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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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yel    yie    yok    you    

(Dempwolff: *kenaŋ ‘longing, yearning’)

yearning:   longing, yearning

Ngaju Dayak kenaŋlonging, yearning; sorrow
Malay kənaŋpondering over memories (covers loving thoughts, vain regrets, and the memory of those who are dead)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kenaŋ ‘longing, yearning’.


Kayan kuniŋyellow
Kiput kuniəyellow
Melanau (Mukah) kuniəŋyellow
  mə-ŋuniəŋto become yellow, ripen (as rice in the field); make something yellow
Ngaju Dayak kamuniŋinterior forest tree with beautiful yellow wood
Malay kuniŋyellow
  kə-kuniŋ-anyellow trappings or hangings (indicating royal ownership)
Old Javanese (a)-kuniŋpale yellow, ivory-colored; copper (adj.)
Javanese kuniŋyellow; (of skin) light, fair; ripe (of rice growing in the field); egg yolk
  kumuniŋa certain tree with small fragrant flowers and yellow wood

Borrowing from Malay. The relationship between this term and PMP *kunij ‘turmeric: Curcuma longa (tuber that yields a yellow dye)’ remains unclear. The latter term regularly became Karo Batak kuniŋ ‘turmeric’, since final voiced stops were nasalized in Northern Batak. It is possible that it was acquired in this form by early Malay speakers, although borrowing from Karo Batak to Malay seems very unlikely. Terms for PMP *kamuniŋ ‘a tree: Murraya spp.’, on the other hand, appear to be monomorphemic, but may have been reinterpreted in languages that have kuniŋ as affixed forms of this base.

yel    yie    yok    you    


yield:   title, yield, results

Ngaju Dayak asilyield, income, tax
Banjarese hasilrent, tax
Iban asiltithe, tribute, revenue, reward, profit, returns
Maloh asilyield, result
Malay hasilusually: rent, tax; products of the country, exports
Dairi-Pakpak Batak (h)asilrent, tax
Sundanese hasilfruits of the earth; harvest; profit; advantage
Javanese asilincome; product; results
Balinese asilresult, crop, yield
Sasak (h)asilyield, result

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

yel    yie    yok    you    



Toba Batak augayoke used to connect water buffaloes
Old Javanese yugayoke; pair, couple, set (of clothes)
Sasak ayugayoke used with plow animals
Makassarese ayokayoke for water buffalo

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

young leaf, plant shoot

Kapampangan lábuŋyoung leaf, bamboo shoot
  ma-lábuŋleafy (healthy)
Tagalog labóŋtender and edible bamboo shoot
Hanunóo lábuŋleaf

Probably a borrowing of Malay reboŋ ‘bamboo shoot when young, soft and edible’.

(Dempwolff: *buŋsu)

youngest child

Tagalog bunsóʔyoungest (said of offspring); endearing term
Iban anak bunsuyoungest child in a family; joint (in wood work); final tuck of knot or lashing; last knot in finishing a mat, point or climax of a story
Malay boŋsu, bonsu, buŋsuyoungest-born; minimus (or minima); familiar name for youngest of a family
Acehnese buŋsuyoungest child, last-born
Minangkabau busuyoungest child in family
Sundanese buŋsuthe youngest of two or more children
  buŋsu-nathe youngest
Old Javanese wuŋsuthe youngest (in a family)

Borrowing from Malay.

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)