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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ba    be    bi    bo    bp    bu    bw    






















babuy babuy


























































































































































































































































































































baRa baRa




















































































*ba₁ conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because


PMP     *ba₁ conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because

Malagasy (Provincial) vaor, nor, though, whether, neither, if. It is also used to form several indefinite pronouns and adverbs
Simalur fastill, yet, then, because
Toba Batak baand
Uma baor, perhaps
Bare'e baperhaps (makes the following word indefinite)


PCEMP     *ba₁ but, if

Manggarai waso long as, but, if, not
Buruese baonly, just


POC     *ba₁ or, because, but, perhaps

Tolai or, because, whether; if; perhaps
Roviana babut, although, however, or
Eddystone/Mandegusu babut
Bugotu badisjunctive conjunction, or
Nggela mbaadverb, introduces doubt
Gilbertese babecause, so that, as, for
Pohnpeian pasince (contrary to expectations)
Mota pabut, and

Note:   The appropriateness of including all of these forms in a single cognate set is perhaps open to question. However, reflexes of *ba appear to function as conjunctions in nearly all of the languages cited, and semantically many of them introduce an element of doubt, qualification or negation. Both Bare'e and Uma ba are said to be shortened forms of bara (< *baraŋ ‘marker of uncertainty, conditionality or hope’), but the basis for this interpretation is unclear.


*ba₂ interjection or exclamation


PMP     *ba₂ interjection or exclamation

Tagalog bainterjection (short for abá) expressing disgust or surprise
Aklanon ba(h)interjection, expressions of disbelief
Cebuano bain exclamations: how unbelievable that it is that way!; though
Tiruray baan emphatic particle, with the sense of 'really'
Iban ba(h)exclamation to direct attention
Toba Batak baexpressions of astonishment
Nias bainterjection
Mongondow baexclamation of delight
Ngadha bacry out loudly, shriek
Rotinese bacry intended to frighten someone


POC     *pa₁ interjection; to startle

Motu hainterjection: warning, forbidding; look out!
Mota vaexpletive
Lonwolwol famake a sudden and alarming noise, to startle, jerk, to shock, cause shock, etc.
Hawaiian exclamation

Note:   Also Ilokano baá ‘an interjection to startle people or to make children laugh’, Ngaju Dayak bah ‘interjection of astonishment’, Balinese bah ‘interjection of amazement’, Uma baʔ ‘interjection’, Nggela mbaa (with nasal grade initial) ‘exclamation, look out!’. The lengthened or doubled vowels in the Ilokano and Nggela forms and the occasional final /h/ in WMP languages may be motivated in different ways by the emotive character of this word.


*ba₃ preposition: at, on, in, to


PMP     *ba₃ preposition: at, on, in, to

Iban baat, in, on, with
Karo Batak baat, on, upon, to, til
Nias bain, at, on, upon, through
Tetun bato, in, at, on; where the sense is "arriving" at, on, or to (contrasts with iha, where the sense is "being" at, on or to)


POC     *pa₂ at, on, in, to

Label hain, at, on, during
Mbula pain, at, from, to
Roviana pain, at, on, from, to

Note:   PMP has well-established generic locative prepositions *i and *di which appear to cover approximately the same semantic range as *ba. The semantic distinction between Tetun ba ("arriving" at, etc.) and iha ("being" at, etc.) may also have applied to PMP *ba and *i, *di, but there is as yet no comparative support for this interpretation.


*ba₄ under, below


PMP     *ba₄ under, below

Malagasy i-valow, not high
Iban baunder, below
Manggarai waunder, below


POC     *ba₄ down, under

Tolai badown

Note:   Presumably connected with *babaq ‘under, below’, though the connection remains obscure.


*ba₅ postverbal interrogative particle


PWMP     *ba₅ postverbal interrogative particle

Tagalog bainterrogative particle
Cebuano baquestion marker used in questions with no interrogative
Maranao bainterrogative marker
Subanen/Subanun bainterrogative particle
Malagasy vainterrogative particle
Moken bawhat?

Note:   This grammatical marker appears in several languages of the central and southern Philippines, but thus far is attested outside the Philippines only in Malagasy (Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *ba based on reflexes in Tagalog and Malagasy, and I have been able to extend his documentation very little). All languages that contain a reflex of *ba are verb-initial, and in all cases the reflex of *ba is postverbal. Panganiban (1973:93) gives Tagalog ba in the Manila-Bulacan area, but ga or bagá in Kumintang. Reid (p.c.) speculates that Tagalog ba is a reduction of earlier *bagá, and attempts to relate this interrogative marker to Ilokano bagá ‘say, tell, speak, declare, utter, relate’ and similar forms in other northern Philippine languages. Ilokano bagá, however, almost certainly reflects *bajaq ‘say, relate, announce’, and the broader comparative evidence suggests that Kumintang Tagalog bagá is compounded of earlier monosyllables.


*ba₆ go


PCEMP     *ba₆ go

Tetun bago, proceed
Selaru bawalk, go, go away, go toward
Kei bago, go away, walk
Buruese fago


POC     *pa₃ go

Tolai ba(NG) tread, go
Motu haaux. verb meaning "to go and"
Nggela vago; expressing purpose or intention of action, as in English "I am going to"
Mota vago or come; the same used as auxiliary with the notion of going on, but not easy to distinguish from the causative va-
Lonwolwol vato go
Southeast Ambrym hago, leave, depart

Note:   Paton (1973) describes Lonwolwol va as a short form of van ‘go, pass’ (< POc *pano). Since original medial nasals are otherwise retained in Lonwolwol and since none of the other languages from which cognates are cited here could regularly reflect POc *pano (or PMP *panaw) Paton's interpretation of the Lonwolwol form appears to be unjustified.

This cognate set appears in Blust (1993b:254), where it is observed that Nothofer (1992), favors a comparison with Mongondow bayaʔ ‘go’ < PMP *bayaq. Nothofer's proposal has the advantage of eliminating a canonical anomaly (since PMP monosyllabic content morphemes are otherwise virtually unknown), but conflicts with the Motu reflex (*bayaq should > **hala). Alternatively Mongondow bayaʔ and all of the items cited here except Motu ha could be assigned to *bayaq.

This is one of the extremely rare monosyllables that appears to have been a content morpheme in PCEMP. Although the glosses for CMP languages suggest that it was a main verb, several of the Oceanic reflexes indicate that it was an auxiliary, and as such it may have been unstressed and so a part of the following phonological word (hence the comment by Codrington and Palmer (1896) that Mota va ‘go or come’ is sometimes hard to distinguish from the causative prefix va-).


*baba₁ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back


PAN     *baba₁ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back

Kavalan pa-babato ride
  babato carry on the back, a baby or sick person
Amis fafacarry a baby tied on one's back; to ride piggy back


PMP     *baba₁ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back

Itbayaten mi-vavacarry a baby at the side (back or front) of the body
Casiguran Dumagat bábacarry a person "piggyback"; cloth sling used for carrying a baby
Tagalog babácarried on back or piggy-back (as Eskimos and Japanese carry their babies); coitus of quadrupeds
Hanunóo bábacarry (something) on the back, as in a pack
Cebuano bábacarry something on the back, not tied
Maranao bawacarry, as on the back
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavacarry on the back
Kadazan Dusun babocarry on the back
Kelabit babehcarrying basket, back pack
  mabehcarry something on the back
Malay bawaconveyance in one's own custody or possession; to bring with one
Karo Batak bababring something, bring along, carry
Old Javanese wawacarry, carry along, take along, bring
Sangir bawacarry (without reference to the manner in which it is done)
Mongondow babacarry on the back
Balantak wawato carry, bring
Banggai bababring
Tae' baabring
Wolio bawacarry (esp. on the shoulder), bring; bring along; burden, load
Erai hahacarry (on head or back)
Leti wawacarry in a basket on the back
Wetan wawato carry (in a basket on one’s back)
Kei wāvcarry on the back
Paulohi hahacarry on the back
Kowiai/Koiwai na-fafacarry on the back
Waropen wawasit on the back, carry on the back (as a child)


POC     *papa₁ carry piggyback

Lou papcarry a person (as someone who is sick) on the back
Wuvulu fafacarry a person on one's shoulders (legs astraddle the neck)
Mussau baocarry pick-a-back (NG initial)
Sudest babacarry on back
Roviana papacarry a child on one's back
Nggela papacarry pick-a-back
Lau fafacarry on shoulders, pick-a-back; carry a bag round the neck
'Āre'āre hahacarry one the back
Sa'a hahacarry a person on one's back
Arosi bahacarry pick-a-back or in cloth on back (NG, OG)
Lonwolwol babaused of a baby, to ride (on its mother's back), or of the mother to carry by slinging on the back (NG)
  fefacarry a baby (or child) slung on the back (OG)
Fijian vavacarry a child on the back
Tongan fafacarry on the back; be carried, have a ride on someone's back
Samoan fafacarry (child or other load) on one's back
Anuta papacarry a person -- generally a small child -- on one's back, piggyback fashion
Maori wahacarry on the back
Hawaiian wahacarry on the back, as a child

Note:   Also Malagasy babi (expected **vavi) ‘carrying on the back’, Mota pepe ‘carry a child on back or hip’. If there is one prototype meaning that can be identified for *baba it is ‘to carry a child pick-a-back’. The term presumably also extended to the transport of sick or injured adults in a similar manner, but its full semantic range remains unclear. The nominal referents in Casiguran Dumagat, Kelabit and Wolio fail to agree, and probably are secondary. Bimanese waʔa ‘carry’, Manggarai ba, wa ‘carry, accompany, take along’ exhibit an apparent semantic generalization similar to that seen in Malay, Karo Batak, Old Javanese and some of the languages of Sulawesi, but show phonological irregularities which cast doubt on the appropriateness of including these forms in the present cognate set.


*baba₂ father


PMP     *baba₂ father

Malagasy babafather
Bimanese babafather
Ende babafather (Lebar 1972)
Atoni baba-fMB, FZH (Lebar 1972)
Fordata babaaddress of children to their father, of elders to male children, and to any male person with whom one wishes to speak confidentially
Kei babaddress to uncle or father


POC     *baba₆ father

Pohnpeian pahpafather, any person one's father would call brother
Southeast Ambrym papuncle, etc.
Samoan papa(children's language) Dad, Daddy

Note:   Also Makassarese baʔba ‘father (esp. as an address to hajis)’. As part of universal nursery language this item could have arisen independently in all or many of the languages in which it appears. At the same time universal tendencies were no less operative in proto-languages than they are in attested languages, and *baba is just as likely to be an inherited form which resisted regular sound change in languages such as Malagasy, Atoni, Fordata and Kei as a result of the recurrent reinforcement that nursery language provided. In any event the term evidently was used in child language or intimate address rather than as the normal adult word for ‘father’ (*ama).


*babaD reproduce, multiply


PWMP     *babaD reproduce, multiply

Maranao babadmultiply; descendant
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavadof plants, animals or humans, to reproduce one's kind
Sundanese babargive birth
Javanese babarproliferate; unfold, open out; be born; produce, put out; give birth


*bábad soak


PPh     *bábad soak

Bontok bábadsoak
Tagalog bábadstaying to soak
Bikol bábadsoak
Hanunóo bábaddip in liquid
Aklanon bábadsoak
Cebuano bábadsoak

Note:   Hanunóo badbád appears to be a secondary development from a form which originally lacked a medial cluster.


*babak strike, chip stone


PEMP     *babak₁ strike, chip stone

Arguni bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone
Tolai papakto peel off bark - also applied to peeling off lime, paint, etc.
Nggela papato chip; chips
Arosi babakbreak one thing on another, chip a stone
Fijian babastrike, smite the head with open hand


*baban group, company, collection, swarm


PMP     *baban group, company, collection, swarm

Nias bawatroupe, herd, swarm
Bare'e bawatogether, in one troupe, herd or flock
Kambera wawaŋugroup, collection of things that belong together

Note:   With root *-ban ‘group, company’.


*babaq₁ lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under


PMP     *babaq₁ lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under

Itbayaten hi-vavalower part, lower region
Ilokano babábelow
Isneg babálow
Bontok babathe lowlands, particularly the Ilocos region
Casiguran Dumagat bábahumble, low in rank, cheap; low in intelligence
Kapampangan babáʔlow place, underneath
Tagalog bábaʔlowness (physical); humbleness
  i-babáʔunder part, lower part
Bikol babáʔshort in height, squat, low
  i-babáʔdownstairs, below
Hanunóo bábaʔlowness, shortness
Maranao babaʔlower, below, down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavaʔshort
Ngaju Dayak bawahbe subjugated, be under someone's command
Malay bawahposition under or below, nether side
Sangir bawabeneath
Chamorro papaʔdown, below, bottom, southward, downward, beneath
Bimanese wawalower oneself, stand so as to make oneself lower than another
Komodo wawaunder, below, beneath; west, western
Sika wawabeneath, under
Kambera wawabeneath; west
Hawu wawabeneath, under
  ɓaɓashort (not tall)
Dhao/Ndao babashort
Selaru hah(a)beneath
Yamdena babebeneath, southern
Fordata vavabeneath, south
Kei wāvNorth; northward, beneath
Kola ɸaɸabelow
Ujir fafabelow
Dobel fafaground
Buli pāpbeneath, under
Mayá ꞌpa¹²plower, low
Minyaifuin la-pabelow


POC     *papaq₃ below, beneath, under

Mussau baoshort
Tanga faaflower part
Wedau vavadownwards, towards the sea (King 1901)
Tawala babaunder
Sa'a hahaunderneath; down, not used of points of the compass
Proto-Micronesian *faa(expected **/fafa/) under, underneath; the bottom
Lonwolwol faunder, below, down, deep, far out at sea; North

Note:   Although a PAn term for ‘under, below’ is unknown, *babaq₁ and *babaw₃ should be treated as a contrast set in PMP. Syntactically both followed *i ‘generic marker of location’, a fact reflected not only in the syntax of many daughter languages, but also in occasional lexicalizations of the preposition + nominal expression. In isolation both *babaq₁ and *babaw₃ probably were nouns meaning ‘lower surface/bottom’ and ‘upper surface/top’. Since they typically followed a preposition, however, their more common English translations would be ‘below, beneath, under’ and ‘on, upon, over, above’.

The following semantic problems are also noteworthy:

(1) reflexes of *babaw refer to high country (headwaters of a river, highlands) in a number of languages. These usages could be products of convergence or could be retentions of a figurative usage similar to the literal senses of the directional terms *daya ‘upriver, toward the interior’ and *lahud ‘downriver, toward the sea’. By contrast, a reflex of *babaq meaning ‘lowlands’ has been noted only in Bontok.

(2) reflexes of *babaq mean ‘short in height, low’ in several widely separated languages. This usage could be a product of convergence or may have been a figurative counterpart of PMP *pandak ‘short’. An analogous usage *babaw = ‘tall’ is attested only marginally in Banggai babo ‘high-rising forest’.

(3) reflexes of *babaq in Chamorro and in several CEMP languages refer to cardinal directions (‘South’ in Chamorro, Fordata and Yamdena, ‘West’ in Komodo and Kambera, ‘North’ in Kei and Southeast Ambrym). By contrast, no reflex of *babaw is known to refer to a cardinal direction.

(4) perhaps the most intriguing problem concerning the comparative semantics of *babaq and *babaw are the semantic equations ‘above’ = ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ = ‘below’. To grasp the full set of interrelations it will be necessary to consider PAn *dalem ‘inside; deep’ as well. In both Bare'e (WMP) and Gilbertese (OC) the reflex of *babaw refers both to the upper surface and to the outside of things. In the Polynesian languages as a group the reflex of *babaw refers only to the outside. No comparable change has been noted for reflexes of *babaq, but reflexes of *dalem ‘inside; deep’ have come to mean ‘beneath, below, down, under’ in a number of WMP and OC languages: Ifugaw dalóm ‘under, beneath, deep, low’, Cebuano dálum ‘beneath, below’, Samoan lalo ‘down, under’, Tuvaluan lalo ‘under, below; the bottom; deep; low; humble, humility’. Moreover, reflexes of *dalem have followed the same semantic trajectory as reflexes of *babaq in coming to refer to the cardinal directions, as in Niue lalo ‘below, under; the bottom; the west’, Rarotongan raro ‘beneath, under, below; down; the under or lower portion; west, westward, towards sunset, to leeward’, Maori raro ‘the bottom, the under side; down; beneath, under; North’ and Hawaiian lalo ‘down, downward, low; under, beneath; leeward, southern’. The equation ‘above’ = ‘outside’ suggests that *i babaw referred prototypically to the surface of water or the earth. Given a parallel semantic equation for reflexes of *i babaq we would expect ‘below’ to sometimes develop the meaning ‘inside’. For a more detailed treatment of these problems cf. Blust (1997).


*babaq₂ width, breadth


PWMP     *babaq₂ width, breadth

Maranao babaʔwidth, breadth
Javanese wawahspacious
Tae' bababreadth

Note:   Also Motu lababa ‘wide, as cloth, road, etc.; breadth’, Tolai tabābā ‘wide, broad, spacious (as a cloth); breadth’.


*babas blown off course


PWMP     *babas blown off course

Ilokano babásto miss -- the mark one shoots at, the harbor on account of contrary winds, the habits of a different rank in society, etc.
Malay babasblown quite out of one's course, not merely deflected

Note:   At first glance this appears to be a straightforward comparison. However, Malay should reflect *babas as **bawas. Malay has reduced original obstruent clusters in reduplicated monosyllables, and there is some evidence that cluster reduction occurred after the change *-aba > -awa-. If so, Malay babas could reflect *basbas. However, there is no evidence that Ilokano has reduced obstruent clusters in reduplicated monosyllables. It is possible that this comparative irregularity is a product of borrowing. Since Ilokano is far more likely to have borrowed from Malay than the reverse, a borrowing hypotheses implies that Malay babas reflects a pre-Malay innovation *basbas which reached Ilokano via Malay sailors (who were perhaps blown off course?) at some time after the reduction of medial obstruent clusters in Malay. Alternatively the comparison -- despite its strong appeal -- may be an etymological siren.


*babat belly of an animal


PWMP     *babat belly of an animal

Maranao babatbelly
Bahasa Indonesia babattripe
Sundanese babatpaunch (of a ruminant)
Javanese babatpaunch (of a ruminant)

Note:   If Bahasa Indonesia babat is directly inherited the etymon must have been *batbat, as the sequence *-aba- normally became Malay, Bahasa Indonesia -awa-.


*babaw₁ rat, mouse


PWMP     *babaw₁ rat, mouse     [doublet: *balabaw]

Samal babawrat
Singhi Land Dayak babumouse


*babaw₂ shallow


PWMP     *babaw₂ shallow

Itbayaten hi-vavawshallow
Tagalog bábawshallowness, lack of depth
Bikol bábawshallow, superficial
Romblomanon mā-babawthe depth of something is shallow; something is in a shallow place
Abaknon babawshoal
Maranao babawshallow
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baboshallow (as a river)
Nias bawõshallow
Sangir bawoshallow, as where the sea floor is elevated
Mongondow babowshallow
Makassarese bawoshallow, shallow place

Note:   In the dictionaries of several languages (e.g. Bikol, Nias) the reflexes of *babaw₂ and *babaw₃ are combined as differing senses of a single polysemous form. Given the semantics of e.g. English superficial this interpretation has some a priori plausibility. However, the occurrence of a monosyllabic root *-baw₂ ‘shallow’ in this and other forms (see roots) strongly suggests that ‘shallow’ is the primary sense of *babaw₂, not a secondary extension from the meaning ‘upper surface; top’. The two forms are accordingly regarded as distinct, despite certain points of semantic similarity.


*babaw₃ upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above


PAN     *babaw₃ upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above     [doublet: *bawbaw]

Kavalan babawupper surface, upper part, top
  ta babawabove
Saisiyat babawabove, overhead
Atayal babawsurface; on top of, above; later, get ahead, cross over
Pazeh babawabove, up, on
Amis fafawheadwaters, source of a river; leaders with higher rank
Paiwan vavawup, above
Kapampangan báboup, upstairs, above
Bikol bábawplace something over or put something on top
Hanunóo bábawsurface, top, uppermost surface; mountains, as opposed to lowlands; in the mountains; source, referring to a river; upstream
Cebuano babáwplace up somewhere
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) di-vavewupon, over, above
Nias bawõhighland, plateau; upper surface; on, upon
Banggai babohigh-rising forest
Bare'e wawoupper surface, upper part; the outside of something
Tae' babotopmost layer of rice that has been cooked; fontanel of a child
Padoe vavoabove
Moronene hai vavoabove
Wolio bawotop, upper side
Palauan babarea or space above; top; surface
Bimanese wawopeak, summit; on top of
Ngadha vavoatmosphere, surface (as of water); above, on, over
Sika bawoup, above
Rotinese bafa-k <Aupper surface of a liquid
Leti waw-naon, upon (< *wawa-na)
Selaru hahaon, upon
Paulohi hahaupper side
Alune babaabove, on top
Asilulu hahasummit, top
Larike hahapeak, top of something
Buruese fafa-n(something's) top part
Soboyo fafo-ñupper surface, upper part; top sheet of the sail


POC     *papo₁ above; outside

Lau fafothe top; on, above
  fafo-ʔilebeyond the reef, outside
Sa'a hahoabove, used with locative i (i haho-mu 'above you'); uplands; wash-boards on gunwale of an overseas canoe
Arosi hahoabove, upon, over
Gilbertese aothe upper part of, the surface, the outside, the back, the exterior
Samoan fafooutside, out of doors; overseas
Rennellese hahooutside
Maori wahothe outside; the open sea; the coast, as opposed to inland
Hawaiian wahooutside, beyond, out, outer, outward


PAN     *i babaw above, on top of

Saisiyat ʔi babawhigh above
Saaroa i-vavuabove, up
Paiwan i vavawupon
Tagalog i-bábawupper crust or surface
Bikol i-bábawon top, on the surface
Romblomanon i-bābawa position above; the top of someone, something, of two or more things piled one on top of the other
  pa-ʔi-bābawsomeone’s or somethings’s going to the top, going up
Aklanon i-bábawtop, uppermost part; upstairs
Cebuano babáwplace up somewhere
  i-bábawplace high up; a place on top of something; high
  pa-i-bábawto soar up (as a crow trying to escape a hawk)
  ma-i-bábawbe the part on top
Karo Batak i-baboup, above, on top of


POC     *i papo above, on the top

Lau i-fafoabove
  i fafo-naon the top
Sa'a i-hahoover, above
Marshallese i-ooon, upon; top, surface, over
Mota i-vawoupon

Note:   Also Bintulu ɓaw ‘above, on top of; tall’.


*babaw₄ to weed (a garden, etc.)


PMP     *babaw₄ to weed (a garden, etc.)

Agutaynen i-babawto weed, to cut or pull out weeds
Maranao wawawweed, as in rice field, remove turf
Ngaju Dayak bawawweeding, pulling up grass (in garden, ricefield)
Toba Batak baboto weed (a ricefield)
Tetun fahoto weed or harrow (rooting out the growth with the hands or a hoe)


POC     *papo₂ to weed

Nggela vavoto weed
Lau fofo <Aweed with a knife
Arosi hahoto weed

Note:   Based on the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms Dempwolff (1934-38) posited PAn *babaw ‘to weed’. Milke (1968), on the other hand, proposed POc *wawo ‘to weed; weed’ uncultivated land’, a form that could not directly continue Dempwolff's reconstruction. Blust (1970) compared Maranao wawaw with Milke's *wawo and suggested "PAn" (= PMP) *wawaw as a disjunct of Dempwolff's *babaw. However, of the seven morphemes from six languages cited by Milke in support of *wawo only one (Nggela vavo) can possibly be considered a regular reflex (*w- sometimes disappears and sometimes appears as v-). We are left with no alternative, then, but to dismiss both POc *wawo and PMP *wawaw as unmotivated by the evidence.


*babuy babuy sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus


PWMP     *babuy babuy sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus

Ilokano babuybábuypill bug
Cebuano babuybabuykind of louse which hides in crannies and lives in damp places; woodlouse
Karo Batak babibabisowbug
Toba Batak babibabikind of spider

Note:   Also Malay babi tanah ‘insect, unident.’. Presumably a reduplication of *babuy ‘pig’. Although the conceptual basis for a connection between pigs and sowbugs remains obscure, it is noteworthy that a similar association appears in e.g. Spanish cochina ‘sow’, cochinilla ‘sowbug’ (lit. "little sow"), and, of course, in the English word itself.


*babuy₁ bird sp.


PWMP     *babuy₁ bird sp.

Isneg bábuykind of bird
Malay buroŋ babia bird, the adjutant: Leptoptilus javanicus
Karo Batak babi-babikind of bird that gives notice of coming drought


*babuy₂ epilepsy


PWMP     *babuy₂ epilepsy

Maranao babo-baboyepilepsy
Iban gila babiepilepsy
Malay gila babi, pitam babi, sawan babiepilepsy
Sangir sakiʔ u wawiepilepsy

Note:   It seems likely that the PWMP word for ‘epilepsy’ was a longer expression (perhaps *sakit babuy), but the available evidence does not permit this inference. Because it reflects a distinct morpheme (PMP *beRek ‘domesticated pig’), Nggela mbolo ‘pig; foam from the mouth, epilepsy’ confirms that *babuy ‘epilepsy’ derives from *babuy ‘pig’, and indicates that this puzzling association was already present in PMP. For evidence of a wider Southeast Asian distribution of the association ‘pig’ + ‘crazy/illness’ = ‘epilepsy’ cf. Matisoff (1978:70), where it is noted that similar expressions also occur in Khmer, Mon, Thai and Burmese.


*babuy₃ pig


PAN     *babuy₃ pig

Kavalan babuydomesticated pig
Saisiyat baboydomesticated pig
Proto-Atayalic *babuypig
Seediq babuydomesticated pig
Amis fafoypig; wild boar
Thao fafuydomesticated pig
Bunun babudomesticated pig
Hoanya babupig
Tsou fuzuwild pig
Kanakanabu vavúlupig
Siraya vavoydomesticated pig
Proto-Rukai *baboywild pig
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) vavuywild pig
Paiwan vavuywild pig: Sus taivanus
Ilokano bábuyhog, pig
Atta (Pamplona) babidomesticated pig
Bontok bábuyold male pig, boar
Gaddang bábuydomesticated pig
Casiguran Dumagat bábuydomesticated pig
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) bebuydomesticated pig
Sambal (Tina) baboypig
Bikol báboywild boar
Abaknon bawiwild pig
Cebuano bábuypig, pork
Aborlan Tagbanwa babuywild pig
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavuypig
Tiruray babuydomesticated pig
Murut (Paluan) bawipig (domesticated)
Basap babuyboar
Kelabit berek babuyboar
Narum babuydomesticated pig
Dali' baboydomesticated pig
Miri babuydomesticated pig
Kenyah (Long Anap) babuywild boar
Kayan bavuywild pig
Kayan (Long Atip) bavuywild boar
Kiput babuydomesticated pig
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) babuypig
Bekatan bawipig
Kejaman bavuywild boar
Lahanan bavuypig
Seru baboypig
Ngaju Dayak bawoipig
Lawangan bawuywild pig
Taboyan bawiwild pig
Ma'anyan vavuywild pig
Iban babipig
Tsat phui¹¹pig
Jarai bəbuypig
Malay babihog, pig
Simalur bafudomesticated pig
Karo Batak babipig
Toba Batak babipig
Lampung babuypig
Javanese babidomesticated pig
Balinese bawipig, boar
Sasak bawipig
Sangir bawipig
Totoli babipig
Tialo bauypig
Tajio fafipig
Balaesang bawipig
Ampibabo-Lauje babipig
Banggai babuypig
Bare'e mbawu, wawupig
Tae' baipig
Wolio bawupig, hog
Muna wewipig, hog; name of a constellation
Bimanese wawipig
Ngadha vavipig
Li'o wawipig
Sika wawipig
Kédang wawipig
Hawu wawipig
Rotinese bafipig
Atoni fafipig
Tetun fahipig, swine
Vaikenu fafipig
Erai hahipig; pork
Leti wawipig
Selaru hahipig
Yamdena babipig
Fordata vavupig
Kei wāvpig
Dobel fafipig
Hoti faf-apig
Paulohi hahupig
Wahai hahupig
Proto-Ambon *vavu(y)pig
Saparua hahulpig
Asilulu hahupig; a term of abuse
Larike hahopig
Batu Merah hahupig
Buruese fafupig
Tifu fafupig
Kayeli babupig


PAN     *babuy-an pigpen, pigsty, piggery

Amis fafoy-anpigpen
Tagalog babuy-anpiggery
Cebuano babuy-anpiggery


PMP     *babuy banua domesticated pig

Tamuan bawi bnuadomesticated pig
Iban babi menoadomestic pig
Bare'e wawu banuadomesticated pig
Yamdena bab' pnuedomesticated pig


PMP     *babuy halas wild pig

Cebuano bábuy i-halaswild pig
Tae' bai alaʔwild pig
Yamdena babi alaswild pig


PMP     *babuy lebu domesticated pig

Lahanan bavuy levudomesticated pig
Ngaju Dayak bawoi lewudomesticated pig
Ngadha vavi levudomesticated pig

Note:   Also Ansus tapuy, Serui-Laut tafui, Palauan babíi, Ulithian pa:bwi ‘pig’, Yapese bæbiy (< Palauan), paabuuy (< Ulithian) ‘pig; bulldozer’, Chamorro bæbuy ‘pig, swine; a term used in keeping track of score by counting the number of games won in tres siete (card game), all of which appear to be loans from languages of the Philippines or eastern Sulawesi (the nearest areas where *-uy did not merge with *i), or possibly from the central Moluccas before *-uy was reduced to –u.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *babuy ‘pig’. Blust (1970) reconstructed *babuy ‘wild pig’, *beRek ‘domesticated pig’. At the time this semantic distinction appeared to be justified since:

a) the semantic profiles of their reflexes suggested that the two terms were not synonymous,
b) the semantic categories ‘wild pig’ and ‘domesticated pig’ are represented by distinct morphemes in many of the languages of Taiwan, the Philippines, Borneo and Sumatra,
c) although reflexes of *babuy refer distinctively both to the wild pig and to the domesticated pig, reflexes of *beRek refer distinctively to the domesticated pig in Taiwan and Borneo, but never refer distinctively to the wild pig,
d) reflexes of *babuy are found in eastern Indonesia as far as the central Moluccas, but nowhere further to the east and e) apparent loanwords resembling POc *mpoRok are found in a number of the Papuan languages of New Guinea (Blust 1970, Blust 1976).

It now appears necessary to alter this interpretation in the following way: although *beRek evidently meant ‘domesticated pig’ *babuy referred to pigs in general, with qualifications where needed. In other words, the glosses of *babuy and *beRek were not perfectly complementary, but partially overlapping. There are four types of evidence which support this conclusion:

(1) If *babuy meant ‘wild pig’ it has undergone a semantic change to the meaning ‘domesticated pig’ in a disconcertingly large number of widely dispersed languages. Examples include: (Taiwan) Seediq babuy, Saisiyat baboy, Bunun babu, Siraya vavoy, (Philippines) Atta (Pamplona) bábi, Gaddang babuy, Casiguran Dumagat bábuy, KAKI bebuy, Isneg ábuy, Tiruray babuy, (Malaysia-Indonesia) Oya Melanau, Narum, Miri, Kiput babuy, Kedayan bawi, Lemanak babi, Simalur bafu, Javanese babi ‘domesticated pig’.

(2) The word for ‘pig’ has been borrowed into a number of the languages of western Micronesia from an unknown Austronesian source. In each case the borrowed morpheme reflects *babuy, never *beRek. Since domesticated pigs are more likely to be borrowed than wild pigs, the borrowed reflex of *babuy must have referred, at least optionally, to the domesticated pig. While this does not mean that *babuy referred to the domesticated pig, the probability of such a reference is strengthened in direct relation to the age of the loan. Examples are: Palauan babíi ‘pig’ (expected **bab), Chamorro babui ‘pig, swine’ (expected **papi), Yapese paabuuy ‘pig; bulldozer’, Woleaian paabiiy ‘pig, hog, boar, sow, swine’ (expected **faf). The agreement of Chamorro babui ‘term used in keeping track of score by counting the number of games won in tres siete (card game)’ with Malay babi ‘"pig", as a name for the fifth chicky-suit’ points to what may be an independent Chamorro borrowing (from a Philippine language?) of the same morpheme in a symbolic context.

(3) Comparative evidence supports the reconstruction of PMP *babuy banua, domesticated pig’, *babuy halas ‘wild pig’. No similar descriptive terms have been reconstructed with *beRek.

(4) The reconstruction of PAn *babuy-an ‘pigpen, pigsty, piggery’ is inconsistent with the reconstruction *babuy ‘wild pig’, since it is the domesticated, not the wild pig that would be kept in pens.

The comparative evidence under (3) and (4) could conceivably be a product of convergence. However, convergent innovation is an unlikely explanation of the forms assigned to *babuy banua. Iban menoa means ‘an area of land held and used by a distinct community’, Bare'e banua means ‘house’ and Yamdena pnue means ‘village’. If the association of *babuy with *banua is historically secondary it has no obviously semantic basis. But PMP *banua ‘inhabited territory; area supporting the life of the human community’ forms a rather clear contrast set with PMP *halas ‘forest, uninhabited land’, and this same opposition is seen in *babuy banua vs. *babuy halas (*babuy lebu evidently contains a variant of *lebuq ‘village’, and may be a product of convergence).

In conclusion, Blust (1970) unjustifiably assumed the necessity of reconstructing semantically complementary terms ‘wild pig’ and ‘domesticated pig’. While *babuy halas meant ‘wild pig’ the domesticated pig was called either *beRek or *babuy banua (with *babuy lebu a less convincing third alternative). These observations undermine the suggestion in Blust (1976) that a reflex of *babuy was lost when Austronesian speakers moved into the Pacific because they entered a region in which wild pigs were not yet present. Reflexes of both *babuy and *beRek are found in Formosan and WMP, but only *babuy is reflected in PCMP and only *beRek in OC (despite Anceaux 1961:35) neither term is clearly reflected in South Halmahera-West New Guinea). Given this perspective, the absence of a reflex of *babuy in Oceanic languages is no more in need of special explanation than the absence of a reflex of *beRek in PCMP.


*bacak muddy, waterlogged (of ground)


PWMP     *bacak muddy, waterlogged (of ground)

Palawano basak-anirrigated rice field
Cebuano basákfield of wet-cultivated rice
Maranao basakrice paddy; swamp or marsh
  basak-anland suitable for wet rice (flooded or wet)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) basakmud
Tiruray basakland made into rice paddies
Yakan basakrice paddy; wet rice field
  basak-ana collection of wet rice fields
Tboli basakpuddle on table or floor where liquid has been spilt; rice paddy; irrigated rice
Malay (Jakarta) bacakover-watered, of plants

Note:   Also Dobel basa ‘mud’. With root *-cak₁ ‘muddy’.


*baciR sexually impotent


PWMP     *baciR sexually impotent     [disjunct: *basiR]

Tagalog básigcaponed, castrated
Malay bancirimpotent
Javanese bancian effeminate man; an asexual person


*bacuk to hoe, chop up soil


PWMP     *bacuk to hoe, chop up soil

Maranao basokfarm or till the soil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) basuktill the soil
  Ibe-vasukspirit deity of farming
Malay bacokchop, cut up, cleave (Java)
Sundanese bacokhack (with a knife, etc.)
Javanese bacok, bacukto hoe
Balinese bacokstab, pierce

Note:   With unexplained change *u > o in Sundanese, Javanese, and Balinese. Buli bacu ‘axe’ appears to be a loan.


(Formosan only)

*baCaR broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum


PAN     *baCaR broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum

Saisiyat (Taai) basaLsmall variety of millet
Proto-Atayalic *basagmillet
Agutaynen batala kind of round grain which can be mixed with rice (it is good for making bibingka cakes, and is also fed to chickens)

Note:   Also Malay batari ‘Andropogon sorghum’. The following more restricted reconstructions have been proposed: Proto-Central Philippines *batad ‘a plant: Andropogon sorghum’ (Zorc 1979:43), "Proto-Indonesian *bataD ‘grain sp., millet’ (Mills 1981:65). In addition, Mills notes the material earlier assembled by Heyne (1950). The correct interpretation of the shape and meaning of this comparison is due to Laurent Sagart (p.c.).


*badas grit, coarse sand, gravel


PMP     *badas grit, coarse sand, gravel

Ayta Maganchi balahsand
Kapampangan balássand
Tagalog baláscrystallized syrup; coarse granulated sugar
Hanunóo barássand; beach, seashore
Aklanon baeássand
  baeas-ónsandy, having sand (in)
Cebuano balássand; put sand somewhere; form sand-like particles
Kelabit badasand
Bukat barasand
Ngaju Dayak barassand; sandy
Sundanese cadaspulverized sandstone ground; rocky ground
Javanese waḍasa variety of sandstone
Ngadha tana vadacement

Note:   Also Kambera wara ‘sand, gravel’ (expected **warahu). Although most recorded reflexes of *badas are glossed ‘sand’, it appears likely from the Sundanese, Javanese, and Ngadha reflexes and the competing form *qenay that *badas referred to coarse sand or gravel, while *qenay indicated fine sand. Paiwan baras, varas ‘pebbles, ballast’ is given by Ferrell (1982) as a loan from English through Japanese (also cf. Javanese balas ‘a weight for holding or steadying something; ballast’).


*bad(e)ris draw a line


PWMP     *bad(e)ris draw a line

Cebuano badlísdraw a line
Malay barisstraight line

Note:   With root *-ris₂ ‘scratch a line’.


*badi nervous spell


PWMP     *badi nervous spell

Subanen/Subanun badia nervous spell (Churchill 1913)
Iban badisudden attack of sickness


*badiq dagger


PMP     *badiq dagger

Cebuano baríʔkind of sickle
Maranao badiʔbolo, machete, knife
Uma badiʔ- badiʔkind of dagger
Ngadha badidagger, sword

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak badek ‘a 6-9 inch dagger, with a cutting edge on only one side’, Iban badi ‘dagger’, Malay badik ‘small dagger’, Javanese baḍik ‘poniard’. It is possible that this is a loan distribution that originated with Malay badik.


*baduŋ bolo used in agricultural work


PPh     *baduŋ bolo used in agricultural work

Palawano baduŋsword
Tiruray baduŋan all-purpose bolo
Tboli baduŋa bolo with a curved wide blade, used for work, cutting wood


*badut jackfruit sp.


PWMP     *badut jackfruit sp.

Cebuano bárutthe inedible pulp of the jackfruit which surrounds the edible flesh
Kelabit buaʔ badutjackfruit


*bagahak fish sp.


PWMP     *bagahak fish sp.

Cebuano baghákkind of medium-sized grouper
Malay begahaklarge silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema

Note:   Also Malay gahak ‘large silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema’.


*bagak foolish


PWMP     *bagak foolish

Tagalog baŋgákfoolish (said of young women)
Iban bagaklively, vivacious (as a woman, when guests are present)
Malay biŋoŋ bagakjackass, an absolute ass
Minangkabau bagakbold, undaunted

Note:   Possibly with root *-gak₁ ‘proud; boast’.


*bagal overgrown, clumsy, sluggish


PMP     *bagal overgrown, clumsy, sluggish

Tagalog bágalslowness to act
Maranao bagaldullard
Malay bagaltoo tall or stoutly built; overgrown; clumsy; beyond the regulation size for cockfighting
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baŋgallarge, of inanimate things
Toba Batak baŋgalbig, strong
  ma-baŋgalhaving a broad chest and face; large-boned
Old Javanese wagalrude, unmannered
Balinese bagaltoo large, too coarse (basketry, carving)
Manggarai bagal, bahalobese, fat, big
Ngadha baga dzogéof large, powerful build


*bagaŋ a plant: Amorphophallus sp.


PWMP     *bagaŋ a plant: Amorphophallus sp.

Ibanag bagaŋa plant: Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) (Madulid 2001)
Malay bagaŋa plant: Amorphophallus sp.


*bagay same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable


PWMP     *bagay same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable

Ilokano bágaystate of harmony; proper, fit, well-suited
  ag-bágayto be well matched; well suited
  i-bágayto do properly; adjust, fit; make suitable
Bontok bágaysuitable; fitting; right; becoming; well-matched
  ka-bagáy-ana close companion, friend
Kapampangan bágematching, compatible
Tagalog bágayappropriate; suitable; fit; applicable; becoming; apropos; fitting; nice; proper; qualified
  b<um>ágayto suit; to be becoming; to become; to tone with; to be in harmony; to comport; to conform; to agree
Bikol bágayfitting, proper, suitable (as clothes that match)
Hanunóo bágaysuitable, fitting; responsive
Romblomanon bāgaysomething is appropriate or fit for a particular situation or use; someone tunes a musical instrument
Masbatenyo bágaysuitable, appropriate; attuned, in tune
  maki-bágayget along with people, have good interpersonal relations, be congenial
Aklanon bágaysuits, matches; complementary, becoming; to complement, be appropriate, match; tune a musical instrument
Cebuano bágaybefitting, becoming; for instruments to be in tune; for voices to be blended; harmonize with, match; tune musical instruments; for words to rhyme
  pa-mágayrhyming, verse-making
Maranao bagaypeer, equal
Malay bagaykind; variety; species; as, like
  se-bagayin the same way; like, as
  bagai-manain what way, how?
Karo Batak bagethat is how it is; do or make it this way
  er-bagesort, kind, type
Toba Batak mar-bage-bageto be various, of different kinds


PPh     *bagáy-an to be well-matched

Ilokano bagáy-anto help in a project; accompany on a musical instrument; encourage
Kapampangan bagáy-anmatch something to something else
Tagalog bagáy-anto look becoming in a certain dress or situation; to act properly or in harmony with someone or some situation


*bágay thing; detail


PPh     *bágay thing; detail

Ayta Abellan bagaything
Kapampangan bágething, object, affair
Tagalog bágayobject; thing; anything that can be seen or touched; matter; affair; article; item
  bágay sawith regard to; regarding; concerning; apropos of
Hanunóo bágaything, item
Romblomanon bágaya thing with which or to which something is done; a thing done, i.e. an act
Masbatenyo bágaything; matter
Aklanon bágaything, case; the right thing
Agutaynen bagaya thing, an object; things to do; things in general
Hiligaynon bágaything, idea, notion, effects


PPh     *bágay-bágay details, particulars

Kapampangan bage-bágesmall things, details
Tagalog bágay-bágaycircumstances; conditions; terms; particulars

Note:   Possibly a Central Philippine loanword in Kapampangan.


*bagbág to destroy, ruin


PPh     *bagbág to destroy, ruin

Casiguran Dumagat bagbagto overturn, to come apart in rough sea (of a boat at sea)
Ibaloy bagbagto dismantle, disassemble, demolish s.t. (as a house to be moved, a stone wall)
Pangasinan bagbágto destroy, ruin
Tagalog bagbágbroken up, as soil or rock; shipwrecked
Bikol bagbágshipwrecked
  ma-bagbágto be driven off course, hit by bad weather; to become shipwrecked
Aklanon bágbagto crash, come or fall down (as a plane that crashes)
Agutaynen ma-bagbagfor a boat or passengers to suffer problems out at sea; for a boat or people to be shipwrecked


PPh     *bagbag-en destroyed, broken apart

Ibaloy bagbag-ento dismantle, disassemble, demolish s.t. (as a house to be moved, a stone wall)
Tagalog bagbag-inthe place undermined or worn away by water

Note:   The Casiguran Dumagat form shows an irregularity that suggests borrowing from Tagalog. However, this explanation is harder to apply to Ibaloy, and the comparison is therefore assumed to be valid.


*bageqaŋ molar tooth


PMP     *bageqaŋ molar tooth     [doublet: *baReqaŋ, *beReqaŋ]

Kapampangan bágaŋmolar tooth
Tagalog bagáŋ, bagʔáŋmolar tooth
Bikol baʔgaŋmolar
Hanunóo bagʔáŋany of the molars and bicuspids
Aklanon bágʔaŋmolar tooth, molar teeth
Cebuano bagʔáŋmolars
Maranao bagaŋmolar tooth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baɣaŋmolar tooth
Mongondow bagaŋmolar tooth
Mandar bagaŋmolar tooth
Soboyo bagaŋmolar tooth

Note:   All languages cited here except Kapampangan, Hanunóo, Mandar, and Soboyo have merged PAn *R and *g as /g/. Kapampangan bágaŋ, Hanunóo bagʔáŋ ‘molar tooth’ are Central Philippine loans. Since Soboyo normally reflects *b as /f/, Soboyo bagaŋ also appears to be a loan (presumably from a language of northern Sulawesi or the southern Philippines). We might therefore dismiss the present doublet of *baReqaŋ as a product of irregular sound correspondences introduced through borrowing. However, for this to be possible it would also be necessary to dismiss Mandar bagaŋ as a loan, despite the lack of a clear source language and the generally low probability that the same body part term would be borrowed independently by more than one language. For the present *bageqaŋ is thus maintained as a rather precarious doublet of *baReqaŋ.


*bag(e)qut to pull out


PPh     *bag(e)qut to pull out

Itbayaten vagotidea of pulling out
Ilokano bagʔútto pull out, uproot (as a tooth)
Casiguran Dumagat bagútto pull something out which has its end stuck in something else (as a bolo from its sheath, a fencepost out of the ground, a tree)


PPh     *bag(e)qut-en to pull out

Itbayaten vagot-ento pull out vigorously (deeply rooted plant, pole, root, etc.)
Ilokano bagʔut-ento pull out, uproot (as a tooth)

Note:   With root *-gut₂ (or *-gequt?) ‘pull with a jerk’.


*bag(e)sák fall to the ground, of something heavy


PPh     *bag(e)sák fall to the ground, of something heavy

Ilokano bagsáksudden fall of something heavy; drop with force
  i-bagsákto throw down heavily
Tagalog bagsáka sudden fall, drop or crash
  b<um>agsákto crash; to fall with force
Aklanon bágsakto crash, fall down
Cebuano bagsákfall heavily on the ground; fail in school
Mansaka bagsakto drop, to fall

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loanword in Ilokano.


*bagiat anklet, ribbon worn around leg


PPh     *bagiat anklet, ribbon worn around leg

Yami vagiatfemale anklet
Ilokano bagiata ribbon worn around the calf to prevent cramp or rheumatism


*baguh a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon


PWMP     *baguh a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon

Aklanon bágo(h)bago tree: Gnetum gnemon
Cebuano bágusmall wild tree the leaves of which are used as a vegetable: Gnetum gnemon
Malay bagua shrub: Gnetum brunonianum
Sasak bagua tree the fruits and cooked leaves of which are eaten: Gnetum gnemon
Mongondow bagua thin-stemmed, short tree from the bast of which cordage is made: Gnetum gnemon
Makassarese baguGnetum gnemon; a tree which yields bast fiber used in making cordage

Note:   Where a specific identification is not given in the source reflexes of *baguh can easily be confused with reflexes of *baRu ‘Hibiscus tiliaceus’ in languages that merge *g and *R, as both are small trees which yield a strong bast fiber used in making cordage. Unlike the Hibiscus tiliaceus, the Gnetum gnemon is further useful as a source of food, since its leaves serve as an important vegetable in some areas (Merrill 1954). The semantic distinction between PMP *suka (q.v.) Gnetum gnemon and the present etymon remains unclear.


*baguq disease that causes swelling of body parts


PWMP     *baguq disease that causes swelling of body parts

Bikol bagóʔedema, dropsy
Cebuano baguʔdisease characterized by general debility, swelling in the region of the stomach, and yellowish skin
Maranao bagoʔenlarged spleen
Simalur bahuʔ, baxuʔswelling under the sole of the foot (apparently tertiary Framboesia)


*bagut to pull out, as hair


PPh     *bagut to pull out, as hair

Yami vagotto dig up, as taro
Itbayaten vagotidea of pulling out
  ma-magotto pull out
Ibatan bagotpull up or out (hair, teeth, plants, nails, etc.)
Ilokano bagótto pull out; uproot
Casiguran Dumagat bagútto pull something out which has its end stuck into something else (as to remove a bolo from its sheath, to pull a fencepost out of the ground, to uproot a tree)
Ibaloy bagotto pluck something (as a hair)
  bagot-anthe pile of cards from which one draws in card games


PPh     *bagut-en to pull out, as hair

Itbayaten vagot-ento pull by claw hammer, to pull out vigorously (deeply rooted plant, pole, root, etc.)
Ibaloy beKot-ento pluck something (as a hair); (in cards) to draw a card

Note:   Also Ilokano bagɁut-én ‘to pull out; uproot’; ag-pa-bagɁut ‘to have one’s tooth extracted’. With root *-gut₂ ‘to pull with a jerk’.


*bahak laugh boisterously


PWMP     *bahak laugh boisterously

Cebuano bahak-háklaugh boisterously
Malay (W.Sumatra) bahakguffaw loudly


*bahaq mouth


PMP     *bahaq₁ mouth     [doublet: *baqbaq, *beqbeq]

Tiruray ʔebaʔmouth
Tboli bakmouth
Manobo (Sarangani) bahaʔmouth
Kenyah (Long Anap) paʔmouth
Kayan bamouth; window or door opening
Bintulu ɓaʔmouth
Kanowit bahmouth
Sika wamouth; opening of a door
Lamboya bamouth

Note:   Although this form is reflected as a monosyllable in most languages, Kenyah (Long Anap) p and Bintulu ɓ indicate an earlier cluster. If the complex stops of North Sarawak languages assigned by Blust (1969), Blust (1974) to *bS, *dS, *jS, *gS sometimes derive from the medial clusters in reduplicated monosyllables, *baqbaq would have yielded reflexes with first-syllable shwa and "complex" medial consonant. Some of the above forms could conceivably reflect such a development, with further loss of the first syllable. On the other hand, Manobo (Sarangani) bahaʔ suggests that there was a disyllabic word base with medial *S which could have yielded the North Sarawak initial consonants as reflexes of *bS. If valid, this implies that *baqbaq -- presumably a reduplication of *baSaq -- actually was *baSaq baSaq. Buludupi babpa ‘mouth’, cited by Ray (1913), may support this interpretation. For the agreement in the extended meanings of Kayan ba, Sika wa, cf. note to *baqbaq.


*bahaR loincloth


PMP     *bahaR loincloth

Agta (Dupaningan) begloincloth, traditional g-string
Isneg abāga man’s G-string; the string of a bow net
  ag-bāx-ānthat part of the waist around which a man’s G-string is wound
  mag-bāgto put on a G-string
Itawis bagloincloth
Casiguran Dumagat bɛgG-string, loincloth; put on a G-string
Tagalog bahágG-string, loincloth with a part pulled between thighs
Bikol bahágloincloth, G-string
  mag-bahágto wear a loincloth
Aklanon bahágG-string, breechcloth; underwear
Waray-Waray bahága scanty piece of cloth worn around the waist; G-string
  mag-bahágwear a G-string
Agutaynen balloincloth
Palawan Batak baʔágloincloth, breechclout made from bark cloth
Cebuano bahágG-string; wear, make a G-string
  bahág-bahágharmless kind of long thin jellyfish, semitransparent, resembling a snake
Central Tagbanwa baagloincloth
Maranao baʔaggarment, apparel
Binukid bahagtrousers, pants, slacks
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bahagloincloth; wear a loincloth
Murut (Timugon) abagloincloth
Kelabit ebʰarloincloth
Murik bahloincloth
Kayan bahloincloth
  ŋə-bahwear a loincloth
Kayan (Busang) bahman’s loincloth, made of cotton or bark cloth
  ŋə-bahwear a loincloth
  bah alanrainbow (lit. ‘loincloth path’)
Melanau (Mukah) bayloincloth
Mongondow baagold word for belt, girdle
Erai haloincloth

Note:   The use of this term in reference to the rainbow both in Tagalog and in Kayan (Busang) (Kayan dialect of the Kapuas basin), suggests that one way of referring to this phenomenon in PWMP was through a figurative expression which represented it as the loincloth of a deity.


*baháy a vine, possibly arrowroot; famine food


PPh     *baháy a vine, possibly arrowroot; famine food

Itbayaten vahayan edible vine, arrowroot; people make starch or farina out of its root, and eat it during lean days
Ilokano baáya kind of shrub whose bark is used in net making
Casiguran Dumagat baayspecies of uncultivated, edible root plant
Ibaloy baaya kind of vine --- pliant and tough, and so good for tying
Cebuano baháykind of forest tree, the tuberous roots of which are eaten in times of famine
Mansaka baaycassava (an edible root that can be poisonous if not prepared properly)


*bahén to sneeze


PPh     *bahén to sneeze     [doublet: *bañen, bañan]

Ilokano ag-baénto sneeze
  manag-baénfrequently sneezing
Tagalog bahína sneeze
  b<um>ahínto sneeze
Hiligaynon bahúna sneeze
Cebuano bahunsneeze
Maranao baʔan <Asneeze
Binukid ag-bahan-en <Ato sneeze
Mongondow mo-baanto sneeze

Note:   Also Agutaynen baken ‘to sneeze’.


*bahi woman, female


PAN     *bahi female

Hoanya paiwoman; female
Rukai (Mantauran) a-vaiwoman
Rukai (Tona) a-bay-ánəwoman


PMP     *bahi female, woman, wife; female of animals

Yami vaidaughter-in-law or girl; term of address for a daughter who is unmarried, or married but without children
Ilokano bai-éna homosexual man
Bontok báifemale animal
Kankanaey báifemale; hen (not used for persons)
  baí ~ bai-éna henlike cock
Ifugaw (Batad) o-baylarge female animal
Tagalog baí ~ báyiʔroyal lady; lady of the court; princess
Hanunóo báyifemininity, quality of being female
Cebuano báyifemale animal or plant; have or make into a mistress
Maranao báʔilady, queen, respectful term for woman
Binukid bahihuman female; woman, girl
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bahifemale person
Mansaka baiy-anfemale monkey
Malay (Middle) baimother, mother animal
Lolak bobaywoman
Mori Atas iro-waifemale
Mori Bawah waifemale, of animals
Buginese baifemale, of animals


PCEMP     *bai woman, female

Ngadha faiwoman; wife; female
Ende (ata) faiwoman
Palu'e (ata) waifemale; woman
Li'o faifemale, woman
Sika baiwoman
Lamboya la-waiwoman
Tetun fe-nwife
Vaikenu fɛ-nwife
Wahai pinanwife
  pina hietiwoman


POC     *pe- mother

Tongan fe-huhumother; honorific or regal for faʔē (lit. ‘mother of the breast’

Note:   Also Pangasinan bíi ‘woman, female’, Ibaloy bii ‘female of the species --- esp. of humans: girl, woman’, bi-bii ‘three or more women, women as a group or category’; men-, ma-, -an, -to, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bayi ‘a term of direct address meaning woman or girl’.


PPh     *ma-ba-bahi to court girls; to womanize

Isneg ma-mabáyto court the girls
Kapampangan mam-babaypursuing women
Tagalog mam-ba-báʔeto fool around with women
Masbatenyo mam-ba-báyihave promiscuous sexual relations with women, womanize

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak mam-bawi ‘act or dress like a woman’.


PAN     *ba-bahi woman, female

Amis fa-fahiwife
  fa-fahi-anfemale; woman
  pa-fa-fahi-enget someone a wife
Rukai (Tanan) a-ba-báywoman
Puyuma ba-bay-anwoman
Paiwan va-vai-anwoman, female person
Ilokano ba-báigirl, woman; female; concubine, mistress
Ibanag ba-váyifemale
Agta (Dupaningan) ba-bbeywoman
Isneg ba-báywoman, girl; female
Itawis ba-báygirl, woman; female
Bontok ba-báiwoman; female; girl
Kankanaey ba-báiwoman; female; hen
Ifugaw ba-báiwomen
Ifugaw (Batad) ba-bāiwoman; female (person, monkey)
Casiguran Dumagat bə-befemale; lady, woman, girl
Kapampangan ba-báiwoman
Tagalog ba-báʔewoman, lady; female; mistress, paramour
Bikol ba-báyi ~ ba-bahigirl, woman, lady; female
Hanunóo ba-báyiwoman, girl; female
Masbatenyo ba-báyifemale; girl, lady, woman (refers to the female sex of any animate being)
Aklanon ba-báyiwoman; female
Waray-Waray ba-báyewoman
Hiligaynon ba-báyifemale, woman
Palawan Batak ba-báʔiwoman, female
Cebuano ba-báyiwoman
Maranao be-bayfemale: woman, girl; sister
Tausug ba-baia woman, female (applies particularly to humans, but is sometimes used of animals or plants)
Tunjung wawewoman
Ngaju Dayak bawifemale, feminine; wife
Lawangan bawewoman
Ma'anyan babeiwoman
Malagasy vávya female; feminine
Ponosakan bowayfemale

Note:   Also Hanunóo báyiʔ ‘femininity, quality of being female’, Tiruray baʔi ‘the female leader among superhuman beings; a Moslem noblewoman’ (said to be a Magindanao loanword), Malagasy vehivávy ‘a woman’.


PPh     *ba-bahi-en take a woman as mistress

Ilokano ba-bai-énto court; treat badly; keep as one’s concubine
Tagalog ba-baʔi-hintake a woman as mistress

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.


PAN     *b<in>ahi woman, wife

Trobiawan vinaywoman; wife
Ngaju Dayak ha-bineifemale, feminine; wife
Iban biniwife; married woman
Jarai bənaywoman
Malay biniwife; spouse (less respectful than isteri
  ber-binibe a married man
Muna ro-ɓinewoman, girl; wife; female
Masiwang vinawoman, female
Mayá ꞌpi³nwoman


PCEMP     *b<in>ai woman, female

Komodo winefemale (of humans and animals)
  ata winewoman
Manggarai winawife; woman; female (of people and animals)
Adonara binesister (man speaking)
Teluti i-hinawoman
Hoti ma-hina-awoman
Gah binawoman
Alune binawoman; female
Larike hinafemale, woman
Soboyo finewoman; female
Taba ma-pínwoman
Misool (Coast) pinwoman, wife
Biga wa-binwoman
As binwife
Wandamen viniewife
Numfor binwoman; female


POC     *pine female

Kis winfemale, woman
Luangiua hiŋewoman
Nggela vine-vineobstinate, stubborn, disobedient (cp. mane-mane ‘hold one’s head high, put on airs’ < mane ‘male, man’)
Gilbertese ainefemale; woman; feminine
Mota ta-vinefemale; woman; used also of animals and birds
Malmariv le-vinewoman
Mele-Fila te-finewoman
Futuna-Aniwa finewoman
Tongan fine-motuʔaelderly woman; married woman
  fine-muiyoung woman
Samoan mā-finewoman, girl (term conveying sympathy or endearment)
Nukuoro hinefemale, woman (must be preceded by an article)
Rennellese taʔa-hinehonor, term of reference, esp. for a sister, daughter, niece
Rarotongan ʔinegeneral term applied to females; sometimes denotes respect or kind regard, but is (or was) mostly used towards young women and those of adult age; in some cases used as a term of endearment by a lover towards his sweetheart; it is extensively used in love songs
Maori hinegirl; chiefly used in addressing a girl or young woman, never used with an article or definitive; daughter
Hawaiian kaikama-hinegirl, daughter, niece

Note:   Also Basai minai ‘wife; take to wife’.


PMP     *ba-b<in>ahi woman; female

Talaud vavinwoman
Sangir bawinewoman; female; sister
Tae' bainewoman
Mandar bainewife; female, of animals (as a hen)
Wolio bawinewoman; female (of people, animals, and plants)
Palauan babílfemale
Saparua pi-pinawoman, wife
Moor vavin(a)woman
Windesi babinwoman; female
Marau₁ vavinwoman
Ansus vavi(ŋ)woman
Ambai viviŋwoman, female
Woi wawinwoman
Kurudu ivinwoman


POC     *papine woman; female; sister (male speaker)

Nauna pehinwoman; wife
Lou peinwoman
Penchal pehinwoman; wife
Loniu pihinwoman
Nali pihinwoman; wife
Titan peinwoman
Andra bihinfemale, woman
Sori bibiŋwoman
Seimat hehinwoman
Wuvulu pifinewoman
Kaniet fefinwoman; female
Tanga fifin ~ fifin-fuwoman, adult female
Tolai wawinawoman
Wogeo veinewoman
Manam ainewoman
Gedaged painwoman; wife; female (also said of plants like papaya, etc.)
Takia peinwoman
Gapapaiwa wavinewoman
Wedau wavinewoman
Hula vavinewoman
Motu hahinewoman; female
Mekeo (East) papiewoman
Tawala wawinewoman; female
Dobuan wainewoman
  wiwinewomen; female
Molima wavinewomen
Papapana vavine-naelder sister (man speaking)
Petats hahinehead woman
Bugotu vavineman’s sister; woman’s brother
Nggela vavinesister of a man, brother of a woman; all of this standing in one’s clan
Pileni hehinewoman
Mota vavinewoman; female
Peterara fafinewoman
Raga fafinewoman
Apma hawinwoman
Paamese ahinwoman; female
  ahin-alisister (male speaker)
Makatea fafinewoman
Sye vevne-sister of a man
Tongan fefinewoman, girl
  fafinewomen (dual or plural)
Niue fifinewoman; female
Samoan fafinewoman; female
Tuvaluan fafinewoman; wife; female of an animal
Nukuoro hahinewoman
Rennellese hahinewoman; female; to be feminine
Anuta papinewoman; female
Rarotongan vaʔinewoman; female; wife
Maori wahinewoman; female; wife
Hawaiian wahinewoman, lady; wife; sister-in-law; female cousin-in-law of a man; feminine

Note:   Also Kapingamarangi ahina ‘woman, female’.


POC     *pai-p<in>ai woman; female

Suau waihinwoman
Panatinani waiinewoman
Bugotu vaivinewoman; female
Arosi haihinewoman
Bauro haihenewoman
Gilbertese te-aiinewoman
Chuukese feefinwoman; womanhood; female; left hand or side
Woleaian faifil(e)woman; sister

Note:   Also Chuukese feefina- ‘sister (of a man)’.


PPh     *b<in>a-bahi effeminate, of a man

Ilokano b<in>abáiwomanlike, effeminate; a castrated rooster
Kankanaey b<in>abáiwomanish, effeminate; weak man
Tagalog b<in>abáehermaphrodite; an effeminate man
Hanunóo b<in>abáyihermaphrodite (human)
Aklanon b<in>abáyiact like a female (said of a male), be effeminate
Cebuano b<in>abáyieffeminate; cock with henlike feathers
Maranao b<in>abayeffeminate

Note:   Also Ifugaw b<in>a-bai ‘women’, Kapampangan b<in>a-bái ‘common-law wife; girlhood’.


PAN     *ma-b<in>ahi female, woman

Itbayaten ma-v<in>ayifemale pig, carabao, cow, horse, goat
Anakalangu ma-winiwoman
Kambera ma-winiwoman
Hawu mo-beniwoman
Hitu ma-hinafemale; woman
Batu Merah ma-hinaywife
Buli ma-piŋwoman; female
Minyaifuin ma-pinwoman


POC     *mapine female, woman

Samoan mā-finewoman, girl (term conveying sympathy or endearment


PPh     *bu-bahi woman; female

Kalinga (Guinaang) bu-b áʔiwoman
Balangaw bu-báʔewoman
Mansaka bo-bayfemale (human)

Note:   As noted in Blust (1982b) from a morphological standpoint this is one of the most challenging of all Austronesian comparisons. In addition to the reduplicated and infixed forms of *bahi that are reconstructed here there are numerous other affixed forms that are confined to particular languages or genetically restricted groups of languages, and a few that are widespread but semantically heterogeneous.

The following is a selection of affixed bases that may or may not indicate proto-forms with similar morphology: 1) Ilokano ka-babai ‘the smaller part of a pair’, Maranao ka-babai ‘feminine — esp. applied to female nut called togaiaq’, 2) Bontok ka-babaiy-an ‘sister or female cousin of a male Ego’, Kankanaey ka-babai-an ‘girl, maiden, lass’, Tagalog ka-babai-han ‘womanhood; women as a group’, Bikol ka-babayi-an ‘women’, Cebuano ka-babayi-nan ‘women as a group’, 3) Puyuma maki-baya-bayan ‘copulate’, Isneg maki-babbáy ‘be concupiscent, lustful’, 4) Hanunóo bayi-ʔán ‘doe, the female of deer’, Binukid bahi-an, and Manobo (Western Bukidnon) behi-ʔan ‘female animal’.

The last of these may point to PPh *bahi-ʔan ‘female, of animals’, but this inference would be much more secure if a similar meaning were found in other, more distantly related languages. While similar forms do occur in Taiwan, elsewhere in the Philippines and in Malagasy, their meanings are widely divergent (Rukai (Tona) abayánə, Puyuma ba-bay-an, Paiwan va-vay-an ‘woman’, Ifugaw ba-bay-án ‘sexual organs of a woman’, Cebuano bayi-nan ‘people on the bride’s side in a marriage’, Malagasy va-vai-ána ‘be made to have a companion’), and so no higher-order reconstruction appears possible at present.

Finally, like several other nouns referring to people the word for ‘woman’ appears to have had a plural form distinguished by length of the penultimate vowel, as in Kapampangan , Motu and most Polynesian languages. Cross-cutting the evidence for plural marking by lengthening of the penult is the evidence from several languages in western Melanesia for a singular : plural distinction based on the contrast of /a/ and /i/ Molima wavine ‘woman’ : wivine ‘women’, etc.). If this distinction is posited for POc it may help to explain the otherwise irregular first-syllable /i/ in a number of other languages that are not known to distinguish plural from singular in this way, as Nali pihin, Sori bibiŋ, Wuvulu pifine, Tanga fifin or Niue fifine ‘woman’.


*báhiq the hard outer wood of a palm trunk, used in making bows


PPh     *báhiq the hard outer wood of a palm trunk, used in making bows

Ilokano báibow; bowlike device used for fluffing cotton
Ayta Abellan baibow
Hanunóo báhiʔhard outer wood of a palm bole, that part of certain types of palm wood which is of greatest economic value as bow wood, for spear shafts, arrow points, etc.
Aklanon báhiʔhard stick
Palawan Batak báʔitype of wood used to make hunting bow
  bayʔhunting bow
Cebuano báhiʔthe hard portion of a palm trunk; cane or club made of palm trunk
Mansaka báiʔkind of palm tree (inner part is soft, but outer part is hard)


*bahu odor, stench


PMP     *bahu odor, stench     [doublet: *bahuq]

Kapampangan baúa smell, odor
Maranao bawodor, scent, smell
Mapun bawua smell, odor (either good or bad)
Berawan (Long Terawan) biʔohsmell, odor
Narum biwodor
Miri bausmell, odor (as of a flower)
Sebop baʔusmell, odor
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) baʔusmell
Murik mpuodor
Kayan (Uma Bawang) buʔsmell, odor
Kayan (Uma Juman) busmell, odor
Kiput biusmell, odor
Bintulu vawstench
  mə-mawto smell, have an odor
  tə-vawhaving a bad smell
Melanau Dalat bu-nits odor, its smell
Malay bauscent; odor (whether pleasant or the reverse)
  ber-bauto have a smell
Gayō bauodor, as of burnt rice
Karo Batak baustench; odor; for agreeable odors this is contracted to bo: ntabeh bo-na ‘It smells delicious!’
Toba Batak bauodor, stench; stinking
Sangir bouto smell, as perfume
Pendau boostink, smell bad
Tialo mem-boostink, smell bad
Banggai booodor, stench
Bare'e wauodor, smell
Tae' bauodor, smell
Palauan báusmell, odor, scent
  bu-lits smell, its odor
  bəkə-báu(cooked meat, or fish, cooking pot, etc.), foul-smelling
Chamorro paoodor, smell, scent, aroma (as of perfume, gas, etc.)
Bimanese wouodor; to smell
Manggarai wauodor; rotten
Rembong wauodor; to smell, stink; rotten
  wau mbohave a rotten smell
Ngadha wauunpleasant odor, to reek, stink
Li'o waustink
Sika wauodor; to smell
  wau-kto stink, smell bad
  wau-ŋodor; give out an odor
Lamaholot wau-kodor, aroma
  waũ-ʔits odor
Lamboya baurotten; smell
Kambera wauodor, stench; to smell, to stink
  wau katipenetrating, of an odor
Hawu wousmell, odor
  wou naki-nakistinking
Dhao/Ndao hausmell
Erai hausmell, stench; rot
Paulohi hau-odor
Asilulu hausmell
  hau-nIt stinks!
  hau-esavery fishy smell
  hau-minadelicious oily smell of roasting fish, especially with juices dripping on the embers
Boano₂ ho-niodor


POC     *bou smell, odor

Seimat pou-nits smell, its odor
Manam bousmell, odor
Motu bo-nasmell, scent
  bona-iato smell
Merlav bo-nasmell
Avava bostink
Southeast Ambrym vosmell, odor; to rot


POC     *bou roŋoR to smell

Manam bou loŋoto smell
Northeast Ambae roŋo namᵇonato smell
Sa roŋo bonto smell
Efate (South) nroŋ na-bonto smell


PMP     *ma-bahu smelly, stinking     [doublet: *ma-bahuq]

Kapampangan ma-baúsmelly
Lun Dayeh mə-bu-ənsmelly, having a strong smell
Karo Batak m-bauto stink
Bare'e ma-wausmelly, stinking


PWMP     *ka-bahu-an stench

Tagalog ka-bahuʔ-anfoulness of odor, fetidness
Ngaju Dayak ka-bew-anstench (as from an ulceration)


PWMP     *bahu-an give off an odor (?)

Kapampangan bau-ansmell something
Mapun bawu-anhaving a bad smell, smelly
Yakan bewu-wan ~ bewwanfor something to smell bad, to stink (like dung, rotten fish, etc.)
Murung bu-anto smell
Ngaju Dayak bew-anto stink; stinking
Toba Batak bau-bau-anperfume, fragrance
Mongondow booʔ-ansmell it
Banggai boo-anevil-smelling, reeking
Chamorro pagu-angive off scent, odor, aroma, smell (as cooking)


PWMP     *bahu-en be smelled by someone

Lun Dayeh bu-ənsmell, scent (good or bad)
  mu-ənto smell with the nose
Kelabit bu-enodor, smell
Sa'ban winodor, smell
Mongondow booʔ-onbe smelled by someone

Note:   Also Buginese bauʔ ‘to sniff, smell’, Makassarese bauʔ ‘odor, fragrant, smelling good; term of address for the high nobility’, Kambera bau ‘to stink’, Rembong mbo ‘corpse; to smell’, Kelabit buen ‘smell, odor’, Melanau (Mukah) bun ‘odor’, pe-bun ‘to smell, have an odor’.

Surprisingly, Manam on the north coast of New Guinea, and a number of the languages of Vanuatu agree in pointing to a verb ‘to smell’ which combines apparent reflexes of PMP *bahu and *deŋeR ‘to hear’, an association that appears also in Tawala nonola ‘hearsmell’ (Ezard 1985). Why odor would be associated with an auditory sensation is unclear.


*bahuq odor; stench


PMP     *bahuq odor; stench     [doublet: *bahu]

Tagalog báhoʔa bad odor or smell, stench; stink; a very bad smell
Masbatenyo báhoʔstench, stink; reek
Aklanon báhoʔsmell, odor, stench; to stink
Waray-Waray báhoʔodor, smell, scent
Hiligaynon báhoʔsmell, odor; stink; odorous, pungent, acrid smelling, stinking
Cebuano báhuʔodorous, ill-smelling (as a toilet); smell, odor (as of roast pig)
Mansaka baoʔsmell; to smell
Tausug bahuʔbad odor, stench, smell
  ka-bahu-anto smell a bad smell
Basap bauʔsmell, odor
Kenyah (Long Anap) baʔoʔodor, smell
Kenyah (Long Dunin) baʔuʔodor, smell
Penan (Long Lamai) baʔoʔodor
Lolak booʔscent
Mongondow booʔ ~ buoʔ <Modor, smell, stench; to smell
Kulisusu wooscent, odor (pleasant or unpleasant)
Ngadha wausmell
Adonara wau ~ waʔusmell, odor
Anakalangu wausmell
Dhao/Ndao hausmell
Alune boi-niits stench; stench of
Manipa ho-nodor


PWMP     *ma-bahuq smelly, stinking     [doublet: *ma-bahu]

Tagalog ma-báhoʔfoul, smelly
Masbatenyo ma-báhoʔunpleasant smelling
Aklanon ma-báhoʔsmelly, malodorous, stinky
Waray-Waray ma-báhoʔhaving an offensive smell or odor
Tausug ma-bahuʔstinky, odorous, smelly

Note:   Many Greater Central Philippine languages contain an unexplained final glottal stop in this form. They are included in the same comparison since a doublet cannot be reconstructed even at the Proto-Philippine level.


*bahuR mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder


PWMP     *bahuR mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder

Itbayaten man-vahoyto add water to solid mass (as when mixing yam or camote with weed or corn, preparing pig’s fodder)
Ilokano báorto mix ordinary rice with díket (soft, sticky) rice
Tagalog bahógbroth mixed with some rice; food diluted with water or other liquid
  ma-bahógbe mixed with broth or other liquid
Hanunóo bahugthe process of mixing a liquid, such as soup, with cooked rice while eating
Masbatenyo bahógrefers to feed for domesticated animals
  mag-bahógto feed animals
  bahúg-anfeeding trough
Aklanon bahógswill, slop, pig food; to feed pigs; pour soup on
  b<ae>ahóg-anfeeding trough for pigs
Hiligaynon bahúgfood for pigs
  mag-bahúgto feed swine, or any animal; of people, to eat mixed foods simultaneously
Cebuano bahúgput liquid or fat into the staple food
  b<in>ahúgfood mixed with soup, lard, or water
Binukid bahugfeed something to a domestic animal (as a pig)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bahugmoisten one’s food with broth, soup or water
Tausug bahugimmerse cooked food in liquid, as cooked rice in soup, gravy, milk or water
Malay campur baurmuch mixed up
Bahasa Indonesia baurto mix


PWMP     *maR-bahuR mixed with

Tagalog mag-bahógeat rice mixed with broth
Bahasa Indonesia ber-baurmixed, mixed with


PWMP     *bahuR-an be mixed, mixture

Itbayaten vahoy-ana part of sugarcane mill
Ilokano baor-anto mix ordinary rice with díket (soft, sticky) rice
Tagalog bahug-áncontainer for left-over food
Tausug bahug-animmerse cooked food in liquid
Bahasa Indonesia baur-anmixture (of foods, vegetables, etc.)

Note:   Also Cebuano áhug ‘mix something wet with something dry’, Javanese bawur ‘mixed together, as a bouquet of mixed flowers; blurred, hazy, of vision’ (probably from Malay).


*bail a plant: Falcataria Moluccana


PCEMP     *bail a plant: Falcataria Moluccana     [doublet: *puyu₂ 'vortical design or motion']

Manggarai (Mulu) faila tree: Albizia chinensis
Ngadha faia tree: Albizia chinensis
Ambai baia plant: Falcataria Moluccana


POC     *pail a plant: Falcataria Moluccana

Lindrou beia plant: Falcataria Moluccana
Tolai vail-aila beach tree: Pongamia Pinnata
Zabana faia plant: Falcataria Moluccana
Kwara'ae faia plant: Falcataria Moluccana

Note:   Also Nehan puil ‘a plant: Falcataria Moluccana’. This comparison was first noted by Ross (2008:189).


*baisan co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple


PWMP     *baisan co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple

Tagalog baysána parent of the spouse of one's offspring; the relation between parents of a married couple
Melanau (Mukah) bisanson-in-law, daughter-in-law
Malay bésanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried
Acehnese bisanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried (the bisan of the bride are thus the consanguineal kin of her husband)
Simalur bisan-bisanparents-in-law
Karo Batak bésanthe 'affinal', not true brother or sister; reciprocal term used between the parents of a man and the parents of his wife
  turaŋ bésanan affectionate term for the mother of one's children; term used between brother and sister, and also between husband and wife
Rejang bisanrelationship of parents whose children are married to each other
Sundanese bésanreciprocal term used between two fathers or mothers whose children have married: co-parent-in-law
  be-besan-an(of two fathers or mothers) to stand or come to be in such a relationship to one another
Javanese bésanparent(s)-in-law of one's child


PWMP     *baisan-an become a co-parent-in-law (?)

Tagalog baysan-anbetrothal party held by parents of bride and groom
Javanese bésan-anto become mutual parents-in-law

Note:   Also Malay bisan ‘the relationship of persons whose children have intermarried’. The gloss of Melanau (Mukah) bisan is doubtful both because of its divergence from that of the cognate term in other languages, and because another term (benatew) was also recorded for ‘child-in-law’.


*bait₁ good, kind, pleasant


PWMP     *bait₁ good, kind, pleasant

Tagalog baʔítkindness; prudence; sense; a clear or sound state of mind; senses; mind
  ma-baʔítkind, kindly; friendly; kind-hearted; good-hearted, good-natured; benevolent; good; virtuous; indulgent; making allowances; not too critical; mild; benign; amiable; affable; gently; kindly; friendly
  mag-baʔítto try to be good; to try to be prudent or sensible
  ka- báʔít-ankindness; goodness; humaneness; friendliness; leniency; prudence, good sense
Malay baitgood (variant of baik)
Toba Batak baitgood


*bait₂ do, make


PCEMP     *bait₂ do, make

Soboyo feido, make, work, carry out, execute, perform


POC     *pait do, make

Lou pedo, make
Tolai paitto do, make, work, effect
Sio vetmake, do
Numbami paido, make, cause, affect
Tape vedo, make, cause
Tongan faido, attend to, carry out, carry on with, engage in, perform
Samoan faido, make

Note:   The improvement of this comparison, which was originally listed in the ACD as PCEMP *bai ‘do, make’, is due to Ross (2016b:427).


*bajaq know, understand; ask, inquire


PAN     *bajaq₁ know, understand; ask, inquire

Atayal baqcan; know, understand; learn, teach
Pazeh baza-know, understand
Amis fanaʔgeneric term for knowledge, including understanding what is heard
Thao fazaqremember; know; understand; think; have the opinion that
Kanakanabu taa-valáʔəknow, understand; can
Paiwan ki-vadaqinquire, request


PMP     *bajaq₂ tell, inform; ask, inquire

Ilokano bagánotice, announcement, bulletin
  i-bagásay, tell, declare, utter; inform on
  bag-baga-ánto advise, admonish
Bontok ʔi-bagáask, tell; ask for payment of a debt
Kankanaey i-bagáask, inquire after
  baga-anask for, claim the payment of a debt
Ifugaw bagáto ask; to tell
Ifugaw (Batad) bagatell; confess; request
Pangasinan bagátell, say, invite or ask by word of mouth
Kapampangan bálaʔresponsibility; warning
Tagalog bálaʔthreat
Binukid bálaʔto divine, discover something by means of divination
Mansaka báraʔwarn of accident or misfortune
Mapun balaʔcalamity, disaster (believed to come from God, such as a plague, flood, earthquake)
Tboli bálaʔreply, respond
Tausug balaʔmisfortune, affliction, plague
Ida'an Begak baraʔtell
Kelabit badaʔadvice
  madaʔto advise; tell, instruct
Kenyah badaʔtell, relate; complain
Kayan baratell, relate, say
Kayan (Uma Juman) baraannounce, inform, tell
Karo Batak bagahoffering to the spirits of the dead so they will desist from pestering one
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bagahsay, announce something; introduce
  bagah bagahpromise
  bagah-ensomeone who may be summoned, like a servant
Toba Batak baga-bagapromise; expect
Old Javanese warah-warahcommunication, information, report, instruction, teaching
  pa-warahtell, report, teach, instruct
Javanese -warah-anteach each other
  marahteach, advise; reason for, because
Sasak badaʔsay, mention, report; advise
Rotinese fadaspeak, say, name, mention, tell
Soboyo fayasay


PAN     *ka-bajaq know, understand

Pazeh ka-bazato know
Amis ka-fanaʔbe known
Thao ka-fazaqthink, know, remember


PAN     *ma-bajaq know, understand

Pazeh ma-bazato know, understand; able, can
Thao ma-fazaqto know, remember


PAN     *pa-bajaq give knowledge, teach

Pazeh pa-bazacause to know; teach
[Thao pia-fazaqmake knowledgeable, give someone understanding]

Note:   Also Soboyo baya ‘say’. This form evidently underwent a semantic change in PMP, from a verb that referred primarily to knowing and understanding (and perhaps secondarily to asking or inquiring), to a verb that referred to communicating information by relating it to others.


*bajbaj loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?)


PWMP     *bajbaj loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?)

Ilokano bagbágunravel, disentangle, disengage the threads of; to clear (of underbrush, etc.)
  bagbag-enunravel, disentangle, disentangle the threads of
Isneg badbādunbind, untie, to loose, to loosen
Bontok badbaduntangle, unwind
Kankanaey bagbagundo, unstitch, unsew; demolish
Ifugaw badbádact of unwinding something (e.g. a string)
Casiguran Dumagat badbadunravel, untwist (of rope which becomes unravelled at the end)
Bikol badbáddisentangle, loosen (as a knot, a rope); unwind, uncoil
Aklanon bádbadunravel, take apart (as threads in a garment); to fray, get unravelled
Cebuano badbaduntie, get untied; liquidate a debt; solve a problem; translate
  badbáduntie, get untied
Maranao bebadunroll, unfurl, uncoil
Malagasy vavatraopened, untied (of something like a clasp-hold, or lid-fast or a fast knot)
Old Javanese babada clearing; to clear (a piece of forest)
Balinese babadto clear forest; clearing, a cleared space
  badbaddisentangle, open, clear
Makassarese baʔbaraʔunroll something that is rolled up (as a sail); come loose, of something that was previously stuck on; no longer taut (of an anchor rope)

Note:   Also Ngadha bheva ‘loosen, untie; loosened, untied’. Motu papa-ia ‘unroll, open up a ball’ may be related. With root *-baj ‘unravel, untie’.


(Formosan only)

*bajiw edible mushroom sp.


PAN     *bajiw edible mushroom sp.

Kavalan baniwmushroom (generic)
Amis faniwmushrooms
Puyuma baliwsmall mushroom that grows in the fields; Puyuma say that it is delicious
Paiwan vadiwedible mushroom sp.

Note:   Based on data from Puyuma, Kavalan and Amis, Li (1994) posited ‘Proto-Southern Formosan *baɬiw’ (= *baNiw). However, Paiwan vadiw cannot be reconciled with this reconstruction.


*bak₁ clap! smack!


PMP     *bak₁ clap! smack!

Tboli bakbark of a dog
Ngaju Dayak baksplash!
Malay baksound of a smack
Karo Batak baksound of clapping, of horses' hooves, etc.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baksound of a large object falling on a wooden floor
Ngadha basmack, clap with the hand


POC     *bak strike against

Arosi baastrike one upon another, as firewood in breaking it
Tongan touch; hit; knock against; collide with; slap (esp. on the head)

Note:   The OC forms cited here may reflect PMP *pak.


*bak₂ negative marker


PMP     *bak₂ negative marker

Simalur baʔ, faʔno, not
Mentawai banegative (vetative)
Bare'e banegative
Buli pano, not, nothing, no one
Numfor bano, not

Note:   Simalur baʔ, faʔ points to *bak, but each of the other languages has regularly lost *-k. As a consequence of the loss of final *k reflexes of *bak may be confused with reflexes of the conjunction *ba ‘but, or, if, because’, which introduce an element of doubt, qualification or occasionally even negation.


*baka₁ conjunction: despite, nonetheless


PMP     *baka₁ conjunction: despite, nonetheless

Ilokano bakábe vague, inconsequent, contradictory
Cebuano bákait doesn't matter, never mind if
Iban bakain spite of
Tolai bakaperhaps (placed at the beginning of a sentence)

Note:   Also Kayan bekaʔ ‘nevertheless, however’.


*baka₂ kind of banyan tree, Ficus sp.


POC     *baka₂ kind of banyan tree, Ficus sp.

Patpatar pakaFicus nodosa
Mota pakabanyan, ficus (various species)
Raga bagaFicus sp.
Wayan bakatree taxon applied to at least two figs: Ficus obliqua and F. prolixa (Moraceae), banyan fig
Fijian bakathe banyan tree: Ficus obliqua


*bakaka a bird, the kingfisher


PWMP     *bakaka a bird, the kingfisher

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bekakakingfisher
Ngaju Dayak bakakapredatory fishing bird somewhat smaller than a dove, with green back, yellow breast, red feet and bill and a short tail
Iban bekakastork-billed kingfisher

Note:   Also Tiruray bekakah ‘kingfisher: Pellargopsis capensis (Linn.)’, Malay bekakak, pekakak ‘kingfisher: Halcyon sp.’.


*bákal spear used in warfare; throw a spear at someone


PPh     *bákal spear used in warfare; throw a spear at someone

Ilokano bákalfight; battle, war
  i-bákalto throw, toss; throw a missile in war
  bakál-ento fight; throw a missile in war
Casiguran Dumagat bákaliron, metal; to spear a fish with a metal spear
Ibaloy bakalfight, quarrel, squabble, confrontation
  bekal-ento fight, quarrel with someone
Pangasinan bakálwar, battle
Ayta Abellan bákaliron
Kapampangan bákaliron
Tagalog bákaliron
Palawano bakalto stab, pierce with the point of a spear; throw downward or horizontally

Note:   It is not entirely clear whether Tagalog bákal and related forms meaning ‘iron’ are part of the same cognate set as the remaining words, which range over the meanings ‘fight, battle, war’ to ‘to stab, pierce with the point of a spear; throw downward or horizontally’. The common element running through this set appears to be to fight in war by throwing spears at the enemy, but it is unlikely that these would have been made of iron in Proto-Philippine times.


*bakan a tree: Litsea spp.


PWMP     *bakan a tree: Litsea spp.

Bontok bákana tall tree, felled especially for use as a kabowánan (‘moonlight’) log to provide fuel for the men’s ward house; the wood is also used for making vessels, and its sap is said to cause irritation of the skin: Litsea perrottetii (Blm.) F.-Vill. (Lauraceae)
Hanunóo bákana tree, family Lauraceae: Litsea sp.
Aklanon bakánkind of tree
Cebuano bákankind of tree important for driving away the unglù (person who is possessed of a supernatural force which attacks from time to time causing him to change his form and go out, often to harm others, preying on their blood, livers, etc.): Litsea sp.
Mansaka bakankind of tree
Mongondow bakankind of tree, family Lauraceae
Bare'e wakatree in the family Lauraceae: Litsea sp.; there are two types, one with small, the other with large leaves
Tae' bakana timber tree, one variety with white wood and another with yellow: Litsea sp.

Note:   Also Tontemboan waʔkan ‘tree in the family Lauraceae’. This form suggests that the reconstruction may have been a trisyllable *baqekan, an interpretation that is not supported by BISA reflexes, where we would expect to find a consonant cluster .


*bakaŋ₁ bowlegged


PAN     *bakaŋ₁ bowlegged

Paiwan ma-vakaŋto walk bowlegged or with feet splayed outwards
  v<n>akaŋto walk bowlegged (intentionally)
Ilokano bákaŋbandy-legged
Aklanon bakáŋto walk with the knees apart, walk bowleggedly; bowlegged
Waray-Waray bakaŋto make a wide step over something
  bakaŋto take a wide step over something
Agutaynen bakaŋbowlegged; for one’s walk or stance to be slightly bowlegged
  mag-bakaŋto become bowlegged
  makaŋstand with the legs spread apart (as someone blocking a doorway)
Cebuano bakáŋbowlegged; deprecatory term for the Japanese; become bowlegged; get tired out from looking for something
Kelabit bakaŋwide apart, of the feet while standing
Malay baŋkaŋexpanding widely (as the arms of the new moon or a small arc of a very large circle); descriptive of the wide pincers of black forest scorpions (kala baŋkaŋ), of a crab with pincers far apart (kətam baŋkaŋ), and of buffalo horns that stand out almost straight (tandok baŋkaŋ)

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*bakaŋ₂ to divert the attention of someone


PPh     *bakaŋ₂ to divert the attention of someone

Itbayaten vakaŋ-ento entertain, to amuse (to divert attention of someone)
Bikol bákaŋconfused, disoriented
  mag-bákaŋto confuse, disorient


*bakaq spread apart, split


PMP     *bakaq spread apart, split

Itbayaten vaka-enidea of cracking open or cutting open; to crack (as coconuts)
Cebuano bákaʔwalk with the legs apart
Kulawi bakaʔwounded (Esser 1964)
Proto-Ambon *vakasplit


POC     *pagaq to split

Nggela vaŋgato split, from the heat of the sun

Note:   With root *-kaq₂ ‘split’.


*bakáq maybe, perhaps, possibly


PPh     *bakáq maybe, perhaps, possibly

Ilokano bakámaybe, perhaps; might be
  ag-baka-bakáto be vague; perplexed; anxious; stupid; hesitant
Ibaloy bakaperhaps, maybe
Tagalog bakáʔperhaps; maybe; might
Remontado bakáʔperhaps, maybe
Bikol bákaʔmaybe, perchance, perhaps, possibly; might


*bakaq-bakaq k.o. small basket with a handle


PWMP     *bakaq-bakaq k.o. small basket with a handle

Mapun bakaʔbasket
Yakan bakaʔa basket with a handle to carry it (esp. a small basket made of rattan or lygodium)
Tausug bakaʔ-bakaʔa deep, wide-mouthed, oval-shaped basket made of rattan or similar material, with a string fastened on the sides and with a cover, usually carried on the back by a harvester
Tae' bakalarge carrying basket of woven bamboo with a strap, used mostly by women
Mandar baka-bakasmall wickerwork basket
Buginese bakabasket
Makassarese bakaoblong basket made of areca leaf sheath wrapped in woven rattan or bamboo peeling, used esp. as a carrying basket on horseback

Note:   Also Iban bakaɁ ‘basket similar to sintong (cylindrical basket), either small (for betel, tobacco, etc.), or of about 8 gantang content’. The distribution of this form may have been partially the result of Sama-Bajaw contact.


*bakaR kind of basket


PAN     *bakaR kind of basket

Kavalan bakara small rattan basket with two or four handles
Ilokano bakárk.o. large basket used for laundry

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*bakas₁ swift, strong, energetic, fast


PMP     *bakas₁ swift, strong, energetic, fast     [disjunct: *beŋkas]

Aklanon bákashurry up, hasten, quicken
  ma-bákasquick, fast, speedy
Kadazan Dusun vakasstrong
  mama-vakasstrengthen, make strong, invigorate
Makassarese baŋkasaʔswift, agile, energetic


POC     *pakas strong, energetic

Mota vakahave strength, energy

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; strong, energetic’.


*bakas₂ loosen, undo, untie


PMP     *bakas₂ loosen, undo, untie

Bontok bákastear, as cloth; break up; pull down; destroy, of anything that has been made
Malagasy váhaloosened, untied, relaxed, as of parcels, burdens, etc.
  ma-máhato untie, to loosen, etc.
  mi-váhato be untied, to be open, as a parcel, etc.
Manggarai bahascome apart, come undone
Kambera waŋgamake an opening, take apart
Paulohi hakato open (intr.)

Note:   With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.


*bakat waves, heavy weather at sea


PWMP     *bakat waves, heavy weather at sea

Maranao bakatwaves, windy weather, gusty wind
Iban bakatchoppy (of water), small waves made by wind and tide in shallow water
Simalur bakadwave, billow
Javanese bakatmighty, terrific, powerful


*ba(ŋ)kat type of basket


PWMP     *ba(ŋ)kat type of basket

Aklanon báŋkatwoven basket (for small fishes)
Cebuano bakátkind of hamper, woven container about two feet high with a top
Iban baŋkatlarge basket


*bakbak₁ peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree


PMP     *bakbak₁ peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree

Ilokano bakbákcrustless, scabless
Itawis bábakthat which peels off (skin, paint, etc.)
Ayta Abellan bakbakbark of a tree
  bakbak-anto remove bark
Kapampangan bakbákscar, scab, peeling skin
Tagalog bakbákdetached, decorticated; remove the bark or thick skin (of something)
Bikol bakbáka large scab, ready to fall off; to peel (as sunburned skin)
Hanunóo bakbákchipping off, breaking off
Aklanon bákbaktake off the bark of a tree
Agutaynen baʔbakto split something by tearing or peeling it apart; to forcefully split or rip something apart, usually with a downward tearing action
Kelabit bebʰaktorn, as a shirt
Iban babaktake off, pull down, undo, tear away, pull out, pull up by the roots
Karo Batak bakbakremove the rind (of fruits)
Toba Batak bakbakloosen, undo; detach, as the bark of a tree
Rejang babaʔskin
Sundanese babakraw; open or abraded skin (as on the back of a horse, from harness-wear)
Old Javanese babaksplit open, laying bare, raw (wound), torn off
Javanese babakskinned, bruised
Madurese babbaʔbark of a tree
Balinese babakscrape, graze (the skin), blister (from walking or working); peel off (skin)
Sasak babakbark of a tree; scraped, flayed (skin)
Chamorro pappastrip off (bark of a tree), skin (an animal), peel off, rip off (as skin, bark)
Ngadha bhabhapeel off, remove the bark


POC     *babak₂ peel off bark

Tolai papakto peel off bark - also applied to peeling off lime, paint, etc.


PWMP     *bakbak-an peel off, remove bark

Tagalog bakbak-ánremove the bark or thick skin of something
Bikol bakbak-ánpeel something off
Javanese babak-anpiece of skin, shaving, peeling
Balinese babak-anbark of a tree

Note:   This item appears to have referred prototypically to the peeling off of skin (intransitive) or to the removal of the bark of a tree (transitive). The removal of skin (transitive) probably was represented by *kulit-i, a form which apparently could be applied as well to the removal of tree bark. Evidently, then, the transitive meaning of *bakbak was largely coextensive with the meaning of *kulit-i as it applied to tree bark rather than to the skin of animals. The occasional nominal referents (Rejang babaʔ ‘skin’, Madurese babbaʔ ‘bark of a tree’) seem to be secondary, and the meaning of the suffixed form (*bakbak-an) remains unclear.


*bakbak₂ sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound


PAN     *bakbak₂ sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound     [doublet: *bekbek, *bukbuk]

Saisiyat bakbakstrike with a piece of bamboo
Paiwan b-alʸ-akbakdrumming sound, as of many stones falling or tumbling, horse's hooves, drumming on table with hands
Yami bakbakto hit
Isneg bábaʔbeat, hammer, smash, crush; pound the first rice of the new harvest
Bontok bakbakfrog
Kankanaey bakbákfrog
  bakbak-ento slap
Ifugaw bakbákwooden slab with a handle with which women beat the clothes they are washing; frog
Casiguran Dumagat bakbakfrog
Pangasinan bakbákto whip
Hanunóo bakbákchipping off, breaking off
Cebuano bakbákfrog, toad (onom.)
Maranao babakfrog; hammer
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bakbakfrog
Tiruray bakbaka hammer; to hammer, pound
Kadazan Dusun babaksmash, crush, bread to pieces
Javanese bakbak-anto beat the wings (of a chicken that is being killed)
Banggai babakbeat a drum
Tae' baʔbakspread the wings
Makassarese baʔbaʔclick the lips to make a horse stand still
Chamorro pappawing
Sika wawakloud sound or noise
Arguni bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone
Waropen wawaknock on side of canoe; make a clamor


POC     *babak₃ strike, chip stone

Tolai papakto peel off bark; also applied to peeling off lime, paint, etc.
Nggela papato chip; chips
Arosi bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone
Fijian babastrike, smite the head with open hand
Maori pak-i, papak-islap, pat; make a clapping noise

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’. The varied meanings brought together here are united by a common onomatopoetic reference to a loud smacking sound or to an animal or instrument that produces such a sound. The meaning ‘frog’ appears to be a Philippine innovation (cf. Reid 1971:85 for several other, unrelated onomatopoetic forms for ‘frog’ in the Philippines). Ngadha vava ‘cry of the raven’ probably is an independent onomatopoetic formation, and Eddystone/Mandegusu baba ‘wing’ apparently does not belong here, as we would expect the final consonant to be preserved (with a supporting vowel). For the appropriateness of including Chamorro pappa ‘wing’ in this set cf. the semantic parallels with reflexes of *pakpak.


*bakbak₃ frog


PPh     *bakbak₃ frog

Bontok bakbákfrog
Kankanaey bakbákfrog
Ifugaw bakbáka frog, general term
Casiguran Dumagat bakbakfrog
Ibaloy bakbakkind of frog --- large and dark-colored
Maranao babakfrog
Binukid bakbakgeneric for frog or toad
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bakbakfrog; figuratively, a talkative person

Note:   This comparison was first pointed out schematically by Zorc (1986:163).


*bakehaw mangrove


PWMP     *bakehaw mangrove

Casiguran Dumagat békawspecies of uncultivated mangrove tree, genus Rhizophora
Bikol bakáw-anmangrove tree, having stilt-like roots and stems forming dense thickets along tidal shores: Rhizophora
Hanunóo bakháwtype of mangrove tree: Rhizophora sp.
Aklanon bakáw-antree that is good for firewood: Rhizophora mucronata
Hiligaynon bákhawmangrove
Cebuano bakháwmangrove tree: Rhizophora spp.
Maranao bakawmangrove, Rhizophora sp.
Mansaka bakawkind of hardwood tree (grows along shore)
Tiruray bakawa mangrove tree found in virgin swamps, Rhizophora candellaria DC, Rhizophora mucronata Lam.
Mapun baŋkawmangrove tree; mangrove swamp
Tausug bakkawRhizophora spp., mangrove
Kadazan Dusun vakauclimbing plants (tough), twiners, lianas
Iban bakautrue mangrove: Rhizophora spp.
Malay bakaumangrove-covered swamp; mangrove tree, specifically of true mangroves (Rhizophorae)
Toba Batak bahotree sp.
Sasak bakotree that yields a good timber
Mongondow bakowtree sp.
Wolio baŋkomangrove tree: Rhizophora conjugata
Muna bhaŋkomangrove tree (its wood is used for cooking and building)


PPh     *ka-bakaw-an mangrove swamp

Casiguran Dumagat ka-bekaw-anmangrove swamp
Maranao bakaw-anmangrove swamp
Tausug ka-bakkaw-anmangrove swamp


*bakelad fish corral


PWMP     *bakelad fish corral     [disjunct: *belat₂]

Tagalog bakládfish corral
  baklar-ánplace where fish corrals are set
Iban belatcane fishing screen or net (with canes horizontal) usually set across stream or current
Malay belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish. In most of these traps the fish are led by the tide between two converging rows of screens (bidaŋ belat, bidai belat) into a trap, usually of several compartments, from the inmost of which there is no escape
Sasak belatfish corral made in the sea
Buginese beleʔscreen-trap for fish

Note:   For the phonological history of this and similar trisyllables in Malay and some other languages of western Indonesia see Blust (1982).


*bakelag bruise marks


PWMP     *bakelag bruise marks

Ilokano baklágwhose bruises or contusions dissove, leaving a mark (Vanoverbergh 1956)
  ag-b<in>aklágto be scarred by bruises or bites (Rubino)
Malay bəlakmottled satin-like markings (of the grain of certain woods; of shiny patches left by skin disease; of worn fabrics, etc.)


*bak(e)nis to tear with an upward motion


PPh     *bak(e)nis to tear with an upward motion

Ilokano baknísto tear with the teeth
Bikol mag-baknísto pull upward, pulling off portions of the abaca plant containing the fibers later to be stripped


*bakés monkey sp.


PPh     *bakés monkey sp.

Kankanaey (Northern) bakə́smonkey (Reid 1971)
Ibaloy bakesmonkey
Pangasinan bakesmonkey
Ayta Abellan bakemonkey
Kalamian Tagbanwa bakɨsmonkey
Palawan Batak bakə́smonkey
Central Tagbanwa bakɨtmonkey


*bakes₁ belt; tie around the waist


PAN     *bakes₁ belt; tie around the waist

Amis fakecput a belt on
  sa-fakeca belt


PMP     *bakes₁ belt, anything that encircles tightly

Ilokano barkésanan inflammatory disease of the skin, often originating at the waist; to tie into one bundle
Isneg baxákatbelt, girdle, sash (worn around the waist by women to keep the tapis in place)
Pangasinan balkésbelt
Cebuano bakúsbelt; wear a belt, tie around the waist
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bagkestie up something inanimate
Malagasy vahygeneric for plants used as withes, girdles, and in plaiting, rope-making, etc.
Singhi Land Dayak bokesbelt
Kambera waŋgihutwist, wind around; belt; rope that is tied around the loincloth
Hawu waketie around the waist; belt

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*bakes₂ old woman; female, of animals


PPh     *bakes₂ old woman; female, of animals

Yami akesgrandmother
Itbayaten vakesidea of being female
  mamma-vakesfemale-body smelling
  ma-vakesgirl, woman, female person
Ivatan ma-vakeswoman, female
Ibatan bākesa female crab
  ma-bakesa female, girl, woman
Isneg bakátdoe, of deer
  bà-bakátold woman
Kankanaey na-bakésold woman, crone (past child-bearing)
Casiguran Dumagat bakəsold woman (also used as a vocative in addressing old women)


*baketin piglet, suckling pig


PPh     *baketin piglet, suckling pig

Bikol baktínpig (said in anger)
Hanunóo baktinsuckling pig
Waray-Waray baktínhog, pig
Cebuano baktínpiglet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) beketinbaby pig
  ma-meketinmother pig with a litter
Mansaka baktinbaby pig
Tiruray beketina piglet
Proto-East Gorontalic *bokotiŋopig

Note:   Also Cebuano bakatin ‘wild pig’, Maranao baktiŋ ‘piglet’.


*bakewak shark


POC     *bakewak shark

Nauna pahewk.o. shark
Ere peʔewshark
Leipon pewk.o. shark
Mussau baioshark
Sursurunga beoshark
Tanga beushark
Hula paewashark
Misima baewashark (generic)
Nggela mbageabasking shark
Longgu bwaʔewashark
'Āre'āre paʔewashark
  paʔewa erape
  paʔewa inonian owned shark
  paʔewa waisiʔaan unowned shark
Arosi baʔewaa shark; the shark was sacred; men had familiar sharks which killed their enemies, and a man and shark sometimes exchanged souls
Proto-Micronesian *pakewashark
Pileni pakeoshark
Motlav na-baɣoshark
Mota pagoashark
Lakona pageshark
Merig paɣoshark
Cape Cumberland paheoshark
Nokuku pakeashark
Mafea p̈aioshark
Apma bekeshark
Atchin paeshark
Axamb nə-mbaxoshark
Ura u-ᵐbeushark


*baki₁ break off with the hand


POC     *baki₁ break off with the hand

Motu baki-ato break, of bread, sago, etc.
Tongan pakibreak or break off, esp. with the hand; pick or pluck


(Formosan only)

*baki₂ grandfather


PAN     *baki₂ grandfather     [doublet: *aki]

Kavalan baqigrandfather (add.), grandson
Saisiyat bakigrandfather
Seediq bakigrandfather
Amis fakigrandfather (Ferrell 1969); uncle (the authoritiy figure in the home for giving instructions; Fey 1986)
Hoanya vakigrandfather


*baku scab, crust


PMP     *baku scab, crust

Ngaju Dayak bakucongealed
Minangkabau bakucoagulation (of a liquid that has become viscous or solid)
Tongan pakucrust (of bread)
Samoan paʔu-paʔuscab
Rennellese pakuto be crusted over, but still sore, of a boil or cut
Maori pakuscab on a sore

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*bakuku fish sp. (presumably sea-bream)


PWMP     *bakuku fish sp. (presumably sea-bream)     [doublet: *bakukuŋ]

Cebuano bakúkufish sp.
Malagasy (Provincial) vahóhofish sp.
Malay bekukusea bream: Sparus hasta


*bakukuŋ a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta


PWMP     *bakukuŋ a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta     [doublet: *bakuku]

Malay bekukoŋthe sea-bream: Sparus hasta
Makassarese bakukuŋlarge edible sea fish with a tough skin: Sparus hasta


*bakul kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips


PWMP     *bakul₁ kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips

Itbayaten vakolbasket?
Ilokano bakúltwilled (bamboo strips in weaving)
Tagalog bákola round, shallow basket generally carried on the head of vendors selling fish, vegetables, etc.
Bikol bákolsmall basket, woven from bamboo, with four corners at the bottom and circular opening at the top
Tiruray bakula small basket used by salt water fishermen to store their line and hook
Tausug bakula big basket with a cover
Kelabit bakulbasket that is carried in the hand
Kenyah (Long Anap) bakunbasket (generic)
Kayan (Long Atip) bakunbasket with a handle
Bintulu bakulbasket
Malay bakulbasket; loosely (in Bazaar Malay) any basket; specifically a large lidded basket of plaited bamboo wicker to be carried on the head, either oblong or cylindrical; if tight-meshed used for storing rice, and if openwork for storing fruit, etc.
Sundanese bakula basket like a saʔid (large bamboo basket for holding fruit), but larger, and usually without wooden or bamboo feet
Old Javanese wakula type of basket
Javanese wakulrice-serving basket
  wakul-an(placed) in a serving basket; by the basket(ful)
Balinese bakula small basket
Proto-Minahasan *bakulbasket
Tondano wakulbasket
Tontemboan wakulsmall shallow basket for holding vegetables, spices and the like
Tae' bakkuʔbasket used to keep all sorts of things, including foods, pounded and cooked rice, etc.
Mandar bakuʔbasket
  sam-bakuʔa basketful
Makassarese bakuʔbasket


PWMP     *bakul-bakul (gloss uncertain)

Karo Batak bakul-bakulfence of stakes with bamboo plaitwork connected together, used at dykes and dams
Toba Batak bahul-bahula large sack made of straw for storing rice
Mandar baku-bakuʔsmall basket (can be closed and used as a place to store money or other valuables)
Buginese bakuʔbasket
  mab-baku-bakuʔby the basketful

Note:   Also Bare'e bako-bako ‘four-sided basket made of silar leaves, with a lid, used for storing the ingredients of the betel chew’.


*bakuŋ₁ a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L.


PAN     *bakuŋ₁ a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L.

Amis fakoŋname of an herb used on broken bones
Thao fakunCrinum asiaticum L., fam. Amaryllidaceae, a shore plant which grows in sandy soil and reaches a height of slightly over one meter; it has lanceolate leaves and a small fruit, and is distinguished by its white lily-like blossoms with six slender elongated petals
Itbayaten vakoŋCrinum asiaticum L., a plant similar to the lily with white flower and purple fruit. It is fragrant and said to repel mosquitoes
Ilokano bákoŋCrinum asiaticum L. A stout, amaryllidaceous plant with large, fragrant white flowers, much cultivated for ornamental purposes
Tagalog bakoŋspider lily, Crinum asiaticum L.
Hanunóo bákuŋsmall upland plant with large white flowers and large round leaves
Cebuano bákuŋkind of ornamental bulb, the spider lily: Crinum asiaticum
Maranao bakoŋCrinum asiaticum L., a plant with white flower, used to treat stomach ache
Ngaju Dayak bakoŋa water plant which grows on riverbanks and often right out into the river so that in stronger currents entire islands of them are flushed out. The stem is eaten; the long wide leaves are used as talusoŋ (torch material)
Malagasy vahónageneric for various plants of the genus Aloe, esp. A. macroclada Baker, and A. deltoideodonta Baker; also a species of Crinum
Iban bakoŋplants of Amaryllis family growing on river banks, Crinum spp. (esp. Crinum asiaticum: also water lilies, Nymphaea spp., and probably Indian lotus, Nelumbium spp.
Malay bakoŋa bulbous plant grown for its big white ornamental flowers, Crinum asiaticum
  seperti sulur bakoŋ'like the curve of the bakoŋ', as a simile for suppliant hands
Toba Batak bahuŋkind of shrub
Sundanese bakuŋkind of lily with large white blossoms
  hui bakuŋkind of tuber
  daun bakuŋgeneric for cactus-like plants
Old Javanese wakuŋa lily-like flower, Crinum asiaticum. The petals are very slender; fingers are compared with them
Javanese bakuŋa certain flower
Balinese bakuŋlily
Sasak bakoŋCrinum asiaticum, a plant with large white blossoms the petals of which are used as a standard of comparison for beautiful fingers
Buginese bakuŋkind of flowering plant
Makassarese bakuŋkind of lily, Crinum asiaticum
Manggarai waŋkuŋa plant: Crinum asiaticum L.
Rembong waŋkuŋa plant: Crinum asiaticum L.

Note:   Also Old Javanese bakuŋ ‘a lily-like flower, Crinum asiaticum’. Merrill (1954:35) describes the Crinum asiaticum as a coarse, erect herbaceous plant in the amaryllis family, and states that ‘It prefers the sandy soil immediately inland from the beach line’. In view of this characterization it is somewhat surprising that a cognate is found in Thao, which is spoken around Sun-Moon Lake, at an elevation of nearly 1000 meters in the western foothills of the Central Mountains of Taiwan. There is evidence that Thao was spoken on Taiwan's Western Plain (Blust 1996), perhaps as recently as the 17th century, but even then it probably would not have been in contact with the sea. However, the Crinum asiaticum is reported from inland riverine environments in Indonesia as well (cf. reflexes in Ngaju Dayak and Iban). In any event Thao fakun was spontaneously offered as the name of the Crinum asiaticum when a color photograph of the latter was presented to Mr. Shih A-shan, and there can be little doubt about the botanical identification.


*bakuŋ₂ kind of pandanus


PMP     *bakuŋ₂ kind of pandanus

Mongondow bakuŋkind of pandanus with fragrant leaves
Chamorro pahoŋpandanus, screw pine --- bears edible fruit
Ngadha vakukind of pandanus
Asilulu haʔunkind of very tall pandanus with large inedible fruits


POC     *pakuŋ kind of pandanus

Kwaio haʔupandanus; pandanus umbrella
'Āre'āre haʔuthe pandanus tree, which has broad leaves; used by men as perineal bandage; also used to make a kind of mat called haʔu
Sa'a haʔupandanus with broad leaves used to make umbrellas; an umbrella of haʔu leaves
Arosi haʔua pandanus; a mat made by sewing together the dried leaves of pandanus
Bauro hagupandanus

Note:   Also Mongondow bakoŋ ‘kind of pandanus with fragrant leaves’. Despite the superficial dissimilarity of the Crinum asiaticum and the pandanus (a plant of considerably greater stature), it is possible that *bakuŋ₁ and *bakuŋ₂ represent a single etymon. The Crinum asiaticum is noteworthy not only for its rather striking snow-white blossoms with six long, slender, widely splayed petals, but also for its long fragrant leaves which somewhat resemble those of the pandanus in form (and, in some cases, in fragrance). These similarities may have triggered parallel semantic changes which reassigned reflexes of PAn *bakuŋ from associations with the Crinum asiaticum to associations with various redolent members of the genus Pandanus. Alternatively, PMP *bakuŋ may already have had both meanings.


*ba(ŋ)kuq curved, bent


PMP     *ba(ŋ)kuq curved, bent

Cebuano bákuʔstoop-shouldered; become hunched
Kenyah (Long Wat) bakoʔbend, curve
Bare'e waŋkubent over, inclined, of someone who does not walk erect; leaning over, as a house or tree
Kambera bakubent, curved

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.


*bala₁ to adze, shape wood with an adze


PWMP     *bala₁ to adze, shape wood with an adze

Itbayaten valachips produced in lumbering, small chips cut off from wood by axe
Tiruray balato shape roughly, as wood, prior to smooth or detail finishing
Tae' balawork wood with an adze

Note:   Iban bala-n ‘make smooth with an adze’ may reflect *bala-en.


*bala₂ pen, enclosure for domesticated animals


PMP     *bala₂ pen, enclosure for domesticated animals     [disjunct: *bara₁, *baRa₂]

Malagasy valathe wooden fence of a cattle pen
Gorontalo balafence
Uma walafence, enclosure
Bare'e wayafence, enclosure
Tae' balafence, enclosure
Mandar balafenced enclosure for animals
Serui-Laut farafence, palisade


POC     *bala₄ fence; animal pen; fortification

Mussau bala-balafence
'Āre'āre parafence, trap
  para ni kenian enclosure of girls, virgins, taboo for men
Arosi barahedge; fence made of wood
  bara-baraa fence around a grave


*bala₃ whatever, whichever


PMP     *bala₃ whatever, whichever     [disjunct: *bara₃]

Tagalog balawhatever, whichever, whoever
Old Javanese walain compounds it seems to be 'all kinds of, in every respect'
Erai h(a)lawhat, something


POC     *pala₂ some, somewhat

Label hala, some, somewhat


*(bp)ala₁ dried out


POC     *(bp)ala₁ dried out

Molima vala-valaget dry; to heat, of sun or fire
Kwaio baladried out, of wood or tobacco; racks in house for drying wood, etc.
Woleaian pal(a)be dry, dried (as a cloth)


*(bp)ala₂ fight


POC     *(bp)ala₂ fight

Kwaio balachallenge, confront in hostility
Lonwolwol balfight, be damaged, meet damage or trouble or even death
Fijian vala (OG)to fight


*balabaw rat, mouse


PMP     *balabaw rat, mouse     [doublet: *labaw, *kalabaw]

Subanon bolabowrat
Miri balabuhrat, mouse
Kenyah (Long Anap) belabawrat
Melanau (Mukah) belabawrat, mouse
Katingan balawaurat
Sangir balaworat, mouse
Tae' balaorat, mouse
Proto-South Sulawesi *bala(b)orat, mouse
Mandar balaorat, mouse
Makassarese balaorat, mouse
Palauan bəábrodent; rat, mouse
Manggarai belaworat, mouse

Note:   Malagasy voalavo ‘a species of rat: Mus alexandrinus’ may be a product of folk etymology (< *buaq ‘fruit’?).


*balabeg spear, harpoon


PWMP     *balabeg spear, harpoon

Ilokano balábag <Aharpoon with a single barb; spear, cane, etc.
Isneg balábaga very long spear whose head is removable and has two barbs
Ifugaw balabógkind of spear, the blade of which is provided with two barbs
Malay belebak <Mbamboo spear (used in spring traps)

Note:   Malay belebak is assumed to show metathesis of the penultimate and final vowels prior to the change of last-syllable *e to a.


*(bp)ala(bp)ala fish sp.


POC     *(bp)ala(bp)ala fish sp.

Tolai palapalafish sp.
Pohnpeian palapalfish sp., rabbitfish, Siganus punctatus
Hawaiian palapalafish sp., perhaps Abudefduf abdominalis


*balabu dim, of vision


PCMP     *balabu dim, of vision     [doublet: *balabuR]

Tetun balabuto see dimly, to appear dimly or indistinctly
Soboyo balafudim vision (due to old age)


*balabuR blurred, of vision


PMP     *balabuR blurred, of vision     [doublet: *balabu]

Javanese blawurblurred, not clearly visible
Tetun balabusee dimly
Soboyo balafudim vision (due to old age)


*baladaw dagger


PWMP     *baladaw dagger

Isneg baladáwa hatchet
Tagalog balaráwdirk, dagger
Cebuano balaráwkind of dagger
Maranao baladawancient and primitive machete
Ngaju Dayak baladausmall double-edged dagger
Malay beladaua curved single-edged dagger worn hidden in the sleeve or waistbelt and used for treacherous stabbing
Gorontalo baladudouble-edged knife (used as personal weapon)
Bare'e baladoshort, pointed, double-edged dagger


*balagbag thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across


PWMP     *balagbag thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across

Cebuano balábaglie across a path; block one’s way; piece of wood or metal which lies across something
Maranao balabaghindrance, encumbrance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belavagcrosswise; lay something crosswise
Sundanese ŋa-balagbagbind the outstretched arms of someone (as a criminal) along a length of bamboo in order to hinder his movements

Note:   The Philippine forms in this comparison appear to show an irregular reduction of the medial consonant cluster.


*balai₁ fish sp.


POC     *balai₁ fish sp.

Mussau balaifish sp.
Gedaged balaia fish about two feet long, red color
Motu baifish sp.

Note:   Motu bai may reflect POc *mpali or *mpalaŋi.


*balai₂ wild yam: Dioscorea sp.


POC     *balai₂ wild yam: Dioscorea sp.

Proto-Micronesian *palaiwild, bitter, common yam: Dioscorea bulbifera
Rotuman paraikind of hard yam
Tongan palaikind of yam
Niue palaiyam variety
Samoan palaiLiane (Dioscorea sp.), one of the common yams
Rennellese pagaikind of wild yam


*balakaŋ hips


PWMP     *balakaŋ hips

Ayta Abellan balakaŋhips
Kapampangan balakáŋhips
Tagalog balakáŋhips
Malagasy valahanaloins
Iban belakaŋback, rear, behind, after
Malay belakaŋback; rear; hind-portion; behind or after
Old Javanese balakaŋ, walakaŋback
Madurese balakaŋback

Note:   The meaning of this item is not entirely clear. However, *likud appears to have meant ‘back’, and no other reconstructed form is known for the meaning ‘hips’.


*balaki edible marine fish


PWMP     *balaki edible marine fish

Ilokano balákikind of middle-sized white marine fish; it is provided with barbels and its meat is esteemed
Wolio balakikind of edible fish, the tunny: Thynnus tunnina

Note:   Maori paraki ‘a freshwater fish, the smelt: Retropinna retropinna’ shows regular correspondences with the Ilokano and Wolio forms, but probably is a chance resemblance.


*balalaCuk a bird: the woodpecker


PAN     *balalaCuk a bird: the woodpecker

Saisiyat (Taai) baLasokwoodpecker
Paiwan balatsukFormosan barbet: Megalaema oorti muchalis


PMP     *balalatuk a bird, the woodpecker

Bikol am-balátokwoodpecker
Cebuano balalátukkind of woodpecker
Maranao balalatokwoodpecker
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tem-belelatuka woodpecker
Ngaju Dayak balatokwoodpecker
Iban belatokwoodpecker
Malay belatokwoodpecker
Old Javanese walatukwoodpecker
Balinese belatuksp. of woodpecker

Note:   Also Old Javanese palatuk ‘woodpecker’. All trisyllabic reflexes are assumed to show the effects of haplology. Alternatively, the Formosan and western Indonesian forms might be taken to support *balaCuk, and the additional syllable in the Philippine forms attributed to a still unjustified affix *-al-. Despite the problem of justifying an analysis *b-al-alaCuk, this solution would offer some advantages, since the alternative chosen here creates a canonically anomalous quadrisyllable. It is possible that *balalaCuk contains a *bala- variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix. Whatever the history of the first two syllables, it seems clear that the last syllable of this item is the root *-Cuk ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*(bp)alalan slant, lean over (as a tree)


POC     *(bp)alalan slant, lean over (as a tree)

Kapampangan halalato slant; oblique (angle)
Tolai balalancrooked, aslant, as a tree; to sag
Tongan falalalean on or against; rely, trust, confide
Samoan falalalean (as a coconut tree leaning over the water)
Rennellese hagagaslanting, leaning, bent; lean against
Maori whararalean, stoop, decline (as the setting sun)

Note:   POc *-n is sometimes lost in Tolai (*pulan > bulā (NG) ‘moon’), but is retained in other lexical items (*taqun > taun ‘season, time, period’).


*balalantiq tree sp.


PWMP     *balalantiq tree sp.

Isneg balansícommon tree whose leaves are used for the wrappers of cigars and whose timber is used for the shafts of spears
Hanunóo balántiʔtree sp.: Kleinhovia hospita L.
Cebuano balalántiʔsmall tree, the leaves of which have a medicinal use; the wood is of magical importance, esp. in sorcery
Ngaju Dayak balantirather thick tree with white bark and hard and durable timber

Note:   Also Iban belati (expected **belatih) ‘tree sp.: Brownlowia cuspidata Pierre’, Malay meranti ‘tree name, mostly Shorea spp.’, Karo Batak beranti ‘various trees, including Shorea leprosula, which yields a useful resin’, Simalur barati ‘jambu tree and fruit’. The Isneg, Hanunóo, and Ngaju Dayak reflexes are assumed to show haplology. This item may have contained a *bala- variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix.


*balalaŋ₁ grasshopper, locust


PWMP     *balalaŋ₁ grasshopper, locust

Kapampangan bálaŋkind of insect said to be destructive to coconut trees
Tagalog bálaŋlocust
Malagasy valálalocust, grasshopper
Malay belalaŋgrasshopper; cricket; mantis
Dairi-Pakpak Batak balaŋgrasshopper
Sundanese walaŋgrasshopper
Old Javanese walaŋcricket, grasshopper, locust
Javanese walaŋlocust, grasshopper, or similar insect with jointed legs
Balinese balaŋgrasshopper, locust
Sasak balaŋgrasshopper

Note:   Also Malay bilalaŋ ‘grasshopper’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak baleŋ ‘grasshopper’, Old Javanese wilala, wilalan ‘grasshopper’. The reflexes of *balalaŋ are assumed to show haplology in all witnesses except Malagasy and Malay.


*balalaŋ₂ long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe


PPh     *balalaŋ₂ long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe

Casiguran Dumagat balaláŋa bird: the sandpiper
Sangir balalaŋa bird: the snipe

Note:   Also Sangir baralaŋ ‘snipe’.


*balan scratch or wale on the skin


PMP     *balan scratch or wale on the skin     [disjunct: *balar]

Malay balanwheal
  harimau balan daunthe marbled cat: Felis marmorata
Balinese balanweal raised by a blow with a thin stick or lash
Ngadha balastripe, streak, wale on skin


*balanak a sea fish: the mullet


PWMP     *balanak a sea fish: the mullet

Ilokano balánakfish sp.
Tagalog bánakadult large-scaled mullet fish, known as agwás when still spawning and taliloŋ when still immature: Mugil waigensis
Bikol balánakfish sp. found in rivers
Hanunóo balánakmedium-sized white fish
Aklanon baeánakfish sp.
Cebuano balánakgeneric for large mullets: Mugilidae
Maranao balanaklarge mullet
Tiruray belanaka mullet: Mugil spp.
Ngaju Dayak balanaka sea fish
Iban belanakgrey mullet: Mugil spp.
Malay belanakgrey mullet: Mugil spp.
Simalur balanaʔa river fish, family Mugilidae
Sundanese balanaka fish that stays in river mouths
Old Javanese balanaka sea fish, the grey mullet
Madurese balanaʔmullet
Mandar balanaʔmullet
Buginese balanaʔmullet
Makassarese balanaʔa sea fish, the mullet

Note:   Different growth stages of the mullet probably were terminologically distinguished in PMP (cf. PMP *qaRuas ‘young growth stage of mullet’). In addition, the adult forms of different species may have been distinguished in PWMP (cf. PMP, PWMP *kanasay ‘mullet’). Tagalog bának is assumed to be a contraction of earlier *bahanak, with rare but recurrent *l > /h/ and accommodation to a disyllabic canonical target (Blust 1976a).


*balaŋ₁ scar


PMP     *balaŋ₁ scar

Mentawai balakscar, cicatrix
Manggarai balaŋscar, former wound


*balaŋ₂ side, part


PCEMP     *balaŋ₂ side, part

Sika walaŋside, part


POC     *balaŋ₄ side, part

Tigak palpart
Nggela palaside, part
Tongan palaside, edge

Note:   Also Kambera mbara ‘direction, side, course’, Hawu bara ‘side, wind direction’, 'Āre'āre paro ‘beyond, on the side’, Mota para ‘sideways, turning aside’, all of which are probably unrelated to the above set and, except for Kambera mbara and Hawu bara, to one another.


*balaŋ₃ spotted, striped, multi-colored


PWMP     *balaŋ₃ spotted, striped, multi-colored     [doublet: *baleŋ, *belaŋ]

Kelabit balaŋtiger
Mongondow balaŋspotted, striped, multi-coloured, mottled
Bare'e wayamulti-colored

Note:   With root *-laŋ₂ ‘striped’.


*balaŋa shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan


PAN     *balaŋa shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan

Paiwan valaŋaa mortar
  valaŋa-laŋaminiature mortar (for betel nut)
Yami vahaŋasoup bowl
Itbayaten vaxaŋasmall clay plate for food (sweet potato, yam, rice, meat, etc.)
Kapampangan balaŋáʔclay pot, used to cook viands
Tagalog balaŋáʔwide-mouthed earthen cooking pot
Ngaju Dayak balaŋasacred jar
Iban belaŋaʔwide-mouthed earthenware cooking pot
Malay belaŋawide-mouthed cooking pot for cooking vegetables, curries, etc. -- not for boiling rice
Karo Batak belaŋashallow iron pan in which one cooks sugar, fries meat, etc.
Toba Batak balaŋairon pan
Makassarese balaŋaearthen rice pot with small opening
Wolio balaŋaearthen cooking pot


POC     *palaŋa potsherd used as a frying pan

Gedaged palaŋpotsherd, used to render fat and to cook oil; frying pan, shallow roaster

Note:   Also Siraya vaŋara ‘mortar’, Paiwan valaŋa ‘mortar’, Buli palaŋa (expected **palaŋ) ‘kind of old pot in which one puts tree roots that are boiled to make a medicine’, Malagasy vilany ‘cooking vessel, pot, pan’ (expected **valany). Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baŋa, *balaŋa ‘vessel, receptacle’, basing the shorter variant entirely on the comparison of Tagalog baŋáʔ ‘low earthen water jar’ with trisyllables in the other languages examined. A number of the forms in island Southeast Asia may be Malay loans, but this cannot be true of Gedaged palaŋ, which confirms the antiquity of this word. For a useful and more detailed discussion of POc *palaŋa cf. Ross (1996).


*balaŋa(q) inattentive


PWMP     *balaŋa(q) inattentive

Aklanon baeáŋaloss of attention, distraction
Malay belaŋahto gape
Sundanese balaŋahcareless, inattentive

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’. This item may be a convergent innovation.


*balaŋi fish sp.


POC     *balaŋi fish sp.     [disjunct: *mpalai]

Motu baifish sp.
Fijian balaŋia fish: Teuthis sp.
Tongan palaŋifish sp.
Samoan palaŋiname given to certain fishes of the genus Acanthurus (Surgeon fishes) when about one foot long
Rennellese pagaŋikind of surgeonfish, perhaps ring-tail surgeonfish: Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes
Hawaiian palania surgeonfish (Acanthurus dussumieri) famous for a strong odor


*balaq split, divide


PWMP     *balaq split, divide

Isneg baláʔeasy to cleave (said of wood)
Maranao balaʔopponent; oppose
Maloh balaʔcut, split
Malay balahdispute, argue
Minangkabau balahsplit, divide
Bare'e bayashallow indentation or other division of a terrain; groove between the two halves of the back, breasts, buttocks
  balasplit, in pieces

Note:   With root *-laq ‘split’.


*balaqih co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses


PPh     *balaqih co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses

Kapampangan baláifather of a married child as he stands related to the father of his child's spouse
Tagalog baláea parent of one's son- or daughter-in-law
Bikol baláyiin-laws
Hanunóo baláyithe reciprocal relationship between parents of mates, as the relationship between a man's parents and the parents of his wife
Aklanon baeáyi(h)the relationship of the parents of each wedded couple; co-parents-in-law
Palawan Batak bálaygrandparent-in-law (sex undifferentiated)
Maranao balaʔiin-laws; marriage vows
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belaʔiany relative of one's son-in-law or daughter-in-law
Tiruray belaʔiparent-in-law (probably a Maranao loan)


*balar scratch or wale on the skin


PMP     *balar scratch or wale on the skin

Malay cakar balarscratches and scars all over a body
Sasak balarweal
Manggarai balarlong (of scratch or scar)
Ngadha balastripe, streak, wale on skin


*balaR pale, unnaturally white


PMP     *balaR₁ pale, unnaturally white

Malay balarunnatural or albino whiteness, esp. in a buffalo
Hawu warawhite, bleached white


POC     *balaR₂ pale, albino

Lau balawhite from scars (face, body)
'Āre'āre para-parawhite, pale
Sa'a palalight in color (coconuts, people, animals); cataract in eye; pale; faded
  pala-palagrey, whitish
Arosi barapale in color (as a yellowish coconut); pale from fear or illness, of men
Maori paraturned yellow, sere, discolored

Note:   Manggarai walak ‘extremely white (cotton)’, Ngadha bhara ‘white, whitish, gray’, Sika bala ‘ivory, elephant tusk’, Kambera bara ‘white’ and Leti warsa ‘white (as a horse)’ exhibit phonetic and semantic similarities to the forms cited here, but cannot be reconciled with them under any known correspondence formula. With root *-laR ‘whitened’.


*bala(R)báR crosswise, athwart


PPh     *bala(R)báR crosswise, athwart

Bontok balábaglie crosswise, as a person lying across the narrow part of a sleeping mat; be in a horizontal position, of something that should be vertical
Kankanaey balabágto lay, etc. askew, obliquely, across, awry
Ifugaw balábaghorizontal position of a wooden stick, a cane, a shelf of canes, a spear including its shaft, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat balagbágbe crosswise, as to carry something sideways on your back, for the wind to be against the side of a boat, or for game to stand sideways to the hunter
Tagalog balagbágcrossbeam; placed or lying crosswise
Bikol balagbágcrosswise
Hanunóo balagbágparallel zigzag lines usually running across, i.e., horizontally, a decorated object
Aklanon baeábagblocking, obstructing, put across, stretching over; thwart, hindrance, obstruction
Cebuano balábaglie across a path; block someone's way, for a fetus to be in a transverse position
Maranao balabaghindrance, encumbrance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belavagcrosswise; lay something crosswise
Tiruray berawarlay something across something else or between two points

Note:   Although the proposed cognation almost certainly is valid, this comparison is problematic in two respects. First, the Bontok, Kankanaey and Ifugaw reflexes suggest *g, not *R for the final consonant. The Tiruray reflex instead indicates *R, while all other reflexes are ambiguous. Since *R is known to be reflected sporadically as /g/ in some Philippine languages, but *g is not known to be reflected as /r/ I adopt *R in the reconstruction. Second, the Casiguran Dumagat, Tagalog, Bikol, and Hanunóo reflexes point to *balaRbaR, which raises the possibility of an infixed reduplication *b-al-aRbaR, while the Bontok, Kankanaey, Ifugaw, Aklanon, and Cebuano reflexes indicate *balabaR.


*balaRen vine


PWMP     *balaRen vine

Bikol balágonvine
Aklanon baeágonvine (generic term)
Waray-Waray balagonvine; twine
Agutaynen balagenvines that grow as weeds in a field or forest
Cebuano balágunvine; grow like a vine
Maranao balagenrattan
Subanen/Subanun balagonvine
Binukid balagengeneric for rattan
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belaɣenrattan (generic)
Mansaka baragunvine
Tausug bāgunvine
Proto-Minahasan *balahancucumber
Bare'e wayaacreeper, vine, liana, rope, cord

Note:   Also Tiruray berogon ‘a wild vine: Merremia peltata’, Bare'e balara ‘rope made of strong liana’, Tae' balaan ‘vine that is used as a rope’. If cognate with the Philippine forms both Proto-Minahasan *balahan and Bare'e wayaa show assimilation of the last vowel. This item may be a loanword which has spread into Sulawesi from the north.


*balát edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber


PPh     *balát edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber

Ilokano balátkind of blackish, edible worm, resembling a leech; it is found in brackish pools along the seashore
Bikol bálatshellfish which breeds along the beaches
Hanunóo balátedible black squid, but not greatly valued as a source of food
Aklanon baeátedible green or black eel found at seashore
Agutaynen balatsea cucumber (generic); these are found in the tidal flats, are cylindrical in shape and express a white, sticky substance when squeezed; some are edible
Cebuano balátsea cucumber
Mapun bātsea cucumber
Yakan balatsea cucumber, trepang (generic)
Tausug bātlarge sea cucumber, trepang


*bala(n)tik spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion


PWMP     *bala(n)tik spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion

Itbayaten vaxatichfishing rod used at night near the shore by standing on an elevated rock
Ilokano balantíkflipping, flicking with the tip of a stick; being hit by a twig that crosses the path in a forest
Casiguran Dumagat bilatektype of trap (for spearing deer and wild pig; consists of a bamboo spring which shoots a bamboo spear into the side of the animal)
Hanunóo balátikhorizontal spring spear pig trap, usually equipped with a long, tapering bamboo point
Aklanon baeátikbooby trap, improvised trap, (to catch by surprise)
Cebuano balátiktrap consisting of a trip rope which releases a spear
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belatikbamboo spear trap; the constellation Orion
Tboli belatikspring-spear trap for wild pigs
Kayan belatikto flip; to spring back straight, as a bent sapling suddenly springing straight; a pig trap using a spear propelled by a bent sapling
Iban belatiktrap consisting of a low frame from which a spear is hurled when the trap is sprung
Malay belantékspring-gun, spring-spear, spring-trap
  bintaŋ belantékOrion
Balinese belantiktiger-trap
Sangir balatiʔspring-set spear trap for pigs
Tae' baʔtikflicking movement of the tongue in speaking; resilient rebound of an object that has been bent down (under tension) when it is released

Note:   The meaning ‘Orion’ in Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Malay may point to a distinct morpheme (cf. Orion ‘the hunter’), but if parallels between different language families are any indication it is likely that all forms cited here belong to a single cognate set. With root *-tik₁ ‘spring up; flicking motion’.


*balatuk kind of ladder


PWMP     *balatuk kind of ladder

Toba Batak balatukladder
Bare'e wayatubamboo or long pole in which the stumps of the branches remain, used as a ladder in climbing trees

Note:   Sangir tem-balatuŋ, Bare'e balatu ‘steps of a ladder’ suggest that this comparison may be a product of chance.


*balatuŋ the mung bean: Phaseolus spp.


PWMP     *balatuŋ the mung bean: Phaseolus spp.

Ilokano balátoŋgreen gram, mungo: Phaseolus radiatus
Isneg balátoŋthe green gram or mungo: Phaseolus radiatus
Bontok balátuŋkind of small, black bean: Vigna sp.
Ifugaw balátoŋkind of bush producing small, black beans: Phaseolus radiatus L.
Pangasinan balatóŋmung beans
Kapampangan balátoŋmongo bean
Tagalog balátoŋmung or mongo bean, green gram bean: Phaseolus aureus Roxb.
Bikol balátoŋlong beans
Hanunóo balátuŋmungo bean: Phaseolus aureus Roxb.
Cebuano balátuŋkind of string bean, reaching more than a foot and less than an inch around: Vigna sesquipedialis
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belatuŋmungo bean: Phaseolus aureus
Kadazan Dusun bahatuŋbean

Note:   The last syllable vowel in Ilokano, Isneg, Ifugaw, Kapampangan, and Bikol suggests borrowing from Tagalog, where lowering of *u is regular, Kadazan Dusun bahatuŋ (expected **vohatuŋ) also appears to be a loan. This item thus may be a Greater Central Philippine innovation which acquired a wider distinction through borrowing. Balinese belatuŋ ‘cactus’, Bare'e wayatu, Makassarese balatuŋ ‘the rambutan tree and fruit: Nephelium sp.’ are assumed to be unrelated.


*baláw negative marker


PPh     *baláw negative marker

Kankanaey baláwcontradict, gainsay
Hanunóo baláwno, not; an emphatic negative similar to bukun, but not so strong, and less frequently used in conversation ... it is common in certain set phrases


*balaw₁ small shrimp sp.


PPh     *balaw₁ small shrimp sp.

Ilokano balaw-bálawfresh-water shrimp or prawn, not much larger than the head of a pin
Bikol baláwsmall shrimp


*balaw₂ a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree


PWMP     *balaw₂ a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree

Ilokano bálawa tree: Dipterocarpus spp.
Cebuano baláwa tree: light species of Dipterocarpus (source of timber and resin); resinous preparation used to caulk and waterproof a boat, obtained from the sap of the Dipterocarpus and Agathis philippinensis
Malay balauname for trees yielding a particular class of timber used in wharf and bridge building: Shorea, Swintonia, and Parinarium spp.
  em-balaugum-lac; shellac; also solder, sealing wax and the material used for fixing the haft of a blade in the handle. Local embalau is a gummy substance deposited by the female Coccus lacca on the twigs of certain trees, but the best embalau is imported and its exact nature is not known

Note:   Melanau (Mukah) balaw, Kayan balau ‘the cultivated sago palm’, Sangir balau ‘tree of the primary forest which has a bluish-gray, nut-like, egg-shaped fruit’ may also be related, though differing in meaning.


*balay public building, community house, guest house


PMP     *balay public building, community house, guest house

Itbayaten vaxayhouse, building
Ilokano baláyhouse, dwelling, residence
Sambal (Tina) balíhouse
Tagalog báhayhouse
Remontado baláyhouse
Bikol baláyhouse, hut
Buhid baláyhouse
Hanunóo baláyhouse, building; shell of a mollusk
Bantuqanon bayayhouse
Palawan Batak baláyhouse, dwelling
Cebuano baláyhouse, home
Maranao walayhouse, building, case
Ngaju Dayak balailarge, open building, either entirely without walls or with 2-3 foot high walls. In Pulopetak these are built only when one holds a death feast. Further inland every village has its balai, where games are played, where community gatherings and the discussion of legal matters take place, and where visitors find lodging
Singhi Land Dayak borismall house in farm
Malay balaipublic building, in contrast to a private house
Balinese balea platform, raised on pillars, with a thatched roof and walls on one or two sides; most houses have more than one of these in the complex, and the life of the family is lived on them ... there are bales also in temples and in public places in buildings
Sasak balehouse
Proto-Sangiric *balayhouse
Proto-Minahasan *balehouse
Ponosakan baloyhouse
Palauan baivillage meeting-house; guest-house; community house
Kayeli balaivillage meeting house
Nalik valhouse


POC     *pale canoe shed, storehouse

Mussau alehouse
Tanga palsmall house or shed; canoe shed; storehouse for ritual gifts of food
Label palhouse, men's house
Tolai palhouse, building
Mengen balehouse
Luangiua halehouse
Nggela valehouse
Kwaio falehut for childbirth (very taboo for men)
'Āre'āre harehouse of retirement for women during menstruation and after childbirth
Sa'a haleyam shed outside a garden; any shed
Arosi hareshrine, small house on poles
  hare-haresheath for knife
Arosi (Western) harehouse with one side of roof only, made in gardens
Arosi (Eastern) hareshed for yams
Bauro harecanoe house, men's house
Chuukese fáánbuilding, dwelling house, meeting house
Woleaian falmen's house, clubhouse
Sonsorol-Tobi fareboathouse; men's house
Marino valehouse
Apma valhouse
Fijian valehouse
Samoan falehouse
Maori wharehouse
Hawaiian halehouse

Note:   For an extended discussion of the meaning of this term, cf. Blust (1987).


*baláyaŋ banana sp.


PPh     *baláyaŋ banana sp.

Ilokano baláyaŋa variety of thick-skinned banana with numerous seeds, Musa sp.
Isneg baláyaŋa variety of thick-skinned, yellow, flattish banana, Musa sapientum L.
Kankanaey baláyaŋa variety of much esteemed, thick-skinned, small yellow banana
Hanunóo baláyaŋa variety of plantain (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) similar to sabʔá except that the fruits are thicker

Note:   Bare'e balaja ‘tree sp. used to make house posts’ presumably is distinct.


*balbal₁ beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them)


PAN     *balbal₁ beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them)     [doublet: *palpal]

Kavalan babbalhit with the fist
Ifugaw balbálkind of wooden slab with a handle with which women beat the clothes they are washing
Casiguran Dumagat balbálspank, hit with a stick
Aklanon báebaeto whip, beat
Tiruray balbala rigid instrument used to strike something; to strike with a balbal
Karo Batak balbalwooden beating stick with which the flower stalk of the areca palm is beaten so as to promote a flow of liquid from the plant; to beat
Toba Batak balbala club, piece of wood, with which one beats something; knock, beat, hit
Buginese babbaʔwhip
Makassarese baʔbalaʔstick used to beat; whip
Manggarai babalwhip; to whip
Yamdena babalhit, beat; something with which one hits, beats
Soboyo bababeat (clothes)
Sekar babanhit


*balbal₂ dull-witted, stupid, a stupid person


PWMP     *balbal₂ dull-witted, stupid     [disjunct: *belbel]

Maranao babaldullard, blockhead; stupid
Banjarese babalstupid
Iban babalignorant, thoughtless, slow-witted, forgetful, absent-minded
Malay babaldull-witted
Minangkabau babaldull-witted

Note:   Given its limited distribution this word may well prove to be a Malay loan in Maranao.However Malay itself has /bebal/, a form which should be borrowed into Maranao with a penultimate shwa. Moreover, neither Banjarese nor Minangkabau (which have merged *e and *a) is a likely source of loans in any Philippine language. For these reasons and because there is independent (and stronger) support for a doublet *belbel the PWMP status of this item is defended.


*bale(m)baŋ butterfly


PWMP     *bale(m)baŋ butterfly     [doublet: *baŋbaŋ₂]

Subanon belembaŋbutterfly
Melanau (Mukah) belebaŋbutterfly


*balej border, boundary


PWMP     *balej border, boundary

Karo Batak baleŋborder, partition
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baleŋboundary between two rice fields
Toba Batak balokfurrow which marks the border between two things; border
Old Javanese walerboundary, limit, end
Sasak baled-anborder, boundary

Note:   Also, Malagasy vala ‘a border, as in a rice ground’.


*bal(e)ñáw rinse, rinse off


PPh     *bal(e)ñáw rinse, rinse off

Casiguran Dumagat balnáwrinse off in fresh water (after having been in the ocean, to get the salt off one's body); rinse soap out of clothes, or off dishes
Tagalog banláw <Mfirst rinsing
Bikol balnáwto rinse, rinse off (as soap, dirt)
Aklanon bánlaw <Mrinse out (with water after soaping)
Cebuano banláw <Mrinse, clean with water

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’. Kapampangan banláw ‘wash, rinse’ (Bergaño 1860) is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog.


*baleŋ₁ spotted, streaked


PWMP     *baleŋ₁ spotted, streaked     [doublet: *balaŋ, *belaŋ]

Maranao baleŋscar, pockmark, defect
Tiruray baleŋ-anpockmarked
Melanau (Mukah) baleŋstreaked
Malay balaŋbanded (in coloring)

Note:   Also Melanau (Mukah) pe-baleŋ ‘streaked’.


*baleŋ₂ preserve meat in salt or brine


PAN     *baleŋ₂ preserve meat in salt or brine

Paiwan valeŋpickled meat (preserved with salt, water, and millet beer dregs)
Bontok baləŋto preserve corn kernels by salting them down in a jar


*bales₁ to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil


PAN     *bales₁ to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil

Saisiyat shu-baəhto revenge
Pazeh ka-baretto borrow
  pa-baretto answer
Saaroa um-ali-a-valəəto answer
  m-utu-a-valəəto echo
Rukai (Budai) tua-báləto answer
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) varesavenge, retaliate
Paiwan valetoppose someone, talk or strike back; do in return; trade places with; return a visit; oppose, take revenge
Ilokano bálestake revenge; vengeance; reward, repay; make requital, remuneration
Isneg bálatrevenge, turn (opportunity in an alternating order)
Itawis bálatretaliation, revenge; retaliate
Bontok báləsto revenge; to pay back
Ifugaw balló(h)conveys the idea of vengeance; take revenge on somebody (with unexplained -ll-)
Casiguran Dumagat balésthe custom whereby a Negrito works for a lowland person for a few days, and then the lowland person works for the Negrito for the same number of days
Pangasinan balésretribution, vengeance, price (of action, etc.)
Kapampangan ablaswhat one gives in return for something else; revenge
  ablas-anto return something; imitate
Bikol balóstake revenge on, get even with, retaliate against
  ma-balósthank you
Aklanon báeosrevenge, repayment; pay back (a favor), revenge (a crime), get even
Agutaynen mag-beletto repay, return a favor or help; to reciprocate
  belt-ento get revenge on someone; to avenge; to retaliate; to “get even” with someone
Cebuano bálusdo back to someone what he did to the agent; for something to be done one way and then the opposite way; for a brother and sister to marry people that are also brothers and sisters; avenge; return a favor, repay a moral obligation
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) balesrepay, reward; revenge
Bintulu baləs ɗawsupernatural storm precipitated by mockery of animals (lit. ‘retaliate day’)
Malagasy valythe answer to a question or a letter; a reply; a revenge or recompense
Malay balasrequital, repayment; reply (e.g. to a letter)
Toba Batak balosrepay something to someone, retaliate; answer (a letter)
Nias balərevenge
Lampung balosreturn something
Sundanese balesretribution, retaliation; retaliate, avenge; to answer
Old Javanese walesreturn, reaction, countermove, repayment, retaliation, revenge
Javanese walesretribution, revenge; response; reaction; return
Balinese balesreward, recompense, desserts; to reward, repay, retaliate; respond, reply (to a letter)
Sasak balesanswer; avenge
Buginese waleʔreciprocate, do in return
Makassarese balasaʔwhat is reciprocated; revenge; answer (to a letter or request)
Komodo balahto answer, repay
Kambera balahuretribution, retaliation; compensation; result
Erai halasrepay, revenge
Kisar walherepay, requite, answer
Roma wahal <Manswer
Leti walsarepay, requite, answer
Fordata valatanswer, repay, requite
Kowiai/Koiwai na-falesto answer
Buli palasto pay

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak balaeh ‘repayment, retaliation, revenge; take revenge, pay back’ (with unexpl. *-s > /h/), Selaru alas ‘to answer’ (expected **balas), Buli balas ‘answer, take revenge’ (expected **palas). Dempwolff (1934-38:86a) gives *s > /h/ as a rare sporadic change in Ngaju Dayak, but it appears to be found only in this form. As noted elsewhere, there is a pervasive similarity between the glosses of *bales and certain aspects of the glosses of *baliw₂ and *balik. Only rarely does this semantic overlap create serious doubt as to which etymon a form is to be attributed.


*bales₂ to complete, perfect something


PMP     *bales₂ to complete, perfect something

Maranao balestighten; complete an operation
Tiruray balesto finish in detail, to smooth finish, as of wood
Manggarai balesbetter


POC     *palos to perfect, complete something

Motu halo-ato perfect, complete (of work badly done and returned to worker)


*báli join, participate in; accompany


PPh     *báli join, participate in; accompany

Bontok bálibe included, as a child in a game
Bikol bálijoin, become a member of ; affiliate with, associate with; engage in, partake of, participate in
Proto-Minahasan *baliaccompany, escort, lead


*bali₁ become, happen


PWMP     *bali₁ become, happen

Tiruray waleybecoming
Uma walibecome
  me-walibecome, change
Bare'e walihappen, occur

Note:   Zorc (1971) proposed PPh *baliq ‘may, can, be allowed; happen; become’. However I am unable to find any Philippine language which supports this etymon apart from Mongondow baliʔ ‘can, may, happen, become; be born’. The reflexes of *bali in both Uma and Bare'e (neither of which is a Philippine language) can be reconciled with *baliq, but Tiruray waley cannot. We might thus reconstruct PWMP *baliq, but all supporting evidence for such a reconstruction would come from geographically neighboring languages spoken in Sulawasi.

To complicate matters, a number of Philippine languages reflect a similar form with reflexes of final *n or *ŋ: Isneg balín ‘can, may, be able, be possible, allowed, permitted; finished; to end by becoming (something)’, Itawis balín ‘finish, become’, Ilokano balín ‘can, may, be able, allowed, be possible; become; change, alter, convert, transform’, TAGB baliŋ ‘become, happen, succeed, go through’. These forms may be morphologically related to Mongondow baliʔ, Tiruray waley, Uma, Bare'e wali, but if so it is unclear how. On the other hand the Tiruray, Uma and Bare'e forms could all reflect *baliw₁ in the sense of ‘change, transform’.


*bali₂ equal, equivalent


PWMP     *bali₂ equal, equivalent

Hanunóo báligood, fitting, suited
Cebuano bálibe worth it; serves one right; worth, in the amount, quantity, duration of; amount taken in advance from wages
Karo Batak baliequal, identical; as, like; repaid, of a debt
Dairi-Pakpak Batak balieasily repaid, of a debt; same, identical

Note:   Conklin (1953) suggests that Hanunóo báli derives from Spanish valer ‘be worth’. The Batak forms, however, raise doubts about this proposal.


(Formosan only)

*bali₃ wind


PAN     *bali₃ wind

Basai vatsiwind
Trobiawan vatsiwind
Kavalan bariwind
Saisiyat (Taai) baLiɁwind
Papora variwind
Pazeh bariwind
Amis faliwind
Favorlang/Babuza barriwind
Thao fariwind
  min-farito blow, of the wind
Siraya varewind
Puyuma variwind
Paiwan valiwind, air


PAN     *ma-bali₁ windy

Pazeh ma-bariblow, of the wind
Thao ma-fariwindy
Hoanya ma-baliwindy (glossed as ‘wind’ in Tsuchida 1982)
Paiwan ma-valiwind-blown

Note:   This was clearly the PAn word for ‘wind’, and was replaced in PMP by *haŋin, a form that is widespread throughout the Austronesian language family outside Taiwan.


*bali₄ lie, deception


PMP     *bali₄ lie, deception     [doublet: *baRiq]

Bontok balíevade, cheat, deceive
Kankanaey balídeceived, cheated, deluded, beguiled, taken in
Ifugaw balídeceit, fraud, lie
Pangasinan bálilie
Lun Dayeh baliha lie
Kelabit balihlie, deceive
Miri bariʔlie, tell a lie
Ngadha bhalitwist, distort, misrepresent; falsehood; misinform
Paulohi hari-harilie, deceive
Buruese fali-kfabricate or make up (a story)


PWMP     *ma-bali₂ lying, deceiving, untruthful

Pangasinan ma-baligiven to lying, untruthful
Lun Dayeh me-balihlying, untruthful


*bali₅ reverse, turn around


PMP     *bali₅ reverse, turn around     [disjunct: *balik₂]

Cebuano bálireversed, backwards; turn something over; for wind to change direction, switch party loyalty; be reversed, wrong side out, backwards
Ngadha baliturn oneself around
Kambera welireturn, turn back
Hawu ɓariturn over in one's sleep
  wariturn, change
Rotinese falireturn, go back
Tetun (Dili) faliagain

Note:   To the above we might add Old Javanese bali ‘come back, return, once more’, wali ‘again, once more’, wali, waly-an ‘retribution, compensation’, a-wali wali ‘coming back again and again repeatedly, time and again’, Javanese bali ‘return; remarry’, Madurese a-bali ‘return’. However, the Old Javanese forms are cross-referenced to waluy, and it appears likely that the entire Javanese and Madurese data set derives from *baliw₁, with perhaps some input from *baliw₂ (Old Javanese wali, waly-an ‘retribution, compensation’).


*bali₆ fish sp.


POC     *bali₆ fish sp.

Motu baifish sp.
Arosi barifish sp.
Fijian balifish sp.

Note:   Motu bai may reflect POc *mpalai or *mpalaŋi.


*balian shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony


PWMP     *balian shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony

Bikol balyán, balyán-apriestess (Bikol mythology)
Hanunóo balyánshamanism
  balyán-anshaman, medium, shaman doctor
Maranao walianlegendary witch
Subanen/Subanun balianmen and women who perform ceremonies in honor of the gods
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) beylan <Mshaman; to act or perform the office of a shaman
Kadazan Dusun bo-bohizanpriestess
Ngaju Dayak balianall ceremonies in which the balian (shamaness and ritual prostitute) plays a role; the shamaness herself
Ma'anyan wadianshaman
Iban belianperform a rite of Shamanistic curing or exorcism (pelian)
Malay belianshaman; sorceror or sorceress; touch with the spirit-world
Old Javanese walen, walyanphysician, healer
Balinese balianshaman, healer (many named varieties)
Proto-Sangiric *balianshaman
Proto-Minahasan *balian(pagan) priest, shaman
Mongondow bolianpriest, priestess
Uma baliashamanistic ceremony
Bare'e wuliashamaness, female shaman
  baliapriest, priestess in shamanistic ceremonies
Kulisusu woliashaman
Wolio baliaspirit medium

Note:   Also Iban pelian ‘generic for majority of rites for the sick performed by manaŋ (shaman)’, Makassarese balieŋ ‘(archaic) officiant at various rituals’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Malay belian, Ngaju Dayak balian with Malagasy vady ‘partner, husband, wife; companion, associate; a mate, one of a set of two’ under a proposed etymon *bali ‘escort, accompany’. Among his reasons for doing so we can surmise the following: (1) several languages in the Philippines and northern Sulawesi reflect a form having the shape and roughly the meaning he reconstructed; (2) the bulk of vocabulary in Dempwolff (1934-38) is disyllabic, and there is a well-attested PAn suffix *-an. In addition Malay belian, Ngaju Dayak balian were explicitly assumed to have meant something like ‘the one who escorts the soul to the other world’.

Despite a certain a priori plausibility there is reason to believe that Dempwolff's interpretation of this comparison was incorrect.

First, Malagasy vady almost certainly reflects *baliw₂.

Second, despite the predilections of some lexicographers (e.g. Barber 1979, who puts Balinese balian under bali ‘make offerings, sacrifice’), there is little evidence that *balian contains a suffix. Hanunóo balyán-an can perhaps be cited as indirect evidence that a suffix *-an was earlier added to a base *bali, but there is no known corroboration from any other language, and the evidence is too circumstantial to support a sound inference.

Third, *balian evidently referred not only to the shaman(ess) but also to the ceremonies of healing and exorcism which they typically conducted; Dempwolff's attempt to relate the semantics of *bali and *balian are his own, not those of native speakers.

It is noteworthy that *balian has disappeared without trace in all languages spoken by lowland Christianized Filipinos (but in Bikol was preserved in the real world long enough to incorporate the Spanish feminine ending before retreating into the less persecuted world of mythology). In Moslem communities such as the Maranao, Malay, Makassarese, and Wolio it has survived, though occasionally with semantic change motivated by religious attitudes (Maranao).


*balida fish sp.


PWMP     *balida fish sp.     [doublet: *balidaq]

Tagalog baliláhairtail fish: Trichiurus haumela
Cebuano balilawolf herring: Chirocentrus dorab
Bisaya (Limbang) beliloa featherback: Notopterus spp.
Kenyah beliraa featherback: Notopterus spp.
Iban belidaʔmarine fish
Malay belidaa featherback: Notopterus spp., believed by Malays to have once been a cat and to squall like a cat when caught (so not eaten)
Sundanese balidakind of sea and river fish
Sangir ba-walirakind of fish

Note:   The exact referent of this term remains unclear. Although the Kenyah and Malay glosses agree the compiler of the Kenyah dictionary (Galvin (1967)) probably identified the term which he collected through its Malay cognate, with the consequent danger that the Malay gloss was assumed to apply unchanged to the Kenyah form.


*balidaq fish sp.


PWMP     *balidaq fish sp.     [doublet: *balida]

Aklanon baliláʔfish -- quite long, with plenty of spines
Malay belidaha featherback: Notopterus spp., believed by Malays to have been a cat and to squall like a cat when caught (so not eaten)


*baliji grass (type of?)


PMP     *baliji kind of grass     [doublet: *balizi]

Tagalog balílian aquatic grass: Panicum stagninum
Cebuano balíligeneral name for grasses that do not grow tall
Simalur balixi, falixigrass (generic)
Sangir balirikind of grass
Bare'e walirikind of herb
Tae' baririgrass and weeds collected together to burn in firing pots


POC     *palici grass

Bebeli pɛlilgrass
Proto-Willaumez *varili <Mgrass (Goodenough 1961)
Selau wəsli <Mgrass
Kwaio falisigrassy undergrowth (generic)
'Āre'āre harisigrass, small clover
Ulawa halisigrass; onion (late use) (Ivens 1929)
Chuukese fetingeneral term for a class of plants including grasses, sedges and ferns
Puluwat fátilgeneral name for grasses
Sonsorol-Tobi fätirI <Mgrass
Mota valistall coarse grass; in recent use grass generally and onions
Mosina vilisgrass
Lakona vilihgrass
Malmariv mpalisigrass
Lametin mbalisgrass
Central Maewo mbalisigrass
Samoan falīkind of grass (?Scirpodendron sp.)


*balik₁ to mix, blend


PCMP     *balik₁ to mix, blend

Rotinese bali(k)to mix, blend, add something to something else
Yamdena valikmixture of liquid and dry substances
Fordata valikmixture of liquid and dry substances

Note:   Rotinese generally reflects PAn *b as /f/, but shows *b > b word-initially in several other comparisons which are clearly not products of chance, and not likely to be loans, as in *baRaq > ba ‘lungs’, *baqbaq ‘mouth’ > bafa(k) ‘opening, mouth, beak’, *babuy > bafi ‘pig’, *batu > batu ‘stone’, or *bulan > bula(n) ‘moon, month’.


*balik₂ reverse, turn around


PMP     *balik₂ reverse, turn around     [doublet: *bali₅]

Ilokano balíkchange, turn; move to and fro; retract, recant
Kapampangan balíkreturn something; return to somewhere
  ka-balíkopposite, opponent
Tagalog balíkreturn, restoration; return something to someone, restore
  tum-balíkupside-down, wrong end up
Bikol balíkback to front, inside out (of shoes on the wrong feet, gloves on the wrong hands); return; revert
Hanunóo balíkreturn, going back
Cebuano bálikgo, come back, come back to get something; return to a former state; have a relapse; (do) again; revive
Maranao balikrepeat, return
Kadazan Dusun balikbackside; turn oneself round, come back
Ngaju Dayak balikchange (clothes, words), turned around
Malagasy vadikaoverturned; changed; turned upside down
Iban balikturn, turn to look at; turned speech in which syllables are said in reverse order
Malay balékreversal, going back; on the contrary; turn back
  ter-balékoverturned, of a ship capsizing, etc.
Acehnese baléʔturned over or around
Karo Batak balikinverted, backwards, in error
Sundanese balikturn around, go back home
Old Javanese balikopposite, contrary; reverse
  walikturn round, reverse
Javanese balikon the contrary; in reverse order; turn this way and that
  walikon the contrary, the other way around, on the opposite side; the other way; around (as a shirt on backwards); go back on one's word, turn traitor
Balinese balikbe wrong way round, be reversed, (come) from the opposite side
Sasak balikturn around; resist; capsized (of a boat)
Proto-Sangiric *balikreturn, go back
Banggai balikfade, of colors
Uma baliʔenemy; future part; repayment, retribution
Tae' baliʔfade, of colors
  balikturn around; change, alter
Mandar baliʔreturn; change into; go home
Buginese baliʔfade, of colors
Makassarese baliʔturn oneself around
Bimanese warireversal, going back
Manggarai balikrepay, take revenge
  walékchange, turn around
Rembong balikgo home, turn round
Ngadha baliturn oneself around
  valiagain, further, besides, moreover
Lamaholot balikreturn
Kambera welireturn, turn back
Hawu ɓariturn over in one's sleep
  wariturn, change
Rotinese falireturn, go back
Atoni fanigo home
Tetun faliagain, another time; go back, return; to vomit
Erai halikback, go back, return; again
Leti waliturn oneself, go back; back again, once again
Selaru balikinvert, turn upside down
Yamdena balikturn around or about
Kei wālturn around, rotate
Paulohi hariturn over
Proto-Ambon *valiturn around

Note:   This important comparison is richly attested in both WMP and in CMP languages. Its basic literal sense appears to have been ‘to reverse, turn around’, from which such derivative senses as ‘to return home (when on a journey)’, ‘to fade, of colors’ and ‘to repeat, (do, etc.) again’ are obtained. In various languages portions of the gloss for this item overlap with the glosses posited for *baliw₁ (Ilokano balík, Maranao balik, Ngaju Dayak balik, Malagasy vadika, Tae' balik, Mandar baliʔ, Balinese balik, Uma baliʔ) or *bales (Uma baliʔ, Manggarai balik). Given their general phonetic similarity and semantic overlap, doubts may occasionally arise as to which reconstruction an attested form reflects (e.g. Hawu wari ‘turn, change’ could reflect *balik or *baliw₂).


*balikat scapula, shoulder blade


PWMP     *balikat scapula, shoulder blade

Tagalog balíkatshoulder
Ngaju Dayak balikatthe side of a thing; on the side, next to
Malay belikatscapula, shoulder-blade
Sundanese walikatshoulder blade
Old Javanese walikatshoulder blade
Madurese balikatshoulder blade
Makassarese (Salayar) balikashoulder

Note:   The rarity of reflexes outside the Java-Malaya area and areas that have been strongly affected by both Malay and Javanese (as the Ngaju Dayak region in Southeast Borneo) suggests that this item may be a western Indonesian innovation that has spread to Tagalog and Salayarese by borrowing.


*balíkes encircle, wrap around


PPh     *balíkes encircle, wrap around

Kankanaey balíkesone of the most ordinary kinds of woven belts, yellow and red
Ifugaw balíkohwoman's belt
Cebuano balíkuscoil, put around something else (as a python seizing a pig)

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*baliketád reverse, turn around


PPh     *baliketád reverse, turn around

Bontok baliktádturn inside out, as clothes; turn over, turn upside down
Casiguran Dumagat balikatár-anreversible (as of a jacket that can be worn inside-out)
Bikol baliktádinverted, overturned, upside down; the opposite, reverse
Mongondow balikotadroll over, turn

Note:   Also Kapampangan baligtád ‘backwards’, baligtar-ín ‘reversible cloth, political turncoat’, Tagalog baligtád ‘inside-out, upside-down’, Cebuano baligtád ‘wrong side out, up; contrary to what is expected’. Conklin (1956) gives Tagalog baliktád, and notes that in addition to its usual dictionary glosses it refers to a type of "Pig Latin" based on systematic phonological distortion intended to conceal the content of messages. In this connection it is noteworthy that Richards (1981) gives a similar extended meaning for Iban balik.

Prepenultimate *a normally becomes Mongondow /o/ (through earlier shwa) and the absence of such a change in the present case suggests that balikotad is still treated by Mongondow speakers as bimorphemic. In addition to balikotad Dunnebier (1951) lists kotad ‘roll over, turn’, thus raising the possibility that *baliketad contains a variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix. At the same time a derivation from *balik plus some still unidentified morpheme *etad seems equally plausible.


*balikid reverse, turn over or around


PPh     *balikid reverse, turn over or around

Ilokano balíkidreverse; turn over
Isneg balíkidturned over, reversed
Kankanaey balíkidcome to life again, be resuscitated, rise from the dead
Cebuano balikídturn around, look back
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belikidturn over; inside out

Note:   Also Yami valiked ‘flip stones over’, Cebuano balilikid ‘turn around, look back’.


*balíkis tie around; belt


PPh     *balíkis tie around; belt

Ifugaw (Batad) balíkisrelatively narrow imported belt of leather
Cebuano balíkiscoil, put around something else (as a python coiling round a pig)

Note:   With root *-kis₂ ‘tie, band’.


*balikutkút bend, curl up


PPh     *balikutkút bend, curl up

Ilokano balikutkútbend, incline the body, stoop
Cebuano balikutkútbunch, fold, curl up in an irregular way; cause something to do so

Note:   With root *-kut ‘hunched over, bent’.


*baliliŋ turn, revolve


PWMP     *baliliŋ turn, revolve

Tagalog balilíŋphysiologically twisted (of the neck)
Kayan beliliŋround, circular (as a coin)
Madurese baliliŋfall with a spiraling motion
Bare'e walilicircle, circuit
Mandar baliliturn oneself around when lying or sleeping; rotate
Wolio baliliturn around, turn over, roll over

Note:   Also Sa'a palili ‘turn aside’, Arosi bariri ‘turn aside, push aside’. With root *-liŋ₃ ‘turn, revolve’.


*balilit species of edible snail


PPh     *balilit species of edible snail

Casiguran Dumagat balilítspecies of edible marine triton shell, genus Cymatium
Hanunóo balílittiny edible fresh-water snail with a smooth, spiraled black shell


*balin-tuaj somersault


PWMP     *balin-tuaj somersault (cf. *tuaj)

Ilokano balintuágturn a somersault, tumble, revolve, rotate; turn upside down
Bontok balintuwágfall on one's head; tumble end over end
Tagalog balintuwádbottom-up, upside down
Cebuano balintúwadfall headlong on the face; pick someone up by the feet and hold him upside down
Maranao balintoadsomersault
Tae' balittuaʔturn upside down; head over heels, tumble over

Note:   This word appears to contain a variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix.


*balinu creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae


PPh     *balinu creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae

Yami valinoa type of plant: beach morning glory
Itbayaten valinoa vine, Ipomoea pes-caprae (if you cut off the leaves and tie the vine around your belly you will be protected from sea-sickness, nausea, etc.)
Ivatan vadinobeach morning glory
Ilokano balinówater lily
Ibanag balinustar lotus, red and blue water lily: Nymphaea nouchali


*baliŋ₁ misunderstand, fail to grasp


PWMP     *baliŋ₁ misunderstand, fail to grasp

Old Javanese waliŋmistaken belief, thinking (wrongly)
  w-in-aliŋto think (wrongly)
Mongondow baliŋtemporarily forgotten or misunderstood


*baliŋ₂ bent, twisted


PWMP     *baliŋ₂ bent, twisted

Tagalog báliŋturn or inclination of the head
Maranao baliŋtooth turned inward
Malay baliŋrevolution; circling round a central point
Karo Batak baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baliŋbent, as a board
Toba Batak baliŋbent, warped; iron implement with which the teeth of a saw are bent (?)


PWMP     *baliŋ baliŋ spiral or circle round

Aklanon baliŋ-baliŋunsteady, aimless (said of a flying object without aim)
Malay baliŋ-baliŋwhirligig; missile hurled by being swung round the head, e.g. a stone attached to a string; bull-roarer
Simalur baliŋ-baliŋchild's toy windmill
Karo Batak baliŋ baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill
Toba Batak baliŋ-baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill
Tae' baliŋ-baliŋspiral around while falling

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Ngaju Dayak baliŋ ‘bundle’ (= ‘what is made by winding around’). On similar grounds we might include Subanen/Subanun baliŋ ‘cloth girdle or belt’. With root *-liŋ₃ ‘turn, revolve’.


*baliŋbiŋ a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola


PWMP     *baliŋbiŋ a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola

Tagalog balimbíŋa small tree whose edible fleshy fruit has five longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola Linn.
Bikol baliŋbíŋstarfruit: Averrhoa carambola
Cebuano baliŋbíŋa small cultivated tree with oblong fruit having longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola
Iban belimbiŋfive-ridged fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Averrhoa carambola L.
Malay belimbiŋridged longitudinally
  buah belimbiŋfruit from the tree Averrhoa bilimbi
Toba Batak baliŋbiŋa sour fruit; kind of tamarind
Sundanese caliŋciŋkind of tree with sour fruit
Madurese baliŋbiŋa tree and its edible fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi
Balinese beliŋbiŋspecies of fruit which grows on trees
Sangir balimbiŋa tree and its edible fruit: Averrhoa carambola

Note:   Also Bikol balimbíŋ ‘starfruit: Averrhoa carambola’, Cebuano balimbíŋ ‘a small cultivated tree with oblong fruit having longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola’. Merrill (1954) notes that although this plant is indigenous to tropical Asia it is widely cultivated. As a result part of the distribution of *baliŋbiŋ reflexes may be due to borrowing. I assume this to be the case with Sika balimbeŋ ‘shrub with edible fruit’ (expected **welimbiŋ). As observed in Blust (1970), the heterorganic cluster in this reconstruction suggests that it can be analyzed into a reduplicated monosyllable infixed with *-al-.


*baliq fracture, break


PMP     *baliq fracture, break

Tagalog báliʔfracture, break along the length; fractured, broken
Aklanon báliʔget broken in two, get fractured (as an arm)
  balíbroken, fractured
Hawu ɓaribroken, in pieces


*balisúsu a bird: the kingfisher


PPh     *balisúsu a bird: the kingfisher

Kankanaey balisósokingfisher
Hanunóo balisúsumedium-sized red-billed kingfisher


*bali(n)taŋ piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam


PWMP     *bali(n)taŋ piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam

Ilokano balítaŋbamboo seat
Isneg balitāŋframework in the shape of a hammock used for transporting tobacco leaves
Bikol balítaŋa tripod consisting of three stakes driven into the ground and serving as a holder for a pot (used for cooking when in the fields, on the trail, etc.)
Cebuano balitáŋwhippletree of a plow; wood used in stripping abaca, fishing with a net that is pulled, etc.; piece of bone, vein or tendon supposed to lie across the vagina which obstructs the easy birth of a child
Malay belintaŋsplit bamboo rails for a fence; laying across; cutting off, cutting communications
Toba Batak balintaŋcrossbeam of a fence


*balítiq a tree: the banyan or strangler fig


PPh     *balítiq a tree: the banyan or strangler fig

Yami valicibanyan tree: Ficus caulocarpa
Itbayaten valitiplant sp. (Moraceae, Ficus stipulosa Miq.)
Ivatan vadicibanyan tree: Ficus stipulosa
Ibatan badicibanyan tree: Ficus stipulosa
Ilokano balítiFicus sp. Moraceous trees whose timber is used for building: F. indica L., F. stipulosa Miq., F. benjamina L., F. concinna Miq., etc.
Isneg balísiFicus indica L. and similar species of Moraceous trees
Kapampangan balítiʔsp. of tree, said to be a favored place of spirits
Tagalog balítiʔtype of fig tree
Bikol balítiʔbanyan (plays a prominent part in legends and mythology, calling forth associations of the dark and evil)
Aklanon baléteʔbalete tree: Ficus benjamina L.
Maranao balintiʔbanyan tree: Schefflera insularum Seem. Harms
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belitiʔa balete tree: the strangler fig

Note:   Also Hanunóo balíti ‘a tree (Ficus benjamina Linn.), really a vine, which strangles and eventually replaces its tree host’.


*balitúk gold ore


PPh     *balitúk gold ore

Ilokano balitókgold
  balitok-ankind of speckled marine fish
Isneg balitóʔgold
Kankanaey balitókgold
Ifugaw balitókit is often used in the sense of “gold”, though it properly means a gold ornament, either a necklace composed of several golden pieces, or a golden earring
Ifugaw (Keley-i) balitukthe metal gold
Ibaloy balitokgold; deity invoked in some rituals (he was traditionally held to be the owner of all gold; thus a mining venture is preceded by an appropriate ritual)
Pangasinan balitókgold
Ayta Abellan balitokgold (Ilokano loan?)
Tagalog balitókgold ore


*baliuŋ adze, axe


PWMP     *baliuŋ adze, axe

Ngaju Dayak balioŋnative axe
Iban belioŋadze
Malay beliuŋadze, small hatchet
Toba Batak baliuŋadze
Mentawai baliokaxe; chop with an axe
Sundanese baliuŋnative axe or adze
Proto-Sangiric *baliuŋaxe
Mongondow boliuŋaxe
Bare'e baliuadze (an imported tool)
Buginese baliuŋadze

Note:   Although this item is described as a ‘native’ axe or adze in the sources for Ngaju Dayak and Sundanese, part of the distribution of *baliuŋ reflexes may be a product of borrowing. Tetun baliuk, baliun ‘axe’ probably is a Malay loan.


*baliw₁ dual division, moiety


PMP     *baliw₁ dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy

Ilokano báliwopposite bank, shore
Ifugaw báliwact of turning oneself when walking, etc. and continue (walking, etc.) in the opposite direction; produce an action which will have an effect which is the contrary of what somebody else tries to produce (e.g. to defend the life of somebody who is attacked); opposite part (e.g. the lowlands are the balíw-on of the mountain area and vice versa
Bikol balyógo across, go over to the other side
Malagasy vadypartner, husband, wife; a companion, an associate; a mate, one of a set of two (thus the saucer is the vady of a cup)
  vadylahya friend
Mentawai baliwbrother, sister
Mongondow baluy <Moppose, answer back or contradict the village head
Gorontalo baliopponent, adversary (as in a cockfight)
Bare'e balireverse side, opposite part
  sam-balione side
  si-balimerged or fused with
Tae' balicompanion, mate; partner, whenever two parties oppose each other, as in a cockfight; opponent; answer, oppose resist
  to pa-bali-anassistant, helper; the slave who stands at the side of the to mebalun (funeral director) at the performance of the death ritual
  saŋ-balione side, either member of body parts that come in pairs
  si-balibecome a pair, marry
Kulisusu balienemy
Proto-South Sulawesi *bali₁side (friend, partner)
  *bali₁ + istand beside, help
  *bali₂enemy (oppose)
  *bali₃answer (contradict, answer back)
Wolio baliside, direction, opponent, enemy; counting-word for things occurring in pairs (e.g. parts of the body); face, be opposite to


PCEMP     *bali₈ dual division, moiety

Manggarai balifriend; enemy; divided in halves; foreign, alien
Rotinese falihelp, stand beside
Leti waliside, half; partner, companion; opponent like
  loke wali-liopposite side of the river
Yamdena bali-nside, opposite side; half, one of a pair
  ŋriye bali-nenemy, opponent; opposed party
Kei wali-nside, opposite side
Paulohi halu (< *baluy)answer
Soboyo fali-hayaplacenta
  fali-tuhafriend, companion


POC     *bali₇ answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy

Petats palhalf
Nggela mbalibring together, of opposite planks of a canoe
Kwaio balipart, side
Lau balipart, side, portion, half; disunited, on the other side; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided
  bali ʔana geni, bali ʔana wanebride's people, bridegroom's people
Mokilese uh-palside with
Puluwat páliy, peliyside, as in a game or war; half-section
Woleaian paliyside, flank
  paliy-etamoutrigger side, windward side of a canoe
Mota ta-val-abeyond, the other side of
  ta-val-a imwathe other side of the house; members of the other veve, with whom alone marriage is allowed
  ta-val-iua side or part, where there are two, the one or the other
Lonwolwol walithe one (or other) of (a pair); the mate of
Tahitian pariside
Tuamotuan pari-aa half


PMP     *baliw₄ cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt)

Ilokano balíw-anset right, correct, mend
Ngaju Dayak baliblood money for a murder
Acehnese baluy <Mtake revenge; restore or replace after a loss
Karo Batak balialike, equal, settled (of a debt)
Tae' balirepay, retaliate
Manggarai walireturn in kind (gifts, etc.)
Rembong walirepay, reply
Li'o valirestore, equalize a loss, win back what was lost in a game
Lamaholot baliw-anmake war, take revenge
Paulohi haluanswer


POC     *bali repay, replace; take revenge

Tolai bălirepay, replace, compensate, refund; punish, revenge, settle


PMP     *baliw₃ cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse

Ifugaw (Batad) bāluthat which a man or woman wears to indicate that his or her spouse has died; to put on clothing to indicate that one's spouse has died
Pangasinan baliw-anblack clothing worn by a person in mourning; to wear such clothing
Murut (Timugon) maluy <Mchange into white mourning clothes on the death of one's spouse
Fordata bali-nveil oneself, as a woman does when her husband is dead
  na-bali-n nitumourn for the dead, be in mourning
Lakalai valito mourn
Mota valto refrain from certain food as a sign of mourning


PPh     *di-baliw on the opposite side

Casiguran Dumagat dibilewthe other side (of a bay, valley, canyon, river, road, etc.)
Binukid dibaluybehind, at the back; at the other, opposite, reverse side; to be, go behind or to the opposite side of (something)

Note:   This is among the most complex comparisons known in Austronesian. For convenience in perceiving semantic groupings the reflexes have been segregated into three clusters, but all are believed to continue the same etymon. The lexicographical issue at stake is how the linguist can distinguish homophony from polysemy in a principled way in cases such as this. On the one hand we could posit homophones (1) *baliw ‘answer, oppose; opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy’; (2) *baliw ‘repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt)’; and (3) *baliw ‘don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse’.

However, there are multiple problems with this analysis. First, *-iw occurs in only three of the over 2,200 reconstructions in Dempwolff (1934-38) (*baliw ‘change’, *baRiw ‘spoiled, tainted’, *laRiw ‘flee’), and it would therefore be unexpected to find this rare diphthong in three additional morphemes all of which are homophonous with *baliw ‘change’. Second, suffixed forms reflecting *baliw-an occur in at least the semantic clusters (b) and (c). Third, and most critically, all three semantic clusters are related by a pervasive notion of duality, and are fully consistent with descriptions of the psychology of dual divisions in the ethnological literature (see Blust 1980a, Blust 1981b for further discussion).

On the other hand, we could unite at least the material cited here, as indeed we have done. Dempwolff did not consider this material, but as noted already he split *baliw₂ into two separate etyma. Later writers, as Mills (1975) have made similar decisions (in favor of homophony rather than polysemy) for some of the material cited under *baliw₁ (a). There can now be little question that all of the forms gathered under *baliw₁ reflect a single etymon. It is, moreover, likely that *baliw₁ and *baliw₂ were the same morpheme. However, the rather distinct character of the glosses associated with reflexes of *baliw₂, particularly those relating to punitive storms (Blust 1981), is difficult to reconcile with a hypothesis of a unitary PMP etymon *baliw. Formally most Oceanic cognates appear to reflect the nasal grade of *b, but a few languages (Lakalai, Mota, Lonwolwol) evidently reflect the oral grade. I am indebted to Ann Chowning and Ross Clark (p.c.) for useful comments and data relating to this comparison. As Clark points out, Mota val may not belong with the other forms cited here.


*baliw₂ return


PAN     *baliw₂ return

Proto-Rukai *mo-a-baLiwreturn home


PMP     *baliw₂ change, exchange; repeat, return; again

Ilokano ag-báliwchange, vary, alter, fade, be inconstant, fickle, unstable
Bontok nin-báliwchange, as one's habits or appearance
Tagalog balíwcrazy, demented
Hanunóo báliwtransformation, metamorphosis
  b-in-áliwpetrified, fossilized
Aklanon balíwbewitched
Cebuano báliwdivine punishment, usually for incest, consisting of being struck by lightning and turned into stone; crazy
Maranao baloy <Mmake into, convert, mutate, enchantment by evil spirit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baluy <Mturn into or be changed into something, as magic; in the terminology of marriage arrangements, to accomplish or to complete a successful negotiation
Kelabit baliwpunitive storm provoked by incest or mockery of animals in which the offender and his co-villagers are struck by lightning and turned to stone
Berawan (Long Terawan) baluythe friends or relatives of a slain man who take revenge on his slayer -- these are the baluy of the slayer
Kayan baluy <Maltered, changed; to repent
Melanau (Mukah) buen baliwpunitive storm
Ngaju Dayak baloy <Mrepeat; talkative; restore
Malagasy valu, valuz-ichange, repent
Iban baliʔchanging
  ukoy baliʔchameleon
  manaŋ balimedicine man who dresses as a woman
Old Javanese bali, walicome back, return; once more
Sangir baliwevil spirit that sometimes possesses persons
  baluychange something
Tondano waloi-en <Mchange! (imperative)
Tonsawang baluyto transform, change (shape, etc.)
Lolak balito change
Mongondow baliwexchange, replace, renew, transform
Bare'e balirepetition; different, changed
Wolio balichange, lose color, discolor, fade
Bimanese waliagain, once more
Ngadha bhalé *i > é unexpl.change, exchange, alter
Hawu ɓare, ɓarichange, repent, change one's mind
Leti waliagain, once more
Yamdena balchange oneself into
Kei wālchange into
Buruese balichange, form, become; be transformed, as by magic


PPh     *baliw-an change, exchange; repeat, return; again

Ilokano balíw-anrepeat, reiterate, do, etc. again
Bontok balíw-anchange, as one's habits or appearance
Maranao baliw-aninstead of, substitute
Tiruray baliw-ana replacement; to replace

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baliw ‘change’, *baluy ‘return, come again’. The fuller comparison given here suggests that the supporting evidence cited by Dempwolff belongs to a single cognate set in which the rare diphthong *-iw was occasionally altered by metathesis. Next to its more general meaning it is clear that by PWMP times *baliw referred to a supernatural punitive storm precipitated by incest or mockery of animals (see Blust 1981 for a fuller discussion). Although a belief in such punitive storms is also found among speakers of CMP and OC languages, as the Ngadha of Flores and the Suau of southeast New Guinea, it is unclear whether a reflex of *baliw is used to designate them, and hence whether the meaning of PMP *baliw included this referent.


(Formosan only)

*baliw₃ buy, sell


PAN     *baliw buy, sell

Kavalan baliwsell
Saisiyat (Taai) baLiwbuy
Seediq m-balibuyer, seller
  səm-balibuy and sell; conduct commerce
Pazeh bariw-ibuy it!
  muxi-bariwto sell
Thao fariwbuy


PAN     *b<um>aliw buy

Seediq malibuy, sell
Pazeh mu-bariwto buy


*baliweswes to rotate, turn around (of an object)


PPh     *baliweswes to rotate, turn around (of an object)

Itbayaten valiweswesidea of being rotated
Ifugaw baliwohwo(h)sugar mill; an apparatus with two standing rollers for pressing out the juice of the sugarcane (to make the rollers revolve a man pushes a long pole fixed to one of the rollers, walking in a circle around the milling apparatus)

Note:   Presumably with a variant of the *qali/kali- prefix (Blust 2001).


*baliwis wild duck


PWMP     *baliwis wild duck     [disjunct: *bariwis]

Tagalog baliwískind of wild duck
Sundanese waliwiskind of wild duck
Old Javanese waliwiskind of duck (Anas casarca)


*balizi kind of grass


PMP     *balizi kind of grass     [doublet: *baliji]

Tagalog balílian aquatic grass: Panicum stagninum
Cebuano balíligeneral name for grasses that do not grow tall
Sangir balirikind of grass
Bare'e walirikind of herb
Tae' baririgrass and weeds collected together to burn in firing pots


POC     *palisi₂ grass

Nauna pelicgrass
Pak penitgrass
Proto-Willaumez *varili <Mgrass (Goodenough 1961)
Selau wəsli <Mgrass
Kwaio falisigrassy undergrowth (generic)
'Āre'āre harisigrass, small clover
Ulawa halisigrass; onion (late use) (Ivens 1929)
Chuukese fetingeneral term for a class of plants including grasses, sedges and ferns
Puluwat fátilgeneral name for grasses
Sonsorol-Tobi fätirI <Mgrass
Mota valistall coarse grass; in recent use grass generally and onions
Central Maewo mbalisigrass
Samoan falīkind of grass (?Scirpodendron sp.)

Note:   Reconstructed as *bali[jzZ]i ‘grass’ in Blust (1970). With regard to the last consonant Simalur balixi, falixi unambiguously indicates *j, but Pak penit, Nauna pelic point to POc *ns, PMP *z, all other known reflexes being indeterminate. Although this item can be securely reconstructed, the supporting cognate set is problematic in this and in certain other respects. First, northern Philippine forms such Kankanaey balíli ‘a rush: Juncus effusus L.’ and Ifugaw balíli ‘kind of tough grass with long leaves’ are either similar to the above forms by chance, or exhibit an unparalleled development of *j, and *z. It is thus possible that all Philippine forms reflect an etymon *balili which is distinct from *baliji or *balizi.

Second, the two intervocalic consonants in POc *palisi appear to have metathesized independently in at least three Oceanic languages: Proto-Willaumez, Selau (and perhaps other languages of Buka and Bougainville), and Proto-Micronesian. In at least the latter case the metathesis in this item evidently is part of a more general change (cp. POc *paluja > Proto-Micronesian *fasula ‘to paddle’).

Nonetheless the possibility remains that POc had doublets *palisi and *pasili which show a complementary pattern of retention. Finally, it is unclear whether PMP *baliji, *balizi referred to a particular type of grass, or whether it functioned as a generic term. If the latter was the case this reconstruction runs counter to the claim of Brown (1984) that the generic category ‘tree’ is always lexically encoded before the generic category ‘grass’.


*balu₁ a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea


PMP     *balu₁ a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea

Itbayaten valuplant sp.: Thespesia populnea Soland.
Malagasy váloplant whose bark affords a useful fiber: Dombeya sp.
Simalur falutree sp.


POC     *(bp)alu tree sp.

Nggela valutree sp.
Arosi harutree sp.
Lonwolwol balhibiscus

Note:   Also Rembong baru tasik ‘a tree: Thespesia populnea’, Buruese balu ‘wild cane in streams’, Melanau (Mukah) bal-bal ‘kind of tree’. According to Merrill (1954) the Thespesia populnea is a close relative of the Hibiscus tiliaceus (*baRu), and like the latter its bark yields a useful fiber. Both of these plants and the Gnetum gnemon (*baguh) share similar useful properties and a similar phonemic shape. Where a specific identification is not given in the source the reflexes of *balu and *baRu or of *baguh and *baRu (but never of all three) may be confused in languages that merge *l and *R or *g and *R respectively.


*balu₂ rice pestle


PMP     *balu₂ rice pestle     [doublet: *qaSelu]

Sangir balurice pestle
Kamarian harurice pestle

Note:   Also Sangir ba-walu ‘rice pestle’.


*balu₃ some, some more


PMP     *balu₃ some, some more

Chamorro palusome, some more


POC     *palu₆ some, some more

Manam aluanother, others; some
Nggela mbalu (NG)any, some, other; another
'Āre'āre harua few, some, several
Sa'a halusome
Arosi harusome, certain
Mota valuevery
Mele-Fila farumore, some


*balu₄ widow(er)


PMP     *balu₄ widow(er)

Casiguran Dumagat bilowidow, widower; for the kinsmen of a widow or widower to give mandatory gifts to the kinship group of the decesased spouse (in order to placate their anger at them, and so that they will not continue to hold them responsible for the death; failure to do this can and has resulted in reprisal killings)
Sambal (Tina) balowidow(er)
Tagalog bálowidow(er)
Bikol balówidow(er)
Maranao balowidow(er)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baluwidow(er)
Kayan (de)baloʔwidow
Melanau (Mukah) balewwidow(er)
Malay baluwidowed, i.e. left desolate by death. Cf. janda (widow or divorcée), a commoner word
Bare'e baluwidow(er) who is still in mourning
Makassarese baluwidow(er)
Manggarai baluold maid
Ngadha valuwidow(er)
Rotinese faluorphan; widow(er)
Tetun falu-kwidowed, deprived
Erai haluwidow(er)
Leti paluspinster, widow(er)
Wetan paliwidow(er)
Dobel fal-búwidow
Paulohi haruwidow(er)
Buruese faluwidow


PWMP     *balu balu widow(er)

Simalur fa-faluwidow, spinster
Old Javanese walu-waluwidow
Wolio balu-baluwidow(er)

Note:   Also Fordata waru, Kei wār ‘widow(er)’. Three semantic distinctions are observed in comparing the glosses for these forms: (1) some languages appear to apply the reflex of *balu only to females, while others apply it to both sexes, 2) Malay recognizes a distinction between one widowed by death and one widowed by divorce or separation, 3) Bare'e recognizes a distinction between a widow(er) in mourning and one who has completed mourning. No evidence is known which would support the reconstruction of any of these distinctions in association with *balu.


*balud to bind, tie up (as a person)


PPh     *balud to bind, tie up (as a person)

Amis falodto bind; a bundle
  sa-falodthing used to bind, as string
Yami vaodtie up (as a fox)
Itbayaten vaxodidea of bondage, being tied
Ilokano báludprisoner
Bontok báludprisoner
Ifugaw báludprisoner
Ibaloy balodbonds, what is used to tie; prisoner


PPh     *i-balud to bind, tie up (as a person)

Yami i-vaodused to tie
Ilokano i-báludto imprison, enclose, incarcerate
Bontok ʔi-báludto bind; to tie up; to imprison
Ibaloy i-balodto put someone in prison


PPh     *balud-en to bind, tie up (as a person)

Itbayaten vaxor-ento tie up (pig, crab, and the like)
Ilokano balud-ento imprison; confine; seize; tie, bind
Bontok bálud-ənto bind; to tie up; to imprison
Ibaloy bedor-ento tie a person or animal hand and foot


*baluk₁ kind of sailing boat


PMP     *baluk₁ kind of sailing boat

Old Javanese balukkind of sailing boat?
Rotinese balukone-or two-masted boat without outriggers

Note:   Fox, J. (1993) gives Rotinese balo(balu) ‘boat, ship. Ritual language usage’. Rotinese commonly reflects *b as /f/, but shows *b > /b/ in such likely native forms as *baRu > bau ‘Hibiscus tiliaceus’ and *batu > batu ‘stone’. This item may be a Javanese loan, but if so it is puzzling that a similar loan is not found in other languages in the Lesser Sundas.


*baluk₂ to sell


PMP     *baluk₂ to sell

Sundanese baluka woman who goes around the village selling sirih (for the betel chew), tobacco, etc.
  ŋa-balukcarry on the business of a baluk
Proto-Sangiric *balukto sell
Banggai baluk-onsold
Uma baluʔmerchandise
Makassarese baluʔto sell
Manggarai baluktrade, sell, exchange
Rembong baluktrade, sell, exchange

Note:   Also Tboli he-baluʔ ‘to sell, as at a market’, Leti olu ‘sell’.


*balulaŋ thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus


PWMP     *balulaŋ thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus

Ngaju Dayak balulaŋthick hide (as that of a buffalo); callus (as on the hands)
Malay belulaŋpelt; hide; hard skin; sun-dried untanned leather; callosity; corn; hard skin on bullock's neck; (Brunei, Sarawak) skin, leather
Simalur balulaŋcorn, callus
Old Javanese walulaŋleather, hide
Proto-Minahasan *balulaŋskin, hide (scar of wound; callus; thick hide of various animals)
Mongondow bolulaŋantelope skin armor
Bare'e bayuyasubcutaneous fat of pigs
Tae' balulaŋskin of men and animals; shield
Proto-South Sulawesi *balulaŋthick hide (as of buffalo); callus (as on the hands)
Wolio balulahorny skin, leather, tendon

Note:   Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Javanese, Malay, Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *balulaŋ ‘thick hide’. His inclusion of Tagalog balúlaŋ ‘Verstärkungsstrick’ and Malagasy valolana ‘bedstead with an embroidered canopy’ can, however, be questioned on semantic grounds. Panganiban (1966) gives only Tagalog balúlaŋ ‘portable chicken coop made of bamboo splints or palm leaves’, a form which appears clearly related to Isneg balúlaŋ ‘very large basket with a round rim and a square foot, for transporting rice in the husk and other products’ and related items in other Philippine languages (Ilokano, Hanunóo). Despite this weakening of Dempwolff's evidence the PWMP provenance of *balulaŋ seems assured by the agreement of Malay and especially Old Javanese reflexes with widespread forms in Sulawesi.


*balúlaŋ large open-work basket


PPh     *balúlaŋ large open-work basket

Ilokano balúlaŋlarge, open-worked basket with a flat, square, footless bottom and a round rim; it has no cover, and is used for holding tobacco leaves, fodder, etc.
Isneg balúlaŋvery large basket with a round rim and a square foot, for transporting rice in the husk and other products
Itawis balúlaŋcorn basket
Pangasinan balólaŋbasket for chickens to nest in
Tagalog balúlaŋportable chicken coop made of bamboo splints or palm leaves
Hanunóo balúlaŋlarge checker-woven carrying basket hastily made, usually from fresh buri (palm) leaves, for temporary storage or packing

Note:   Also Itbayaten valolaŋ ‘kind of basket (big one)’.


*balun₁ mix


PEMP     *balun₁ mix     [disjunct: *balut]

Numfor barenstir into food


POC     *balun₄ mix

Tongan palumix and knead in water with the hands
Samoan palumix (with the hands)


*balun₂ provisions for a journey


PWMP     *balun₂ provisions for a journey

Itbayaten vaxonprovisions; take-out lunch
Ilokano bálonprovisions; a stock or store of needed materials when going on a journey
Isneg bálonprovisions of uncooked rice (when going on a journey)
Bontok bálunfood taken from the village to be used as a lunch
Yogad bálunprovisions
Casiguran Dumagat bilónrations; food carried along on a trip to be eaten later
  bilonrations; food carried along on a trip to be eaten later
Tagalog báonsupply of provisions in victuals or money, away from home
Hanunóo bálunprovisions and necessary articles, including betel, food, trade items, small coinage, etc. which are taken with a person when going away for a period of time
Cebuano bálunfood, money to take along on a trip
Kenyah balunexpenses; provisions on a journey
Mentawai balutprovisions, supplies, food
Sangir baluŋprovisions for a journey
Proto-Minahasan *balunprovisions for a journey
Mongondow balunprovisions for a journey; bundle of sago, kind of carrying basket filled with sago

Note:   Also Maranao balotoʔ ‘lunch away from home, provision for journey’, Lun Dayeh baluʔ ‘provisions’.


*balunuq a tree: Mangifera sp.


PWMP     *balunuq a tree: Mangifera sp.

Maranao balonoʔtree with fruit like a mango: Mangifera jack
Malay belunoha fruit: Mangifera sp. (Brunei, Sarawak)
Sangir balunuʔkind of mango tree and its fruit, which has a strong, pleasant odor

Note:   Also Paiwan valuniq ‘fruit of Ficus wightiana’.


*balunuR a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens


PMP     *balunuR a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens

Tausug balunuga tree: Buchanania arborescens (Bl.) Anacardiaceae (Madulid 2001)
Yamdena vlunura tree (unident.); an extract from its leaves is used to prepare a drink


*baluN bind, bundle


PAN     *baluN bind, bundle

Amis falodto bind; a bundle


PMP     *balun₅ bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing)

Kayan baluncloth, clothing
Iban balunlarge rough bundle
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ti-barunrolled-up (as dried cuttlefish when being heated over a fire)
Malay balunrolling up
Nias baluclothing
Rejang balunshroud
Old Javanese waluna cloth for wrapping or covering
Tae' balunwrapping of a corpse
Buginese waluŋwrap up
  pa-waluŋfuneral shroud
Wolio balushroud
  baluŋ-ienvelop in a shroud
Palauan báilclothing; wrapping material; to wrap (present, package)


PCEMP     *balun₃ bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing)

Kambera waluŋubind together, bundle
Rotinese balucover (as with a blanket), enshroud
  paluwrap a cloth around the body; cloth for wrapping dead person, shroud
Tetun falu(n)packet, parcel, bundle; wrap up, bag up; to shroud a corpse
  fa-faluna cover or envelope
Buruese balu-nto bandage, cover

Note:   Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Toba Batak, Javanese, Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *balun ‘roll together’. However, Tagalog balón ‘bale of paper’ appears to be a Spanish loan. The forms in the remaining languages cited by Dempwolff probably contain a root *-luN (cf. *luluN ‘roll together’). Since Amis falod is the only non-MP reflex of *baluN discovered to date the PAn gloss of this item is rather general (‘bind; bundle’), but by PMP times the form apparently referred to the wrapping of a corpse and to the death shroud or wrapping cloth itself. Whether PMP *balun also functioned as the general term for ‘cloth, clothing’ or whether these meanings are secondary is moot.


*baluq mourn the dead


PMP     *baluq mourn the dead

Maranao baloʔsound the death toll, beat gong for dead
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baluʔthe slow beat of the death call, which is beaten on the aguŋ (gong)
Tiruray baluʔstick for beating gongs; strike a gong
Kadazan Dusun bahucanopy over the dead
Manggarai walumourn
Ngadha valugrieve, mourn
Rotinese falumourn the dead; mourners at a funeral


POC     *paluq mourn the dead

Arosi harugive the final death feast six months after death; the final death feast

Note:   Also Mongondow balu ‘mourn’. This comparison, potentially of considerable culture-historical importance, is exasperatingly tenuous. Jonker (1908) points out that the Korbaffo dialect of Rotinese has fali ‘mourn the dead’, falu ‘orphan, widow’, and he gives this as evidence that standard Rotinese (Termanu) falu ‘mourn the dead’ and falu ‘orphan, widow’ are distinct words. Mongondow balu ‘mourn’, on the other hand, probably shows contamination from *balu ‘widow(er)’. The Arosi form may bear only a chance resemblance to the other items, but the correspondences are regular and the meaning is similar.


*baluRu a vine: Entada scandens


PWMP     *baluRu a vine: Entada scandens

Itbayaten vaxoyoa species of plant
Hanunóo balugúlarge reddish, woody, tendril-bearing vine: Entada scandens Benth.; the bark is used as soap
Maranao balogoorange used for blackening teeth
Iban beruruan herb, Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., used as liniment; a climber, Mucuna biplicata, used as lashings and in medicine;
  buah beruruseed box used as container
Malay belurua climber: Entada scandens, the hard-skinned fruit of which is used by potters in polishing their wares


*balut₁ mix


PMP     *balut₁ mix     [disjunct: *balun₁]

Itbayaten mi-vaʔnansneezing
  miv-vaʔnanto sneeze
Ngaju Dayak balutmixture; something with which one mixes something else; mixed


POC     *balut mix

Tongan palumix and knead in water with the hands
Samoan palumix (with the hands)


*balut₂ roll or wrap something up


PWMP     *balut₂ roll or wrap something up

Ilokano bálutto gather, to roll up (garments, mats, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat balútwrap something up in leaves, cloth or paper
Tagalog bálotcovering, wrapping
  balótcovered, wrapped
Iban balutwrapping; band, bandage, small bundle; wrap up, entangle
Malay balutbandaging, enwrapping
Simalur baludbundle
Karo Batak balutwrap something
Buginese waluʔbundle
Makassarese baluʔroll up (mats, cloth)

Note:   Evidently distinct from such northern Philippine forms as Bontok bálod ‘bind, tie up, imprison’. Chamorro balut-an ‘infold, wrap up, swathe, swaddle, bundle, pregnant, cover by winding round or folding, roll up’ appears to be a loan.


*balútu dugout canoe


PPh     *balútu dugout canoe

Ilokano balotósmall dugout canoe without outriggers
Hanunóo balútudugout, or small canoe
Cebuano balútusmall boat with a dug-out bottom, plank or sawali (bamboo matting) sidings, and usually with outriggers
Mamanwa balotocanoe
Maranao balotosmall boat
Mongondow bolotucanoe

Note:   Also Palauan berotóŋ ‘large canoe’, which appears to be either a loan or a product of chance. Reflexes of *balutu are widely distributed throughout the Philippines, while reflexes of a variant *barutu also occur in Southern Luzon, the Bisayas, and Mindanao. A PPh etymon *balutu thus seems fairly secure. In addition, Stresemann (1927) posited "Sub-Ambon" *balutu ‘sailboat’ based solely on Saparua palutu. Together with the Philippine forms this reconstruction suggests a PMP term *balutu which referred to some type of boat. However, Stresemann's source for Saparua (van Hoëvell 1877) does not list palutu. Collins (p.c.) notes that similar, but apparently non-corresponding forms are found in some languages on the north coast of Seram (Salas palút, Benggoi balútam, Kobi balóta). However, the lack of clear cognates outside the Philippines, and the feebleness of attestation in the Moluccas raises suspicions that this form was not found in PMP.

Samal balutu ‘kind of outrigger canoe’ is assumed to be a Philippine loan, and it is possible that the Moluccan forms were borrowed from Sama-Bajaw sea nomads. As support for this view, Collins (p.c.) reports that other names for types of boats were introduced into the Moluccas during the recent past by immigrants from Sulawesi. Moreover, there are other linguistic indications of the incursion of Samal speakers into Indonesia, as with Makassarese balaŋiŋiʔ ‘sea nomad’ (a reference to the Balangingi Samal). If this is the correct explanation for the appearance of reflexes of *balutu in the Moluccas it is possible that many (or all) Philippine forms have a similar source.


*bambaŋen a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp.


PWMP     *bambaŋen a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp.

Tagalog bambaŋinflame-colored snapper fish: Lutjanus fulvus
Malay bambaŋana snapper: Lutjanus spp.
Makassarese bambaŋaŋsea bass: Lutjanus erythropterus

Note:   Malay normally reflects prepenultimate *a as shwa within a morpheme, but not in suffixed disyllabic bases. The failure of the first *a to weaken in bambaŋan therefore suggests that this word was treated as a suffixed disyllable. Given this observation and the fact that all three languages regularly assimilate *ŋ to a following stop, the forms cited here and those assigned to *baŋbaŋ ‘fish sp.’, or to *baŋbaŋ ‘reddish’ may turn out to belong to a single cognate set.


*banabá a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa


PPh     *banabá a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa

Ilokano banabáLagerstroemia speciosa (L.). Tree with large panicles of lilac-purple flowers, yielding a valuable timber
Ibaloy banabakind of tree --- a beverage is made from its leaves and used as a folk medicine for vascular problems; a red tea is also brewed from its wood
Ayta Abellan banabakind of tree with fruit that cannot be eaten
Kapampangan banabátree of fine quality (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog banabádeciduous tree cultivated for its beautiful flowers; its timber; the tannin from its fruit, leaves and bark: Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn.
Bikol banabátimber-producing deciduous tree with light purple flowers
Hanunóo banabálarge tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn.
Aklanon banabá(h)medicinal tree: Premna cumingiana Schaver
Agutaynen banabakind of large tree; the leaves or bark are boiled and then the water is drunk when one has a kidney problem or urinary tract infection
Cebuano banabámedium-sized tree of the secondary forest, also planted for its lilac or pink flowers. The leaves are commonly used as a tea for stomach or kidney disorders: Lagerstroemia speciosa
Maranao banabamedicinal tree


*banaeŋ thread, yarn


PWMP     *banaeŋ thread, yarn

Maloh banaŋthread
Malay benaŋthread
Dairi-Pakpak Batak benaŋ benalukind of cotton thread
Nias banayarn, twine
Sangir banaeŋthread, yarn
Banggai banaaŋ <Athread, yarn
Bare'e banaformerly the term for all colored cotton, through which all old-fashioned textiles that still are used in religious ceremonies are called bana
Tae' bannaŋthread, yarn
Makassarese bannaŋthread, yarn


*banal tired


PPh     *banal tired

Itbayaten vanaxfatigue, tiredness
Pangasinan banáltired

Note:   Also Itawis bánnag ‘tiredness, fatigue’. Possibly a chance resemblance.


*banaqaR radiance, as of rising sun


PMP     *banaqaR radiance, as of rising sun

Casiguran Dumagat banáagrays (of the rising sun)
Tagalog banáʔagsoft ray, glimmer
Bikol banáʔagbeam of light; moonlight, firelight
Aklanon banáʔagrays (of the rising sun); to be rising (said of sun), send off rays
Hiligaynon banáʔagdawn, early morning, rays of the sun
Cebuano banáʔagray of light
Maranao banagdawning, as the light is breaking for dawn
Malay sinar banarradiance, brilliance
Javanese banaropen on all sides (for sun, light)
Fordata vanabe light, bright
Kamarian panato shine, of the sun
Buruese banafire

Note:   Also Melanau (Mukah) panah ‘ray of (light)’. With root *-NaR ‘ray of light’.


*banaRu the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea


PMP     *banaRu the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea

Hanunóo banagua tree: Thespesia populnea
Tolai banara tree: Thespesia populnea

Note:   Also Patpatar banaro ‘a tree: Thespesia populnea’. A considerably longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2008:143), who posited PMP *banaRoThespesia populnea’ despite the fact that *o is not reconstructed above the level of PCEMP. His non-Oceanic material was taken from various Philippine languages cited in Madulid (2001), which are unknown in existing dictionaries of the same languages. Even within the Oceanic material there are problems, since Patpatar banaro cannot regularly reflect an etymon with *-u, Mota vanauThespesia populnea’ cannot regularly reflect a form with *R, and Pohnpeian panaThespesia populnea’ is given by Rehg and Sohl (1979) as pone.


*banat hit, beat, thrash


PWMP     *banat hit, beat, thrash

Tagalog bánata strike, sock, box, or stroke to hit something
Bikol bánatto hit
Malay banatto thrash, to drub


*banaw lake


PAN     *banaw lake     [doublet: *danaw]

Kavalan banawlake, pond (flowing or stagnant)
Amis fanawlake, pond
Isinay banawlake (McFarland 1977)


*banawaŋ open space


PWMP     *banawaŋ open space

Pangasinan banawaŋcanal, ditch, trench
Melanau (Mukah) benawaŋdoor
Mongondow bonawaŋroomy and light; the forepart of a house; annex built under the (overhanging) roof whether in the front of the house, or on the side

Note:   Also Ilokano banáwag ‘wide open space’, Mongondow bonaaŋ ‘roomy and light’, Pendau babaaŋ ‘gate, door’. With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.


*banban a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma


PWMP     *banban a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma     [doublet: *benben₂]

Ilokano banbánstrips of bamboo
Isneg bambánDonax cannaeformis Rolfe
Kankanaey banbánscraped rattan; cleaned bamboo
Ifugaw banbánthe inner, soft fibers of rattan thongs
Tagalog bambáninner follicle (of fruits); a plant: Donax cannaeformis
Bikol bambánwild grass used in making baskets
Hanunóo bambánspecies of grasslike plant: Donax cannaeformis
Aklanon bánbanherb used for roofing: Donax cannaeformis
Cebuano banban, b-al-anbana branching reed, the main stem of which is split and used in weaving and in sewing nipa shingles: Donax cannaeformis
Tiruray banbangeneral term for arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea
Ngaju Dayak bambanplant whose bast fibers are used in binding and plaiting
Karo Batak banbana plant from which strips are cut for use in beautiful plaitwork: Maranta dichotoma
Sundanese baŋbankind of pliable reed from which hats and baskets are made
Javanese bambankind of reed used to make mats
Tae' bambanlow tree the bast fibers of which are used as binding material in house construction: Grewia laevigata

Note:   Although reflexes of *banban refer to the Donax cannaeformis in several Philippine languages it is clear that the PMP word for the latter plant was *niniq. That *banban referred to Maranta species seems likely from two facts. First, Tiruray banban ‘arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea’ refers to a plant of a different species, but the same genus. Second, Dempwolff (1934-38) gives Tagalog banban ‘Maranta dichotoma’, a gloss which differs from that in Panganiban (1966), but which agrees perfectly with Karo Batak banban.


*bandaŋan goat hair decoration on a spear or staff


PMP     *bandaŋan goat hair decoration on a spear or staff

Malay tombak bandaŋanspear with a tuft of goat's hair on the shaft: an emblem of royalty
Tae' bandaŋangoat hair fixed on a bamboo pole, used in feasts (as by the to maʔrandiŋ at the death feast)
Makassarese banraŋanpike decorated with goat hair
Manggarai bendaŋangoat hair decoration on a spear, staff, etc.

Note:   Possibly spread by borrowing (cp. Maranao banderaŋ ‘ceremonial tasseled spear’, Malay benderaŋ ‘spear with a tuft of goat's hair on the shaft: an emblem of royalty’, where borrowing appears very likely. The absence of prepenultimate neutralization in Malay is puzzling, and may indicate relatively recent affixation with -an. Mongondow andaŋan ‘old, long-haired goat’, mandaŋan ‘large long-haired goat’, however, suggest that the trisyllable is old, whatever its original meaning.


*banduŋ pair of boats joined by a connecting platform


PWMP     *banduŋ pair of boats joined by a connecting platform

Cebuano banduŋlarge boat used to bring the net and fishermen out to the fishing grounds, consisting of a pair of smaller boats or a wide boat so made that a platform can be placed across it
Iban bandoŋlarge sailing vessel; matching pair, set
Malay bandoŋtwin; in duplicate; alike and linked. Of semi-detached houses with a common roof, two yolks in one egg-shell, etc.
  perahu bandoŋa Borneo flat-bottomed river-boat
Old Javanese baṇḍuŋtogether, at the same time
Javanese baruŋin time with (of gamelan beat)


*ban(e)héd numb; "fall asleep'', of a limb


PPh     *ban(e)héd numb; 'fall asleep', of a limb

Itawis bannádnumbness
Cebuano banhúdnumb from loss of circulation or anesthesia; become numb, for limbs to fall asleep
Maranao benednumb, numbness
Binukid be-benedfor a part of the body to be numb (from loss of circulation)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) be-venednumb; cause loss of feeling or pain, i.e. as a person's leg "goes to sleep" or of medicine which "kills pain"
Mongondow banod"sleeping", of foot or hand

Note:   Also Ilokano bíneg ‘numb, benumbed, torpid, insensible’, Bikol binlód ‘the prickling sensation experiences when the circulation returns to a limb which has gone numb or fallen asleep’, Aklanon bínhod ‘tingle, be numb, "fall asleep" (said of some part of the body that tingles when kept long in one position)’. Zorc (1971) gives *banihej, *banhej ‘numb’, but Itawis bannád contradicts *-j.


*banelat fish-corral, screen trap for fish


PWMP     *banelat fish-corral, screen trap for fish

Kapampangan banlátpig pen, cage
Tagalog banlátpig pen; fish corral in rivers
Malay belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish

Note:   For the development in this form cf. Blust (1982).


*banelik slime, slimy


PWMP     *banelik slime, slimy

Tagalog banlíkslime or mud left by ebbing of water
Malay (Jakarta) belekmuddy, slimy

Note:   The expected Jakarta Malay form is **bəlik or **bəlek. I assume regressive assimilation of the penultimate to the final vowel.


*banéR to bruise, raise welts


PPh     *banéR to bruise, raise welts

Pangasinan banélto crush
Bikol banógbash, hit hard, strike
Hanunóo banúgserious external bruises resulting in internal hemorrhage
Cebuano bánugfor fruits to be bruised; bruise by pounding
Maranao banegwelt

Note:   Also Tiruray baneg ‘welt’ (loanword, presumably from a Danaw language).


*ban(e)sag nickname (?)


PPh     *ban(e)sag nickname (?)

Ayta Abellan banhagnickname that is disliked by the person so called
Kapampangan bánsagalias, nickname; famous
Tagalog banságsurname, family name; the name by which one is popularly known but which is different from one’s real name; to boast; famous
Bikol banságalias, nickname (usually associated with looks, occupation or some other characteristics of the person)
Aklanon bánsagfamous, popular, noted
Tausug mag-bansagto feel proud of something; to have or show a proper pride in oneself

Note:   The Ayta Abellan and Kapampangan words cited here may be Tagalog loans.


*bani₂ a tree: Pongamia spp.


PPh     *bani₂ a tree: Pongamia spp.

Ilokano baníkind of tree with oblong pods whose leaves and bark are used to cure cough: Pongamia mitis
Tagalog bania tree: Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr., Fabaceae (Madulid 2001)
Bikol bania tree: Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr., Fabaceae (Madulid 2001)


*baniákaw tree sp.


PPh     *baniákaw tree sp.

Ilokano baniakawkind of tree yielding a poor timber
Isneg baniyákawkind of tree
Bontok banyákawtall tree, the wood of which is used for making pestles and spear shafts: Dysoxylon sp. (Meliac.)
Mongondow boniakowkind of tree

Note:   This item may contain a variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix.


*banisah a tree: Planchonella obovata


PPh     *banisah a tree: Planchonella obovata

Yami vanisaa tree: Planchonella obovata
Itbayaten vanisaha tree: Planchonella obovata
Ivatan banisaa tree: Planchonella obovata
Tagalog banasi <Ma tree: Planchonella obovata


*bantal bundle of cloth or clothes


PWMP     *bantal bundle of cloth or clothes

Aklanon bántaeto dam up
Hiligaynon mag-bántalto bundle or wrap together with a piece of cloth or clothing
Cebuano bántalbundle something (as dirty clothes)
Maranao bantalbundle
Ngaju Dayak bantalpillow, cushion for the head (long and round)
Iban bantalcushion, pillow; bundle of cloth or clothes
Malay bantalcushion-support; cushion or pillow of European type; pillow-like object
  bantal-bantalpillow-like stump of rainbow (regarded as ominous)
Simalur bantal ~ fantalcushion, pillow
Rejang bateapillow, cushion
  batea guliŋbolster, Dutch wife
Sundanese bantalpillow
Old Javanese bantalcloth; a bundle of cloth (as a measure)
Javanese bantalpillow; pin-cushion
  bantal dawaDutch wife (long pillow for snuggling)
  bantal-anto use a pillow
Balinese bantalpillow, cushion; kind of sweets wrapped in young coconut leaves
Sangir bantaləʔstorage chest, trunk
Tontemboan mantalpack something up, wrap in a sarong
  wantal-enwrap it in a cloth
  w<in>antalpackage, thing that is wrapped up
Mongondow bantaḷstorage chest; bundle
  mo-bantaḷpack in, wrap up
Gorontalo bantabundle, as of wheat or cement

Note:   Also Acehnese bantay ‘pillow, head cushion’, Sasak bantel ‘bunch, bundle; to bind, bundle, as wood’, Bimanese wata ‘anything used for wrapping, as a sarong’, Rembong bantal ‘cushion, pillow’, Tetun bata ~ batan ~ batas ‘a bundle on a stick (like betelnut, meat, etc.)’. Parts of this comparison are almost certainly a loan distribution, but it is unclear whether this is true of enough languages to invalidate the inference of a PWMP form.


*bantaq argue with, oppose someone


PWMP     *bantaq argue with, oppose someone

Casiguran Dumagat bántathreaten; intend, plan (as to kill someone)
Tagalog bantáʔthreat; suspicion, surmise
Cebuano bantáʔwarn someone not to do something; plan to do harm to something
Maranao bantaʔ-anstory, tale, gossip
Subanen/Subanun bantaenemy (Churchill 1912)
Tausug bantaenemy, foe, adversary
  mag-bantaoppose one another
Malay bantahaltercation
  bantah-bentohbrawls of all sorts
Sundanese ŋa-bantahoppose, contradict someone
  bantah-anresistant, as an illness that does not respond to treatment; stubborn
Old Javanese wantahclash together, collide

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak ka-bantah ‘quarrel, altercation’, ha-bantah ‘quarrel with one another’, Javanese bantah ‘argument, quarrel’. It is clear that the preceding forms from Ngaju Dayak and Javanese are loanwords from Malay . However, Old Javanese wantah appears to be native, and this comparison as a whole cannot easily be dismissed as a loan distribution.


*bantas lasting, enduring


PWMP     *bantas lasting, enduring

Maranao bantaslongevity, durability
Javanese bantaslasting, durable, of tissue (Pigeaud 1938)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*bantiŋ fling down, dash against


PMP     *bantiŋ fling down, dash against

Ifugaw bantíŋa small iron (or steel) piece with which the Ifugaw strike a small piece of flint to produce sparks that hit some cotton and is easily enkindled by blowing over it; in the Hapaw area, matches, a box of matches, is called bantíŋ-an
Ifugaw (Batad) banteŋa flint lighter, consisting of a flint stone...a piece of steel against which the flint is struck, and tinder...which lights when a spark is created; for someone to strike a fire with a flint lighter
Malay bantiŋdashing against (of threshing rice by beating the stalks against the side of a box, and so knocking off the grain; of striking together, as when waves meet with a splash in the sea)
Sundanese ŋa-bantiŋcollide or smack against something or someone; slap clothes against a stone in washing them
Old Javanese bantiŋ ~ wantiŋto strike, give a violent blow to; dash to the ground
Javanese bantiŋto hit and throw down (as a boat being thrown against the rocks)
Balinese bantiŋstrike, throw
Buginese bantiŋto dash down, fling against
Makassarese aʔ-bantiŋbeat wet clothes on a plank or stone, as in washing them; suddenly flip over, of an automobile or bicycle
  am-mantiŋhang up laundry on a line
Rembong bantiŋto dash down, fling against
Ngadha batibeat, thrash, hack off, as brush in clearing a field; eat bare, as a buffalo eating all the grass in a meadow

Note:   Dempwolff reconstructed *bantiŋ in this meaning, based only on forms in Malay and Javanese. The forms in Indonesia may be a loan distribution and the Ifugaw form a product of chance.


*bantug fame; famous, renowned


PPh     *bantug fame; famous, renowned

Tagalog bantógfamous; very well-known; celebrated; distinguished; shining
  ma-bantógto become famous; to make one’s mark; to become well-known; to succeed
  ka-bantúg-an ~ ka-bantug- ánfame; renown; glory; eminence; note; greatness
Bikol mag-bantógto make famous; to make known, promote, spread the news about
  ka-bantóg-anfame, grandeur, greatness, majesty
  bantóg-andistinguished, famous, eminent, great, illustrious, notable, renowned, well-known; a celebrity
Hanunóo bantúgknown, famous
Romblomanon bantugsomeone is popular or well-known
Masbatenyo bantógfamous, well-known, popular
Aklanon bántogfamous, noted, well-known; to announce
  ka-bantog-anfame, popularity
Waray-Waray bantógwell-known, popular, famous
  bantog-áto spread over a news
  bantog-ánwell-known, popular
Hiligaynon bántugrenowned, famous, eminent, distinguished, noted
  bantug-unto be rumored, to be considered a hearsay; to become well-known
Cebuano bantúgfamous, notorious
  ka-bantúgfame, honor
  pasi-bantúgto boast about one’s ability, skill
  bantúg-anfamous, notorious
Maranao bantogpraise, flatter
  bantog-aʔfamous, renowned, famed
  bantog-enlegendary hero in Maranao epic poem of the Darangen
Binukid ka-bantugto be famous, renowned, well-known
  pa-bantugto boast, brag; to exalt, make someone (or oneself) well-known
  bantug-anfamous, renowned, well-known
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bantugfame; to spread one’s fame
Mansaka bantogto praise; to boast
  bantog-anrenowned; famous
Sangir bantugəʔgrand, noble
  ka-wantugəʔnobility, greatness
  ma-paka-wantugəʔto glorify
  ma-wantugəʔgrand, noble, majestic; proud

Note:   Also Ibaloy me-bantog ‘to reach a high state of esteem, popularity, in the eyes of one’s fellows (usually implies becoming rich)’, Pangasinan bántog ‘famous’, Kapampangan (Bergaño) bantug ‘popular, well-known’ (< Tagalog), Kadazan Dusun bantug ‘famous’ (from some Greater Central Philippine source).


*bantun pull up, as out of a pit or out of water


PMP     *bantun pull up, as out of a pit or out of water

Bikol mag-batónto pull in (as a fishing line); to pull up (as pants); to yank
Maranao baton-aʔdrydock, boathouse
Binukid batunto lift, raise, pull (something) up or out of somewhere (as a carabao out of a pit)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) batunto lift up; to ascend
Mansaka batónto pull up (as a string on which something is hung)
Tiruray batunto raise; to put something into a house
Iban bantunpull out, pull up, pluck out, weed
Malay bantunplucking out, of pulling out a hair or a tooth or an arrow from awound, or of uprooting a tree
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bantunfetch something in the entirety, take all
Sundanese bantunthe rope of a casting net
Mongondow batunyield of the harvest; harvest time
  mo-batunpull up, come up out of the depths, pull out of a pit or out of the water
  mo-matunto pull up (in a metaphorical sense); to free, or purchase the freedom of slaves, emancipate, lift up from humiliation
Buginese bantuŋclimb upward, ascend
Makassarese am-mantuŋpull up, raise, hoist (of fishing rod, fish, sail, etc.)
Buruese fatu-hto extract, as in pulling a person or bamboo staves out of the ground
Numfor bakənpull up with brute force, as a stone without using tools

Note:   This comparison appears to be the semantic companion of PMP *huluR ‘lower or let down, as on a rope’, the two representing an opposition of lowering an object (usually by rope), and pulling one up. Since the latter continues a PAn etymon *SuluR it is likely that PAn had a lexical item that represented the meaning ‘pull up, as out of a pit or out of water’, but to date none has been reconstructed.


*banua inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community


PMP     *banua inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community

Itbayaten vanualanding place, port
Pangasinan banwásun
Kapampangan banwáyear; sky, heaven
Buhid bánwasky
Aklanon banwá(h)town, country
Hiligaynon banwátown, community; a compactly settled area usually larger than a village but smaller than a city
Cebuano banwáfatherland; town, village
Subanon meg-banualive, dwell
Iban menoa, menuaarea of land held and used by a distinct community, esp. longhouse (rumah), including house, farms, gardens, fruit groves, cemetery, water and all forest within half a day's journey. Use of the menoa is only gained and maintained by much effort and danger, and by proper rites to secure and preserve a ritual harmony of all within it and the unseen forces involved; home, abode, place, district, country, region
  menoa laŋitthe heavens, abode of Petara and other deities
Maloh banuacountry, land; commoner
Malay benualarge expanse of land; empire; continent; mainland in contrast to island. To the old Malays even a large island like Java was a benua
Simalur bano, fanoland, place, district
Toba Batak banualand, district, region
  banua ginjaŋupper world, heaven
  banua toŋa onmiddle world, Earth
  banua toruunderworld, world of the dead
Nias banuasky, heaven, thunder; village; homeland; fellow villager; serf
  banua touunderworld
Mentawai manuasky, heaven
Old Javanese wanwainhabited place or area; village, settlement
Sangir banualand, district; people; state; sea; weather
Tondano wanuavillage
Ampibabo-Lauje bonuohouse
Banggai bonuahouse, dwelling
  so-bonua-none night
Bare'e banuahouse
  wanuaden of an animal
Tae' banuahouse, members of a household
Mandar banuatown; district, area
Makassarese bataŋ banoa, bataŋ banuatitle of the heads of certain districts (archaic and poetic)
  banoasheath (for a knife)
Palauan bəlúucountry, village, place
Selaru hnu(a)village
Yamdena pnuevillage
Sawai pnuvillage
Buli pnuvillage
Mayá ꞌpnu³village
Ron monuvillage
Numfor menuvillage
Waropen nuvillage, community
Ansus wanuvillage; house


POC     *panua village

Proto-Admiralty *panuavillage
Emira anuahouse
Tabar vanuahouse
Mendak anuhouse
Label hanuahomestead, place where one lives
Duke of York wanualand, country
Lakalai la valuathe men
  e-valua-gumembers of my sib
Manam anuavillage
  anua idaradaraevening glow, sunset glow
  anua izaradawn
Gedaged panuvillage, settlement, hamlet, town, place, city
Hula vanuɣaland
Motu hanuavillage, town
  hanua boinight
Pokau vanualand
Kilivila valuplace, village, town, country, landscape, environment, world; climate, weather
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka manuahouse, dwelling
Molima vanuahouse
  vanua pouresidents of a village
Tinputz βɔ̀.nvillage
Mono-Alu fanuafellow clansman
Marovo vanuahouse
Bugotu vanualand, island
Longgu vanuapeople
  na vanuathe people
Kwaio fanuaplace, village, shrine-territory
Lau fanualand, earth; weather
'Āre'āre hanualand, as opposed to asi sea; district, place, country, island; the territory, area where a person lives, where his possessions are, such as food, bamboo, trees, pigs, water and graves is called his hanua
Sa'a hanualand, country, village, site of a village, place
Arosi hanua, henuaisland, village (in compounds)
Woleaian faliuwland, island
Mota vanualand, island, village, place
Nokuku wɛnuahouse
Wusi-Mana wanuahouse
Lingarak ne-vanuhouse
Rotuman hanualand, country, place; native land or place, home. Special uses: (a) it (when referring to conditions of light and darkness), (b) people, as in kei tei hanue? 'Where are the people?'
Fijian vanualand, region, place; used in a number of weather expressions, sa siga na vanua 'it is daylight'; sa bogi na vanua 'it is night'
Tongan fonualand, country, territory, place; people (of the land, etc.); afterbirth, placenta
Samoan fanualand, field; afterbirth, placenta
Rennellese henualand, as opposed to water; island; unknown land (poetic); people of the land; afterbirth
Maori whenualand, country; ground; placenta, afterbirth
Hawaiian honualand, earth

Note:   Also Tiruray fenuwo ‘a place, a village’. The presence of *-h in PMP *banua is suggested by Aklanon banwá(h), but is contradicted by Itbayaten vanua. Blust (1987) proposed that *banua represented the tract of land that provided the life support system of a human community, including its drinking water, fruit groves, other sources of cultivated food, and the graves of the ancestors. This semantic inference is now strikingly supported by Polynesian forms meaning ‘placenta’ that were not recognized when that paper was written.


*banuaŋ a tree: Octomeles spp.


PWMP     *banuaŋ a tree: Octomeles spp.

Tagalog banuaŋa tree: Octomeles sp.
Tiruray benuwoŋa tree: Endospermum peltatum Merr.
Ngaju Dayak banuaŋtree of the inner forest, often used in making rafts on account of its buoyant wood
Iban benuaŋ, menuaŋquick growing softwood riparian tree similar to entipoŋ, Octomeles sumatrana Miq.
Malay benuaŋa tree: Sterculia alata. Its very light wood serves to make stoppers for bottles


*banuay tree sp.


PWMP     *banuay tree sp.

Kankanaey banuáykind of tree
Malay benuaia tree: Kayea grandis

Note:   Also Bontok banwáy ‘berries of the alimomósoŋ tree (Vaccinium barandanum Vidal (Ericac.))’, Cebuano banwági ‘kind of tree’.


*banuít fish hook


PPh     *banuít fish hook     [doublet: *beŋuit]

Isneg bannuwétlarge fishhook, some two inches long, often baited with locusts
Pangasinan banuítfish with a rod; fishhook
Bikol banwítfish hook
  mag-banwítgo fishing; fish for something using a hook and line
  paŋ-banwítfishing tackle, gear
Hanunóo bánwitfishing tackle
Maranao banoitfishhook, hook

Note:   Also Ilokano banníit ‘fishhook’, Aklanon bunít ‘fishhook’; pa-munít ‘go fishing with hook (and pole)’, Tagalog binwit ‘pole, hook, line and sinker for fishing’, Hiligaynon bunít ‘fishhook, angle’; mag-bunít ‘to hook, to fish, to angle’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bunuwit ‘fishhook’. Tagalog binwít (rather than **bunwít) suggests that *u was resyllabified before the change of *e. Alternatively, this word may have had the shape *benewit. With root *-wit ‘hook-shaped’, varying phonemically with *-it following a rounded vowel.


*banúR hawk, eagle


PPh     *banúR hawk, eagle

Isneg bannógkind of large bird; spirit who takes the shape of a large bird and, in his flight, carries away the victim he is going to kill
Bontok banúgAsiatic sparrow hawk, Accipiter virgatus confusus
Kankanaey banógkind of kite with gray and white plumage
Ifugaw bannúgkind of bird of prey said to eat small snakes, and cannot fly as quickly as other birds of prey
Ifugaw (Batad) bannuga bird commonly called a Red-tailed hawk
Tagalog banóyeagle (the larger of the Philippine variety)
Aklanon banógbird of prey (hawk)
Cebuano banúglarge hawk with chocolate-brown feathers and white-colored breast
Maranao banogvulture
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) banuggeneric for hawks and eagles

Note:   Also Tiruray banug ‘general term for eagles’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared this form with Malagasy vano ‘heron’ and reconstructed *ba(n)uy, but Dahl (1976:106) has shown that Dempwolff's comparison is invalid. The Tagalog word is assumed to be an early Kapampangan loan, although a cognate is unknown in the latter language. The similarity of these words and of Tagalog banóy to such Bornean forms as Lun Dayeh kanuy, Kelabit keniw ‘eagle’ remains to be clarified.


*banútan tree sp.


PPh     *banútan tree sp.

Ifugaw banútana tree the stem of which yields a very hard and reddish timber
Mongondow bonutantree sp., Mallotus Moluccanus

Note:   Also Ifugaw baʔnútan idem, Malay benitan ‘a tree: Goniothalamus sp., used for making masts’; benitan merah ‘red benitan, a tree: Schoutenia mastersi’.


*baNaR a thorny vine: Smilax spp.


PAN     *baNaR a thorny vine: Smilax spp.     [doublet: *baNaw]

Kavalan banaRplant sp. (Li 1982: 491)
Amis fadalthorny briar plant
Bunun banala plant: Smilax china
Tsou fkorəa plant: Smilax china
Kanakanabu vanárəa plant: Smilax china
Saaroa valharəa plant: Smilax china
Paiwan valʸaa plant: Smilax bracteata, S. china


PMP     *banaR₁ a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

Ilokano banágSmilax bracteata Presl., a woody, liliaceous vine, armed with spines; its root is used in infusions to purify the blood
Bontok banálkind of vine, commonly used for binding shoulder loads of firewood. Smilax bracteata Presl.
Cebuano banágwoody, spiked vine found in thickets, the tips and fruits of which are used medicinally: Smilax bracteata
Tiruray banarkind of vine, Smilax sp.
Tboli banalthorny plant, the sap of which is used as medicine for pimples
Malay banara climber, Smilax sp.
Malay (Pahang) banar babiSmilax helferi, the leaves of which are used for poulticing
Nias lam-bana(listed under bana) kind of vine
Sasak banara tuberous plant related to Dioscorea hirsuta: Smilax zeylanica
Mongondow banagkind of creeper, used as cordage


PCEMP     *banaR₂ a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

Manggarai wanara thorny vine: Smilax modesta

Note:   Also Itbayaten vananay ‘a vine on the mountains with green fruit and thorns near the root: Smilax bracteata Presl.’, Kankanaey baná ‘Smilax verruculosa Merr., a climbing liliaceous shrub with alternate leaves, thorns, and small dioecious flowers’, Sangir baneheʔ ‘vine with thorns and large, round leaves’. Reflexes of *baNaR are widely distributed in Taiwan and the Philippines, but appear to be rarer in western Indonesia, and very rare in eastern Indonesia. Verheijen (1984:67) cites wanar from several dialects of Manggarai, but the form is still to be found in other CEMP languages.


*baNaS male (of animals)


PAN     *baNaS male (of animals)

Saisiyat balaʃmale
Seediq balasmale, masculine
Pazeh balasmale, of animals and fowls
Paiwan valʸasmale, of animal (somewhat obscene)


PMP     *banah husband

Cebuano banahusband
  pamanafor women to get married
Belait banehhusband
Basap banahusband
Berawan (Long Teru) binəhhusband
Bintulu banahusband
Tunjung wanahusband
Kapuas banahusband

Note:   Also Tagalog bánaʔ ‘husband’. The meaning of this etymon is problematic. PAn *ma-RuqaNay clearly meant ‘male’ with reference to human beings, a meaning which persisted in PMP. Moreover, PMP *qasawa clearly meant ‘spouse’, a meaning which persisted in PWMP. It follows that PWMP had co-existing terms *qasawa ‘spouse’ (either husband or wife) and *bana ‘husband’. Whether such a situation obtained earlier than PWMP, however, is unclear. The similarity of Vartavo (Vanuatu) vana ‘husband’ to the above forms apparently is due to chance.


*baNaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.


PAN     *baNaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.     [doublet: *baNaR]

Rukai (Mantauran) vaɭaua plant: Smilax sp.


PMP     *banaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

Malay banaua plant name'; = banar (Smilax sp.)

Note:   Tsuchida (1976) posits "PHes *baNaR ‘a vine: Smilax sp.’, citing the nonconforming Rukai (Mantauran) form in a footnote (p. 191, fn. 41).


*baNiC to skin, flay


PAN     *baNiC to skin, flay     [doublet: *panit]

Paiwan b-n-alʸitsremove tree bark or old thatch
  b-n-u-lʸa-lʸitsto skin an animal
Kayan banitbe scratched on the skin (as by thorns)
Kayan (Busang) banitexcoriated, skinned
Sika banitto skin, flay
Yamdena na-banitto remove, as the copra from the shell in drying, anything that sticks, the skin, etc.

Note:   Also Duke of York pani ‘skin, bark’. Ferrell (1982) lists the Paiwan forms under a theoretical root **balʸits. I take *b-aNiC to be a morphologically complex form of *qaNiC (Blust 1970) ‘skin, hide’, the medial consonant having earlier been reconstructed in error as *ñ. Both morphemes could share a common root *-NiC, but such a root is otherwise unknown. Alternately, given the correlated differences of form and word-class *baNiC could contain a prefix. However, a prefix *b- is otherwise unattested.


*bañat stretch


PWMP     *bañat stretch     [doublet: *binat]

Ilokano bánatlengthening -- by forging
Tagalog bánata pull to stretch
  banáttaut, stretched
Kenyah bañatstretched; expanded
Kayan bañatstretched; of elastic bodies, expanded

Note:   Also Tagalog ganít ‘toughness for mastication’, Bikol ignít ‘stretch s.t.’, Kayan banat ‘stretched’


*bañaw wash the body


PAN     *bañaw wash the body

Amis fanawto wash articles of any kind (not cloth)
Proto-Rukai *banawwash, bathe


PMP     *bañaw wash the hands

Itbayaten vanawidea of washing the hands
Kankanaey bánawto dip, soak, steep, drench, wet (as a kettle with adherent dirt)
Sambal (Botolan) mi-banowash the hands
Hanunóo banáwdipping of fingers in water
Aklanon bánawto wash (hands, feet)
Cebuano bánawfor liquids to be spread over an area, spread liquids (as water over a floor)
Moken mañauwash (bottle), baptize (dip in water)
Nias banowash the hands (before eating)
Uma wanowash the hands
Kulawi wanowash the hands
Tae' banowash, rinse off
Selaru hanwash the hands
Numfor banwash with water (body and objects, not clothes)


POC     *paño wash the hands

Tongan fano-fanowash the hands
Niue fano-fanoto rub (as in washing clothes)
Anuta pano-panowash the hands


PAN     *ma-bañaw wash the body

Rukai ma-banáwwash, bathe (Tanan)
Proto-Rukai *ma-banawwash, bathe
Paiwan ma-vanawtake a bath


PMP     *ma-bañaw wash the hands

Itbayaten ma-vanawwash the hands
Ivatan ma-banawwash hands, feet
Sambal (Botolan) mi-banowash hands, feet
Moken mañauwash (bottle), baptize (dip in water)
Uma mo-wanowash the hands
Kulawi mo-wanowash the hands


PWMP     *mam-bañaw wash, rinse