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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    


Kayan bulahto fade, as a colored fabric; run together, of colors in fabrics during washing; pale, of face or appearance,
Bare'e wundaobscure, indeterminate, of colors or the like; unclear

(Dempwolff: *kusem ‘faded’)


Malagasy mi-húsinato besmear oneself
Malagasy husénanato be besmeared
Malay kusamlustreless, dull
Toba Batak husomrather black, of somewhat dark colors; dirty, filthy
Javanese kucemdrained of one’s vitality through grief, shock, etc.

There is no compelling reason to consider this anything more than a collection of unrelated forms. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kusem ‘faded’, noting the phonological irregularity of the Javanese form.

(Dempwolff: *leŋeR ‘lame’)


Tagalog liŋiganxiety, fear
Malay ləŋardizzy
Malay tər-ləŋarknocked silly
Old Javanese ka-ləŋərto lose consciousness, faint away, swoon
Javanese leŋermotionless; speechless

On the basis of the comparison Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *leŋeR ‘lame’. The Old and Modern Javanese forms appear to be Malay loanwords, and the Tagalog form (which I am unable to find in my sources) probably is best treated as a product of chance.

fall out

Kankanaey ma-búnugto fall, fall out (applied to hair)
Amis fonorthe falling of dry twigs or leaves or fruit from a tree

(Dempwolff: *lancuŋ ‘to falsify, forge, counterfeit’)


Ngaju Dayak lasoŋbrass armbands of women
Malay lancoŋcounterfeit (of metal, esp. coins)
Toba Batak maŋa-lansum-honpeddle counterfeit goods
Fijian lasuto tell a lie

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *lancuŋ ‘to falsify, forge, counterfeit’. However, the meaning of the Ngaju Dayak form departs radically from this sense (based on a statement in Hardeland (1859) that the rich wear gold instead of brass armbands he speculated that the latter were considered ‘counterfeit’). The Toba Batak form shows an unexplained -m, and the Fijian form also departs widely in meaning.

(Dempwolff: *pelik ‘to vibrate’)

fan:   vibrate, fan

Tagalog pilikvibration (Laktaw)
Malagasy pelika[gloss]
Malay pəlikear ornament
Javanese pəlikspark

Dempwolff (1938) compared the forms given here with Malagasy pelika ‘to fan, vibrate, using them to posit Uraustronesisch *pelik ‘to vibrate’. I am unable to find a form that matches his Malagasy citation in any dictionary available to me, and even if it could be found, the semantic latitude allowed in this comparison and the phonological irregularity of the Malagasy form weigh heavily against accepting this as a valid etymology.

(Dempwolff: *tuluy ‘fast’)


Tagalog pag-tulóy(in some areas) staying temporarily in a place as a guest
Tagalog mag-pa-tulóyto provide lodging for
Tagalog maka-tulóyable to continue or proceed
Javanese tuliand then, (right) after that
Balinese tulithen, a little later
Balinese tulithen

Based on the Tagalog and Javanese forms given here Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuluy ‘fast’ (schnellsein). It is difficult to see what might have motivated this decision.


Kisar wurufat (n.)
Tolai wurukswell, swell out; be fat (of a person), distend

father, uncle, elder sibling

Ilokano tataterm of address used for a father or uncle, male one generation above speaker
Dusun Deyah tataelder sibling
Ma'anyan tataʔelder sibling

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    


(Dempwolff: *upaw)

feathers:   lose hair or feathers

Tagalog úpawbald
Bikol úpawbald, shaved to baldness
Aklanon úpawfall out (said of hair)
Cebuano upáwbald, lacking hair on the head; devoid of vegetation; infertile
Maranao opawshave hair; bald head
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) upewbald
Tiruray ʔufawa bald head
Malagasy ofoscaling off
Malagasy mi-ofoto scale off, to cast the skin or slough

Tiruray ufaw is assumed to be a GCPh loan; the relationship of Malagasy ofo to the Philippine forms is attributed to chance.


Sundanese bubuhpart, portion, share
Buginese bobogive food to, feed (as chickens)
Sika buwudistribution, division (of land, food, and things)
Tetun buhungive food or drink repeatedly
Ngadha vuvugnaw, nibble at (as a porcupine gnawing at tubers)

feelings:   harbor bad feelings toward

Sangir antaŋto suspect, as someone of having committed a theft
Fordata ataŋjealous of

(Dempwolff: *sisip ‘to feign, pretend’)

feign, pretend

Tagalog sisipto feign, pretend
Toba Batak sisipconcealed, hidden; bribery
Toba Batak padalan sisipto bribe, corrupt (someone)
Toba Batak ma-nisip-ido something secretly
Old Javanese sisipgrazing, brushing (only slightly wounding), not fully hitting the mark; grazed, only slightly wounded, not really hit
Javanese sisipto miss (one’s aim, etc.)
Javanese ñisipto miss a target
Balinese sisipfault, departure from right, misdeed; to sin, be guilty
Sasak sisipmake a mistake
Samoan mata sisi-foa curse word: feigning eyes

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sisip ‘to feign, pretend’ based on data from Tagalog, Toba Batak, Javanese and Samoan. I am unable to find an equivalent of his Tagalog form in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), or an equivalent of his Samoan expression in either Pratt (1893) or Milner (1966). However, even if these words were taken at face value this comparison would remain unconvincing without further support.

female:   woman, female

Subanon glibunwoman
Tiruray libuna female
Tiruray fe-libu-libun(of women) dressed up in one’s best clothes and ornamentation
Blaan (Koronadal) libunwoman
Bintulu liɓuna man’s or woman’s sarong

females:   term of address for females

Cebuano íaʔterm of address for older women
Iban iakterm of address for girls
Tolai iaprefix used before names of females
Ngadha ioterm of address between women

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    



Kayan biteŋfighting, as in warfare
Wolio biteattack, assail

(Dempwolff: *sukar ‘dirt, filth’)

filth:   dirt, filth

Tagalog súkalrubbish; garbage; dirt; flotsam; scattered weeds
Javanese se-sukerexcrement

Dempwolff (1938) posited *sukar ‘dirt, filth’ on the basis of these two forms, but the sound correspondences are irregular, and there is no known support from other languages.

(Dempwolff: *laŋes ‘dirt, filth’)

filth:   dirt filth

Isneg laŋsíthe smell of fish, of blood, etc.
Ifugaw (Batad) laŋhiodor produced by fishes
Tagalog laŋísoil; lubricant oil; unction, the oil for anointing
Javanese laŋessoot from the smoke of an oil lamp
Javanese ŋe-laŋesto give off sooty smoke

Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *laŋes ‘dirt, filth’ (Schmutz). The Isneg and Ifugaw words form a ‘near comparison’ with Central Philippine forms such as Cebuano laŋsá ‘having a fishy smell or the taste of blood’.


Motu balatail fins of a fish
Sa'a paladorsal membrane of a swordfish
Woleaian pash(a)tail of a fish

fingers:   take with fingers

Kadazan Dusun ovicarry, convey, bear, bring, take along
Ngadha evipinch, scratch with the fingers
Ngadha vitake with the hand


Cebuano bíaʔleave a place, leave something behind; abandon, de
Rejang biaʔcompleted, drained (glass or cup)

fire:   extinguish a fire

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) evukextinguish a fire
Mongondow obuextinguish a fire with water
Puyuma Hevutextinguish a fire
Paiwan qevutjextinguish a fire


Bare'e awafirewood
Paiwan savatspiles of firewood

(Dempwolff: *tegeŋ ‘steadfast, firm’)

firm:   steadfast, firm

Malay təgaŋtaut; outstretched; at full span
Toba Batak togaŋbe held open; keep someone or something out
Balinese tegeŋstrong
Makassarese tagaŋgood proof against; well able to endure

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tegeŋ ‘steadfast, firm’ (standhaftsein).

firmly:   hold firmly

Kalamian Tagbanwa kataŋgrip between the teeth
Tae' ataŋto hold, keep hold of, detain

(Dempwolff: *iwak)


Javanese iwakmeat for the table; fish
Samoan fa-ivafishing trip, fishing party

Chance. One of the most contrived and unconvincing comparisons in Dempwolff (1934-38), this proposed cognate set (which includes Lampung iwa 'fish', Sundanese iwak 'fish') should simply be discarded.

fish sp.

Ilokano áberkind of marine fish of about the size and shape of a sardine
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) aborjellyfish

fish sp.

Pangasinan ásaásasmall herringlike salt water fish
Toba Batak asa-asaa dried sea fish

fish sp.

Cebuano baghákkind of medium-sized grouper
Malay begahak, gahaklarge silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema

fish sp.

Motu balalafish sp.
Nggela valalasp. of long fish
Pohnpeian pwahlahla fish, the snapper: Lutjanus gibbus

(Dempwolff: *baraw)

fish sp.

Tagalog balaw-baláwfermented anchovies on boiled rice
Malay baraua carp: Hampala macrolepidota

fish sp.

Kapampangan balufish sp.
Cebuano baluʔgarfish
Arosi barubarufish sp.
Niue palufish sp.
Samoan palua fish (Aphareus sp.) up to 3 ft. long
Rennellese pagupagublue-finned triggerfish
Maori parūfish sp.
Tuvaluan palucastor oil fish: Ruvettus sp.
Anuta parusmall red reef fish

The resemblance of Cebuano baluʔ to the other forms is probably a product of chance. Some of the Oceanic forms (particularly the Polynesian forms) may be related, but a specific common gloss is yet to be found.

fish sp.

Ilokano baráŋansmall, black-gray, fresh-water fish, whose meat is esteemed
Hanunóo baráŋunlarge red and white speckled fish

fish sp.

Buginese bui, bui-buifish sp.
Makassarese bui-buiedible fish about 10 cm. in length: horse mackerel, Caranx leptolepis
Gitua bui-buia fish: Moses perch

fish sp.

Tolai bulafish sp.
Samoan pulaa fish, Pempheris sp.
Hawaiian pulaa fish, perhaps Pempheris mangula
Anuta puratype of fish

fish sp.

Casiguran Dumagat búnakspecies of freshwater fish
Mansaka bonagkind of thin black and white ocean fish about 15 cm. wide by 22 cm. long with small scales; it is poisonous to eat
Rotinese bunakkind of marine fish which inflates when touched even slightly

fish sp.

Lakalai e-puaa fish
Tongan fuafish similar to the mullet, but rounder in cross-section

fish sp.

Tolai ivefish sp.
Tongan ihefish sp.
Samoan isefish of genera Hemirhamphus and Belone
Maori ihegarfish: Hemirhamphus intermedius
Hawaiian ihe-ihea fish, the halfbeak

The similarity of RALU ive to the Polynesian forms is attributed to chance.

fish sp.

Kosraean ohlohlkind of fish
Mota olooloa fish

fish sp.

Aklanon bueáwfish with yellow stripe
Puyuma vulawfish (general)
Paiwan vulʸawloach (fish sp.)

fish sp.

Buruese wapo, waputa fish: a grouper
Gedaged wabwhite fish about three feet long
Seimat wahbrownish grouper about one meter long, with a thick body

(Dempwolff: *han-ir 'fatty, greasy')

fish:   stench of fish or blood

Tagalog bániladhering dirt on neck
Ngaju Dayak han-errepugnant odor of fish, frogs or blood
Malagasy lánysmell, stench
Malagasy mányfetid, rank. Used only of the odor from human beings who are filthy
Malay (h)an-irfetid, offensive in odor. Of bad meat, rotten meat, putrid water, decaying vegetable matter, etc.
Javanese an-ircloyingly rich-tasting
Mandar man-n-erstench, especially of fish or blood
Makassarese man-n--ereʔstench, especially of fish or blood

The Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese forms are cognate, but probably represent a late innovation in western Indonesia. The resemblance of the Tagalog and Malagasy forms to these is assumed to be a product of chance, and although the South Sulawesi forms appear to be cognate, they point to an etymon with penultimate *e, and so do not permit a clear-cut reconstruction.

fish:   to string fish, etc.

Nggela itu-itua stick or string for stringing fish
Gilbertese itu, itututo sew, to thread (beads, fish)

Chance. Gilbertese itu may be cognate with Motu Jituri 'a string of fish' (< POc *i-tuRi 'instrument for stringing'), but this interpretation cannot be applied to Nggela itu-itu.

fish sp.

Malay badaredible sea-water fish, sp. unid.
Old Javanese waderkind of small freshwater fish
Javanese baḍèran edible river fish

A Dempwolff comparison of very limited distribution and questionable validity

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(Dempwolff: *tambaŋ ‘side, opposite side, cross side’)

flank:   side, flank

Ngaju Dayak tambaŋgo towards
Ngaju Dayak tambaŋ-anferryman who takes others across a river
Malay tambaŋferrying
Malay tambaŋ-anferry-crossing
Toba Batak tambaŋwide, across, behind
Javanese tambaŋto leave one’s spouse but not divorce him/her
Sa'a apa ~ apaapapart, side, half
Fijian tabathe upper arm of human beings; foreleg of an animal; wing of birds; branch of tree; store of a house; page of a book
Tongan tapaedge, rim, border; boundary, boundary line; side (of a square, triangle, etc.)
Samoan tafa-tafaside
Futunan tafa-tafasmall field; bordering
Samoan tafaflank, slope
Samoan tafa luabe two-sided, made of two pieces

Dempwolff (1938) proposed PAn *tambaŋ ‘side, opposite side, cross side’, glossing the Malay and Javanese forms as ‘überqueren’ (‘cross over’), and the Fijian form as ‘side’, but this meaning does not occur in Capell (1968). The entire comparison is extremely forced, and best treated as a collection of random similarities.

flash:   dazzle, flash

Ilokano irapto dazzle
PMic iralight, flash, lightning

flash:   to flash, of lightning

PAmb itito lighten; flash, of lightning
Gilbertese itilightning, thunderbolt, electricity, light
Tuvaluan itielectricity

Ranby (1980) gives NANU iti as a borrowing from English, but Gilbertese iti would appear to be a more likely source. The resemblance of these forms to Proto-Ambon *iti is regarded as a product of chance.

flash:   glitter, flash

Yamdena idakglitter, shine, light
PMic iralight, flash, lightning

flat roof

Sasak paraflat or level roof
Chamorro fagaslightly sloping roof of house, which is poor for water runoff

Chance. Other comparisons such as *buŋbuŋ(-an) 'ridge pole show clearly that the house in WMP society had a sloping roof.


Malay papakflat; even, smooth-surfaced
Javanese papaklevel, even with
Sasak papakeven at the ends, as someone whose fingers are all the same length
Rennellese papato be flat, flattened; to flatten

The forms in western Indonesia probably represent a Malay loan distribution, while Rennellese papa is assumed to be a chance resemblance.

flat container:   edge, rim, flat container

Ngaju Dayak tambir-anan annex in either the front or rear of a house
Malagasy tavia washing basin
Javanese tambirwooden or bamboo extension of the deck space of a barge or sampan
Fijian i-tabea small oval basket without handles

This is an example of a type of comparison that is unfortunately rather common in Dempwolff (1938), namely one in which the semantics of forms that would allow a higher-level reconstruction are extremely forced and artificial (the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese forms, which are semantically compatible, cannot safely support a reconstruction, given the longstanding Javanese influence on Banjarese and Ngaju Dayak). Unlike most of the chance resemblances for which Dempwolff proposed PAn reconstructions this one also shows an unacknowledged phonological irregularity, since he cites Fijian i-tabi ‘flat basket’, while Capell (1968) instead gives tabe ‘to hold or carry with the hands under’, i-tabe ‘a small oval basket without handles’.

(Dempwolff: *p-al-upuq 'vegetable matter')

flattened bamboo

Tagalog palupoʔrack, stand, frame
Iban pelupohpalm, unident.
Malay pelupohflatten out by drubbing; to squash flat, esp. of larger varieties of bamboo to make flooring or fencing
Javanese plupuhsplit-bamboo section for walls, fences

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *p-al-upuq 'vegetable matter', which he regarded as a doublet of *p-al-aqpaq/. Apart from Malay and Javanese, however, there is little evidence for such an etymon. The similarity of the Tagalog and Iban forms to Malay pelupoh, Javanese plupuh is best attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *tepas ‘pressed flat’)

flattened bamboo

Malay mə-nəpasto pack full
Toba Batak topaspound bamboo or palm wood flat in order to make house walls from it
Javanese tepescoconut fiber

On the basis of the above forms, all of which he glossed as ‘flattened bamboo’, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepas ‘pressed flat’. However, I have been able to find this gloss only in the Toba Batak form, and the Javanese and Toba Batak forms are phonologically irreconcilable.


Wolio ampeafloat, set adrift, drift with the current
Arosi sahefloat in water or air, as thistledown or a feather


Toba Batak bakbakto flow, of tears
Ngadha bhabhato ooze, flow slowly out (as palm sap from a cut trunk)


Ngaju Dayak babaŋ(used only in combination) flow strongly (tears)
Ngadha bhabhato ooze, flow slowly out (as palm sap from a cut trunk)

(Dempwolff: *buri)


Ngaju Dayak ba-buriflow into or out of
Fijian vuri-wai(flowing water) = river (Dempwolff 1938)


Bunun puaqflower
Tongan puaflowering bush: Fragraea berteriana
Niue puabud of a flower
Samoan puasmall tree with fragrant flowers: Gardenia sp.
Rennellese puabud; papaya flower
Hawaiian puaflower, blossom

Despite the striking resemblance of this form among related languages the lack of support in any language outside Bunun and Polynesian strongly suggests that this comparison is a product of chance.

fluid, liquid

Bikol antáʔjuice of fruits of the citrus family
Hanunóo ʔántaʔjuice, as from citrus fruits
Aklanon átaʔfluid, potion, liquids, semen
Cebuano átaʔink of squids and similar creatures
Mansaka ataʔfluid ejected by octopus/squid
Kayan ataʔwater

fly:   to fly

Isneg ayābfly away or up with
Simalungun Batak ayapfloat in air, hover

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    


(Dempwolff: *kebut ‘fold together, wrap’)

fold, wrinkle

Tagalog kubótwrinkle (e.g. of the skin); rumple; corrugation; fold
Tagalog kubótwrinkle; ridge; fold; wrinkled
Fijian kovuto tie up fish, etc. in banana leaves
Tongan kofugarment; clothing; dress
Futunan kofuclothing
Samoan ʔofugarment, dress; clothes; food done up in small bundle of leaves for cooking in a stone oven or for convenience

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kebut ‘fold together, wrap’, but the resemblance of the Tagalog form to the Fijian and Polynesian words seems is best attributed to chance.

follow, go after

Aklanon apasfollow after, go a little later
Hiligaynon apasfollow, go after
Cebuano apasfollow and catch up with; go after someone to bring him home
Maranao apascatch; miscarriage; go after
Amis apaclate in arising; slow to arrive; primitive


Isneg ípānensnare (cf. appān bait)
Mentawai ibafish; food, nourishment; to fish
Sasak impanfood, fodder; to feed

The Isneg and Sasak forms may be independently affixed forms of *pæn. The similarity of Mentawai iba to these is attributed to chance.

food plant

Kankanaey bulúŋankind of edible white mushroom
Cebuano bulúŋankind of sweet banana with a green peel, Musa sapientum, var. suaveolens

food plant

Gorontalo bintecorn, maize
Tae' biteʔtype of Colocasia, tuberous plant with large, broad leaves


Sangir pahaʔforbidden
PCha paghăʔto forbid

(Dempwolff: *leles ‘lose consciousness’)


Toba Batak lolosto forget
Old Javanese lələsto disappear

Dempwolff (1938) added Fijian lolo-a ‘unwell; seasickness’ to this and posited Uraustronesisch *leles ‘lose consciousness’ (das Bewustsein verlieren). This is best treated as a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *apu(r)a)

forgiveness:   pardon, forgiveness

Tagalog apúlaʔchecking or stopping the progress (as of swelling, sickness, revolt, or the like, before it worsens)
Sundanese hampuraforgiveness
Javanese apurapardon, forgiveness
Balinese ampuraforgive, pardon

The forms in Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese are cognate, but the similarity of these to Tagalog apulaʔ is due to chance.


Toba Batak tompashape, form of something
Toba Batak topato form, forge
Javanese tepatact, sensitivity

forth:   wave back and forth

Nias hifahang loosely, fit badly, shake, tremble, wobble, totter
Waropen ifaswing or wave back and forth
Arosi iha-ihaquiver, as tops of trees

(Dempwolff: *anDes)

foundation, basis

Malagasy m-andrylie down, be lying down, go to sleep
Malagasy f-andrif-anabed
Minangkabau andasbase for working on; surface support; anvil, as used by goldsmiths
Javanese paṇḍes(having been) cut off just above the roots
Balinese pandesgrind down, file

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    


fraction:   part fraction

Paiwan tamaqa fraction (of thing, number)
Maranao samaqremnant, unconsumed food after meal, survivor, remainder

(Dempwolff: *lawlaw ‘weak, feeble’)

fragile:   weak, fragile

Tagalog lawlawdefeat
Javanese loloLook at that! (said out of dissatisfaction with something)

Dempwolff cited these forms in support of Uraustronesisch *lawlaw ‘weak, feeble’ (Schwachsein). However, I find no Tagalog form with the meaning given, or anything close to it in any modern dictionary of the language, and the whole comparison is best treated as a product of chance.

fragment, piece broken off

Maranao poporbreak or chip off
Balinese puhpuhfragment, break pieces off

(Dempwolff: *ki(n)cu ‘deceit, fraud’)

fraud:   deceit, fraud

Malay kicuswindle, cheating
Toba Batak hinsuclosed, locked
Javanese kecuthief, one who breaks in by force

Also Toba Batak hunsi ‘closed, locked’, a borrowing of Malay kunci ‘lock or bolt’, metathesized in hinsu. Dempwolff (1938) posited *ki(n)cu ‘deceit, fraud’.

free, on the loose

Tagalog labágagainst; contrary to; violating
Tagalog labágto go against; to violate
Acehnese labaihcareless, without worries
Madurese lombharfree, loose
Bare'e lambawide, spacious; hang down limply
Buginese lampaʔfree, as a domesticated animal loose from its tether
Makassarese lámbaraʔfree, wander about freely (of water buffalos, horses)

Based on a slightly different version of this comparison Mills (1981) proposed PAn *la(m)baR ‘free; rebellious’. However, almost nothing about this comparison works: the Tagalog word is semantically at odds with the others cited here, Acehnese labaih can only reflect *labas, the Madurese form contains a penultimate vowel that disagrees with the reconstruction, and the other forms are confined to languages in central or southwest Sulawesi, where borrowing cannot safely be ruled out with regard to Buginese or Makassarese influence on Bare'e.


Itbayaten palakafrog, toad, tadpole (not found in Itbayat)
Ivatan palakafrog
Tagalog palákaʔfrog
Cebuano palákaʔfrog

All-in-all this form is best regarded as a loanword. I am indebted to Alexander Smith for bringing this to my attention.

(Dempwolff: *ampu)

from:   support from below

Malay ampuholding up from below, esp. in the up-turned palms of the hand
Karo Batak ampuhold in the lap
Toba Batak ampuhold or take in the lap

from:   suspend from poles

Lakalai balasuspend from a pole, hang between posts (as a pig)
Eddystone/Mandegusu palapole
Nggela mbalambalalong poles on which the kokopa (ridgepole) rests

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    



Isneg ibbáwvery small, slender, white, edible mushrooms that grow in dense clusters
Nias hiwofungus, mold, mildew

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_f.htm

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)