Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


 b    c    C    d    g    h    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    p    r    R    s    t    w    z   


-riC₁    -rik    -ris₁    -ris₂    -ris₃    -rit (or *-reclit?)    -rud    -rus₁    -rus₂    


*-riC₁ sound of ripping, etc.

PWMP *beritburst, tear open
PMP *ciritsound of squirting
PAN *geriCsound of ripping, gnawing, etc.
PWMP *zeritshrill or crackling sound
Malay ceŋkeritfield-cricket: Brachytrypes portentosus
Malay ceritsquirt out in small quantity, e.g. in defecation
Tontemboan goritto saw
Paiwan guritsto squeal (pig)
Sundanese heriteerie rustle of the wind, as through bamboo leaves
Ngadha iritearing, sound of tearing
Cebuano kadlítstrike a match
Malay keritsound of scratching, grating or gnawing; to gnaw
Tetun surithave diarrhoea


*-rik spot, freckle

PMP *barikmottled, striped
PMP *burikspeckled
Madurese balurikspotted
Karo Batak curikcovered with fine speckles (Also Malay corék 'grain in wood; veining; long parallel lines (broken or otherwise) in cloth patterns')
Malay kurekspeckled, of a fowl’s markings
Malay lorékvery delicate markings (of certain markings on snakes, markings seen in certain lights only, scratches on a polished surface, etc.)
Tetun makerikcolorful; dappled, of a horse
Ilokano turíkfreckle, lentigo; freckled

Also Tiruray barek 'the spots on an eel'.


*-ris₁ rustling sound

PWMP *risrislight rustling sound
Sangir balehiseʔrustling, as of wind
Iban berisshower, drizzle, spray
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) biris-birisof rain, to sprinkle or fall lightly
Ilokano buríshave diarrhoea, flux
Bahasa Indonesia derisa sound like that of walking through dry grass, cloth being cut, etc.
Sundanese gebrissound of sneezing, etc.
Toba Batak heresrustle, crackle
Pangasinan laríssound of whipping or lashing
Kambera ŋirihusound of scratching, as of a file on something
Malay risrustling sound
Wolio sirirustle, murmur


*-ris₂ scratch a line

PWMP *barisstraight line
PMP *garisscratch; draw a line
PMP *gurisscratch; draw a line
PMP *hirisslice
PMP *karisscratch mark
PWMP *kurisline
PWMP *Ruristear into strips
Cebuano badlísdraw a line
Balinese barisstrip, row, rank
Sangir behiseʔline, stripe
Wolio boriline, borderline
Cebuano budlíslong thin mark, stripe, smear
Wolio buriwrite
Madurese lirisstriped, of batik
Ngadha tariscratch, wound
Puyuma taʔurisscratch, leave a scratch mark
Ngadha teriline, stroke, incision
Maranao tirisstripe
Maranao torisetch a line on
Maranao toris-anstriped
Kankanaey ugálisstriped, streaked
Bahasa Indonesia urisscratch; draw a line (Also Acehnese uréh 'line, scratch')


*-ris₃ slice

PWMP *birisslice
PMP *giriscut or slice
PWMP *maŋ-qiristo cut, slice
PMP *qiristo cut, slice
Sasak birisslice
Bintulu rurisslice


*-rit (or *-reclit?) scratch a line

PWMP *beritscratch a line
PWMP *buritmark, line
PWMP *curitmark, line, dash
PMP *kur(e)clitscratch mark, line
PWMP *paritmark with lines
PMP *uritstroke, line
Kelabit aritdesign
Aklanon bádlitlines or marks in the palm
Kelabit baritstriped, colorful
Sangir behiʔline, stripe
Ilokano bíritscar or scarlike indentation on the eyelid
Javanese garitscratch, scratched line (Also Sasak garit 'striped of animals')
Toba Batak goritscratch, line
Old Javanese guritto scratch, engrave, paint, write
Kayan haritcut or scratch
Aklanon kádlitmark, draw a line
Selaru kéritto scratch
Hiligaynon kúdlitline, mark
Ilokano okrítto line, mark with a line or lines, to rule; to scarify, to scratch or cut the skin
Ilokano oráritstreaked
Gorontalo pilitoline, mark with a line
Ngadha teriline, stroke, incision

Gorontalo pilito may contain a reflex of *-ris₂ 'scratch a line'.

-riC₁    -rik    -ris₁    -ris₂    -ris₃    -rit (or *-reclit?)    -rud    -rus₁    -rus₂    



*-rud scratch, scrape

PWMP *arudscrape off
PWMP *hírudscrape, rub off
PWMP *kerudscratch, scrape
PWMP *kurudscrape
PWMP *parudscraper, grater
Balinese berudscratch, graze, peeling of skin
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rudrudscrape
Sasak serutto plane, shave off with a plane
Hanunóo tarúdscraping, rubbing

Malay derut 'dull scraping sound', garut 'scraping against one another', gerut 'any dull scraping sound', karut 'rasp', sarut 'scraping up against; grating against' and the like appear to reflect prototypes with *-t; Bikol súrod 'to harrow' reflects *sujud.


*-rus₁ rustling sound

PWMP *garusto scratch
PWMP *kerusrustling sound
PWMP *rusrusrustling sound
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) degurusswishing sound of rain falling or water flowing
Malay derusdull rustling or scratching sound
Balinese parusstream out strongly; (of water), stream out when a dam is opened, babble
Kayan seruhthe sound of an object dropping through leaves of trees
Maranao terosspurt, drip, ooze


*-rus₂ slip or slide off

PMP *durusslide down
PWMP *hurusslip or slide down or along
PWMP *lurusslip off
PWMP *rusrusslip or slide off
Balinese buhusslip away, get away
Puyuma darusslippery because of mud ( < *-lus?)
Tetun dorosslippery
Tetun dorusto slide
Simalur forusslip, slide (as down a coconut tree when climbing it)
Sasak gerusslip through somewhere
Amis procslide down

 b    c    C    d    g    h    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    p    r    R    s    t    w    z   

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)