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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-cak₁    -cak₂    -cek    -ceq    -cik    -cit    -cut    


*-cak₁ muddy; sound of walking in mud

PWMP *lecakmuddy
PWMP *lucakmuddy
PWMP *pisákmuddy ground
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) basakmud
Malay bécakslushy; mud-patch; puddle
Toba Batak birsaksquirting or spraying of water
Mongondow bisakpuddle, mud-puddle, morass
Toba Batak hasakrushing, of water
Kambera kapihakumud, muddy
Javanese kracaksounds of water pouring or gushing
Cebuano lagasáksplattering, pattering noise made by water falling on something
Totoli lampesakmud
Gorontalo lataʔomud
Malay lecak-lecoksound of a man walking through sticky mud
Banjarese licakmuddy (Also Malay lécak 'moist and slippery, as ground after rain')
Karo Batak oncakshake, slosh about, as water in a can that someone is carrying
Mansaka pasakmud
Wolio rancasplash
Mandar ressaʔmud
Sasak ricakmarshy, swampy, muddy
Aklanon támsakto splash, splatter
Bikol tapsáka splash

Also Malay (Jakarta) bacek 'wet, soft, become waterlogged'; Sundanese 1+c+k 'muddy', with root candidate *-cek.


*-cak₂ step, tread, trample

Sasak ancakwalk lamely, of a horse
Javanese incakget stepped on
Tae' lessaʔstep on, tread on
Old Javanese lin-cakleap, hop
Tae' ossaʔstep on, tread on
Mongondow ritakstep or be stepping on something

-cak₁    -cak₂    -cek    -ceq    -cik    -cit    -cut    



*-cek blind

PWMP *picekblind in one eye
Kankanaey budsékblind, sightless
Ilokano bulsékblind, eyeless
Maranao isekblind, have poor eyesight
Ngaju Dayak lusekas if blind; asleep
Casiguran Dumagat pəsəkbe poked in the eye with a sharp-pointed instrument


*-ceq in pieces, break open

PAN *ceqceqin pieces
PAN *peceqbreak into several large pieces, as a hatched egg
Balinese bencahwreck, break in pieces; perish, piece, fragment
Mandar bissebreak open (as an egg or abscess)
Bikol himsáʔto hatch
Paulohi hisasplit to pieces (glass, bamboo)
Paulohi kosashatter (egg)
Old Javanese recahcut into pieces
Maranao salasaʔsplit, break
Maranao sarisaʔbreak, broken

-cak₁    -cak₂    -cek    -ceq    -cik    -cit    -cut    



*-cik fly out, splash, spatter

PWMP *becikspatter, fly off in all directions
PWMP *lagecikfly off, spatter
PWMP *peRciksplash, spatter
PMP *piciksplash, spray, sprinkle
PMP *recikspeckled, stained
PWMP *riciksound of splashing, etc.
PPh *tarsiksplash, spatter
PSan *təsikspurt, spray out
Aklanon ásiksplash, spatter (Also Hiligaynon ágsik 'fly off, scatter, spray')
Kankanaey labsíkoverflow, flow over
Buginese lessiʔspattered
Singhi Land Dayak masiksprinkle
Ifugaw pahíksplashing or spattering water
Kankanaey palsíkhit, struck by a piece of wood, stone, etc. when someone is cleaving wood, etc.
Tagalog pilansíkspatter, splash (of liquid)
Sangir sesiʔwhat spatters away or sprays out
Tagalog tabsíksplash of liquid produced by something rolling, as a wheel or a ball rolling upon a pool of water
Cebuano taligsíklarge raindrops which fall in a scattered way
Aklanon támsiksplash, splatter
Lau taŋasito splash, sprinkle, wet with rain
Tagalog tilabsíkspatter (of hot liquid)
Bikol tipsíka splash (smaller than tapsák)
Pangasinan waisíksprinkle
Cebuano wisíkmake something fly off in all directions (Also Hiligaynon wisík 'sprinkle, spray')


*-cit squirt out

PMP *lecitsqueeze out, squirt out
PMP *pe(R)citspurt, squirt
Iban ancitsend flying, shoot out like a shot (as a spinning top)
Kelabit besitsquirt out (as pus from a pimple)
Balinese encitdiarrhoea
Sundanese gencétpress or squeeze out
Malay kincita slight escape of fecal matter
Bikol kupsítto spurt
Malay lancitsquirt out, of water in a thin stream
Ilokano lúsitsqueeze, compress, press, crush (fruits, eggs, etc.)
Singhi Land Dayak ŋisitsquirt forth
Iban pancitsquirt, spray, shoot out
Malay pelancitshoot out, as when a seed pops out of its pod when the pod is squeezed
Malay peléncétforced out by pressure
Malay perancitfly about in all directions, as chips of stone struck by a bullet, or as water emptied out violently
Bontok pisitsqueeze between finger and thumb in order to squeeze out the contents of something
Ilokano pugsít.spurt out, gush out
Bikol pulsítto slip away (because it is slippery, like a fish when you try to hold it)

-cak₁    -cak₂    -cek    -ceq    -cik    -cit    -cut    



*-cut squirt, squeeze or slip out

PWMP *la(m)pesutslip, slide out of one's hold
PWMP *lecutslip, squirt or squeeze out; be born
PWMP *lucutsqueeze out
PWMP *pesutsqueeze out, spurt out
Ilokano apsútslide out, slip, escape
Cebuano hipsútslip out
Cebuano ipsútslip out
Malay lancutgush of water; sound of water spurting in large jets
Ilokano lugsóthave the rectum protruding
Kankanaey lupsútslip out
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pansutsquirt out
Malay perancutfly about in all directions, as chips of stone struck by a bullet, or as water emptied out violently
Javanese trucutlet something slip (in, out)
Bare'e wisua forward-shooting movement; shoot out (water, a bird flying suddenly from cover)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)