty
  taka-somosomo-takato dirty, blacken with earth
Samoan somogum (secreted by the eyes, etc.)
  somo-abe gummy

Dempwolff reconstructed *cemeD ‘impure’, but there is little evidence for such a proto-form outside of Malay, Javanese and languages that have borrowed from either or both of these. The cognation of the Toba Batak form with the others appears doubtful, and the proposed connection of the Oceanic forms to these is completely unconvincing, making this comparison partly attributable to borrowing and partly to chance. The evidence for *-D was based entirely on the second Javanese form, which contains an unexplained stem-internal /r/.

understand, understanding

Tagalog paháma very learned person, a genius; very
Malay pahamto understand, be versed in
  kuraŋ pahamignorance
Sundanese pahamto understand, have insight
Javanese pahambody of knowledge or thought, doctrine; to understand, be knowledgeable
Sasak pahamunderstanding, to understand

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

understanding, awareness

Itbayaten himaŋmaŋidea of recognizance
Tagalog himanmáncomprehension of and learning what is taught; rest, relief
Hanunóo himánmanconsciousness, thought; be aware of, be conscious of

Probably a Tagalog loan in Itbayaten.

understand, understanding

Tagalog paháma very learned person, a genius; very
Malay pahamto understand, be versed in
  kuraŋ pahamignorance
Sundanese pahamto understand, have insight
Javanese pahambody of knowledge or thought, doctrine; to understand, be knowledgeable
Sasak pahamunderstanding, to understand

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

uniform, equal to

Bikol sampátuniform, equal; in conformity
Old Javanese sampatin a high degree, completely, perfectly, very; perfectly similar

Old Javanese sampat is said to be a borrowing of Sanskrit sampad ‘equalization of similar things; excellence, glory’.

unit of measurement

Kapampangan takala measure
  takal-anto measure something
Tagalog tákalmeasurement by volume of liquids and of grains such as rice, wheat and sugar, and also powders, etc.
  i-tákalto use some kind of measure for measuring liquids or grains
Iban takarmeasure by volume (as rice)
Malay takara measure of capacity for oil, etc.
Sundanese takəra measure (for wet or dry goods)
Old Javanese takəra measure of capacity, amount contained in a takĕr
Javanese sa-takerone unit of a measure
  taker-anany container used for measuring; amount measured; a measureful
Balinese takera measure of volume
Asilulu takar-ana measurement of volume

Also Balinese takeh ‘measure (large amount)’, takeh-an ‘a measure of volume’. Borrowing from Malay.

unit:   catty (unit of weight for foodstuffs)

Ilokano kátipound; weighing scale
  katí-ento weigh
Bikol kátiunit of weight, equivalent to 600 grams
Kadazan Dusun katiʔweight measurement (one and one third pounds)
Tombonuwo katia catty (measure of weight)
Malay kati“catty”, a measure of weight of sixteen tahil, or about one and one third pounds avoirdupois
Toba Batak hatithe hundredth part of a pikul, thus about one and one quarter pound

Borrowing from Malay.

und    uni    upo    uri    use    utm    


(Dempwolff: *tempuq ‘fall upon, attack’)

upon:   attack suddenly, fall upon

Ngaju Dayak tampohpushing, shoving, colliding (with horns, buffalo, etc.)
Malagasy mi-tepu-tepupulsate, palpitate
Iban tempohassail; break through (as a fence); storm a house (in attack)
Malay me-nəmpohto assail, of charges, storming attacks, etc.
Toba Batak tompusuddenly
Javanese ke-tempuhto get hit
  nempuhto face up to, confront
  pa-nempuh(head on) attack; collision
Balinese nempuhtouch something; sway about (in the wind); be struck (by illness); stroke along something; be responsible

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *tempuq ‘fall upon, attack’.

und    uni    upo    uri    use    utm    


(Dempwolff: *kenciŋ ‘odor of urine’)

urine:   odor of urine

Ngaju Dayak kasiŋrepulsive odor (used mostly of cat urine and rotted tobacco)
Malagasy hántsinaan odor as of dead bodies, a stench; infection
Malay kənciŋto pass urine
Javanese kenciŋurine; to urinate

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kenciŋ ‘odor of urine’.

und    uni    upo    uri    use    utm    


(Dempwolff: *pakay ‘to use; to dress up, put on clothing’)

use, wear, dress up in finery

Mapun pakayclothes; anything worn (including jewelry)
Tausug pakayto wear something (as clothes, jewelry, or a belt)
  mag-pakayto adopt something (as an idea, practice, or behavior)
Ida'an begak pakayto use (< Malay)
Malay pakayusing, observing or wearing
Karo Batak er-paketo dress oneself
  maketo use something; to adorn oneself, dress up
Toba Batak ma-mahewear beautiful clothes
Nias faketo use
  ma-maketo use, employ
Sundanese pakeuse it!; clothes, clothing
Bare'e pakeornament; beautiful costume
Tae' paketo use; to wear, have on; festival dress, beautiful clothing, adornment
Manggarai paketo use; clothing
Rembong paketo use
  pake wekiclothing

This is a clear Malay loanword in both of its common senses: ‘to use’ and ‘to wear/clothiing, adornment’. Dempwolff compared the Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese words given here with Tagalog pákay ‘mission; purpose; intention; aim’, and posited Urindonesisch *pakay ‘to use; to dress up, put on clothing’. However, the Tagalog word does not appear to be related to the others, and the remaining forms do not justify a reconstruction. (see clothing)

used:   cloth used for shawl

Ngaju Dayak palaŋisilk material much used for shawls
Malay kain pelaŋibandanna-cloth, colored rather gaudily by the tie-and-dye process
  pelaŋistriped in gay colors; variegated
Makassarese palaŋeflowery cloth (worn over the shoulder by women at festivals)

Borrowing from Malay.

und    uni    upo    uri    use    utm    


utmost:   do one's utmost

Malay pala-palaout-and-out; quite
  sa-pala-palaas thoroughly as possible
Karo Batak er-pala-palado one's utmost
Makassarese sa-pala-palaif it must be

Karo Batak er-pala-pala is assumed to be a natively affixed borrowing of Malay pala-pala. The Makassarese form may also be borrowed from Malay, or a chance resemblance.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)