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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-zak    -zeg    -zek    -zer    -zur    


*-zak step, tread, trample

PWMP *anzakstamp the feet
PMP *bezakstep, tread, stamp on
PWMP *enzakstep, tread, stamp the foot
PMP *inzakstep, tread, dance
PCEMP *kezakstep on, tread on
PMP *kizakstep on, tread on
PWMP *pinzakstep on, tread on
PMP *re(n)zakstep on, place one's foot on
Pazeh dadadakstep on dung by mistake
Toba Batak irjakhop for joy
Malay jejaktrample on
Malay jijakfootfall; step, tread
Bare'e kajastep with the flat of the foot and a sideways movement of the leg
Balinese lanjakkick backwards
Iban lunjaktrample, tread or stamp on repeatedly
Pazeh mu-dakedakremove millet grains by trampling or stamping with the feet
Tagalog paldákhardened or flattened by repeated treading or trampling
Tagalog parákstamping of feet
Minangkabau tijakstepping, treading
Bare'e yandatread, step

Toba Batak irjak points to *-zak, but Javanese pidak to *-Zak.

-zak    -zeg    -zek    -zer    -zur    



*-zeg stand erect

PWMP *ta(n)zegstand erect
PMP *ti(n)zegstand erect
PWMP *zegzegstand erect
Balinese ajegerect, stand upright (Also Sundanese andeg 'remain standing')
Manggarai cedekupright
Manggarai codekstand or sit upright
Ngaju Dayak gagedekfull, of sails
Mansaka ind+gstand
Singhi Land Dayak kajogplace upright
Singhi Land Dayak mojugstand up
Maranao pamaiandegstand upright
Manggarai pendekstraight, erect (of a post)
Kankanaey takdegstand, stand up
Manggarai tendekstand upright (as bamboo, spikes)
Mongondow torindogerect
Old Javanese tulajegstand erect
Manggarai udekdrive in, as a stake or post

Also PMP *tezek 'stand erect; upright (posts)'.


*-zek step, tread, trample

Ilokano baddéktread, trample, tramp
Balinese enjektread on
Sundanese idekstep on something, place the foot on
Malay (Jakarta) injekstep, tread
Balinese injektread, tread on
Kadazan Dusun udokstamp with the foot
Kavalan zaʔzekstep on, stamp with foot


*-zer stand erect

Karo Batak cinderstand, stand erect
Sika saderstand erect
Sasak tajerstiffly erect
MOO tendererect, of standing; stiff

-zak    -zeg    -zek    -zer    -zur    



*-zur thrust out; extend

PWMP *unzurshove, thrust forward
Iban bejurstretched out
Kelabit bujurdistended, of the belly
Tagalog duldólshove or thrust (something) with force into another, as pen into ink bottle, food into mouth, etc.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kuzurof the bones of an animal or person who is extremely thin, to protrude

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)