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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-sek₁    -sek₂    -sep    -seq    -siŋ    -sir    -suD    -suk (or *suquk?)    


*-sek₁ cram, crowd

PMP *be(n)sekovercrowded
PWMP *dasekpress together, compress
PWMP *desekpress together, compress
PMP *hasekjam, cram, crowd
PMP *seksekstuff, cram in
Banjarese barasakcrammed full
Manggarai cecekstuff, fill up
Kankanaey dinsékthick, close together, as plants sown thick
Bikol dusókcompact, compressed, condensed, packed
Tontemboan isekpress something down to make it more compact
Maranao lesekdent, press down
Gorontalo lutoʔopressed together
Kankanaey mesékladen with fruit, grain; fruitful
Fijian osonarrow, crowded; strait
Manggarai picekcrowded; narrow; crammed in
Ilokano pusékdense, close, crowded together, packed
Tiruray rasekpress against, crowd
Cebuano tagsúkpack elongated things tightly in an upright position
Balinese tisekthronged, pushed close together
Tontemboan wisekpress in well (as tobacco stuffed into a pipe bowl) (also Ngaju Dayak bisek = isek?)
Buginese wusekto stuff (as a pillow with kapok)


*-sek₂ insert, stick into a soft surface

PAN *Cesekinsert, force into a soft surface
PMP *hasekdibble, make a hole to sow seeds
PMP *isekinsert, put in
PWMP *lesekpress into
PAN *pasekwooden pin, stake; wedge; drive in a stake
PMP *pusekpress in by force
PMP *usekpress into
Sundanese beleseksink into the ground
Manggarai cicekslip through a crowd
Manggarai decekpierce, stab
Amis hcekpost, pillar
Buruese kuse-khammer or ram (a piling or pole into the earth); plant (a post) by digging a hole for it
Ilokano lisékpierce the heart of an animal (in slaughter)
Kankanaey ludsékstick in, fix in, thrust in; insert penis in vagina (Also Pangasinan losefk 'post, pillar')
Manggarai macekembed in
Bintulu nasəkclothing
Kankanaey padsékstick in, fix in, thrust in
Ngaju Dayak pesekpierced (esp. of ears, nose)
Ilokano seksékpenetrate to the innermost part
Kenyah telasekto join (pieces of wood), to put things into one another
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) telesekpush something into the ground
Gorontalo wontoʔoinserted
Lau ʔotopierce, insert

Also PAn *pacek drive in (a nail, post)', Malay cacak 'planting upright, embedding', with root candidate *-cek. PMP *pusek is reconstructed erroneously as *pucek in Blust (1986).


*-sep sip, suck

PAN *qesepsuck
PWMP *qisepsuck up
PMP *sepsepsuck
Amis hcepsoak up
Amis hicepslurp water
SUB(S) iksep-ensuck
Maranao sasepsuck
Cebuano túsupsuck the juice out of something


*-seq wet; wash

PWMP *baseqwet; to wash
Javanese asahwash dishes for someone
Javanese isahto wash (Also Balinese iŋsah 'wash rice')
Malay sesahto beat clothes in the wash

-sek₁    -sek₂    -sep    -seq    -siŋ    -sir    -suD    -suk (or *suquk?)    



*-siŋ spin around

PWMP *gasiŋspinning top
Kayan pasiŋspinning, revolving
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pesiŋdizzy
Malay pusiŋrotate (pusiŋ kepala 'vertigo')


*-sir hissing sound

Malay desirthe hiss of water turning into steam
Toba Batak disirto hiss
Nias isito sough, of the wind
Kayan kesihsinging of water about to boil
Paiwan qesirto have a deadened sound (as if bells fell to the ground)
Maranao sagisirhiss
Balinese sirsirto blow (breeze); hiss
Makassarese tisiʔmake a hissing sound with the mouth when eating hot foods, such as chili peppers
Ngadha usisizzle, whistle

-sek₁    -sek₂    -sep    -seq    -siŋ    -sir    -suD    -suk (or *suquk?)    



*-suD budge, move a bit

PMP *qi(ŋ)suDshift, budge, move slightly
Malay aŋsura little at a time, in action or motion
Manggarai (West) hisutmove a little, budge
Bikol ugsódpush, nudge


*-suk (or *suquk?) insert, penetrate, enter

PMP *asukenter
PMP *buRsukdrive or force into
PMP *masukenter
PWMP *pasukenter
PWMP *ra(ŋ)sukinsert, put or drive in
PMP *rusukpierce, stab
PMP *suksukinsert, enter
PWMP *susukprick, pierce
PMP *tusukstab
PMP *usukpress into, penetrate
Banggai bansukhousepost
Kayan belasukpush along, push into
Selaru bésukpenetrate (of liquids)
Maranao bisokpoke, inject; injection
Tagalog bulúsoksudden sinking of a foot into soft, deep mud
Manggarai ducukstab, pierce, penetrate
Kamarian hesuputting on (of clothes)
Buruese lusu-hcause to enter; insert
Kambera nuhukuenter (< *-sek?)
Kambera puhukuenter (< *-sek?)
Puyuma RaRsukposts of a fence
Puyuma Resukfix a stick or post in the ground
Kankanaey sóokenter, penetrate
Cebuano tagsúkpierce; plant into but not through (< *-sek?)
Balinese telusukbore a hole in the nose of a draught animal
Hiligaynon tisúkstick into (< *-sek?)
Kayan (Uma Juman) tohuʔpierce
Tausug usukpole, post, stake

Also PMP *cukcuk 'skewer'.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)