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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-Cik    -Cuk (or *-Cuquk?)    -Cuŋ    


*-Cik mottled, spotted

PWMP *batikbatik pattern
PAN *beCiktattoo
PWMP *patikmottled pattern
PWMP *pe(n)tikspot, dot
PMP *rintikdot, spot, speck
Tiruray beretikfreckle-like spots on any surface
Malay binték-bintéksmall dark heat spots
Maranao bortikspot, dot
Makassarese burintiʔsmall white, black or red spots or speckles on the skin
Kankanaey butbutíkspotted; speckled hen
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gotikspotted or striped, of animals (as the tiger)
Pangasinan potíkto decorate cloth, etc. with braided threads
Ilokano ratíkspots of mold or mildew on wet tobacco leaves, damp cloth, etc.
Kankanaey sampatíkwith scattered speckles
Melanau (Mukah) titikspot, dot

-Cik    -Cuk (or *-Cuquk?)    -Cuŋ    



*-Cuk (or *-Cuquk?) knock, pound, beat

PAN *balalaCukwoodpecker
PWMP *getukknock, pound on
PMP *katukknock
PMP *ketukknock, pound
PMP *letukcrashing, thudding or knocking sound
PMP *pa(n)tukknock, strike against
PWMP *petukknock, bump
PWMP *pituktap, rap
PMP *retuksound of chopping, etc.
PWMP *tuksound of heavy knocking, pounding, beating
PMP *tuktukknock, pound, beat
Sundanese beletoksound of an explosion, the crackling of fire, etc.
Sasak dantukkick against with the foot
Sawai detuknock, beat
Ifugaw duntúkblow of one's fist
Kelabit etukheartbeat
Ngaju Dayak garutoksound of rudder striking against boat
Manggarai gatukchatter of the teeth
Malay gelatokchatter of the teeth
Ilokano gotókpalpitate, throb, flutter, pulsate violently
Cebuano hagtúkloud knocking sound
Tetun hak-latukthresh maize
Balinese intukstamp, grind, pulverize
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kastukresound, of bamboo water containers that strike together when they are carried in fetching water
Old Javanese kiṭukmake a knocking sound
Tagalog lagutókshort, sharp sound (as of end-bones -- carpal or tarsal -- snapping upon being stretched on hand or fingers)
Sangir lentuʔexplode, burst open with a bang, as chestnuts in hot ashes
Kankanaey litókto crack, snap (as finger joints) (Also Kankanaey litóok idem)
Toba Batak lutukbeat loudly
Puyuma mu-palTukexplode
Kambera nutukuknock, tap, rap, tick
Old Javanese palatukwoodpecker
Gorontalo peletuʔasound of finger joints being cracked
Bikol putókexplode
Javanese rekutu:kloud cracking sound
Ilokano rittókthe crackling sound of the joints of the fingers
Fijian rotubeat at with fists or stick
Bare'e rutusound of pounding or knocking
Malay santokknocking or tripping up against
Ilokano sintókknock on the head
Aklanon súntokrap or hit with one's knuckles
Tetun tanutukhammer
Iban tatokknock, tap, peck
Ngadha viturod for beating clothes, etc.; beat with such a rod
Fijian vutupound with pestle and mortar


*-Cuŋ deep resounding sound

PWMP *kentuŋbird-clapper
PWMP *tuŋdeep resounding sound
PAN *tuŋtuŋresound deeply
Manggarai betuŋbamboo guitar
Mongondow bolontuŋrumbling, roaring, or stamping sound
Malay dentoŋto boom; a deep echoing roar
Ngaju Dayak garuntoŋthunder
Kadazan Dusun ho-hotuŋ-ongong
Cebuano kalátuŋknocker made from a section of a bamboo with a slit on the side
Malay katak betoŋa toad, Bufo sp., so called from its deep booming croak
LgW katuŋdrum
Javanese klunṭuŋmetallic clanking
Malay lentaŋ-lentoŋding-dong
Kankanaey litóoŋbounce, bang, knock loudly
Makassarese mattuŋmake a dull sound (as a heavy fruit falling to earth), rumble, roar (as distant cannon)
Manggarai ntuŋk.o. frog that raises a loud chorus when it rains
Malagasy róntonafired at with many guns, fired at by a volley

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)