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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-Raŋ    -Raq    -Raw    -ReC    -Reŋ    -Riŋ    -Ris    -Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?)    


*-Raŋ clanging sound

Malay beraŋto clang
Malay chəroŋ-chəraŋto clang, as anklets when their wearer moves about, or as bar-iron when being taken to a foundry
Malay dəraŋclanging sound, of the sound of a gong, the tinkle of pieces of jewellery, the chink of dollars, the sound of the royal drums


*-Raq red

PWMP *baRaqred
PMP *daRaqblood
PMP *ma-iRaqred .
PMP *siRaqred, reddish
Chamorro agagaʔred
Chamorro ataggaʔreddish
Aklanon eagáʔred, reddish
Binukid lígaʔred
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) me-la-le-gaʔred
Kavalan tbaRiʔred


*-Raw hoarse

PWMP *gaRawhoarse
PWMP *paRawhoarse
PWMP *peRawhoarse
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ragewto cause hoarseness in the voice

-Raŋ    -Raq    -Raw    -ReC    -Reŋ    -Riŋ    -Ris    -Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?)    



*-ReC tighten; belt

PWMP *hiRettighten; constriction, belt
PAN *SeReCconstriction; tighten
Isneg bixáttighten
Lun Dayeh giretbelt
Yami (Iranomilek) siratman's waist- or loin-cloth
Manggarai werettight (of binding)


*-Reŋ groan, moan, snore

PMP *deReŋsound of groaning, moaning
PMP *heReŋsound of groaning, moaning, roaring
PWMP *legeŋboom, thundering sound
Roviana baroŋoto snore
Manggarai bereŋto snore (person, pig)
Tiruray bugeŋ-bugeŋmurmuring ( < *-geŋ?)
Kavalan cieReŋroaring (of breakers)
Kelabit gareŋroaring of an animal
Old Javanese gereŋgrowl, snarl
Aklanon hágoŋgroan, moan
Manggarai jereŋinterjection of disappointment
Amis kaleŋa deep voice
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laǥeŋthe human voice ( < *-geŋ?)
Itbayaten mayeŋof the sound yeŋ, of high-pitched tone
Maranao sigeŋpeal, snore, vibration (<*-geŋ?)
Kavalan uReŋgrowl of a dog in anger

-Raŋ    -Raq    -Raw    -ReC    -Reŋ    -Riŋ    -Ris    -Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?)    



*-Riŋ to ring

PAN *daRiŋto sound
PWMP *deRiŋto ring, buzz
Sangir bahiŋsnore
Malay celoréŋmetal bar or thin plate that gives out a ringing sound when struck
Toba Batak diriŋto ring, sound clearly
Malay geriŋspherical bell (Also Kayan geriŋ 'ringing sound, as when a bell or metal is struck' with onomatopoetic resistance of *R > h?)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak giriŋa bell
Arosi ŋirito whine, of a dog; mew, of a cat; hum, buzz, of insects
Malay peréŋringing sound
Malay réŋringing sound
Arosi taribeat a gong
Kayan uhiŋbell


*-Ris drip

Maranao bigisdrip, ooze
(??) * tiRisdrip

-Raŋ    -Raq    -Raw    -ReC    -Reŋ    -Riŋ    -Ris    -Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?)    



*-Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?) roar, rumble

PSS *+rruŋdrone, roar
PAN *deRuŋdistant rolling thunder
PWMP *geRuŋrumbling sound
PMP *huRuŋroar (of a current, crashing waves, etc.), moan, groan
PWMP *quRuŋroar, moan
Arosi akuruto thunder; thunder
Malay aroŋto growl (dog)
Tolai baruŋsnore, grunt
Tae' burruŋsnarl, growl (of cats, dogs)
Roviana buruŋuto roar or howl, as the wind
Maranao dagoʔoŋthunder
Arosi guruto growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or chorus
Yami (Iranomilek) keroŋhowl of a dog
Pazeh pukakuruŋto rattle, to clatter (the sound of a cart running)
Kayan tehuŋbarking of dogs

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)