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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(Dempwolff: *kedut ‘pain’)


Tagalog kiróta sharp or stinging pain
Tagalog ma-kirótaching, painful
Tagalog kirótto smart, to feel sharp pain
Javanese kedutmuscular twitch, esp. of the eyelid

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kedut ‘pain’, but the Tagalog form is irregular (expected **kurót), and is a not a convincing semantic match for Javanese kedut.


Kwaio falepalate
'Āre'āre harepalate
Chuukese faali-piŋashgum, hard palate
Puluwat fáán piŋorhard palate

palm tree sp.

Buli balia palm: Oncosperma spp.
'Āre'āre pariparipalm tree sp.

palm:   sago palm

Balinese entalpalm-tree
Lau otaspecies of shrub with large leaves and large white flowers, on swampy ground
'Āre'āre otapalm tree with big edible leaves
Mota otasago palm
Rotuman otasago palm
Fijian otaplant species with edible leaves
Anuta otasago palm

The resemblance of Balinese ental to the other forms cited here is attributed to chance. The Lau and Arosi forms must reflect earlier *osa, and Rotuman ota must be a loan, although its source remains problematic. This leaves Mota ota, Anuta ota 'sago palm' as the only clearly cognate forms, but given the evidence for borrowing in Rotuman this distribution is perhaps best regarded as a product of diffusion.

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Palolo worm

Hawu etuworm
Bugotu oduPalolo viridis
Nggela onduPalolo worm, cooked and eaten
Kwaio odupalolo worm; year; span of a year
Lau ʔoduseaworm, Palolo
Arosi oguPalolo sea worm; the month of October in which it appears

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pant, be out of breath

Puyuma ŋəsŋəsbreathless, pant
Puyuma ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath
Paiwan ŋasŋasto pant
Ibaloy man-ŋasŋasto pant, breathe in short, labored breaths (as from exertion)

Tempting as it is to accept this as a valid comparison, the sound correspondences simply do not work. The Puyuma vowels disagree with those of the Paiwan and Ibaloy forms, and although the latter two languages appear to show a perfect agreement, Paiwan /s/ reflects *S and Ibaloy /s/ reflects *s, making reconstruction impossible. Like many other bases with initial velar nasal, this one probably is a product of convergent innovation involving the phonestheme ŋ-, widely associated in Austronesian languages with the nasal-oral area (Blust 2003a).

(Dempwolff: *apu(r)a)

pardon, forgiveness

Tagalog apúlaʔchecking or stopping the progress (as of swelling, sickness, revolt, or the like, before it worsens)
Sundanese hampuraforgiveness
Javanese apurapardon, forgiveness
Balinese ampuraforgive, pardon

The forms in Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese are cognate, but the similarity of these to Tagalog apulaʔ is due to chance.

pare:   to peel, pare

Numfor ifpeeling or-bark of fruit or tree
Tolai ippeel, peel off, pare
Hawaiian ihistrip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove


Tetun baninfather-in-law or mother-in-law
Numfor banfather or mother of son-in-law or daughter-in-law

part fraction

Paiwan tamaqa fraction (of thing, number)
Maranao samaqremnant, unconsumed food after meal, survivor, remainder

particle:   affirmative particle

Aklanon hamakparticle used for strong emphasis or stress
Minangkabau amakyes; very well; alright

particle:   clause-final particle

Isneg ioften added to a word at the end of a sentence without changing the meaning
Amis ʔian untranslatable particle at the end of a dependent clause


Bontok ʔayparticle introducing yes-no questions
Bontok ʔayparticle linking attributive structure
Tagalog aylinker copula, corresponding to forms of 'to be'
Tagalog ayligature used instead of a comma
Hanunóo ʔayemphatic particle
Hanunóo ʔayintroductory or conjunctive particle
Atayal aifinal particle

The Tagalog linker and the Hanunóo conjunctive particle are assumed to be cognate. The resemblance of the other forms to these is attributed to chance.

passive affix

Malagasy a-verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb
Lakalai -apassive formative, suffixed to verbs
Nggela -asuffix to form a past participle passive
Arosi -asuffix added to the transitive termination of verbs to make a past participle passive, and so a passive form of the verb
Fijian ca-passive prefix

The suffixed *-a in Oceanic languages probably is identical to *-a '3sg. object'. The prefixed a- in Malagasy and Fijian is assumed to have no historical connection, either between these two languages, or with any of the suffixes cited here.

past tense marker

Sasak iparticle of past time
Sasak i terbinyesterday
'Āre'āre ipast participle ending
'Āre'āre houraʔ-ishown
Rarotongan iparticle used with verbs or adjectives in forming indefinite past tenses or aorists; when used before the verb it is coupled with and after the verb
Hawaiian iparticle and clitic preceding subordinate verbs and marking completed or past action and state or condition; sometimes the linking ai follows the verb or verb phrase
Amis iparticle indicating time past
Paiwan sibelonging to a certain time in the past

Apparently reconstructible for PCEP. The Paiwan and Amis forms disagree in pointing to *Si and *i respectively. I take the resemblance of PCEP *i to all other forms cited here as a product of chance.

(Dempwolff: *lepa ‘paste’)


Tagalog lipaʔspecial soil like asphalt used to harden the floor of houses (used in some areas)
Toba Batak lopaadhere closely to one another; also meaning the sense of taste in one’s mouth when one has been hungry for a long time, or after a lengthy sickness

Most likely a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *lepa ‘paste’.

pattern:   textile pattern

Bontok balíkind of basket weave, having a spiraling or coiling pattern
Iban bali belantan bali belumpoŋpatterns or kinds of ritual cloth


Aklanon bufyʔadhave one's stomach protrude or stick out
Maranao boyadpaunch
Karo Batak buyakbelly, paunch

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Tolai piaspecies of oyster and its shell
Mota vilapearl oyster

peel:   to peel, pare

Numfor ifpeeling or-bark of fruit or tree
Tolai ippeel, peel off, pare
Hawaiian ihistrip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove

peel:   to peel

Rotinese isito peel (an onion), to scale (fish)
Fijian isitear out in small pieces
Nukuoro isipeel off in long thin strips
Maori ihistrip bark off a tree
Hawaiian ihito strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove

Reconstructible as PCP *isi. The resemblance of Rotinese isi to PCP *isi is attributed to chance.

peel off, separate

Pangasinan ebákto peel (a fruit, etc.)
Cebuano ufbakto separate layers of the banana trunk

Chance, although both forms appear to contain the root *-bak₃ 'split off, separate'.

peeling, rind

Cebuano pálutpeel skin off; for the skin to get chafed; shave the head bald
Cebuano pálut ságiŋbanana peel (only in certain expressions)
Malay palutenclosed in a rough rind or wrapper, as a jackfruit

Chance. For an alternative etymological connection for Cebuano paflut cf. POc *paro. For an alternative view of the Cebuano:Malay comparison which is now rejected cf. Blust (1970).

(Dempwolff: *serep ‘penetrate’)

penetrate:   pierce, penetrate

Toba Batak soropstinger of an insect
Sa'a toroto pierce, to prick, to open a sore, to impale

Dempwolff (1938) posited *serep ‘penetrate’, a form that was accepted in Blust (1972), but for which the supporting evidence is now considered unconvincing.

perform:   do, perform

Wetan iado, make, deal with, become
Fijian iado, perform, carry out

(Dempwolff: *tulut ‘permission’)


Tagalog pahin-túlotpermission; approval; consent; assent; sanction; a permission with authority
Aklanon túeotto permit, allow
Cebuano pa-túlutpay out rope or string; sail smoothly, swiftly with the wind
Mansaka torotto allow, permit; to go with (as the current)
Malagasy túlutraa present of beef, etc., given at a wedding; property given to a child above his proper share

Based on the Tagalog and Malagasy forms Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tulut ‘permission’, despite a lack of comparative support for his proposed gloss.

persuade:   entice, persuade

Kankanaey imókcovet, lust; desire eagerly -- applied to concupiscence and greediness
Tagalog hímokenticement, beguilement
Aklanon hímokpersuade, convince

The resemblance of Kankanaey imók to the Central Philippine forms is attributed to chance.

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pick up

Buginese sikkiɁto pick up (as news)
Makassarese sikkiɁto pick or take up, as a cock in the cockfight, the rolled-up part of a sarong in order to fasten this tightly over the breast; also, to acquire a good name
Tongan hikito lift, raise (including the raising of prices, wages, etc.); to move from one place or position to another; to transfer; to copy; to quote; to translate
Futunan sikiget up to leave; change place
Samoan siɁito put up, raise; to rise; to lift; copy, quote; move, remove; promote, raise the status of someone
Tuvaluan hikilift; shift a house; replant; a stick kept in canoe to help lift
Tuvaluan hiki-hikilift feet; walk lifting feet high; lift

Mills (1981:75), who cites both the Buginese and Makassarese words with a simplex k, proposed PAn *si(ŋ)kit ‘to pick up’, but the known evidence does not appear strong enough to rule out chance convergence.

piece broken off:   fragment, piece broken off

Maranao poporbreak or chip off
Balinese puhpuhfragment, break pieces off

(Dempwolff: *zuluk ‘pierce, penetrate’)

pierce, skewer

Tagalog dulókdigging out and burning sticks and rubbish in a kaingin [swidden], or a burning off
Ngaju Dayak julokbe escorted, brought to a place
Malagasy dzuluka (a bar to prevent entrance
Malay jolokpoking at; thrusting forwards or upwards, of thrusting a pole into a tree to knock down fruit or flowers, stirring up wasps by poking a stick into their nests, etc.
Toba Batak man-jullukpenetrate, bore through
Javanese juluk(of royalty) named, called, having the title (of); nicknamed
Javanese nulukto move something upward (as a sarong that his sliding down)
Samoan suluput in, insert, sheathe; put on, wear; tuck (clothing) in; slide

Dempwolff (1938) included these forms under ‘Uraustronesisch’ *zuluk ‘pierce, penetrate’ (Stechen). However, there is little to recommend this comparison, which appears to be a collection of formally compatible words that have almost nothing else in common. It is true that the meaning ‘penetrate, bore through’ in Toba Batak man-julluk is fairly similar to ‘put in, insert, sheathe’ in Samoan sulu, but the medial geminate is unexplained (Dempwolff wrote ju<l>luk), and it is further noteworthy that Tongan hulu ‘to fix one’s loincloth by tucking in one end of it at the waist; to tidy up the edges of a mat by tucking in the protruding ends’, was omitted despite its obvious cognation, presumably because it would weaken the argument for comparing the Samoan form with those in insular Southeast Asia

(Dempwolff: *serep ‘penetrate’)

pierce, penetrate

Toba Batak soropstinger of an insect
Sa'a toroto pierce, to prick, to open a sore, to impale

Dempwolff (1938) posited *serep ‘penetrate’, a form that was accepted in Blust (1972), but for which the supporting evidence is now considered unconvincing.


Mandar pig
Soboyo mboapig
Lonwolwol bufull-grown male (castrated) pig
Mono-Alu boopig


Ilokano óboŋpigsty, pigpen; a small enclosure for swine, situated at some distance from the house
Pangasinan obóŋnest (of bird); be nesting
Kanakanabu ta-ʔəvə'ŋ-apigpen, pigsty
Saaroa ta-ʔuvuŋ-apigpen, pigsty


Malagasy víŋycarried by taking hold of with the fingers only
Malagasy víŋitrataking hold of anything at the extreme edge by the finger and thumb
Tolai biŋpress, squeeze, crush, wring as clothes; pinch or press with the fingers


Kankanaey búsagpith; marrow; quintessence
Kankanaey búsag di káiwheart of a tree
Kadazan Dusun vusakmarrow in wood

(Dempwolff: *belas)

pity, compassion

Malay belaspity; mercy; sympathy
Malay belas kaséhanmercy and compassion
Old Javanese welaspity, compassion, sympathy
Javanese welaspity, sympathy; sympathetic, sorry for
Balinese welasmercy, pity, favor
Makassarese ballasaʔsuffer greatly, have much difficulty with something; be miserable

The similarity of Makassarese ballasaʔ to the other forms cited here probably is due to chance. The remainder of this comparison is best regarded as a late innovation in western Indonesia, with likely borrowing either from Malay or from Javanese.

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place:   put in place

Kayan atahplace in position, set down (as food for someone)
Sika atar-atarsorted out, everything in its place

(Dempwolff: *(s)eRa(q) ‘place of burning’)

place of burning

Tagalog sigáɁblaze, esp. from burning rubbish, grass, etc.; a bonfire
Ngaju Dayak sehæimeat or fish roasted over coals

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *(s)eRa(q) ‘place of burning’, but this comparison is both formally and semantically problematic, and is best treated as a product of chance convergence.

(Dempwolff: *tempet ‘place of residence’)

place of residence

Malay təmpatplace (where anything is kept or is found or is happening)
Tongan nofoto sit; to stay, dwell, live, reside at or in or on
Futunan nofostay, occupy; sit down
Samoan nofolive, dwell; stay, remain; sit down (up, straight, etc.); be married (of a couple)

Despite the clear phonological irregularity in the initial consonant, and the divergent semantics of the Malay and Polynesian forms Dempwolff (1938) posited PAn *tempet ‘place of residence’.

plan, design, project

Ilokano balálaplan, project; a way proposed to carry out a design
Makassarese balabalaplan, design, project

(Dempwolff: *bani(r))

plank:   board, plank

Ngaju Dayak banerlong outgrowth under the branch of a tree
Malay banirbuttress-like projection from a tree trunk
Acehnese banieplank-like outgrowth under the branches of some trees
Sundanese caniroutgrowth from root of old tree
Sasak banirpart of wood, the youngest annual tree ring
Selaru mbanplank
Yapese bæńroot of a type of tree which grows among the mangroves (sticks up above the water)
Tsou fahricypress (considered best for making boards)
Paiwan valʸiboard, wooden plank
Saaroa valhiriboard

Dempwolff reconstructed *bani(r), and Tsuchida (1976) posits *baNiR/. I regard Saaroa, Tsou, Paiwan and Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Acehnese, Sundanese, Sasak as forming two geographically restricted cognate sets. The resemblance of these sets to one another and to Selaru and Yapese is attributed to chance.

plant:   food plant

Kankanaey bulúŋankind of edible white mushroom
Cebuano bulúŋankind of sweet banana with a green peel, Musa sapientum, var. suaveolens

plant sp.

Isneg ampía herbaceous vine that grows in forests. Some people eat its pods that resemble those of the Lima bean
Malagasy ámpya shrub (or tree?) from the fibre of which a kind of string is made (Betsimisaraka)

plant sp.

Itbayaten ayemplant sp., Euphorbiaceae, Gelonium glomeratum Hassk. The leaves and tender stems are cooked
Sundanese hayamkind of plant, also called saliyara, which spread rapidly
Javanese ayam-ana certain grass

plant sp.

Aklanon bana-bana(h)tree, fruit, guayabano. Anona muricata L.
Malagasy banashrubby plant with edible fruit: egg-plant, Solanum Melongena L.
Old Javanese banakind of tree (Barleria) with blue flowers
Arosi bana-banaplant sp.

plant sp.

Maranao besaganvine used for tying fish trap
Maranao besagan a kambiŋcypress
Javanese besaranmulberry bush, fruit
Balinese besaranspecies of mulberry tree, sycamine tree

plant sp.

Hanunóo bíri-bíria tree, family Moraceae, genus Ficus
PMic pili-piliEuphorbia: spurge (milky sap herb used medicinally)
Maori piri-piriAcaena anserinifolia, a creeping burr; Hymenophyllum sanguinolentum and Hymenophyllum demissum, ferns; Haloragis incana and Haloragis micrantha, plants; Bulbophyllum pygmaeum, a plant

plant sp.

Aklanon bugáŋkind of grass used for making brooms: Phragmites vulgaris
Cebuano bugáŋname given to various tall tufted grasses and reed
Sundanese kembaŋ bugaŋkind of plant with very malodorous flower; its rapidly sprouting green stalk is flecked with black, and grows to a height of half a meter before producing a snow-white chalice-shaped flower which opens only after sunset

plant sp.

Ifugaw buyu-búyutviscous efflorescence of long grass
Ifugaw (Batad) buyuta lacy-leaved grass, Drymaria cordata Caryophyl.
Cebuano búyut ~ balúyutbag made of straw
Ngaju Dayak buyutkind of thorny creeper the thickness of a finger; its root bears two or three edible yellow tubers the thickness of an arm

plant sp.

Isneg im-bul-buláwtall herb with large, peltate leaves, probably Homalanthus sp.,
Tiruray bulowa small tree: Litsea sp.

plant sp.

Isneg írāŋa common woody vine with small pods; its leaves are used for vegetables
Aklanon índaŋa tree: Artocarpus cumingiana Trec.
Cebuano hindáŋkind of small tree: Myrica javanica
Maranao indaŋvarious trees: Clerodendron Brachyanthum Schauer, Macaranga hispida Blm./Muell.-Arg.
Mongondow indaŋkind of ironwood

Chance, or if related, Aklanon, Cebuano, Maranao, Mongondow reflect an innovation in PCPh.

plant sp.

Tagalog palawanlarge plant with stout trunk: Cyrtosperma merkush Schott.
Iban perawanhardwood trees: Shorea spp.
Malay pelawanlofty tree with greyish bark; gen. for Tristania spp.

Chance. Cebuano pálaw 'large vigorously growing aroid: Cyrtosperma/ merkushii', Maranao palao 'cultivated taro: Xanthosoma violaceum Schott. suggest a PCPh *pálaw 'large aroid: Cyrtosperma spp.'. The Tagalog word shows secondary suffixation.

plant sp.

Tagalog pálisCallicarpa formosana Rolfe: Shrub with lanceolate leaves ... and rounded, fleshy (berry) fruit
Iban palistrees, Helicia spp.
Malay rumput palisa grass: Labisia pothoina, Bkl.

plant sp.

Isneg págáŋa common creeping herb
Kayan pagaŋspecies of grass growing by riverbank
Old Javanese paŋgaŋtree of the fig family
Balinese paŋgaŋspecies of wild fig tree

The Old Javanese and Balinese words are cognate. The similarity of the Isneg and Kayan forms to these and to each other is due to chance.

plant sp.

Malay palasfan-palm, Licuala spp. Used for thatching.
Seediq (Truku) palasarborescent plant with rather large leaves that cause painful itching

plant sp.

Sa'a waʔa-waʔawild yam with large fruit; eaten in famine times
Rennellese akaa bush vine, Pueraria triloba (Lour.) Makina, with long roots eaten baked or roasted during food shortages

plant shoot:   sprout, plant, shoot

Old Javanese səmishoot, sprout, bud (just emerging; of twig, leaf, also flower?)
Javanese semito sprout, put out buds
Wayan sosomibe replaced, succeeded, substituted; act of replacing, succeeding
Wayan i-sosomireplacement, substitute, successor
Fijian sosomianything that replaces another thing, a substitute, a successor to a person

Dempwolff (1938) cited Fijian i-so-somi ‘seedling’, but this is not the sense of this term in Bauan Fijian as given by Capell (1968), or in Wayan as given by Pawley and Sayaba (2003). In the absence of further evidence this comparison is best treated as a product of chance.

plants:   covering membrane of plants

Tagalog bálokmembraneous covering structure of plants, fruits, or nuts
RHB baloksheath (betel nuts), cover of bamboo, corn

pledge:   vow, pledge

Tagalog sahotvow
Malagasy sotrawish, desire; benediction, blessing
Javanese sotcurse, malediction
Fijian cauto make presents, present property, answer a petition; present food to a chief; make a contribution to a common effort
Samoan saugift of food

This comparison proposed by Dempwolff (1938) appears to bring together completely unrelated forms. I am unable to find Tagalog sahot in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and Samoan sau does not occur in this meaning in any dictionary I have been able to consult, including Pratt (1893), which was Dempwolff’s source.

plot evil

Tontemboan antamjealous, envious
TND antamplot some evil act
Rhade atamto curse


Arosi hisuto pluck, as fruit
Mota pittake up or off with the tips of the fingers, pick, pluck

pluck (as fruit)

Itbayaten vorasidea of plucking
Itbayaten ma-morasremove grains from the stalks (for sowing)
Itbayaten ma-vorasto drop from stalk or branch (of grain, fruit, leaf, and the like), to fall off
Ivatan vulasto harvest
Ibatan ma-molassomeone harvests fruits or vegetables
Ifugaw búgato pluck, pull off (e.g. the fruits from a tree)
Ifugaw ma-múgapull off fruits
Ifugaw mamma-múgahcontinually pluck fruits

plural marker

Asilulu aplural noun marker
Paiwan -apluralizer with personal nouns and pronominal articles
Kapingamarangi apluralizing prefix

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point:   sharpen to a point

Kankanaey ilapsharpen to a point
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) irabcarefully sharpen a point on something


(Dempwolff: *zuru ‘point, tip’)

point, tip

Tagalog dúloend, terminal, extremity; result; boundary; tip, end, point
Ngaju Dayak juru ~ johohaughtiness, arrogance
Malagasy mi-duru-duruto be very high, as the masts of a ship
Malay pen-jurucorner

Dempwolff proposed *zuru ‘point, tip’ (dbl. *duRu ‘corner’), and included such semantically divergent forms as Malay juru ‘trained worker (at some occupation other than a handicraft)’ and Javanese juru ‘person who performs a certain [skilled] job’, under the general gloss ‘master’ (also cf. Old Javanese juru ‘head, leader, chief (of a division, military or administrative; of a group or trade); tradesman, trained worker’). The entire collection seems extremely forced, and is best abandoned as ill-conceived.

(Dempwolff: *taki ‘point out directions’)

point out directions

Malagasy náhiintended, designed, purposed, expected, wished
Toba Batak tahiplan, conclusion
Fijian nakito intend, purpose
Fijian vei-nakito agree to do
Tongan takito carry in the hand; to lead by the hand; to lead (in general)
Niue taki-takito lead; a leader
Samoan taʔito lead (as in leading the way)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch *taki ‘point out directions’.

(Dempwolff: *tiaŋ ‘pole, rod’)

pole, mast

Ngaju Dayak tihaŋmast
Malay tiaŋmast; pillar; post
Old Javanese tihaŋmast, pole, pillar
Javanese tiaŋpole; flagstaff; ship’s mast
Fijian diaa handle, of some things only
Rarotongan tiathat which is used to hold or make fast, such as a peg, a stake, a spike, a solemn promise, etc.; to drive in a peg, stake, spike or nail
Maori tiapeg, stake; stick in, drive in pegs, etc.
Hawaiian kiapillar, prop, post; mast of a ship; nail, spike; rod used in snaring birds with gum

The Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese forms are related, but probably a product of borrowing from Malay (with Ngaju Dayak tihaŋ from Banjarese). The similarity of the Oceanic forms to these is best treated as a product of chance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiaŋ ‘pole, rod’ (Pfahl, Stange) and dismissed the Ngaju Dayak form as irregular, but Old Javanese confirms the medial consonant (< *q).

poles:   suspend from poles

Lakalai balasuspend from a pole, hang between posts (as a pig)
Eddystone/Mandegusu palapole
Nggela mbalambalalong poles on which the kokopa (ridgepole) rests


Pangasinan íraphardships, torment; be difficult, suffer
Pangasinan mama-írapthe poor
Toba Batak m-idop-idopneedy, poor, wanting

pouch:   basket pouch

Ngaju Dayak kantoŋpocket, pouch in clothing
Iban kantoŋsmall bag or case, overnight bag; air travel bag
Malay (Jakarta) kantoŋsatchel; pouch; cloth bag; pocket
Sundanese kantoŋsack, knapsack, money bag
Javanese kanṭoŋ-anpocket; cloth sack
Javanese ŋanṭoŋ-iput s.t. in a pocket or sack
Sasak kantoŋpocket
Fijian katoa basket, box, trunk, suitcase
Tongan katobasket; suitcase; pouch; pocket
Samoan ʔatobasket; luggage, baggage

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kanTuŋ ‘Korb, Tasche am Kleid’ (basket, pouch on the clothing). However, as he noted, the last vowel of the Oceanic forms fails to agree with that of his reconstruction. The forms in western Indonesia appear to be loans from Malay which the Fijian, Tongan and Samoan forms resemble by chance.

pound:   beat, pound

Kankanaey umúgpulverized, brayed; ground, pounded, beaten, rubbed fine; reduced to ashes, dust
Tagalog úmogto beat (a person) to helplessness

pound:   beat, pound

Tagalog kibóta quick jerk of some part of the body
Ngaju Dayak kewutbeating of the pulse or arteries
Sundanese kəbutbeat dust out of something with a towel

Dempwolff (1938) used this comparison with Javanese kəwut ‘beat out’ instead of the Sundanese form cited here. However, I am unable to find a Javanese form meeting this description in either Horne (1974) or Pigeaud (1938), and the Tagalog form is both phonologically irregular and semantically deviant, leaving little comparative basis for a reconstruction.

pour:   stream, pour

Old Javanese barabasstreaming
Javanese brabasporous, seep out
Makassarese barabasaʔsuddenly fall down in a mass (fruits, leaves, rain)

(Dempwolff: *dahup ‘weak’)


Tagalog dahópin want (especially of money or necessities of life)
Toba Batak daupweak, soft

Dempwolff (1934-1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *dahup ‘weak’.

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Tagalog lúhogimploring, fervent supplication
Malay lohorMidday; noon (with special reference to the time of midday prayer)
Javanese luhurthe second daily ritual meditation in Islam

The Malay and Javanese words given here are clearly Arabic loans. The Tagalog word looks like it could be a borrowing from Malay, but if so it would be the only known case in which a Malay r has been borrowed as a Tagalog g, mimicking the correspondence reflecting PAn *R. For now it seems best to consider the resemblance of the Tagalog word to those in Malay and Javanese a product of chance.

(Dempwolff: *si(dD)aŋ ‘steep, precipitous’)

precipitous:   aslant, steep, precipitous

Ngaju Dayak sidaŋ ~ siraŋoblique, slanting (as something that was cut at an oblique angle)
Malagasy síranasloping

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *si(dD)aŋ ‘steep, precipitous’, but this comparison appears to be confined to Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy. It is thus best treated as ‘noise’ not on grounds of false cognation, but rather on the grounds that it cannot be reconstructed for a proto-language of any considerable time-depth.


Bikol para-affix indicating occupation or job
Aklanon pæa-common noun or adjective prefix denoting a fondness for or a continuous repetition of some act
Hiligaynon pala-affix designating habitual state of being or repeated action
Kayan pala-prefix of mutual or reciprocal action
Tolai wara-frequentative prefix

Despite a problem with the medial consonant correspondence, the Bikol, Aklanon, and Hiligaynon affixes appear to be cognate. The similarity of these forms to Kayan pala-, RALU wara- is attributed to chance.


Tolai lalauto conceive in the womb; pregnant
Hawaiian laulaupregnant

(Dempwolff: *sikep ‘ready, prepared’)

prepared:   ready, prepared

Karo Batak siŋkemin order, ready, prepared; not lacking, complete
Toba Batak sikkopsufficing, sufficient
Old Javanese sikəpequipment, arms, weapons
Javanese sikep peḍaŋsupplied with a sword
Balinese sikepweapon; be armed
Sasak sikəpweapon
Sasak ñikəpbe armed

Based on forms in Toba Batak and Javanese Dempwolff (1938) posited *sikep ‘ready, prepared’. However, the Karo Batak form shows that Proto-Batak had *siŋkeb, which is phonologically incompatible with the forms in Old Javanese, Javanese, Balinese and Sasak, leaving either a comparison with relatively little time-depth, or a loan distribution.

(Dempwolff: *le(m)bu ‘preserved, protected, hedged in’ )

preserved, protected

Tagalog limbóaureola; a circle of light appearing sometimes around the moon
Ngaju Dayak lewuvillage, land, territory
Toba Batak lobuanimal stall

None of these forms appear to be related, yet Dempwolff (1938) combined them under Uraustronesisch *le(m)bu ‘preserved, protected, hedged in’ (Eingehegt), in a proposed etymology that is best dismissed as a product of chance.


Balinese empespress, apply pressure
Sangir empiseʔ, episeʔpress down with one's entire weight, sit on something

press down

Kayan jekerect or jolt a post into the ground
Madurese ejektrample until crushed
Balinese enjektread on, stand on, stamp on
Sasak enjekpress under, submerge

(Dempwolff: *sisip ‘to feign, pretend’)

pretend:   feign, pretend

Tagalog sisipto feign, pretend
Toba Batak sisipconcealed, hidden; bribery
Toba Batak padalan sisipto bribe, corrupt (someone)
Toba Batak ma-nisip-ido something secretly
Old Javanese sisipgrazing, brushing (only slightly wounding), not fully hitting the mark; grazed, only slightly wounded, not really hit
Javanese sisipto miss (one’s aim, etc.)
Javanese ñisipto miss a target
Balinese sisipfault, departure from right, misdeed; to sin, be guilty
Sasak sisipmake a mistake
Samoan mata sisi-foa curse word: feigning eyes

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sisip ‘to feign, pretend’ based on data from Tagalog, Toba Batak, Javanese and Samoan. I am unable to find an equivalent of his Tagalog form in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), or an equivalent of his Samoan expression in either Pratt (1893) or Milner (1966). However, even if these words were taken at face value this comparison would remain unconvincing without further support.


Balinese ayaŋcharming, pretty
Sasak ayaŋpretty, beautiful (esp. of women)
Ngadha adzapretty, handsome, smart, shapely

project:   plan, design, project

Ilokano balálaplan, project; a way proposed to carry out a design
Makassarese balabalaplan, design, project

(Dempwolff: *le(m)bu ‘preserved, protected, hedged in’ )

preserved, protected

Tagalog limbóaureola; a circle of light appearing sometimes around the moon
Ngaju Dayak lewuvillage, land, territory
Toba Batak lobuanimal stall

None of these forms appear to be related, yet Dempwolff (1938) combined them under Uraustronesisch *le(m)bu ‘preserved, protected, hedged in’ (Eingehegt), in a proposed etymology that is best dismissed as a product of chance.

provided that, in spite of

Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atasas long as, provided that
Javanese atasin spite of the fact that

proximal deictic:   this, proximal deictic

Amis tonathese (unnamed) people
Bontok tunathis person, near speaker (opp. to that person, away from speaker)

pry up

Ifugaw (Batad) boʔʔadigging bar
Hanunóo buállarge chunks of recently dug-up earth, clods of turned-up soil
Gorontalo hualoslightly raised or uprooted, as banana plants with a digging stick or lever
Manggarai wuʔaexpand and break apart, of earth lifted up with an excavated tuber, expanding dough, etc.
Rembong boalto lever up
Rotinese fuʔadig up the earth around a plant
Asilulu huʔakextract, pry up; dig up objects implanted in the earth (e.g. half-buried stones); force open, as a jammed door (with some tool)
Ngadha bhuʔapull out with a jerk, turn over the soil
Ngadha vuʔadig up or out; to weed

The Hanunóo and Gorontalo forms presumably are related. Although both exhibit regular phonological correspondences with the similar words in Ngadha and Rotinese , this is not the case with Manggarai Nuʔa (where a final l is expected). Since the Manggarai, Ngadha and Rotinese forms almost certainly are cognate with one another (but not with Asilulu huʔak) this leaves two low-level cognate sets (one GCPh, the other Lesser Sundas) and a potpourri of chance resemblances.

pry up

Fordata uanpointed digging stick
Amis ʔowalpry with a crowbar

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pull up weeds

Amis potapotto work in the rice field pulling weeds and cultivating young rice plants
Casiguran Dumagat potpotto pluck out weeds by the roots

pulpy leaf

Tagalog balábaʔpulpy leaf or joint of plants such as the banana
Tae' balaʔbaʔfrond of the sugar palm the leaves of which are twisted together

Chance. Although this item might be considered a doublet of *palacipaq, Tae' balaʔbaʔ appears to derive from an infixed form of *bejbej (cf. Tae' baʔbaʔ).

(Dempwolff: *baluq)

pumpkin:   gourd, pumpkin

Ngaju Dayak balohpumpkin
Malay baluhwooden framework (inside a drum; in a howdah, etc.)
Javanese waluhpumpkin

Malay non-cognate, Ngaju Dayak possibly an early borrowing from Javanese.


Tagalog wagáspure; perfect; faithful, sincere
Bikol wagásgold dust
Cebuano wagáspure gold, not worked into jewelry; pure, unmixed (literary)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) wagásof gold or a deity, pure; unmixed
Kambera warahuclean, clear, smooth

(Dempwolff: *bulus)

purpose:   intention, purpose

Tagalog búlossecond helping or ration of food
Malagasy vólo-vólointention, purpose, relation, likelihood

(Dempwolff: *buru)


Yami (Iranomilek) burudrive away, send away, ostracize
Ngaju Dayak ka-burowhat is chased away, driven away
Malay buruhunting; driving game; driving before one
Acehnese buruto hunt, go hunting
Karo Batak buruto hunt, force up in hunting
Toba Batak mar-buruto hunt, go hunting
Toba Batak ma-muruhunt something
Toba Batak par-buruhunter
Toba Batak biaŋ par-buruhunting dog
Toba Batak pa-buru-buruto follow, press in the hunt
Rejang burewto hunt
Sundanese buruhurry, hasten
Old Javanese buruhunter, hunting
Old Javanese a-buruto hunt, go hunting
Old Javanese burw-angame
Javanese buruact of hunting; chase each other; in a hurry
Balinese buhuchase, drive away, hunt
Kwaio fulurun
'Āre'āre hururun, go fast
Sa'a huru huru-huruto run
Sa'a huru ni heliŋeto run races
Sa'a huru-laamessenger; a chief's dependent
Arosi hururun

This comparison was the subject of a tortuous discussion in the earlier literature based on: 1. an approach to linguistic reconstruction which circumvented the normal scientific procedure of triangulation in the justification of inferences, and 2. a failure to distinguish directly inherited from borrowed forms (Dyen 1953:363ff, Hendon 1964:377ff). The Ngaju Dayak, Iban and Malay words clearly reflect PAn *buRaw 'drive off, chase away, expel' with the atypical, but recurrent change *-aw > u. All other forms in island Southeast Asia appear to be Malay loans, as attested by lexical doubletting in Karo Batak, Toba Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak, where a directly inherited reflex of *buRaw is found next to the Malay loanword, with semantic differences that are consistent with a borrowing hypothesis. Given the relatively complete integration of this loanword into the affixational systems of some of these languages (e.g. Toba Batak, and the appearance of buru in Old Javanese texts it appears likely that this word was borrowed fairly early in most languages (perhaps during the classic Sriwijaya period, circa 7th century AD). The similarity of the Southeast Solomonic forms to those in western Indonesia is attributed to chance.

pursue, chase

Isneg ápala common creeping herb. Possessed by a man, it enables him to overtake a fleeing enemy with the utmost ease
Isneg max-ápalpursue, chase
Ifugaw (Batad) āpalchase after to catch or to drive away, as to chase a thief, or a pig to catch it or drive it away
Bikol hápagpursue, chase
Sumbawanese apanpursue, chase

push aside

Kayan iunpush sideways; wipe or brush aside
Ngadha iuturn, bend or push to the side

(Dempwolff: *tunzaŋ ‘push, shove’)

push shove

Toba Batak ma-nunjaŋto tread, stamp
Javanese ke-tunjaŋget knocked against or run over

Probably a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tunzaŋ ‘push, shove’ (stossen).

put in place

Kayan atahplace in position, set down (as food for someone)
Sika atar-atarsorted out, everything in its place


Kelabit butuŋcorpse, carcass, dead body
Kenyah butoŋrotten (of meat)
Kayan butuŋputrid, rotten (as boar meat); corpse
Sika butusomething that is slightly rancid or smelly
Sika butu-ikatsmelly fish
Sika butuŋrotten
Ngadha butusomewhat tainted, smelly, rotten

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_p.htm

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)