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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    





























*CabCab clap, beat, hack


PAN     *CabCab clap, beat, hack

Paiwan ts-m-abtsabclap hands
  ma-tsabtsabbe beaten repeatedly with open hand (person, wall, etc.)
Bontok tabtabchop, trim with a bolo
Kapampangan tabtabcutting (sugarcane)
  tabtab-anchop off
Tagalog tabtabhew, trim, chip off by hewer or chipping tool (of wood, stone or the like)
Cebuano tabtabhack something off with several blows
Bisaya nantabcut grass
Old Javanese tatabknock on
Javanese tatabpound, beat on something
  tatab-anbox one another
Manggarai tatapstamp or press down, force into a small space
Ngadha tatahack to pieces, beat, kill
Rotinese tatasplit, chop (wood)

Note:   Also Balinese tebteb ‘stamp with the feet and move forward a little (in order to make crickets come out into the open, so that they can be caught)’. Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *tabtab ‘knock, pound, beat’, but cited reflexes only from western Indonesia.


(Formosan only)

*Cabu to wrap


PAN     *Cabu to wrap

Kavalan tabuwrapping, binding (as on a wound)
  sa-tabu-ancloth to wrap with
Saisiyat sabowrap
Atayal sabuʔto wrap
Amis tafoto wrap up, to make a bundle
Paiwan tsavua wrapping; fingerless gloves for work in fields


PAN     *C<um>abu to wrap

Kavalan t<m>abuto wrap, dress a wound
Saisiyat s<um>aboto wrap
Proto-Atayalic *c<um>abuto wrap
Paiwan t<m>avuto package, wrap


*CaCaw pupil of the eye


PAN     *CaCaw pupil of the eye

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) muR-TaTaweyeball
Bikol (k)alin-tatawpupil of the eye

Note:   Also Hanunóo alintawu (< tawu ‘person’) ‘pupil of the eye’. This item seems clearly to be a reduplication of *Cau ‘person, human being’, with a probable morphophonemic alternation of *-u and *-w. Semantic parallels are found in many other Austronesian languages, as with Maranao tao ‘person, people’, tao a mata ‘pupil of the eye’, Tiruray etew ‘person, people’, etew moto ‘pupil of the eye’, Malay oraŋ ‘person’, oraŋ-oraŋ-an mata ‘image in the pupil of the eye’, Tae' tau ‘person’, mata tau ‘pupil of the eye’. For the relation between ‘pupil’ and ‘child’ as a semantic universal, cf. Greenberg (1966:239).


*Cakaw steal


PAN     *Cakaw steal     [doublet: *nakaw]

Pazeh ma-sakawsteal, rob
Amis takawsteal
Thao cakawgreed; you are greedy!
  ma-cakawgreedy for food, gluttonous; tending to take things without permission; to steal
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) T-em-a-Takawsteal
Paiwan tsakawsteal; do secretly


PMP     *takaw₁ steal

Itbayaten takawtheft, idea of stealing
Ilokano ag-tákawsteal, pilfer, purloin, rob, plunder, pillage, loot, harry (-an, manaN-)
Isneg tákawsteal
Casiguran Dumagat takösteal, burglarize
Pangasinan takéwsteal
Kapampangan ka-takaw-angreed
Tagalog tákawgreediness
Hanunóo tákawtheft, stealing
Aklanon tákawsteal, take (without permission)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) takewsteal, acquire by theft
Mansaka takawsteal
Samal taŋkawsteal
Murik takotheft
Kayan takaustealing
Ngaju Dayak takautheft; thing stolen
Singhi Land Dayak tokusteal
Alas taŋkowto steal
Karo Batak taŋkosteal; fig. illicit, have clandestine sexual relations
Toba Batak taŋkosteal
Nias tagõsteal
Mentawai -takowto steal
Sangir takotheft
Mongondow takowsteal, go out to steal
Manggarai takosteal
Kola fanagawto steal


POC     *tako steal or rob

Fijian bu-takosteal or rob


PAN     *ma-Cakaw to steal

Pazeh ma-sakawto steal
Paiwan ma-tsakawbe or become stolen


PMP     *ma-takaw stolen

Kapampangan ma-takaw, ma-takogreedy
Mansaka ma-takawthief


PWMP     *ma-nakaw steal

Itbayaten ma-nakawsteal, rob; robber, stealer, thief
Pangasinan ma-nakéwsteal
Aklanon ma-nákawthief
Tboli me-nagawsteal
Murik nakosteal
Kayan nakawto steal
Ngaju Dayak me-nakausteal, steal from; clandestine
Toba Batak ma-naŋkosteal
Sangir ma-nakosteal
Mongondow mo-nakowsteal


PWMP     *mana-nakaw thief

Ilokano mana-nákawthief, stealer, pilferer, robber
Ngaju Dayak mana-nakausteal a little
Mongondow mono-nakowthief; one who customarily steals


PMP     *pa-nakaw steal

Itbayaten pa-nakawsteal
Aklanon pa-nakáwtheft
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) pe-nakawsteal
Tiruray fe-nakawsteal
Kadazan Dusun pa-nakausteal
Kelabit penotheft; way of stealing
  menoto steal
Ngaju Dayak pa-nakauthievish, stealing inveterately
Toba Batak pa-naŋkothief
Uma pa-nakosteal


POC     *panako steal

Proto-Admiralty *pa-panakosteal
Papitalai penathief; to steal
Kove panahoto steal
Manam anakothief; steal
Bauro hanagosteal
Nakanamanga panakosteal
Rotuman hanaʔosteal; cheat (at school); do surreptitiously; by stealth, without permission, surreptitiously


POC     *painako steal

Mussau ainaosteal
Gabadi vainaosteal
Roro veinaosteal
Muyuw veinausteal


POC     *penako steal

Loniu pa-hena (< *pa-penako)steal
Nalik vinauto steal
Motu henao-asteal
  henao-henaosteal again and again; constant theft; illicit intercourse; fornication


PAN     *C<in>akaw what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive)

Paiwan ts-in-akawstolen objects


PWMP     *t<in>akaw stolen; stolen goods

Isneg s-in-akawwas stolen (past)
Karo Batak t-in-ankowhat is stolen, stolen goods
Nias s-in-agostolen goods
Mongondow s-in-okowstolen (past); what is stolen


PAN     *Cakaw-an (gloss uncertain)

Puyuma Takaw-animperative of the instrumental focus: help to steal


PWMP     *takaw-an stolen goods (?)

Ilokano takaw-anrob, steal rom, plunder, pillage
Isneg takaw-ansteal
Toba Batak taŋko-anwhat is stolen, loot


PWMP     *takaw-en be stolen

Itbayaten takaw-ento steal a thing
Ilokano takáw-ensteal, pilfer, filch, purloin, embezzle
Isneg takaw-anto steal
Hanunóo takáw-unbe stolen
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tekaw-ena thief


PWMP     *paŋ-takaw-an the place where something is stolen (nonpast local passive)

Itbayaten pa-nakaw-ansteal from
Kadazan Dusun pa-naka-anthe place where one steals
Mongondow po-nakaw-anplace where something was stolen or will be stolen


PWMP     *paŋ-takaw-en be stolen (nonpast direct passive)

Itbayaten pa-nakaw-enlet one steal
Kadazan Dusun pa-naka-onbe stolen

Note:   Also Bontok ákew ‘steal from a house when the residents are out’, Kankanaey ákew ‘steal’, Ifugaw áko, ákaw ‘steal’, Ifugaw (Batad) ákaw ‘steal, esp. of valuable items; do something surreptitiously’, Maranao panekeo ‘steal’, Melanau (Mukah) tikaw ‘theft’, menikaw ‘steal’, t-en-ikaw ‘was stolen by’, Maori whánako, whēnako ‘steal; theft; thief; thievish’. This exceptionally complicated comparison requires extensive comment. The following numbered points concerning first the shape, then the morphology and finally the meaning of *Cakaw and its derivatives should cover the major issues:

(1) All Formosan reflexes of *Cakaw which distinguish *C from *t point unambiguously to *C in this form. Outside Taiwan, PMP *t- (the outcome of the merger of PAn *C and *t) is widely reflected as the stem-initial consonant, but there are a number of irregularities, including the unexplained loss of *t- in some of the languages of northern Luzon and the widespread nasal replacement of *t in other languages. The latter irregularities will be treated below under morphology. Although both Samal (southern Philippines) on the one hand, and the Batak languages and Nias (northern Sumatra) on the other hand, reflect a form with medial prenasalization, I take the prenasalization of *k in this word to be a product of two independent changes.

(2) Milke (1968:149) proposed a doublet *nakaw next to Dempwolff's *ta(ŋ)kaw ‘steal’. Although forms compatible with *nakaw occur in forms such as Kayan nakau ‘steal’, Singhi Land Dayak noku ‘steal’, and Karo Batak naŋko ‘steal’, these items are synchronically derived form stems with initial t. The same cannot, however, be said of Kapampangan náko, Tagalog nákaw ‘steal’ and of widespread reflexes of *nakaw in the Lesser Sundas and central Moluccas. A doublet *nakaw thus seems unavoidable, despite the fact that in some languages forms of the same shape are regual morphological derivatives of a reflex of *takaw.

(3) Although Aklanon panákaw ‘theft’, Ngaju Dayak panakau ‘thievish, stealing inveterately’ and Toba Batak panaŋko ‘thief’ are derived synchronically from underlying disyllables with initial t, Itbayaten panakaw, Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) penakaw, Tiruray fenakwa, Kadazan Dusun panakau and reflexes of POc *panako ‘steal’ are independent lexical entries. We might, therefore, posit a third PMP doublet *panakaw next to *takaw and *nakaw, an interpretation which appears to be supported by the reconstructions *panakaw-an and *panakaw-en. However, the evidence for a doublet *panakaw differs from the evidence for a doublet *nakaw in one crucial respect: PMP clearly had a prefix *paŋ- which, among other things, derived agentive nouns, whereas there is little reason to believe that active verbs were derived by simple homorganic nasal substitution (as opposed to prefixation with *maŋ-). The patterning of PMP morphology thus suggests that *panakaw is a morphological derivative of *takaw. Despite this conclusion two serious problems remain: 1. *panakaw presumably meant ‘thief’, yet of the available reflexes only Toba Batak panaŋko supports this interpretation, most languages reflecting *panakaw as a verb or as a non-agentive noun which itself can be affixed to form a verb, 2. reflexes of *panakaw have become independent lexical items in a number of widely distributed languages, yet this has not happened to other morphological derivatives of PMP *takaw.

(4) The morphology of some reflexes of *Cakaw appears superficially to be cognate, but does not stand up to closer inspection. Thus, Tetun hanaʔo ‘rob, steal’ appears at first to reflect *panakaw, but on closer examination appears instead to contain the Tetun causative prefex ha- plus a reflex of *nakaw. Similarly, Paiwan ma-tsakaw ‘be, become stolen’ and Pazeh ma-sakaw ‘steal, rob’ appear at first to be cognate with Sangir ma-tako ‘thievish’, Mongondow mo-takow ‘thievish in nature’, but the Sulawesian forms clearly contain a reflex of *ma- ‘stative’, whereas the Formosan forms do not. Likewise, the similarity of Rotinese manako (ma-nako) and of Kapampangan, Bare'e menako ‘steal’ to the Paiwan and Pazeh forms, or to Isneg mag-tákaw ‘steal’, appears to be a product of convergent innovations in languages that in any case share a common ancestral morphology.

(5) Most challenging of all is the task of interrelating the affixed forms of PAn *Cakaw and PMP *takaw. Wolff (1973) has proposed a convincing system of verbal affixation in PAn which distinguishes independent from future-general action dependent subjunctive modes. The independent mode of verbs includes active, direct passive (DP), local passive (LP) and instrumental passive (IP) voices in both nonpast (-um-, -en, -an, i- respectively), and past tense forms (-inum-, -in-, -in-...-an, i-...-an). At the PAn level the direct available evidence permits us to reconstruct *Cakaw and *C-in-akaw. The former was the stem for verb forms meaning ‘steal’, but when unaffixed probably meant ‘theft’. The latter clearly meant ‘what is stolen, stolen goods’. However, more generally PAn *-in- had two functions: (1) it was a common nominalizer (as in *C-in-akaw); (2) it marked the past tense of all four verbal voices, for the active, LP, and IP in combination with other affixes, but for the DP it occurred with a zero allomorph of the DP suffix *-en, thus acquiring a ‘portmanteau’ function. The forms which have been reconstructed above are only a fragment of what must have been a fuller paradigm, pieces of which are preserved either in the available Formosan evidence or the available MP evidence, but not in both. Taking into account the morphological evidence form other cognate sets we can tentatively posit the following PAn paradigm for *Cakaw:

*Cakaw ‘theft’
NonPast C-um-akaw Cakaw-en Cakaw-an?
Past? C-in-akaw ??

The active nonpast form *C-um-akaw is reflected in Paiwan ts-m-akaw ‘steal; do secretly’ and the irregular Ifugaw um-áko-áko ‘steal frequently, be a thief’. No reflexes of *C-inum-akaw (Wolff's past active) are known. The nonpast direct passive *Cakaw-en is recorded only from Philippine languages, but must have been present in PAn if *C-in-akaw functioned both as a noun and as the past tense form of the direct passive. Reflexes of *Cakaw-an are known only in WMP languages, where they do not clearly reflect a local passive meaning. This meaning is, however, clearly reflected in Kadazan Dusun panaka-an ‘the place where one steals’ and Mongondow ponakaw-an ‘place where something was stolen or will be stolen’. No past tense form of the local passive, nor any form of the instrumental voice or the future-general action dependent subjunctive mode is known for this form.

(6) The principal changes which the foregoing paradigm underwent in PMP were the innovation of *manakaw and *panakaw. Both *t-um-akaw and *manakaw must have coexisted for some time as markers of the nonpast active voice in PMP, but the latter appears to have dominated the former. It is unclear whether PWMP *mananakaw derives from a form prefixed with *manaŋ-, or from a form prefixed with *maŋ- followed by reduplication of the first stem syllable.

(7) The focal meaning of PAn *Cakaw, PMP *takaw was ‘steal’. In addition to this gloss, however, *Cakaw, *takaw evidently included the meaning ‘do secretly’, as such a sense is reflected in Paiwan, Ngaju Dayak, Rotuman, and perhaps Karo Batak and Motu (in both of which the notion of clandestine or illicit sexual relations is also expressed).


*Caki feces, excreta


PAN     *Caki feces, excreta     [doublet: *Caqi]

Pazeh saik <Mexcreta
Bunun takifeces
  mu-takito defecate
Rukai cakiexcrement (Tona)
  ckeeexcrement (Maga)


PMP     *taki feces, excreta     [doublet: *taqi]

Itbayaten tachiexcreta, dung, manure
  t-n-achiexcreta still left in the last stomach, a type of side-dish with wine
Ilokano takkístool, feces, fecal matter, excrement, ordure; dung; rust, verdigris
  ta-takki-ánanus, cloaca
Isneg takkístool, feces, excrement, dung
Bontok takkífeces
Kankanaey takkístool; relief of the bowels; excrement; feces; dung
Ifugaw takkístool relief of the bowels; excrement, feces
Kalamian Tagbanwa takkiʔintestines, guts
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) takifeces, excrement; relieve oneself; wax in the ear; scum from the preparation of coconut oil
Singhi Land Dayak tokifeces
Tolai taki-feces, excrement


PAN     *C<um>aki defecate

[Saisiyat s-om-aʔidefecate]
Rukai mo-cakidefecate (Tona)
  mu-ckeedefecate (Maga)
Ilokano t-um-akkídefecate, void excrement, evacuate the bowels
Isneg t-um-akkídefecate, evacuate the bowels

Note:   Also Isneg tukiʔ ‘dung, excrement (of birds)’, Sambal (Bolinaw) takli ‘excrement’, Sambal (Botolan) taka ‘excrement’, Chamorro takeʔ ‘feces, droppings, manure, excrement, dung, muck’, takeʔ lulok ‘rust’.


(Formosan only)

*Cali cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta


PAN     *Cali cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta

Seediq salitaro (edible)
Amis talitaro
Thao lharitaro: Colocasia esculenta
Bunun taitaro

Note:   Also Rukai (Tona) tai ‘taro’ (probably a loan from Bunun ). PAn *Cali was replaced by PMP *tales. This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).


*Caliŋa ear; various types of bracket fungi


PAN     *Caliŋa ear     [doublet: *Caŋila]

Taokas saninaear
Favorlang/Babuza charinaear
Bunun taiŋaear
Saaroa caliŋaear
Rukai (Budai) caliŋaear
Rukai (Mantauran) caliŋaear
Puyuma Taŋila-ŋila-yanthe Jew's ear fungus, Auricularia-Auricula Judae
Paiwan tsaliŋaear
  tsaliŋa nua djaumeye of a needle
  tsaliŋa-liŋaColeus scutellarioides; Iresine herbstii


PMP     *taliŋa ear; kind of tree fungus     [doublet: *taŋila]

Itbayaten taliñaouter ear, earlobe, auricle, ear; edible tree fungus, the Jew's ear: Auricularia auricula-judae L.
  kayuhtree, wood
  taliña nu kayuhsp. of fungus
Ivatan (Isamorong) tadiñaear
Ilokano talíŋaear; handle; pierced ear (ta- -an)
Isneg talíŋaear
  talíŋa danāgkind of bracket fungus that resembles the xaŋgarát, but is usually much larger
  talíŋa lamán(lit. 'boar's ear'). A common herb, some four inches tall, with dark-colored leaves
  danāgthin and filthy spirits. Those who inhabit a balísi (Ficus indica) tree affect with fever or deafness anybody who dares throw stones at their abode
Kalinga (Guinaang) íŋaear
Casiguran Dumagat taliŋaear
Palauan diŋear
Tagalog taʔíŋaear, ears
Bikol talíŋaear
Buhid talíŋaear
Inati taliŋeʔear
Kalamian Tagbanwa talíŋaear
Palawan Batak talíŋaear
Cebuano talíŋaear; notice, pay heed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teliŋaear; gills of a fish
Mansaka tariŋaear
Samal taliŋaear
Kadazan Dusun tohiŋoear
Bisaya teliŋoear
Miri teliŋahear
Kenyah (Long Anap) teliŋaear
Kenyah (Long Dunin) teliŋeear
Murik teliŋaʔear
Bintulu təliŋaear
Siang tolyiŋaear
Ngaju Dayak taliŋashell of the ear
Malagasy tadínythe foramen of the ear
Maloh taliŋaear
Lundu tariñekŋear
Rhade kŋaear
Malay teliŋaear (parts of the ear, various plants)
Nias taliŋaear
  oroname of a spirit
  taliŋa-orokind of mushroom
Mentawai taliŋaear
Tonsea t<um>adiŋato hear
Tonsawang taliŋaear
Tae' taliŋa balao(lit. 'rat's ear') kind of fungus that grows on the underside of a decayed bamboo betuŋ
Kisar kelin-naear
Roma tlin-ear
Wetan tlinaear
Selaru tliaear
Watubela telŋa-ear
Geser tiliŋaear
Bobot talikanear
Masiwang talika-near
Nuaulu taninaear
Hitu tarinaear
Batu Merah telina-waear
Morella telinaear
Sekar taniga-near
As tanaear
Irarutu təŋgəra <Mear
Dusner tnaear
Ron knaear


POC     *taliŋa ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish

Nauna taliŋear
Lou teliŋa-ear
Penchal reliŋa-ear
Loniu teleŋa-ear
Nali daiŋa-ear
Ahus heliŋa-ear
Papitalai deliŋa-ear
Ponam haliŋe-ear
Seimat taxiŋear
  paximalevolent bush spirit with visible, humanlike body
  taxiŋ i paximushroom
Wuvulu aliaear
Kaniet kaxiña-ear
Mussau taliŋa-ear
Arop taŋla <Mear
Biliau talaŋa-ear
Amara telŋe-ear
Kove taliŋaear
Bebeli talaŋaear
Lakalai la-taliŋasmall edible fungus
Kaulong kiŋaear
Sengseng kliŋaear
Tarpia tarni-ear
Wogeo talŋa-ear
Sio taaŋaear
Yabem taŋaear
Watut riŋaear
Adzera riŋa-near
Motu taiaear; gill fins of fish
Gabadi kainaear
Mekeo (East) ainaear
Nehan taliŋa-ear
Haku taliŋaear
Tinputz tè.nà-near
Uruava tarina-ear
Zabana taliŋaear
Nggela taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree
Sa'a äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs
Sikaiana talinaear
Chuukese seniŋe-n soomáany of a large number of fungi ("ghost's or spirit's ear") such as Auricularia, Ganoderma tropicum, etc.
Puluwat háliŋear, earlobe
  hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans)
  háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom
Woleaian taliŋear
  pachthunder, lightning
Haununu kariŋa-ear
Pileni taliŋaear
Motlav delepectoral fins
Vatrata ndelŋo-ear
Piamatsina nraliŋaear
Apma daliŋa-ear
Lingarak ne-ndeliŋaear
Leviamp ndrinaear
Maxbaxo tarŋa-ear
Ura ndeliŋe-ear
Sie telŋu-ear
Rotuman faliŋapectoral fins
  faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear"
Wayan taliŋageneric for various kinds of fungi, e.g. mushrooms, bracket fungi
Fijian daliŋaear
Tongan teliŋaear
Samoan taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear,
  taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus
Rennellese tagiŋaear; side fins of fish, whale flippers; to hear, lend ear, listen


PAN     *Caliŋa nu kaSiw wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks

[Pazeh kahoy saŋiraspecies of flat, thin, black mushroom (lit. 'wood ear')]


PMP     *taliŋa nu kahiw wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks

Itbayaten taliña no kayoha species of fungus
[Hanunóo taliŋa-bátaŋa poisonous saprophytic tree fungus]

Note:   Also Thao lharina ‘ear’, Paiwan ka-tsaluŋa ‘half-moon-shaped tree-fungus (grows in tiers)’, Kankanaey íŋa ‘ear, shell of the ear; handle, lug’ (also = kind of fungus), Tiruray keliŋo ‘ear’; keliŋoʔ mal ‘a mushroom, Auricularia auricula-judae Linn.’, Tboli keliŋu ‘ear’, Dali' liŋa ‘ear’, Melanau (Mukah) liŋa ‘ear’, Penan (Long Labid) keliŋe-n ‘ear’, Kenyah (Long Dunin) keliŋe ‘ear’, Taboyan keliŋoʔ ‘ear’, Iban keliŋa ‘ear, e.g. on a jar (poetic for pendiŋ)’, Chamorro talaŋa ‘ear’, hayu ‘stick, wood’, talaŋa hayu ‘type of fungus, dark brownish and quite slippery when wet, usually attaches to decayed wood and looks just like the ear of people’.

This item clearly is identical with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taliŋa ‘ear’, but various compounds probably existed in PMP which indicated the widespread association of at least some types of mushrooms with ghosts on the one hand, and with thunder or lightning on the other (see, for example, Lévi-Strauss 1976 or Blust 2000). The meaning ‘pectoral fins’ in connection with this term was added to POc by Osmond (2011:133).


*CaliS rope, cord, twine, string


PAN     *CaliS rope, cord, twine, string

Pazeh sarisrope, cord, string; bowstring
Tsou tresirope
Kanakanabu talísirope
Siraya tarixrope
Rukai cálisirope (Budai)
Puyuma Taliline of the gardener (used to measure garden plots)
Paiwan tsalisa hemp cord


PMP     *talih rope, cord, twine, string

Ilokano talírope, cable, cord
Isneg talírope, cable
Bontok talírope
Kankanaey talícord; rope; line
Ifugaw talírope, cable, anything that serves to bind, attach, wind, etc.' (said to be from Ilokano)
Kapampangan talíʔtie, bind
Maranao talirope, cord, string, twine
  tali-aʔrope-making machine
Subanon talirope
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) talia small rope
Tiruray taleyrope, string; to wrap and tie
Bonggi talirope
Bilaan (Sarangani) talirope
Kadazan Dusun tahirope
Murut (Timugon) talirope
Abai Sembuak talirope
Bisaya talirope
Belait talayrope
Berawan (Long Terawan) tallehrope
Kenyah talicord, rope
Kenyah (Long Anap) talirope
Murik taliʔstring, cord, rope
Kayan (Uma Juman) taliʔrope, string
Kiput talayrope
Bintulu taləyrope
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) tələyrope
Kejaman taləyrope
Lahanan taləyrope
Tunjung talirope
Ngaju Dayak taligeneric for any type of rope, twine or cordage
Paku tadirope
Taboyan talirope
Ma'anyan tadirope
Malagasy tádicord, rope
  voa-tádimade into cord
  tadí-natwisted into a cord or rope; bind with cords
Iban talirope, cord, string, line; tali is made from bark, palm fiber, etc. by laying the fibers together and rolling with palm on thigh or other handy surface
Maloh talirope, cord
Singhi Land Dayak tarisstring, rope
Jarai teleyrope, string
Rhade kleyrope
Malay talirope; cord; string; line; anything of cord-like appearance, including (i) ropes, strings and cords of different materials, (ii) articles of clothing suggesting cords (bandolier, girdle, etc.), (iii) harness-straps, (iv) ropes in ship's rigging, (v) miscellaneous cords and ropes (for woman in labor, spinning top, fishing line, cat's cradle, tendon below tongue, viscera, dried banana strips, navel cord, carpenter's line)
  tali puteria plant, Cassytha filiformis, the basis of a Malay hairwash
  akar taliclimbers, Gnetum spp.
Acehnese taloerope, line, string, cord
Simalur talibinding, rope, cord, string
Karo Batak talirope
Toba Batak talirope, cable, thread, string, twine
Nias talirope, cord, string
Mentawai talirope, string, cord
Lampung talirope
Sundanese taliband, cord, rope, line, and in general anything that can be used to tie; also the cordage of a ship
Old Javanese talirope, cord, string; bond, tie
Javanese talistring, rope
Madurese talerope
  a-taletied with rope
Balinese talistring, cord, rope; one thousand (primarily a cord with 1000 képéŋs strung on it, but used in Low Balinese for 1000)
Sasak talirope
  tali-n ambetslender cord around the abdomen (worn as an amulet)
Tonsea tadirope
Tontemboan talinet used to catch wild pigs
Tonsawang talirope, string
Gorontalo talistring, cord, rope
Uma taliheadband
Bare'e taliheadcloth, headband
Tae' taliheadband used to hold the hair in place
  tali-iput on a headband
Makassarese tali(in combination forms) cord, string
Wolio talistring
Bimanese tarirope (for bit or bridle of horse)
Komodo talicord, rope
Manggarai talirope, cord (as of rattan)
Rembong talirope (for a horse)
Ngadha talilarge rope, cord
Sika talirope
  ai talitalisman worn around the neck
  tali-ŋfibrous, of wood and tubers
Adonara talerope
Hawu darirope (sometimes made from the midrib of the lontar palm)
Dhao/Ndao darirope
Rotinese talirope (different types are distinguished by the material from which they are made)
Atoni tanirope
Tetun talirope, cord, string
  tali-kof or like rope; to coil around or entwine
  tali-nrope, cord, string; yoked together, paired
Galoli tali-nrope
Tugun talistring, rope
Kisar kalirope, cord
Roma talirope
Leti talirope
  lare tal-lirope of a sail
Luang talirope
Wetan talirope
Yamdena talirope
Ujir telrope
Watubela talirope
Geser talirope


POC     *tali₁ rope, string, cord

Nauna təlstring, rope
Lou telstring, rope
Penchal rīlstring, rope
Seimat talstring, rope
Yapese taelrope; string; twist tobacco
Gedaged talito bend (straight or round)
Gitua talto coil, put around
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making: Hibiscus tiliaceus
Tawala talirope to hold pig net up
Varisi talirope
Eddystone/Mandegusu talifishing line
Nggela talirope
Nggeri tairope
Kwaio aliplait
Lau alitwine round, encircle; surround; coil a rope, wind a line; coil up like a dog; curled, tangled, of hair; make a loop, bend string or rope; strand of a rope
Sa'a älilie curled up as a dog or a snake
Arosi arito plait; rope; wind up, make a noose; lie curled up (dog or snake)
Pohnpeian sahlrope, cord, line, string
  salgather rope, haul in a line
Chuukese säänrope, coil of rope, heavy duty sennit
Woleaian tal(i)rope, line, be tangled up with ropes
Ulithian talelength of rope
Mota talirope, cord, made of plaited or twisted lines
Malmariv tali-guts
Avava a-talrope, string
Lonwolwol tElrope
Bonkovia telirope
Namakir na-talrope
Nakanamanga na-talirope
Fijian dalikind of pandanus from which ropes are made: Agave sisalana Amaryllidaceae; hence in common use, a rope. In Kadavu also a species of vine
Nukuoro dalifibers of the coconut leaf rachi
Rennellese -tagisennit noose for snaring sharks
Anuta tarisennit cord used for lashing canoes
Maori taria mode of plaiting with several strands; noose for catching birds, etc; ensnare


PMP     *ta-talih cordage (?)

Ngaju Dayak ta-talilike a rope, i.e. long and slender
Sundanese ta-taliropes, cordage
Old Javanese ta-talirope, band, girdle
Sangir ta-taḷicarpenter's rope used to snap down to make a line
Rotinese ta-talito make rope by rolling fibers together on a flat surface, esp. the thigh


PWMP     *talih-an mooring place, place where a boat is tied

Ilokano tali-ánto rope, to bind, tie or fasten with a rope or cord; connect or fasten together with a rope; to clench, grip, clutch, hold or grasp firmly (clinching); to entwist, entwine, twist or wreath around (snakes)
Ngaju Dayak tali-anplace where a boat is moored
Toba Batak tali-anan alloted piece of land
Sundanese nali-anto tie, bind
Old Javanese taly-anbound
Makassarese tali-tali-aŋmoor a large boat by tying in various places (as at prow and stern), esp. during the west monsoon; fig. restrain a furious person from every side


PWMP     *talih-en to be manufactured, of string or rope

Ilokano tali-énto braid, twist into a rope
Kadazan Dusun tohiz-onbe made into string
Javanese tali-nact or way of tying; a tied bundle, esp. of harvested rice


PAN     *C<in>aliS was made into rope; what was made into rope

Saisiyat S-in-aLiS <Arope, cord


PMP     *t<in>alih was made into rope; what was made into rope

Ilokano t-in-alírope consisting of two or more strands, for instance, a plain-laid rope, etc.
Malagasy t-in-adiwas made into rope by twisting
Karo Batak t-in-alirope
Nias s-in-alirope, string, line
Old Javanese t-in-ali gajahwith garlands hung crosswise?
  t-in-ali talimade into a string, in continuous succession
Sangir pa-poroŋ t-in-alitwisted headcloth worn by men


PAN     *C<um>aliS to tie with rope, fasten with rope

Saisiyat S-om-aLiSto fasten, tie
Puyuma T-em-aliprepare a field (by measuring off)
Paiwan ts-m-alisto manufacture hemp cord


PMP     *t<um>alih to twist into rope (?)

Ilokano t-um-alíto rope, be formed into rope, twist in the shape of a rope, draw out or extend into a filament or thread
Malay tali t-em-alicordage generally
Old Javanese t-um-alīto tie, bind, string


PWMP     *ma-nalih make a rope or string, make something into rope or string

Kadazan Dusun ma-nahito make string
Ngaju Dayak ma-nalimake a string or rope, as for attaching a fishhook
Malagasy ma-nadito twist, make a rope by twisting; bind with cords
Iban nalitwist into rope, prepare fibre for rope; continue the line, inherit bilik and share of property
Toba Batak ma-nalito bind or tie
Nias ma-nalimake something into a rope
Javanese nalitie for someone; tie something
Sangir ma-naliwork with a measuring line, make a line by using a string that has been dipped in paint or coated with charcoal and snapping it down against the wood being marked (carpenter's term)


PWMP     *pa-nalih material used to make rope

Kapampangan pa-nalíʔsomething to tie with
Ngaju Dayak pa-naliwhat is often used to make rope
Malay p-en-alitying material


PWMP     *pa-talih twine together, as strands of rope

Acehnese peu-taloetie with a rope or string
Karo Batak pe-talito copulate, of snakes
Nias fa-talitwist around one another


PWMP     *talih pusej umbilicus, navel cord

Malagasy tadi-m poítrathe navel string
Malay tali pusatumbilicus, navel cord
Acehnese talòë pusatnavel string

Note:   Also Tagalog táliʔ ‘twine, anything used for tying’, Bikol mag-táliʔ ‘to thread a needle’, Cebuano táliʔ ‘tie, bind’, Simalur taliʔ ‘kindred, lineage’, Sasak taliʔ ‘to tie, specifically of binding smaller bundles of rice stalks into larger ones’, Sa'a ʔäli ‘cord’, Lonwolwol tali ‘rope handle of- (suffix-taking)’.

It seems clear that the fundamental sense of PAn *CaliS and its reflexes was ‘rope, twine, string’ --- that is, manufactured cordage as opposed to natural tying materials. Nonetheless, this word often is replaced by a reflex of *waRej ‘vine’ in OC languages, presumably because in POc society vines had become a major material for ropes (cp. Nauna of the eastern Admiralties, where way < *waRoj can mean either ‘vine’ or ‘rope’, but tIl < POc *tali can mean only ‘rope’, never ‘vine’). The reference to pig nets or a rope to hold up a pig net in Tontemboan of northern Sulawesi and Tawala of southeastern Papua may be a result of convergence, but it seems at least as likely that PMP *talih was part of the name for some type of trap for ensnaring wild pigs. Similarly, the reference to entangling snakes in Ilokano and Karo Batak may reflect a metaphorical or high frequency phrasal usage of PWMP *talih.


*CaluN fallow land; secondary forest


PAN     *CaluN fallow land; secondary forest

Amis talodall kinds of grass, weeds (generic term)
Puyuma Taƚungrass; waste
  T-in-a-Taƚun-anluxuriant vegetation
  Taƚu-Taƚunforest, woods
  Taƚun i ƚaƚiabanedible seaweed (T)


PMP     *talun₁ fallow land; secondary forest

Ilokano tálonrice field
  ag-tálonto work a rice field; farm
  ma-tálonto be suitable for farming, arable
  ta-talón-enarable, suitable for farming
Isneg tálonthe small patch of ground, about a square yard, that is cleared on the first day, when a farmer begins to clear the ground for a new rice field
Bontok tálonforest
Casiguran Dumagat talónjungle, forest
  i-talonwild chicken, Gallus gallus; scrutinize an area of forest (to see if it is suitable for making a swidden)
Buhid tálonforest
Hanunóo tálunjungle, forest; an extensive, continuous, forested area
Aklanon táeonfield; underdeveloped or overgrown land
Agutaynen talonforest, woods, jungle (some people believe that evil spirits and elves live in places like this)
Palawan Batak tálonwoods, forest
Subanen/Subanun talonwild
  baboy talonwild boar
Tiruray talunforest
  t-en-alunswidden site planted in grain
Kadazan Dusun tahunjungle, wilderness
Kayan (Busang) talunbrushwood, bushes, new growth on land that has served as a swidden (but is now fallow)
Tunjung talunwoods
Iban talunturn up soil, dig, till
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) taruna place inland, etc., a wood; dwelling site, place
Singhi Land Dayak torunforest
Simalur talonspot, place, locale
Karo Batak taluna bit of wilderness where one can secure rights of ownership through cultivation; a place with sugar palms which are tapped for wine
Toba Batak talunfallow land
  ma-nalun-ito cultivate land
Sundanese talunnewly reclaimed swidden land
  dukuh talunnewly settled areas resulting from the expansion of a village, farm, house with farmland; also a piece of land planted in fruit trees, orchard
  sawah-talunricefields and gardens
Old Javanese talunouter gardens (on the edge of the wood, not long opened up)
  anawuŋ talunlive in the woods
  ayam talunwood-fowl
Javanese talunfield which has no irrigation system, and hence is planted only during the wet season
  pa-talun-ana mountain plain
Madurese talonfallow swidden land
Sasak taluncultivated land
Proto-Minahasan *talunforest
Tonsea tadunforest
Mongondow talun mo-nalunclear or work a piece of land, removing the native growth, planting
Banggai man-talunto weed
  pan-talunweeding implement
  ta-talunknife for cutting weeds
  mon-tolun-ito weed, of multiple objects
Bare'e taluabandoned piece of ground, cultivated field which has gone to weeds
  mon-talulet a field go to weeds, let land go fallow
Makassarese taluŋpast the time of bearing (of fruits); bear no more fruit
Nggela taluforest, but not virgin forest, where the land has been cultivated
Kwaio alugarden, of second or third crop, or having been opened for harvest
  alu siisiian old garden plot returning to secondary growth, beginning to be overgrown
  lala-aluearly secondary bush from old garden
Lau alugarden ground, last year's garden
'Āre'āre ʔāru masiuabandoned, overgrown; last year's garden
Sa'a älulast year's yam garden; bananas and pawpaws and oha planted there
Arosi arua dug garden; an overgrown garden, land formerly used for a garden
Niue talu-ēfallow, unproductive
  talu-melieproductive (soil), fertile
  talu-taluland out of cultivation
  talu-ŋaplants remaining on an old plantation
  talu-tūvaothick bushland
Samoan talu-talufresh growth of weeds; growth, development (of feature, phenomenon, etc.); young trees grown up where there had been a plantation (Pratt 1984)
Rarotongan taru-taruweeds that have been cut down and laid about on the ground
Maori taru, taru-taruherbage, small vegetation, grass


PPh     *talun-an clear land for cultivation

Isneg talón-anclear a patch of ground for cultivation
Mongondow talun-anremove the growth from land, clear land for planting


PPh     *talun₂ wild fowl, jungle fowl

Casiguran Dumagat i-talónwild chicken: Gallus gallus
Bikol tálonwild fowl
Hanunóo tálun manúkwild jungle fowl, wild chicken: Gallus gallus gallus Linn.

Note:   Probably from *talun₁ ‘fallow land’ by reduction of an earlier construction *manuk talun ‘jungle fowl’, or the like.


PPh     *ka-talun-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano ka-talón-antenant farmer
Aklanon ka-taeón-anrural areas
Agutaynen ka-talon-anforest, woods, jungle


*CaNem grave; to bury


PAN     *CaNem grave; to bury

Kavalan tanemgrave
Amis tademgrave, tomb
Saaroa c<um>a-calhəməto cover with earth


PMP     *tanem grave; to bury; to plant

Ilokano tanémtomb, grave
Itawis tanámgrave
  mat-tanámto bury, to inter
Bontok tanəma cutting, as of sugarcane
Ifugaw tanómact of planting what must grow; transplanting (e.g. rice seedlings); tanóm is not applied to putting seeds in the earth, only to rice, trees, bushes
  mun-tanómto plant a plant crown, cutting, rhizome, seed, shoot, vine into soil
Ifugaw (Batad) tanómseed rice, selected during main-crop rice harvest for planting main-crop rice
Umiray Dumaget tanomto plant
Pangasinan tanémto plant, sow
  panag-tanémplanting season
Tagalog tanímplant
Bikol tanómplant, bush, shrub
Hanunóo tanúmplanting
Masbatenyo tanóma plant
  tánomrice seedling
Aklanon tánomrice seedling, rice shoot
  tanómto plant
  ka-tamn-anorchard, plantation
Waray-Waray tanómto plant something; raise crops
Hiligaynon tanúmplant
Cebuano tanúmto plant, grow plants; implant, nurture in the mind
  t<al>amn-án-anarea prepared for planting
Mansaka tanumto plant
Mapun tanomto plant something
Yakan mag-tanemto plant something
  nanemto plant something
Tausug tanumto plant (something); to bury (something)
Kadazan Dusun tanomplant, crop
  ta-tanomdibble for planting
Ida'an Begak tanombury
Lun Dayeh tanema grave, a tomb
Kelabit tanemgrave; sunken, as a stick pounded into the ground
Murik tanəmgrave
  nanəmto bury
Kayan tanəmburied; a grave; covered with earth; to plant
  nanəmto bury; to plant
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanəmbury
  nanəmto bury; to become submerged
Malay tanamplanting, burying in soil
Simalur tanəmto plant, to bury
  ma-nanəmto plant, to bury
  tanəm-tanəmplants, growing things
  tanəm-ənwhat is planted = seedling
Karo Batak tanemto bury
  nanemto plant
  nanem-kenbury a corpse; plant a tree
Toba Batak ma-nanomto bury
  tar-tanombe buried
Lampung tanomto plant something
Old Javanese tanembeing planted in something, having gone in and stuck fast
  tanem-tanem-anthat which has been planted, plants, crops
Javanese tanemto plant
Balinese tanembury in the ground (seeds, plants, a corpse); grave
Tonsea t<um>anemto plant
Tontemboan tanemto plant
Totoli tanomto plant
Dampelas tanoŋto bury
Balaesang tanoŋto bury
Banggai man-tanomto bury
  ba-tanomdig oneself in
Uma mo-tanato bury
Bare'e tónom-ito plant a crop because the seeds or pits are too large to broadcast
Tae' tananto plant; also to put, place, erect
  man-tananto plant, especially rice
  tanan-anwhat is planted
  tanan-nito plant with
Mori Bawah mon-tanoto bury
Buginese taneŋplant
  mat-taneŋto plant
Makassarese an-nanaŋplanting of young seedlings in the rice paddy (after they have been pulled up from the seedbed)
  ase tanaŋrecently transplanted rice seedlings
Muna tanuto bury
Palauan mə-láləmto plant
Chamorro tanomto plant seeds or seedlings
Kédang taneŋto bury, cover with earth
Kambera taniŋuto bury
Hawu dane ~ danato bury
Rotinese taneto plant
Kisar kaman <Mto plant
Leti tomnato plant; to bury
Wetan tamnato bury
Yamdena n-tanamdibbling for maize, rice, peanuts, beans, seeds
Kamarian taneto plant
Buruese tane-hto plant (object is either thing or area planted)
  tane-kto implant (object is thing planted)
Soboyo tanoŋto plant, plant in
  t<an>anoŋwhat is planted, crop
Kowiai/Koiwai tanomland, soil
Gimán tonamto plant
Wandamen tanamto plant


POC     *tanom to bury; to plant

Biliau -tanto plant
Manam tanoto plant
  tano-mito plant something
  tano-tanoto plant
Tawala tanogarden; clearing around house
Tubetube tanogarden
Kwaio ano-abury; camouflage a foot trap with dirt
  ano-miato plant, bury
Lau anoto bury
  ano-midig heel in ground
Toqabaqita ano-aplant a seed, tuber; plant by covering with soil or piling up soil around
  ano-miabury in the ground (impolite to use for burying a person)
'Āre'āre ano-ato bury, fill a grave with sand, to fill a hole, cover with earth
  ano-miato bury
Sa'a ano-anoto bury
  ano-mito cover with earth, to inter
Arosi ano-ito bury
  ano-mito hide, conceal
Tongan tanoplace of burial, cemetery (obsolescent)


PPh     *i-tanem to bury, to plant

Ilokano i-tanémto bury, entomb
  ma-i-tanémbe buried, be forgotten
Agta (Dupaningan) i-tánamto bury
Isneg i-tanámto carry to the grave
Bontok ʔi-tanəmto plant a cutting, as of sugarcane
Tagalog i-tanímto plant, to put in the ground to grow; to implant (morally), to inculcate
Bikol i-tanómto plant, to raise plants
Masbatenyo i-tanómto plant, sow, place in the ground, transplant
Cebuano i-tanúmto plant; implant, nurture in the mind


PWMP     *ma-tanem able to plant or bury

Tagalog ma-tanímto be engrafted; to be implanted; to be instilled, to be put in little by little; well-planted, covered with plants, having plenty of plants growing
  ma-tamn-ánto be able to be planted in
Lun Dayeh me-tanemable to bury


PWMP     *ma-nanem to bury; to plant

Kadazan Dusun ma-nanomto plant
Ida'an Begak mə-nanomto bury
Lun Dayeh nanemto bury someone
Malay me-nanamto plant; to implant (as common sense)
Totoli ma-nanomto plant
Dampelas ma-nanoŋto bury
Balaesang ma-nanoŋto bury
Tae' man-tananto plant, especially to plant rice


PWMP     *maR-tanem to bury, to plant

Isneg mag-tanámto inter, to bury
Bikol mag-tanómto plant, to raise plants; to plant in
Hanunóo mag-tanúmto plant, will plant
Masbatenyo mag-tanómto plant, sow, place in the ground, transplant
Hiligaynon mag-tanúmto plant, to allow to grow
Tausug mag-tanumto plant (something), as vegetables
Bahasa Indonesia ber-tanamto plant, engage in the work of planting


PWMP     *pa-nanem (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog pa-nanímreferring to seeds or seedlings used for planting and for propagation
Cebuano pa-nanúmplanting, farming, agriculture
Tausug pa-nanumplants, that which has been planted, a crop
Malay pe-nanamperson who plants
Tae' pan-tananwhat is planted; riceplants that have already been transplanted into the paddy


PWMP     *taR-tanem (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tag-tanímplanting season
Bahasa Indonesia ter-tanamalready planted
Toba Batak tar-tanombecome buried


PAN     *ka-tanem-an area that is planted(?)

Kavalan qa-tanm-angraveyard, cemetery
Aklanon ka-támn-anorchard; plantation
Mapun ka-tanom-anto be able to be used for planting (as land that is available)
Tausug ka-tanum-anto be planted on (a plot of land)
Kadazan Dusun ka-tanam-anact of planting
Old Javanese ka-tanem-anto plant with, to make something enter into and stick


PWMP     *t<in>anem what has been planted (?)

Masbatenyo t<in>anóma plant
Mapun t<in>anomanything planted, a crop
Yakan t<in>anemwhat has been planted, the plant, seed, seedling, etc.
Lun Dayeh t<in>anemburied by someone
Kelabit s<in>anemwas buried by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anemto plant
Palauan d<əl>áləmplanted


PAN     *t<um>anem to plant

Kavalan t<m>anemto bury
Tausug t<um>anumto plant something
Old Javanese t<um>anemto enter into and stick fast, to be deeply implanted
Tontemboan t<um>anemto plant


PAN     *tanem-an area that is planted(?)

Kavalan tanm-anburied
Tagalog taním-anplace for planting, plantation
  tamn-ánto plant in (emphasis on place); to have a place planted with
Bikol tanom-ánarable, suitable for planting or farming
Masbatenyo tanom-anto plant in a place
Aklanon t<ae>ámn-anfield [for planting]
Mapun tanom-anto plant something
Tausug tanum-anto plant something
Kadazan Dusun tanam-anto plant
Toba Batak tanom-angrave
Old Javanese tanem-anthat which has been planted, plants, crops
Tontemboan t<in>anem-anplantation, area that has been planted with crops


PAN     *CaNem-en what is buried or planted

Amis tadem-ento bury
Waray-Waray tanom-onplants to be planted; something to be planted
Hiligaynon tanum-unto plant, to allow to grow
Mapun tanom-unto plant something
Kadazan Dusun tonom-onto be planted
Malay tanam-ana thing planted
Simalur tanəm-ənwhat is planted, seedling
Nias tanõmõseed, seedling


PMP     *tanem-i to plant on or in

Waray-Waray tanom-íto plant on something
Malay me-nanam-ito plant something in
Tae' tanan-nito plant (with)
Moor ʔanamito plant, grow

Note:   Also Isneg mag-tamán ‘to inter, to bury’, Lun Dayeh tinem-en ‘will be buried’. As a concrete noun *CaNem seems to have meant ‘grave’, as shown by reflexes in Kavalan, Ilokano, Itawis, Lun Dayeh, Kelabit, Kayan, Murik, and Balinese (morphological derivatives in Toba Batak and Tuvaluan suggest that the base alone is now primarily a verb or abstract noun in these languages). As a verb both ‘to plant’ and ‘to bury’ are widespread in Malayo-Polynesian languages, and evidently co-occurred in PMP. However, it should be noted that PMP *mula also meant ‘to plant’. Although this observation might be taken as evidence to favor the gloss ‘to bury’ for PMP *tanem, the glosses of reflexes suggest that this form referred especially to the planting (and transplanting) of rice, while PMP *mula referred to the planting of other cultigens.

All Cristobal-Malaitan forms cited here are listed under ano ‘earth’ (< PMP *taneq) in the individual dictionaries, but the thematic consonant –m strongly suggests that they derive from *tanem; in a number of other Oceanic languages it is unclear whether bases of the shape tano reflect *taneq ‘earth, soil’, or *tanem ‘to bury, plant’, and it is likely that the two forms became derivationally related in the thinking of many speakers. Proto-Oceanic *tanom underwent an irregular change to Proto-Polynesian *tanu, with the innovative vowel then passed on to its descendants. A similar irregular change is seen in Muna tanu ‘bury’, but this agreement is treated as a convergent irregularity rather than evidence for a doublet *tanum.


*CaNum carry water


PAN     *CaNum carry water

Paiwan (Western) tsalʸumto carry water


PMP     *tanum₁ fill with water

Ngaju Dayak tanumfill it with water! (imperative of danum)

Note:   It is hard to know what to do with this comparison, as the Ngaju Dayak form is given as an allomorph of danum, while Paiwan (Western) tsalʸum is given as a dialect variant of standard Paiwan zalʸum. This may simply be a product of convergence.


*Caŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea


PAN     *Caŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea

Paiwan tsaŋladmiscanthus grass


PMP     *taŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea

Itbayaten taŋxada plant of the reed family: Themeda gigtantea Hack.
Ibatan taŋhadkind of sharp-bladed grass that grows in higher elevations
Ilokano taŋlágelephant grass
Ifugaw taŋlágkind of grass which has long and sharp leaves, and so cannot be used to cover roofs: Themeda gigtantea
Bikol taŋládlemon grass, a plant possessing a root which is pounded and used as a seasoning: Andropogon citratus
Aklanon táŋeadlemon grass (used for seasoning): Andropogon citratus DC
Agutaynen taŋladlemon grass, used in flavoring dishes, and also as one of the leaves in the pamegat bath water (medicinal wine or bath water, for preventing a relapse)
Cebuano taŋládlemon grass, kind of tall grass that smells of lemon and is used as a spice: Andropogon citratus
Subanon toŋladlemon grass
Binukid taŋladlemon grass
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋladlemon grass, Andropogon citratus, used in flavoring meat, and as a poultice

Note:   The *a > o change in Subanon, points to an earlier schwa that would have developed only in prepenultimate position, and so confirms that this word remained a trisyllable long after the break-up of PAn, PMP and PPh, despite the operation of medial schwa syncope in all languages cited here.


*Caŋila ear


PAN     *Caŋila ear     [doublet: *Caliŋa]

Pazeh saŋiraear
Sakizaya taŋilaʔear
Amis taŋilaear, ears
Bunun taŋiaear
Bunun (Isbukun) taŋiaʔear
Hoanya saŋilaear
Siraya taŋiraear
Rukai cŋiraear (Maga)
Puyuma Taŋiƚaear
  Taŋiƚa-ŋiƚa-yanJew's ear fungus


PMP     *taŋila ear

Ifugaw taŋílahudhúd word for 'ear', instead of íŋa
Papapana taŋina-naear
Piva tagina-ear

Note:   Also Atayal (Mayrinax) caŋia ‘ear’, Amis taŋiŋa ‘ear, ears’.


*Caŋis weep, cry; mourn; to beseech


PAN     *Caŋis weep, cry; mourn; to beseech

Amis taŋiccry; expressed or unexpressed grief
Thao canitto cry
  kun-canitto suddenly burst into tears
Bunun taŋisto cry
Puyuma Taŋisweep


PMP     *taŋis weep, cry; mourn

Itbayaten tañiscrying; weep
  ka-tañisact of crying
Ilokano sáŋitcrying; cry
  ag-sáŋitto cry, weep
  maka-saŋ-saŋítto feel like crying
Agta (Dupaningan) saŋetcry, weep
  mag-saŋetto cry, to weep
Isneg sáŋitweep, cry
  mag-sáŋitto weep, to cry, to shed tears
  pag-saŋ-saŋit-tánto cause weeping
Itawis táŋitcrying
  mat-táŋitto cry
Casiguran Dumagat saŋétto cry, to wail, to weep
Umiray Dumaget taŋosto weep, cry
Tagalog táŋisweeping, crying; mourning, lamenting
  i-táŋisto weep over, to mourn
Bikol táŋiscry
  mag-táŋisto cry
Aklanon táŋisto cry, bawl (tears)
Waray-Waray taŋísto cry, weep, shed tears
Kalamian Tagbanwa taŋitcry
Hiligaynon táŋisa cry, a lament
  mag-taŋísto cry, to lament
Palawan Batak taŋíscry, shout, moan, cry out
Cebuano taŋísto cry, weep; a cry, weeping
Central Tagbanwa taŋitgrief, weeping, crying
Mapun taŋiscrying
Yakan mag-taŋisto cry, weep (audibly, or inaudibly with tears)
Tausug mag-taŋisto cry or weep, shed tears
Berawan (Long Terawan) taŋehcrying, weeping
  bə-taŋehbe prone to crying, cry a lot
Miri taŋaycrying, weeping
Kenyah (Long Dunin) taŋecrying, weeping
Murik taŋihweeping, crying
Kayan taŋihcrying, weeping
Kayan (Long Atip) naŋihto weep, cry
Kayan (Uma Juman) taŋiweep, cry; a cry
Kiput taŋaycry, weep
Melanau (Mukah) taŋiha cry; crying
  t<ən>aŋihwas wept over
Ngaju Dayak taŋisweeping, crying
  ta-taŋischoking up, of the voice of someone about to cry
Malagasy tanicrying, tears, lamentation
  fara-tanithe close of funeral ceremonies (fara = ‘last’)
Malay taŋisweeping, in contrast to cries (raung) or lamentations (ratap)
Gayō taŋiscrying, weeping
  pe-naŋis-enregret, regrets
Karo Batak taŋisto weep, to cry
Toba Batak taŋisto weep, to cry
Old Javanese taŋisweeping, tears
  a-taŋistearful; addressing (imploring, etc.) with tears
Javanese taŋiscrying, weeping
Balinese taŋisweeping
Sasak taŋisweeping, crying
Sangir saŋiʔweeping, crying
Tae' taŋiʔweeping, crying; lamentation, funeral dirge
  si-taŋir-anweep for one another
Chamorro taŋesa cry, a sob
Lamaholot tanito weep, cry; to complain
Solorese kaniweep, cry
Rotinese tanito cry, whine
Tetun tanisto cry, to weep tears
Tetun (Dili) tanisto cry
Kola tanto cry
Ujir tanito cry
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) tento cry
Bobot rakitweep, cry
Masiwang takitto cry
Alune dani ~ ranito weep, cry
Hitu ta-tanito weep, cry
Asilulu tanito cry
  tani pak-anituto wail and keen (on the death of a loved one)
Manipa kanito cry, weep
Tifu taŋito weep, cry
Soboyo taŋi ~ daŋito weep, to cry
Sekar táŋisto weep
Gimán taŋisto weep, cry
Buli taŋisto weep, cry; howl
Biga tinisto weep, cry
As taniscry
Minyaifuin tenisto cry, weep
Irarutu taŋgto cry
Dusner anto cry
Numfor kanəsto weep, cry; howl
Lou teŋto weep, cry
Penchal tɨŋto weep, cry
Loniu taŋto weep, cry
Titan taŋto weep, cry
Andra deŋto cry
Leipon teŋto weep, cry
Ahus a-teŋto weep, cry
Kuruti taŋto weep, cry
Lele yiy i-reŋs/he is crying
Levei e-tæŋto weep, cry
Bipi takto weep, cry
Seimat taŋto weep, cry
Wuvulu ʔaito weep, cry
Kaniet taŋeito cry
Mendak tI:ŋto weep, cry, mourn
Tanga taŋto weep, cry
Label taŋisto weep, cry
Tolai taŋito cry, weep, wail; make a noise, as of water shaken in a bottle, also of water about to boil; to sing, of birds and musical instruments; sound
Bali (Uneapa) taŋichito mourn for the dead
Vitu taŋito cry
Arop a-taŋto weep, cry
Lusi -taŋito cry
Kove taŋiweep, cry
Sengseng tiŋisto cry (with tears)
Sobei e-tanto cry
Ali tiəŋto cry
Wogeo taŋto weep, cry
Manam taŋto weep, cry
Yabem -taŋto cry
Numbami taŋicry, sing, sound
Labu -la-laŋito cry, weep
Watut -raŋto weep, cry
Suau tanito cry
Hula aɣito weep, cry
Sinaugoro taɣito weep, cry
Motu taito cry, to howl (of dogs)
Piva tanisito cry
Uruava tanito weep, cry
Torau ma tanisito weep, cry
Mono-Alu taito cry
Cheke Holo tanhito cry, shed tears, whine
Bugotu taŋito cry, cry aloud, lament, wail; crying, lamentation
  taŋi mateto wail (for the dead)
Nggela taŋito sound, make a sound; a sound; to pronounce a word, be pronounced; to cry
  te taŋi na tavulithe sound of the conch shell trumpet
Kwaio aŋi-aŋi-ʔasorrowful
Lau āŋito cry, produce a sound, e.g. bird singing, trumpet, thunder
Toqabaqita aŋito cry; to produce a sound (as cicadas, musical instrument)
Arosi aŋito cry; to sound, of bell, gong, panpipes, trumpet; to sing, of birds; to shout; indeed, almost any sound, as the swish of water or the whistle of a steamer
Gilbertese taŋicomplain, sigh, lament
Kosraean tʌŋto cry
Marshallese jaŋto cry; to play music on radio or phonograph; to lament, mourn, weep; wail
Pohnpeian seŋto cry, to weep, to moan
Mokilese joaŋto cry
Puluwat háŋto cry, weep
Woleaian taŋ(i)to weep, cry, sob
Buma e-teŋito cry
Mota taŋito weep, cry, with reference both to tears and sounds; to cry, of birds, animals; sound of musical instruments; to weep, as a tree when chopped
  taŋi-vacrying, grief
Mosina teŋto cry
Mafea taŋito cry
Fortsenal tanito cry
Amblong tanto cry
Axamb raŋ-(is)to weep, cry
Visina -taŋito cry
Makatea taŋito cry
Efate (South) tagto cry, weep
Rotuman fạŋito cry aloud; to announce what is going to happen
Wayan taŋito cry, wail, weep (usually refers to audible weeping but may refer to silent flow of tears); of birds and some animals, make the sound, call or cry characteristic of a species
  vaka-taŋi-taŋipretend to cry, put on a crying act
  i-vaka-taŋiinstrument for making a sound, musical instrument
Fijian taŋito give out sound: of humans, to cry, weep, lament; of animals, to cry, mew, crow, etc.; of clocks and musical instruments, to give out their sounds; to give an alarm (as of war)
  taŋi-cato cry for (in order to get a thing); to chime in, of a meke or song
  taŋi-cakato cry on account of, to lament the dead
Tongan taŋito cry, weep; (of horses) to neigh or whinny, (of dogs) to howl, (of cats) to mew; to ask or appeal or make a petition
Niue taŋito weep, cry; a wake over the dead
Futunan taŋito weep; to take a complaint to the chief
Samoan taŋito cry, weep; to make a noise, utter a cry characteristic of a given animal (birds, crickets, cicadas); ask for, beg for, request
Tuvaluan taŋito weep, cry; to sound (as an instrument); the sound of weeping or an instrument
Kapingamarangi daŋito cry, to wail; to apologize
Rennellese taŋito cry, weep, sound, ring, bark; tears
Anuta taŋito cry, to moan
Rarotongan taŋiany noise or sound, peculiar quality of tone, report, empty or meaningless noise; any sound or noise, such as crying in grief or pain; a fit of weeping; the particular cry or call uttered by birds or beasts; to cry, to lament, to weep, to bawl; to sympathize with
Maori taŋisound, give forth a sound, cry, of things animate or inanimate; weep, utter a plaintive cry, sing a dirge; fret, cry; salute, weep over; resound; mourn; cry for; lamentation, mourning, dirge
  ta-taŋito jingle, rattle; gurgle
Hawaiian kanisound of any kind; pitch in music; to sound, cry out, ring, peal, tinkle, roar, rumble, crow; to strike, of a clock; voiced


PAN     *ma-Caŋis tearful, crying easily

Puyuma ma-Taŋisto weep


PMP     *ma-taŋis tearful, crying easily

Bikol ma-táŋis(-on)describing someone who cries a lot
Sangir ma-saŋiʔtearful, crying easily


PMP     *ma-naŋis to weep, to cry

Ibaloy naŋisweeping, crying
Tagalog ma-náŋisto lament; to wail; to cry loud and long because of grief or pain
Yakan naŋisto cry, weep
Berawan (Long Terawan) naŋehto cry, to weep
Tring naŋito cry
Narum naŋayto cry, to weep
Miri naŋayto cry, to weep
Kenyah (Long Wat) naŋeto cry, to weep
Kenyah (Long Anap) mə-naŋeto cry, to weep
Kenyah (Long Dunin) naŋeto cry, to weep
Murik naŋihto weep, to cry
Kayan naŋihto cry, to weep
Kayan (Uma Juman) naŋito weep, to cry
Kiput naŋayto cry, to weep
Melanau (Mukah) mə-naŋihto cry, to weep
Bukat naŋito weep, cry
Lahanan naŋihto weep, cry
Melanau (Matu) mə-naŋisto cry, to weep
Tunjung naŋito cry
Ba'amang ma-naŋisto cry
Taboyan naŋisto cry
Malay mə-naŋisto weep
Sundanese naŋisto cry, to weep
Old Javanese a-naŋisto weep, cry
Balinese naŋisto cry, to weep
Sasak naŋisto cry, to weep
Bimanese naŋito weep, cry
Komodo naŋihto cry
Lamaholot nani loūto shed tears


PAN     *pa-Caŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry

Amis pa-taŋic-ento beseech, try to force someone to comply
Thao pa-canitto make someone cry; let someone continue crying
Puyuma pa-Taŋisto make someone cry


PMP     *pa-taŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry

Ngaju Dayak (mam)-pa-taŋisto make someone cry
Bare'e mam-pa-pa-taŋito make someone cry, bring someone to tears
Tae' pa-taŋiʔto make someone cry


PMP     *paka-taŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry

Kayan (Uma Juman) pə-taŋito make someone cry
Gilbertese ka-taŋi-taŋto make music, to play an instrument; to make (someone) cry
Mokilese ka-joaŋ-eto make someone cry
Wayan vaka-taŋito cause tears, be the cause of sorrow
Tongan faka-taŋihaving a doleful sound, sounding like a lament; to appeal to someone after one’s request has been rejected by someone else
Tuvaluan faka-taŋito entreat
Rennellese haka-taŋito complain; to feel bitter, peeved, or angry; to tease, torment; a type of chant or lament, formerly popular
Maori whaka-taŋicause to sound
  whaka-taŋi-taŋiapplied to the largest and final wedge used in splitting a tree; cajole, appeal to sympathy of
Hawaiian hoʔo-kanito play a musical instrument, to cause to sound; to crack, as a whip; to ring up on the telephone


PWMP     *pa-naŋis (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog pa-náŋisa wail; a long cry of grief or pain, or a similar sound
Mapun pa-naŋis-anwhat is cried over, thing that induces crying
Ngaju Dayak pa-naŋisprone to crying; one who cries easily
Old Javanese pa-naŋisto weep, cry


PAN     *C<um>aŋis to weep, cry, mourn

Saisiyat h<œm>aŋih <Ato weep, cry
Amis t<om>aŋicto cry, weep
Thao c<m>anitto cry, to mourn
Tsou m-oŋsito cry, weep
Kanakanabu t<um>-á-taŋito cry, weep
Saaroa t<um>-a-taŋi-ito cry, weep
Paiwan (Western) ts<m>aŋitj <Ato wail
Itbayaten t<om>añisto cry; to cry involuntarily
Isneg s<um>áŋitto weep, to cry, to shed tears
Tagalog t<um>áŋisto mourn; to weep; to grieve
Central Tagbanwa t<um>aŋitto weep or cry
Yakan t<um>aŋisto cry, weep
Tausug t<um>aŋisto cry or weep, shed tears
Malagasy t<om>anito cry, to weep, to lament, to complain
Toba Batak t<um>a-taŋisto weep, to cry
Sangir s<um>aŋiʔto weep, to cry
Dampelas t<um>aŋisto weep, to cry
Balaesang s<um>aŋitto weep, to cry
Bare'e mo-t<um>aŋito weep, to cry
Tae' t<um>aŋiʔto weep, to cry
Chamorro t<um>a-taŋesto be crying


PAN     *Caŋis-an to cry over something or someone

Thao canit-anbe mourned, be wept over


PMP     *taŋis-an to cry over something or someone

Ilokano saŋit-anto lament
Ibaloy neŋis-anto cry over, about something
Tagalog taŋis-anto weep over, to mourn, to lament; to bemoan, to express grief by moaning
Bikol taŋis-anto cry over
Mapun taŋís-anto cry over something or someone
Malagasy tanì-anato be cried for
Sundanese silih taŋís-anto cry on one another’s shoulders
Javanese taŋis-anthings cried over
Sasak taŋis-aŋto cry over something, mourn something or someone
Sangir sa-saŋit-aŋplace where one weeps


PWMP     *taŋis-en to cry over something or someone (?)

Ilokano arin-saŋít-enon the verge of tears
Hiligaynon taŋis-unto cry, to lament
Mapun taŋis-unto cry over something or someone
Malay taŋis-an buroŋplant-name (variously identified, but lit. ‘wept over by a bird?)
Karo Batak taŋis-en kaka vine with hard, round, bitter fruits that are used as marbles (lit. ‘wept over by a crow’?)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-taŋis-ento weep, of many people at once
Sundanese pi-taŋis-ɨnweeping, crying, tears
Balinese taŋis-inbe wept over
  saliŋ taŋis-into weep over one another


PMP     *taŋis-i to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead

Karo Batak naŋis-iweep for the dead, mourn the dead
Dairi-Pakpak Batak me-naŋis-ito cry over someone or something
Toba Batak ma-na-naŋis-ito cry over someone or something
  ta-taŋis-ito cry over someone or something
Old Javanese t<um>aŋis-ito address (entreat, etc.) with tears
Javanese naŋis-ito weep over, mourn for (as someone who has died)
Bare'e man-taŋis-ito mourn, weep for someone
Tae' taŋiʔ-ito cry over, initiate a lamentation for the dead
Kisar kanih-ito lament
Tolai taŋi-eto mourn, bewail
Bugotu taŋi-hito desire, want; to bewail
Nggela taŋi-hito cry for
  taŋi-hagito make someone cry
Lau āŋi-sito cry for; follow about, as a woman a man
Arosi aŋi-hi ~ aŋi-sito cry for
Kosraean tʌŋ-ito be sorry for
Marshallese jaŋi-tto cry for someone
Mokilese jaŋi-dto cry for
Mota taŋisto cry for
Wayan taŋi-cicry for something, ask for help in something, plead or cry for assistance; lament something, bewail something
Tongan faka-taŋi-hito cause to cry


POC     *taŋis-ia to cry for someone or something

Vitu taŋi-ziato cry for
Toqabaqita aŋi-siato cry for someone or something
Arosi aŋi-siacried for
Tongan teŋi-hiato weep for
Hawaiian kani-hiato be sounded, cried out


PMP     *taŋis-taŋis to weep continuously or incessantly

Karo Batak taŋis-taŋisto weep continuously or incessantly
Toba Batak taŋis-taŋisto weep, to cry


POC     *taŋi-taŋis cry continually, weep a lot

Seimat taŋi-taŋweeping, crying
Lau āŋi-āŋito cry
Toqabaqita aŋi-ŋi-awailing, lamentation for a dead person
Arosi aŋi-aŋicry or sound long continued
Gilbertese taŋi-taŋcomplaints, sighs, lamentations, claims, sobbing; to complain, to whine, to moan, to cry, to grieve; song of birds, music, playing musical instrument
Kosraean tʌŋ-tʌŋto cry continuously
Woleaian taŋi-teŋto cry a lot, weep frequently
Motlav teŋ-teŋto cry
Wayan taŋi-taŋicry and cry, keep crying, cry a lot
Futunan taŋi-taŋito whimper, whine, snivel
Samoan taŋi-taŋito jingle, as coins in pocket; be high-pitched, shrill
Kapingamarangi daŋi-daŋito beg, to ask forgiveness
Nukuoro daŋi-daŋito cry a lot; beg; apologize; a type of aboriginal chant
  daŋi taliŋatinnitus, a ringing sound in the ear [an omen]
Rennellese taŋi-taŋito sound empty (as a coconut that has no liquid); to cry, weep (especially of children)
Rarotongan taŋi-taŋito cry, to lament, weep or bawl in a continuous manner, etc.
Hawaiian kani-kanito shout loudly; jackknife, from the sound of opening and shutting

Note:   Also Murut (Timugon) taŋiʔ ‘weeping; crying’, Tombonuwo taŋiʔ ‘to cry’, Lun Dayeh taŋiʔ ‘a cry or weeping for something’, Kelabit taŋe ‘a cry’, Kayan aŋih ‘weeping; crying’, Palauan lmáŋel ‘to cry; whine’, Kambera kaŋí ‘to cry, shriek, as a young child’, Fordata n-tanit ‘to mourn the dead’.


*Capa to smoke fish or meat for preservation


PAN     *Capa to smoke fish or meat for preservation

Kavalan tapafirewood storage shelf (above the hearth)
Puyuma Taparoast from a distance, roast gently (as meat over a fire)
Paiwan tsapadried meat or fish


PMP     *tapa₁ to smoke fish or meat for preservation

Itbayaten tapajerky
Ilokano tápathin slices of meat, salted, occasionally dipped in vinegar, and dried in the sun
Isneg tápato dry (venison) over the fire
Itawis tápadried meat
Ifugaw tapámeat or fish which has been laid to dry in the sun, or held over the fire
Ifugaw (Batad) tapafor someone to smoke meat over a fire (as beef, catfish, venison, eel, frog, mudfish)
Casiguran Dumagat tápadried meat; to dry meat in the sun
Tagalog tápajerked beef or pork
  tapásmoked, exposed to smoke
Bikol tápasmoked beef
  mag-tápato cut thin for the purpose of smoking; to smoke (beef, fish)
Hanunóo tapásmoked fish
Aklanon tapá(h)to dry out
  tápadried meat
Cebuano tapáto smoke fish; broil fish not close to the embers; kiln-dry copra
  tápamake jerked meat
Maranao tapadry by smoking
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapasmoke something over the fire
Mansaka tapato roast (as fish)
Tiruray tofocook fish or meat over a very smoky fire; dry something over a fire
Malay tapa-tapapieces of fish sliced very thin, spiced, salted and dried in the sun
  dagiŋ tapa-tapameat treated in the same way
  te-tapathin slices of pineapple treated with sugar
Sangir tapato smoke, prepare by smoking
Gorontalo tapoto smoke something over a fire
  mo-lapoto smoke something over a fire
Uma -tapadry by a fire
Bare'e masapi nda-tapasmoked eel
Tae' tapa-ihang up to smoke, leave to dry over a fire, of meat, fish, paddy
Mandar tapato roast, to dry, as copra over a fire
Buginese tapaslow roasting, as of fish over a fire
Wolio tapa-ito smoke (fish, etc.)
Manggarai tapaburn, roast
Rembong tapato roast (a pig), to burn (a field)
Soboyo tapasmoking of meat and fish


PWMP     *man-tapa to smoke fish or meat for preservation

[Itbayaten man-taapamake jerky]
Banggai man-tapaplace something on a (drying) rack
Bare'e mon-tapahang up to smoke, of meat, salt, etc. so as to prevent it from spoiling
Tae' man-tapadry something over a fire


PWMP     *tapa-an place where fish or meat are smoked

Isneg tap-ānto dry venison over the fire
Kankanaey tapa-ánan arrangement consisting of canes of bamboo grass interwoven with rattan; used to store up palay, etc.; it covers the hearth and the sóba, below the ceiling
Bikol tapa-ansmokehouse
Aklanon tapah-ándrying rack
Cebuano tapah-áncopra kiln-drier; grate for broiling
Gorontalo to-tapo-waplace where something is smoked
Banggai tapa-anrack on which something is dried
Tae' tapa-nplace where anything is dried over a fire, in particular the rack over the hearth where the firewood is stored


PPh     *tapa-en be smoked by someone, of meat or fish

[Itbayaten taapa-enmake jerky, make into jerky]
Gorontalo tapoː-lobe smoked by someone, as copra


PAN     *C<in>apa smoked fish or meat

Puyuma T-in-apawhat is grilled or roasted; smoked millet (used against hemorrhages for women in childbirth)


PMP     *t<in>apa smoked fish or meat

Ifugaw t-in-apámeat or fish which is already dry
Ifugaw (Batad) t-in-apasmoked meat
Pangasinan t-in-apásmoked fish
Tagalog t-in-apásmoked, exposed to smoke; exposed to embers; smoked fish
Bikol t-in-apásmoked fish
Cebuano t-in-ápajerked meat; canned fish
Maranao t-in-apaanchovies; any food preserved by smoking
Binukid t-in-apafish packed in a small cylindrical can; sardines
Sangir kinaʔ t-in-apasmoked meat, smoked fish

Note:   Also Itbayaten taapa ‘dried meat, jerky’, Cebuano tapʔ-an ‘broil fish not close to the embers’, Tiruray tafah ‘to dry meat, make jerky’. Ere taha-su, Loniu taha-su-e, Sori tap-oh and similar forms in other languages of the eastern Admiralty Islands, all meaning ‘to dry or smoke over a fire (as fish)’ may be a pleonastic phrase reflecting earlier *tapa ‘dry or smoke over a fire’ + kasu ‘smoke’. If so, these are the only known reflexes of PAn *Capa in OC languages. This item clearly referred to the practice of drying or smoking fish, meat and perhaps some other food substances (copra presumably is late) to enhance the chances of their preservation.


*Capaŋ a patch, as on clothing


PAN     *Capaŋ a patch, as on clothing

Proto-Atayalic *c-um-apaŋto patch
Puyuma Tapaŋpatchwork; to patch up


PMP     *tapaŋ₁ a patch, as on clothing

Itbayaten tapaŋcontinuation, addition
  pi-tapaŋ-enconnect two together
  tapaŋ-anmake a continuation of (building, story, acting, etc.)

Note:   Also Thao tapʔan ‘patch, repair by patching’, Mansaka tapak ‘to patch’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tapuŋ ‘patch, piece of cloth, etc. put on to mend a rent; patchwork’.


*Capel a patch; to patch


PAN     *Capel a patch; to patch     [doublet: *tapal]

Paiwan tsapela cloth patch


PMP     *tapel a patch, as on clothing

Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tapólto close up an opening; obstruct, stand in a doorway where others want to pass
Hanunóo tampúlplaster, poultice
Aklanon támpoemedicinal leaf used as plaster
Agutaynen mag-tampelto cover up a hole in something; plug something so that the contents will not spill out; put a patch on something (as a patch of oregano on the head to cure headache)
Kayan tapenpatched, repaired; a patch; things folded up
Iban tapalpoultice
Maloh tampalto stick, attach to
Malay tampalpasting up; patching, plastering
Sundanese tapelstick, stick to (as leeches to the skin)
Old Javanese tapelclosely linked, joined; close together
Javanese tapelpoultice of herbs used for babies
Balinese tampelto cover up, plaster (a wound), patch (a hole), plaster something and make it watertight; plaster, a covering
Wolio tampowhole, intact, repaired, patched
  tampol-ito mend (clothes), patch, repair
  tampo-tampoto repair, fix (something broken off), keep in good state of repair, be careful with (one’s clothes)
Muna tampoto dress a wound, cover with leaves, etc.
  ka-tampobandage, dressing, covering
Manggarai tampelto stick on (as a paper on the wall)
Selaru tabalto stick, paste, glue, adhere to
Fordata tafaladhere to; to stick, paste, glue

Note:   Proposed as *[Ct]a(n)pel ‘poultice’ in Blust (1970) where, however, only WMP witnesses were cited.


(Formosan only)

*Capuh sweep


PAN     *Capuh sweep

Saisiyat sapœhsweep


PAN     *Ca-Capuh broom

Atayal (Mayrinax) ca-capuhbroom (women’s speech)
Pazeh sa-sapuhbroom
Thao ca-capubroom made of bamboo


PAN     *C<um>apu to sweep

Atayal (Mayrinax) c<um>apuhto sweep (women’s speech)
Pazeh mu-sapuhsweep
Thao c<m>apusweep

Note:   Strikingly similar forms like SANG ma-napu ‘sweep’ : sa-sapu ‘brush, broom’ in Malayo-Polynesian languages appear to be distinct, since they cannot be reconciled with Formosan forms that uniformly point to initial *C.


*Caqi feces, excrement


PAN     *Caqi feces, excrement

Saisiyat sæʔiexcrement
Thao caqifeces, excrement
Puyuma Taʔifeces, excrement
Paiwan tsaqiexcrement, feces


PMP     *taqi feces, excrement

Bontok táʔifeces
  tat-taʔikind of vine having an unpleasant smell (Asclepiad)
Kankanaey táistool relief of the bowels; excrement; feces; dung; crotel; treadle; rust, rustiness
  tái di gáyaŋa variety of taro with dark-colored shoots (lit. ‘crow feces’)
Ifugaw taʔístool relief of the bowels, excrement, feces
Ibaloy taifecal excrement, dung, crap, poop; waste material
  man-taito move one’s bowels, defecate
  tai-anto defecate on something (as a child on his shirt)
Pangasinan taíexcrement
Tagalog taʔe ~ taʔiexcrement; waste matter expelled from the body
  mag-taʔéto have loose bowels, to have diarrhea
  pag-táʔethe act of moving one’s bowels
Masbatenyo taifeces, excrement
Aklanon táistool, feces; to defecate
Waray-Waray táʔihuman or animal excreta or waste
Agutaynen takifeces, manure
  man-takito defecate
  mag-taki-takito have diarrhea
Cebuano táʔifeces of people and animals; dross from molten metal
Maranao taʔifeces, stool
Binukid taifeces (of people and animals), excrement; manure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔifecal matter
Mansaka taiexcrement, feces
Kalagan tayexcrement
Bisaya (Lotud) taʔiʔfeces
Kadazan Dusun taidung
  buhavangold dust
Tombonuwo to-taifeces
Kelabit taʔihfeces
Bintulu taʔəyrust, rusty
Melanau (Balingian) taʔəyfeces
Malagasy taidung, excrement, refuse
  tai-m-biiron slag, scoria
  tai nifithe scurf on the teeth
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tai-nstomach; womb; belly; lower part of human body that contains the stomach and bowels
Malay tahidregs; lees; sediment; dirt of any sort; ordure
  tahi besirust
  tahi lalatmole-freckle (lit. ‘fly dropping’)
  tahi ulat (= tulat)three or four days after tomorrow
  mabok tahi teliŋadazed by talk or nagging; talked down’ (lit. ‘drunk with waste in the ear’)
Gayō taifeces; dirt, waste product
Simalur taifeces, excrement
  man-taito defecate
Toba Batak tedirt, filth, feces
  te ni hudonsoot on a cooking pot
Nias taexcrement, feces; slag; lightning
Enggano e-kaifeces, excrement
Old Javanese tahiexcrement, dropping; rust
Javanese taifeces; rust; sawdust
Balinese tahidirt; rust; scale (metal); dung
Sasak taifeces; filth
Sangir taidregs, filth; feces; sediment
Tontemboan taʔifilth, excrement
  tan-taʔibeetle that rummages in horse and pig feces
Tonsawang taʔifeces; dregs
Totoli ta-taiexcrement, feces
Balaesang taiexcrement, feces
Uma taʔifeces, excrement
Bare'e taʔithe waste produced by something; feces; dregs, sediment; also belly, stomach
  mo-to-taʔito defecate
  tan-taʔibuttocks, bottom, base of something
Tae' taithe waste produced by something; feces; dregs, sediment
  tai tuaksediment of palm wine
  tai uaygreen duckweed on the surface of water
  kat-tai ~ tit-taito defecate
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taqifeces
Mori Atas taʔiexcrement
Wawonii taʔiexcrement
Kulisusu taʔifeces
Moronene taʔi laŋicloud (feces of the sky)
Mandar taifeces
  tit-taito defecate
Buginese taifeces; to defecate
Makassarese taiwaste, dregs; feces; rust
  tat-taito defecate
Wolio taʔiexcrement, filth, residue; rust
Muna taghibelly
Palauan daʔexcrement, shit; residue; secretion
Bimanese taʔito defecate; feces, filth
  taʔi garagajisawdust
Komodo taifeces, droppings
Manggarai taʔito defecate; feces; filth
Rembong taʔifeces, filth
Ngadha taʔifeces, excrement; to defecate
  taʔi kabakind of mushroom
Li'o taʔifeces; to defecate
Kambera taifeces, excrement, filth; accretion
  tai bàhirust
Tetun teto defecate (a vulgar word)
Waima'a naʔibelly
Erai tefeces
Tugun teifeces
Kisar koiexcrement; rust
East Damar tɛ-feces
Leti teifeces; rust
Wetan teeexcreta (of all kinds)
Laha teifeces
Asilulu taifeces, excreta, filth
  roko taicigarette ashes
Manipa kai-afeces
Boano₂ tai-afeces
Larike teifeces
Buruese taifeces, excrement, dung
Kowiai/Koiwai taifeces
Irarutu tafeces
Labu taexcrement
Watut ragi-feces
Gapapaiwa tai-feces, excrement
Gabadi sinaebelly
Nehan taifeces, excrement
Motlav na-taexcrement
Lakona seneguts
Merig te-feces
Malmariv te-excrement
Mafea tai-excrement
Marino te-feces
Northeast Ambae tai-excrement
Atchin ne-te-feces


PAN     *C<in>aqi small intestine

Amis tinaɁiintestines
Puyuma T<in>aʔiintestines


PMP     *t<in>aqi small intestine

Itbayaten tinayiintestines
  hi-tinay-anremove intestines
Isneg sináybelly or abdomen; bowels, guts, entrails, intestines; the abdominal and pelvic viscera
Itawis sináystomach; intestine
Masbatenyo tináʔiintestines
Waray-Waray tenaʔiʔabdomen; intestine
Palawan Batak tináʔibelly, intestines, stomach
Cebuano tináʔiintestines
Mansaka tinaiintestines; umbilical cord
Paitan tinaistomach
Kelabit sinaʔihintestines, guts
Kenyah tenaʔiintestines
Murik tenaʔi-nlarge intestine, of humans
  tenaʔiʔintestines of animals
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) naʔəy ~ nəʔəyabdomen, belly
Tonsea tinaʔiintestines
Palauan dəlaʔintestines, bowels
  dələʔi-lhis/her intestines
Lamboya tanaiguts
Kambera tanaiintestines
Dusner sneabdomen, belly
Moor sinestomach, liver
Ron senaabdomen, belly
Nali drina-intestines
Ere dine-intestines
Kuruti drine-abdomen
Lindrou drine-abdomen
Suau sinaeintestines
Hula inaɣebowels
Mekeo (East) inaebelly
Saliba sinaeintestines
Ghari tinae-guts
Talise tinae-guts
Merig tinae-guts
Merlav tinae-guts
Aore tine-guts
Peterara tinae-guts
Raga sine-guts
Apma cineguts
Makatea tinaeguts
Mele-Fila sinaeguts


PAN     *C<um>aqi to defecate

Saisiyat s<om>aʔito defecate
Hoanya s<um>aito defecate (glossed ‘feces’ in Tsuchida 1982)
Puyuma mu-Taʔito defecate


PMP     *t<um>aqi to defecate

Bontok t<um>áʔito defecate
Ifugaw t<um>aʔíto defecate
Tagalog t<um>áʔeto move the bowels
Bisaya (Lotud) t<um>aʔiʔto defecate


PWMP     *taqi nu bituqen shooting star

[Tagalog taʔe naŋ bituʔínshooting star; meteor]
[Malagasy tai-n kintanaa meteor, a shooting star]
[Malay tahi bintaŋshooting stars; small bright yellow caterpillars]
[Toba Batak te ni bintaŋshooting star]
Makassarese tai bintuŋshooting star


PWMP     *taqi nu Caliŋa ear wax, cerumen

[Bontok táʔi-n si kúləŋear wax]
[Kelabit taʔih lalidear wax]
Malagasy tai-n-tadinithe wax from the ear


PMP     *taqi nu haŋin wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds

Malay tahi aŋinlight clouds driven before the wind
Sasak tai-n aŋinkind of lichen, Lichen capillaris
Bimanese taʔi aŋitype of cloud
Komodo tai aŋiŋkind of clouds

Note:   Also cf. Fijian dē ni laŋi ‘light scudding clouds’, from the PMP doublet *taqay nu haŋin.


PWMP     *taqi nu kuku dirt under the nails

Malagasy tai-n-kuhudirt under the nails
[Sundanese taiʔ kukudirt under the nails]


PMP     *taqi nu lalej dark mole

[Mapun tayiʔ laŋawmole on one’s skin]
Malay tahi lalatmole-freckle (lit. ‘fly speck’)
Sangir tai lalarəʔspecks of dirt on the laundry
Tae' tai laliʔwart (lit. ‘fly speck’)
[Bimanese taʔi larumole, beauty spot]
Manggarai taʔi lalimole, beauty spot (lit. ‘fly speck’)


PAN     *pu-Caqi to defecate

Thao pu-caqito defecate
Puyuma pu-Taqito spread manure on the fields
Paiwan pu-tsaqito defecate

Note:   Also Kavalan tal ‘feces, excrement’, t<n>al ‘guts, intestines (large and small)’, Waray-Waray taʔíʔ ‘rust, corrosion’, Mapun tayiʔ ‘excrement; dung; feces’, Tiruray téʔék ‘feces; defecate’, téʔék keliŋoʔ ‘earwax’, Tboli ‘fecal matter’, me-ké ‘defecate’, Kadazan Dusun taiʔ ‘filth, dung’, taiʔ do amas ‘gold dust’, taiʔ do buhavan ‘meteor’, Kelabit taéʔ ‘feces’, naéʔ ‘defecate’, Berawan (Long Terawan) taʔiʔ ‘feces’, Murik, Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔíʔ ‘feces, excrement’, Bintulu taʔiʔ ‘feces’, Iban taiʔ ‘excrement, dregs, discharge’, Maloh taiʔi, tahi ‘excrement’, Sundanese taiʔ ‘filth; feces; rust; sawdust; scum; slag (of metal)’.

Although the great majority of Oceanic languages unambiguously reflect PMP *taqay, a few appear to have regular unambiguous reflexes of PAn *Caqi, and so are assigned to this variant. A number of languages have reflexes with an unexplained final glottal stop, and these may point to yet another doublet, although this option is not chosen here. In addition it should be noted that many languages have non-cognate expressions for various plants that use this morpheme as a component element, but because of their number and wide variety only a few of these are cited here.


*CaqiS to sew


PAN     *CaqiS to sew

Kavalan taissewing
  tais-isew it!
Amis (Kiwit) mi-taqisto sew
Thao shaqishsew
Bunun taqissew and mend
Puyuma Taʔimend, repair, darn, sew
Paiwan tsaqismake clothes by sewing; sew (-en)


PMP     *tahiq to sew

Sambal (Botolan) tayiʔto sew
Kapampangan tahíʔto sew
Tagalog tahíʔsewing, stitch; cloth to be sewn (manaN-, paN- -an)
Bikol mag-tahíʔto sew, tailor; to mend (i-, magpa-, ipa-, ka- -an)
Hanunóo tahíʔsewing
Aklanon tahíʔto sew (manaN-, paN-)
Hiligaynon tahíʔsewing, stitch (mag-, -un)
Cebuano táhiʔsew, stitch
  tahiʔ-an-andress, tailor shop (maN-REDUP, -un-un)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tahiʔto sew
Mansaka taìto sew


PAN     *Ca-CaqiS thread used for sewing (?)

Saisiyat Sʌ-SʌʔiSthread for sewing
Paiwan tsa-tsaqis-enclothes being made by sewing


PAN     *CaqiS-an place of sewing

Paiwan ts-in-aqis-ansewn seam


PMP     *taqih-an place of sewing

Tagalog tahíʔ-antailoring shop or millinery


PAN     *C<um>aqiS to sew

Kavalan t-em-aisto sew
Saisiyat ʃ<om>ʌʔiʃ <Ato sew
Pazeh mu-saisto sew
Thao sh<m>aqishto sew
Siraya t<m>ahito sew
Paiwan ts-m-aqissew, make clothes by sewing


PAN     *C<in>aqiS work produced by sewing or stitching

Thao sh<in>aqishwas sewn by someone
Bunun t-in-aqispiece of embroidery
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) T-in-aHi-yana seam

Note:   Also Kapampangan tayíʔ ‘to sew’, Kalamian Tagbanwa tik ‘sew’.


*Caqu to know how, be able to, be skilled at


PAN     *Caqu to know how, be able to, be skilled at     [doublet: *tuqu]

Paiwan tsaquto be able to
  ki-tsaqu-anto practice, learn skill
  pa-ki-tsaqu-anto cause to learn skill


PMP     *taqu₂ to know how, be able to, be skilled at

Bikol ta-taʔóproficient, knowledgeable; to know, fathom; to have the knack of
Hanunóo táʔuknowledge of a fact; denying knowledge of a fact; in a verbal sense, not to know (something)
Agutaynen takoto know a fact; to know how to do something; to learn something
  ipa-takoto make known
  pa-tako-onto make known
Maranao taʔoknowledge
Binukid tatauclever, wise, skilled; intelligent
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eɣ-ke-taʔuto know how
Mapun tauto know something
  maki-tauto make something known to someone; to inform
  paki-tau-unto make something known to someone; to inform
Yakan taʔuto know how to do something; to be able to do something
  magin-taʔu, pagintaʔuto make something known
Samal taʔuto know something
Melanau (Mukah) taʔəwto know
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) taʔəw ~ təʔəwto know
Ngaju Dayak taucapable, able; to know, understand
  ta-tauto know, understand
Iban tauʔbe able, can, may, know how
Salako tahuto know
Cham thauto know
Jarai thəwto know
Rhade thəwto know
Malay tahuto know; knowledge
  tahu-kanto be aware of
Bahasa Indonesia tahuunderstand after seeing (witnessing, experiencing, etc.); familiar with; clever, capable; aware; already
Acehnese thɛəto know, have knowledge of something, be able
Toba Batak tauskilled
  pa-tauh-onto make skilled
Old Javanese tahuskilled, practiced, trained, used (to)
  t<um>ahuto think that one should know or be familiar with (being still uncertain)
Balinese tahuknow, perceive
Proto-Minahasan *taʔuknow
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taquclever
Uruava ma-tau-ito know
Hawaiian m-ā-kau(-kau)able, competent, capable, efficient, adept, skilled, expert, qualified; prepared, ready; competence, proficiency; to know how, to to well


PWMP     *ka-taqu₁ ability, skill, knowledge how to do something

Binukid ka-tatauability, skill; wisdom, knowledge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ke-taʔuability, skill, wisdom
Yakan ka-taʔuknowledge (especially of supernatural things)
Ngaju Dayak ka-tauknowledge
Tontemboan ma-ka-taʔuto give knowledge of, inform


PWMP     *ka-taqu-an skilled, knowing how (to do something)

Tiruray getuwanknowing something
Yakan ka-taʔuh-anto know something
Salako ka-tahu-an-andiscovered, found out
Bahasa Indonesia ke-tahu-anknowledge, what is already known
Old Javanese ka-tahw-anskilled, used (to), familiar (with)


PAN     *ma-Caqu to be capable, able, knowledgeable

Paiwan ma-tsaquto be able to; capable, skilled, knowledgeable
  ma-ma-tsaqu-anto be very skilled


PMP     *ma-taqu₁ to be capable, able, knowledgeable

Maranao ma-taʔoto have knowledge, know how (as in knowing how to act in a given situation)
Binukid ma-tatauclever, wise, skilled; intelligent
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-taʔuskilled, clever, wise
Papapana matauto know
Rarotongan matauaccustomed, customary, habitual, familiar practice; formed or acquired by frequent use; to have a knowledge of, to know how a thing is done, observed or performed, etc.


PAN     *Caqu-an (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan (Western) tsaqu-anskill


PMP     *taqu-an to know

Palawan Batak taw-anto know
Mapun toonto know something or someone
  ka-toon-anto know something or someone
Balinese tawaŋ (tahu-aŋ)to see, perceive, know

Note:   Also Tagalog tahóʔ, pagka-tahóʔ ‘comprehension, understanding; knowledge, information’ (< Malay), Berawan (Long Terawan) tauʔ, Bintulu taʔuʔ, ‘to know’, Palauan dáʔelbai ‘skillful (in doing things with the hands); clever’ (=dáʔ-elbai?). Glosses in several languages make it clear that the basic sense of this term was not so much ‘to know facts’, as ‘to know how (to do something)’, a distinction that is hardly surprising in a traditional society where abstract knowledge had no value if it was not manifested in practical consequences. In addition, it was clearly distinct from *kilala ‘to know (a person), be acquainted with someone’.


*CaSaw open-air; outdoors


PAN     *CaSaw open-air; outdoors

Paiwan tsasawoutdoors, outside
  i tsasawbe outdoors


PMP     *tahaw outdoors, outside

Itbayaten tahawthe sea as salt water, sea water as material of the sea or ocean
Ilokano taáwsea, ocean
Pangasinan taéwmiddle of river; ocean, deep sea
Tagalog táhawclearing in a forest; open-air; exposed to view


PAN     *ka-CaSaw-an (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan ka-tsasav-ancourtyard (in front of house)
Itbayaten ka-tahaw-ancause something to be wet with salt water


*Cau person, human being


PAN     *Cau person, human being

Papora person, human being
Pazeh sawperson, human being
Thao cawperson, human being
Hoanya sauperson
Tsou couperson, human being
Puyuma Tawto be human
  T-in-u-Ta-Tawstatue, mannequin, scarecrow


PMP     *tau₁ person, human being

Itbayaten tawoperson (kap-, ka-, manta-, mapay-, mat-, micha-, mi-)
Ilokano táoman, person, human being, individual; people (i-REDUP, ka-REDUP)
Isneg táoman, human being, people
Pangasinan táopeople, persons (ka-)
Tagalog táʔohuman being, person
  taʔómortal (maka-, mag-pa-ka-, ma- -an, pag-REDUP, paN-, paN- -an, paN- -in, -an, -in, -um-)
Bikol táwoman, individual, person, human being, people, a creature (human) (REDUP -um-)
Hanunóo táwuman, person; human being, not man in the sense of male opposed to female
  táwu dágatsea supernaturals in human form
  táwu danúmwater spirit
  táwu sa tálunforest spirit(s)
Bantuqanon tawoperson, human being
Aklanon táwoperson, people; man
Kalamian Tagbanwa taoperson, human being
Hiligaynon táwuman
Palawan Batak táoperson
Cebuano táwuman, person; follower; face card; someone left to watch the house; visitor; to stay and watch the house; be born; prepare for guests on special occasions; attend an affair or special occasion; pay a visit (pa-, paka-, hi/ha-, -an, -an-un, pagka-, k-in-a-)
Klata ottowperson
Blaan (Koronadal) toperson
Maloh tau(tu)person
Tonsea touperson, human being
Dampelas tooperson
Balaesang tooperson
Ampibabo-Lauje tooperson
Uma tauheadhunter; (sometimes) human being
Bare'e tauperson, human being
Tae' tauperson, human being
Proto-South Sulawesi *tauperson
Donggo douperson, human being
Komodo touperson; each other
Anakalangu tauperson
Lakalai tauman, person (used only in connection with sib and village affiliation and in expressions showing relations between two or more persons; in both cases it is in apposition to a pronoun, usually expresssed)
Yabem tauperson, human being
Suau tauman, male
Sinaugoro tauperson, human being
Motu tauthe body; a man
  tau-badaan elder
  tau-haua youth
Mekeo (East) auperson, human being
Kilivila tauman
Saliba tauman, male
Sudest taupeople
Proto-Micronesian *tauperson


PAN     *ka-Cau-an (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan ka-tsau-anthe world (of living beings); what is actual, existent, not dead


PMP     *ka-tau-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ka-taw-anpupil of the eye
Tagalog ka-tauh-anpersonality
Aklanon ka-tawóh-anhumanity
Cebuano ka-tawh-anpeople, masses


PAN     *k<in>a-Cau-an nature, character

Paiwan k<in>a-tsau-tsau-ancharacter; humanity; body


PMP     *k<in>a-tau-an nature, character

Cebuano k<in>a-táwunature, inborn character or inherent tendencies of a person


PPh     *ma-tau crowded with people

Itbayaten ma-tawopeopled, crowded (of persons)
Tagalog ma-táʔocrowded with people
Hiligaynon ma-táwuto be born


PAN     *Cau Cau (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan tsau tsauperson, human being; (in some contexts) living being (as embryo found in egg, or bee as opposed to the nest)


PMP     *tau tau human effigy; pupil of the eye

Ilokano tao-táopupil, apple of the eye
Tagalog taú-tauh-aneffigy, marionette, mannikin
  balin-tatáopupil of the eye
Bikol ta-táwowooden figures or statues made in honor of the dead (17th century Bikol)
  alin-tatáwcenter of the eye containing the iris and the pupil
Agutaynen tawtawpupil of the eye
Cebuano tawu-táwusomething like a person, e.g. scarecrow or the like; figurehead; pupil and iris of the eye
  t-in-awu-táwucomic strips

Note:   Also Maranao tao a mata ‘pupil of the eye’.


PMP     *tau-mata person, human being

Sangir taumataperson, human being
Kola tamataperson, human being
Ujir tamataperson, human being
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) tamataperson, human being
Alune tamataperson
Saparua tumataman
Lou ramatperson, human being
Loniu amatperson, human being
Nali damatperson, human being
Ere dimatperson, human being
Likum camakperson, human being
Ponam hamatperson, human being
Wuvulu kamaʔaperson, human being
Mussau taumataperson, human being
Manam tamwataperson, human being
Kilivila tommotapeople
Dobuan tomotaperson, human being
Nehan tamatperson, human, man
Wayan tamataperson, human being
Fijian tamataperson, human being
Tongan taŋataman (human being), man (not woman), man (not boy)
Niue taŋataman, person, mankind
Samoan taŋatahuman being; native (of a place)
Tuvaluan taŋataman; person; human; male
Kapingamarangi daŋadaperson
Nukuoro daŋadaperson, human being; relative (when preceded by a possessive pronoun)
Rennellese taŋataman, male, person; to be a man, male or person
Anuta taŋataman, person; male
Rarotongan taŋatageneral name for mankind
  aka-taŋataassume human shape or form, to attain adult age; to act like a man; to be or become manly
Maori taŋataman, human being; serf, slave
  whaka-taŋataassume human shape; become adult
Hawaiian kanakahuman being, man, human, mankind, person, individual

Note:   Also Kei umat, Kairiru ramat, Wogeo ramata, Molima tomotau, Proto-Micronesian *aramata ‘person, human being’. Dempwolff (1938) posited *tau-mataq ‘(unripe = not yet dead) living person’, citing an earlier publication by Adriani for the interpretation that the second morphological element in this word is identical to PAn *ma-qetaq ‘raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked’. However, no known reflex of this form preserves final consonants, leaving this interpretation uncertain. Whatever this added element was, it contributed nothing discernible to the semantics of the base, as both Sangir and Proto-Oceanic have reflexes of PAn *Cau next to the longer form with no difference of meaning.

Note:   Also Bontok tágo ‘person’, Bikol táo, táho ‘person, human being’, Kalamian Tagbanwa taʔaw ‘person, human being’.


*Cawa to laugh


PAN     *Cawa to laugh

Kavalan m-tawato laugh
  m-taw-tawato laugh repeatedly
Saisiyat sawalaugh
  s-om-awato laugh
Amis tawageneric for laugh with positive and negative meanings
  ma-tawato laugh
  paka-tawa-enmake someone laugh
Siraya mat-tawato laugh


PMP     *tawa₁ to laugh

Tagalog táwalaughter (ka-REDUP)
Cebuano tawájovial of face or visage (hika/haka-, hinga-, ka-tawʔ-an-an)
Berawan (Long Terawan) tabehto laugh
Berawan (Long Teru) tavato laugh
Kenyah tawalaughter
Bintulu tabalaughing
  bə-tabato laugh
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) tətawato laugh
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tawuhlaughter, a laugh; to laugh, scoff at
Singhi Land Dayak tawixlaugh
Moronene mo-to-taato laugh
Proto-South Sulawesi *tawato laugh
Manggarai tawato laugh, laugh at
Rembong tawato laugh, laugh at
Ngadha tawarejoice, be glad, laugh
Keo tawato laugh
Riung tawato laugh
Palu'e tawato laugh
Li'o tawato laugh
Kédang taweto laugh, laugh at


PAN     *Ca-Cawa to laugh

Thao ca-cawalaugh
  ma-cacawato laugh
  pa-cacawato smile
Tsou co-cvolaugh; to laugh
Rukai ma-ca-cavato laugh (Tona)


PMP     *ta-tawa to laugh

Ifugaw ta-táwalaughter; to laugh conveys a passive meaning, since the duplicated word-base takes the prefix ma- or na-, never the prefix mun- or maŋ-
Tagalog ka-ta-tawa-n-ansomething humorous, laughable
Melanau (Mukah) te-tawato laugh
Ngaju Dayak ta-tawElaughing; to laugh
Maloh ta-tawato laugh


PWMP     *ka-tawa to laugh

Cebuano ka-tawáto laugh
Mamanwa ka-tawato laugh
Iban ketawaʔlaughter, laugh
Bahasa Indonesia kətawato laugh


PAN     *ma-Cawa to laugh

Sakizaya ma-tawaʔto laugh
Amis ma-tawato laugh
Saaroa ma-caa-caato laugh
Siraya ma-tawato laugh


PMP     *ma-tawa to laugh

Cebuano ma-tawajovial face or visage


PPh     *maka-tawa to laugh

Gaddang maka-tawato laugh
Subanon moko-tawato laugh


PWMP     *maR-ka-tawa to laugh

Agta (Central Cagayan) meg-ke-teweto laugh
Tausug mag-ka-tawato laugh

Note:   Also Bikol ma-tatáwaʔ ‘laugh at’; mapa-tatáwaʔ ‘feel like laughing’; ma-tatáwaʔ-on ‘describing someone who easily smiles or laughs; pleasant, agreeable’; ka-tatáwaʔ-an/ ‘laughable, funny’.


(Formosan only)

*CawiN year


PAN     *CawiN year

Bunun ka-tavinlast year
Kanakanabu cain-án-ayear
Saaroa cailhiyear
Siraya tawilyear
Proto-Rukai *caviliyear
Paiwan tsavilʸyear

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:145).


*Cazem sharp (of point or blade)


PAN     *Cazem sharp (of point or blade)

Saisiyat saLemsharp
  s-om-aLemsharpen, make sharp


PMP     *tazem sharpened blade or point

Yami ma-naremto sharpen
  tarem-ento sharpen
Itbayaten taremsharpened edge, sharpened part, cutting edge
  ma-naremto sharpen, to whet
Ilokano tadémedge, the cutting side of the blade of a knife, an axe, a saw, etc.
Isneg na-tadámsharp, keen (knives, etc.)
Itawis tarámsharpness
Bontok tadə́msharp, of a blade
Kankanaey men-tadémsharp; cutting; edged
Ifugaw tadómsharpness of the blade of a knife, a spear, an axe, etc.; it is also applied to the balíga, i.e. the sword among the weaving rods
Casiguran Dumagat tademsharp (of a knife or axe); fish-hook
Pangasinan tarémblade, edge
Kapampangan ma-tarámsharp
Tagalog talímsharpness of edge; blade; steel edging; penpoint
Bikol taróma point (as on a knife); spike or spire; blade or cutting edge
  mag-tarómto sharpen
Hanunóo tarúmblade of a knife, bolo or other cutting instrument
Aklanon taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp
Kalamian Tagbanwa taremsharp
Binukid talemsharpen the point of something
Mansaka tarumsharp (as a blade)
Molbog tadomsharp
Bonggi tadabmsharp
Dumpas a-taromsharp (edge)
Tombonuwo o-taromsharp
Minokok a-tarəmsharp (edge)
Bisaya (Lotud) a-taromsharp
Bulungan tajomsharp (edge)
Lun Dayeh tademsharpness of a blade
Kelabit tademsharp, of a blade
  nademto sharpen
Iban tajamsharp, keen-pointed (as a knife); excitable, excite, incite
  tajam mata(fig.) sharp-eyed
Malay tajamsharp, as a weapon; (fig.) sharp mentally
  tajam mulutcaustic, sharp-tongued
Toba Batak tajomsharp, of knives and the like; cutting, of words
  me-najom-isharpen something
Rejang tajeumsharp
Lampung tajomsharp
Old Javanese tajemsharp
Javanese tajemsharp, cutting
  najemto sharpen, hone
Sasak tajemsharp, pointed
Tonsea tademsharp
Tontemboan tarəmsharp, of a pointed tool or weapon, as a nail, pin, etc.; kind of fieldmouse with a sharp snout
Ponosakan tahomsharp
Uma taja-hisharpen
Bare'e ka-tajasharpness
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tasoNsharp
Makassarese taraŋsharp (of something pointed); sharp, of taste, sight, or understanding
  taraŋŋito sharpen
  taraŋ matasharp-sighted, sharp-eyed
Palauan kə-dórəmsharp


PWMP     *ka-tazem sharpness

Itbayaten ka-taremstate of being sharp
Hiligaynon ka-talúmsharpness


PWMP     *ma-tazem sharp (of blade or point)

Itbayaten ma-taremsharp (as a knife), can sharpen
Pangasinan ma-kdémsharp
Kapampangan ma-tarámsharp
Tagalog ma-talímsharp
Bikol ma-tarómsharp, keen, pointed
Aklanon ma-taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp
Hiligaynon ma-talúmsharp, as of knives and blades
Binukid ma-talemsharp-pointed
Mansaka ma-tarumsharp (as a blade)
Lun Dayeh me-tademsharp
Karo Batak me-tajemsharp; ‘on target’ (of someone’s words)
Uma mo-tajasharp
Bare'e ma-tajasharp, as a knife
Tae' ma-taransharp
  ma-taran matahave a sharp expression


PWMP     *pa-tazem (gloss uncertain)

Bontok pa-tadə́ma leader; one who initiates action, who encourages or inspires
Tagalog pa-talímsharp cutting instruments


PWMP     *t<in>azem sharpened

Itbayaten t<n>aremsharpened; that which is sharpened
Lun Dayeh t<in>adema blade that has been sharpened by someone
Tae' t<in>arandart of a blowpipe; blowpipe
Palauan d<əl>órəmsharpened


PAN     *t<um>azem sharpen

Saisiyat s-om-aLemsharpen, make sharp
Tontemboan t<um>aremto sharpen

Note:   Also Pangasinan ma-kdem ‘sharp’.

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    






















*Cebak smack against


PAN     *Cebak smack against     [doublet: *debak, lebak 'pound, thud']

Paiwan ts-alʸ-ebakmake the sound of one object falling (as stone, book)


PMP     *tebak fall with a loud smack

Sundanese tebakcollide with force (as in running or being blown against something); pound against with force (as waves against the rocks)

Note:   Probably identical to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *te(m)bak ‘shoot’. With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*Cebej spring of water, spring water


PAN     *Cebej spring of water, spring water     [doublet: *Cebuj]

Saisiyat ka-sbəzspring (of water)


PMP     *tebej spring of water

Yami atbedspring water


*Cebiq split, divide, break off


PAN     *Cebiq split, divide, break off

Paiwan tseviqa portion of something left after shares have been taken
  p<n>e-tseviqdivide something; break in pieces


PMP     *tebiq split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut

Isneg tabbísection of a betel nut
Casiguran Dumagat tebicut a betel nut in half
Maranao tebiʔbreak off a piece, split
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teviʔpiece which is split off; split something in pieces
Tiruray tebéʔto chip
Balinese nebihbreak s.t. into pieces; the natural divisions of a betel nut; section, quarter, piece, slice
  tebihbreak in pieces; the natural divisions of a betel nut, section, quarter, piece, slice
Proto-Minahasan *tebiʔbreak off (piece of something)
Mongondow tobibreaking off, collapse, landslide
  mo-nobicollapse of the ground from floodwaters or a heavy rain
Tetun tohichip off little pieces
  tohi ahistrike a spark (with a flint)


POC     *topiq split, divide, break off

Tongan toficut, cut up, cut off
  tofi-ŋapiece cut off, esp. from a yam
  tofiʔ-ainheritance, patrimony
Niue tofichisel; cut into strips
  to-tofibreak up
Samoan tofisplit, cleave, divide (as section of a breadfruit); a chisel
Tuvaluan tohiinstrument for dividing pandanus leaves into fine strips for weaving
  tohi-tohidivide pandanus leaves into fine strips
  tofia chisel
Nukuoro dohi-dohidivide up
Rennellese tohito hew, as a sounding board; divisions within a single garden
  tohi-tohibreak into pieces, as sticks or bones
  tohi guato break in two
Maori tohicut, divide, separate

Note:   Also Hawaiian kōhi ‘to break off neatly, as taro corm from the stalk; to split, as breadfruit’.

Note:   Also Mongondow tobi ‘crumbling off, erosion, collapsing, landslide; break up or collapse, of the ground in a flood’.


*Cebuj natural spring, fresh water spring


PAN     *Cebuj natural spring, fresh water spring     [doublet: *tebuR]

Amis tfona well, a source of water
Amis (Kiwit) tevunwell (water source)
Paiwan tsevudspring-water; water from a natural source
Isneg tabbúgwell; a pit or hole sunk into the earth (-um-)
Aklanon tubódflow out, gush, well up (said of liquids)
  tubor-ánspring, well
  t-ue-úbd-anspout, place where water flows out
Hiligaynon tubúdleak, drop, flow
  mag-tubúdto leak, flow in small drops
Cebuano tubúdflow in a steady stream; for liquid to leak out of a container or boat; water spring; leak
  tubur-ánspring; source of something that gushes in abundance
  t-in-ubd-ánsource, origin
Mansaka tobodspring (i.e. source of water)
Kadazan Dusun tovuda fountain, spring
Chamorro tupoʔwell, pit sunk into the earth to reach a supply of water


POC     *topuc natural spring, fresh water spring

Mota tovspring below high water mark; the brackish water of such a spring
Fijian tobua pool in a river, bathing hole; a well; a deep hole in a reef or inside it, but surrounded by shallower water

Note:   Also Saisiyat ka-sbəz ‘spring (of water), Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tubuŋ ‘a swell of water’.


*Cebuk thud


PAN     *Cebuk thud

Paiwan tsebukmake a "bong" sound


PMP     *tebuk₂ fall with a dull thud

Balinese tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’. PAn *-b- normally became Paiwan v; the retention in this case may be for reasons of onomatopoeia.


(Formosan only)

*CebuN smoke


PAN     *CebuN smoke

Saisiyat ka-sbolsmoke
Paiwan tsevulʸsmoke
  ts<m>evulʸbe smoky; perform type of ritual action
  ma-tsevulʸbothered by smoke, smoke-filled


(Formosan only)

*Cebuŋ to meet, come together


PAN     *Cebuŋ to meet, come together

Saisiyat sa-seboŋmeet
Tsou tro-cfuŋ-aconfluence of rivers
Kanakanabu cuvúŋ-unuconfluence of rivers
Saaroa taru-cuvuŋu-aconfluence of rivers
  taru-a-cuvuŋuto meet
Puyuma a-Tebuŋto find
  ki-Tebuŋto meet; to welcome
  kir-Tebuŋto meet with one person
  mar-Tebuŋtwo people meet
  mar-Tebuŋ-Tebuŋseveral people meet
  p<in>ar-Tebuŋbe reunited
Paiwan tsevuŋto meet; something held in common (as field jointly owned)
  ki-tsevuŋgo to meet someone; to fete someone returning home
  me-tsevuŋto meet (as two persons, or two ends of necklace)

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:215) who, however, attributed it to ‘Proto-Southern Formosan’ despite including the Saisiyat form.


*CebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum


PAN     *CebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum     [doublet: *tebuS]

Hoanya sibussugarcane
Rukai (Tona) cobososugarcane


PMP     *tebuh₂ sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

Tagalog tubósugarcane
Murik tebuʔsugarcane
Malay tebusugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
Ansus tobusugarcane
Sudest rosugarcane
Lametin tovsugarcane

Note:   Also Bunun sibus ‘sugarcane’.


*CegCeg beat, pound, hit


PAN     *CegCeg beat, pound, hit

Paiwan tsegtsega nail
  ts-m-egtsegdrive a nail into something
  pa-tsegtsegnail something onto something else


PMP     *tegteg knock, pound, beat

Ilokano tegteg-énto mince, to hash, to chop
  t-in-egtégmincemeat, minced meat, hash
Bontok təgtəghit sharply; pound; massage by striking with the edges of one's hands; kill a chicken by chopping off the head (in-, -en)
Kankanaey tegteg-énto chop, chop up, hew, cut to pieces; break to pieces; crush; beat to pieces; bruise; squash
Ifugaw togtógonomatopoetic word imitating the sound produced by carving statues, handles of knives, spoons, ladles, wooden plates, wooden cups and other things
Ifugaw (Batad) togtogfor someone to pound something in a downward motion with something, as a stone to crush another stone; a heavy piece of wood or stone to tamp soil; for someone to use something for pounding as described above
Pangasinan tegtégsever or divide with a sharp instrument

Note:   With root *-Ceg ‘hit, beat’. Zorc (n.d.:105) gives PPh *teGteG ‘chop up’.


*CegCeg to beat, pound on


PAN     *CegCeg to beat, pound on     [doublet: *su(ŋ)kud]

Paiwan (Western) tsegtsega nail
  ts<m>egstegto drive a nail into something
  pa-tsegtsegto nail something onto something else
Bontok təgtəgto hit sharply; to pound; to massage by striking with the edges of one’s hands; to kill a chicken by chopping off the head
Ifugaw togtogfor someone to pound something in a downward motion with something, as a stone to crush another stone, a heavy piece of wood or stone to tamp soil, etc.
Lun Dayeh tetegbeating of something, a knock
  teteg tawaksomething used to beat a gong


*CekCek pierce, penetrate


PAN     *CekCek pierce, penetrate

Paiwan tsektseka stake, pointed stick


PMP     *tektek₂ pierce, penetrate

Ilokano tektékpeg, pin (of the gagan-áyan or warping frame)
Bontok təktəkmake a hole in wood, as in order to ascertain whether it is resinous or not
Ifugaw toktókbore (as in boring a hole in a plank), drill; prick (as a thorn pricking the finger)
Binukid t<al>ektekto put stakes around (something); to enclose an area with stakes

Note:   Kankanaey tek ‘pricker; pipe cleaner. Either metal or wood, mostly used to prick the tobacco in the pipe, to clean the pipe, etc.’.


(Formosan only)

*Ceked to rest, take a break from work or other activity


PAN     *Ceked to rest, take a break from work or other activity

Kavalan tqezto stop, to rest for awhile when walking
Pazeh mu-seketto rest, to stop
  seked-iTake a rest!
Pazeh (Kahabu) mə-səkədto rest
  sə-səkədto be resting


(Formosan only)

*CekeS kind of very slender bamboo


PAN     *CekeS kind of very slender bamboo

Amis tkessmall species of bamboo
Thao shkishthe slenderest type of bamboo, sometimes used as a buffalo whip, or with hook attached as a fruiting pole
Rukai (Mantauran) cekeʔethin bamboo sp.
Paiwan tsekesthin bamboo (used for pipe stems, arrow shafts); a pipestem

Note:   As noted in Blust (1995) Thao shkish is one of a number of forms that show ‘sibilant assimilation’.


*Celaq crack, split, fissure


PAN     *Celaq crack, split, fissure

Paiwan tselaqa crack or split (e.g., in wood, foot, fruit)


PMP     *telaq₁ split, crack, fissure

Kayan telawidely opened -- of the hull of a dugout canoe
Manggarai telacrack marking; to split, show a crack; thwart (in boat)
Ngadha telasplit, crack
Buruese telato part; gap; in a parting manner; sit between

Note:   With root *-laq ‘split’. Apparently distinct from Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tela ‘split off’.


*CelCel beat, pound


PAN     *CelCel beat, pound

Paiwan tseltselpound in a nail
Kankanaey teltélchop, chop up, hew, cut to pieces, beat to pieces, bruise


(Formosan only)

*Cemel grass, herbs; medicine


PAN     *Cemel grass, herbs; medicine

Pazeh semergrass (just beginning to grow)
Thao lhmirgrass, weeds, herbs; medicine
Paiwan tsemelplants (generic, excluding trees); medicine (including now pills and injections)
  pu-tsemeltreat with medicine; a doctor


PAN     *Ceme-Cemel uncultivated land

Pazeh seme-semergrassland
Paiwan tseme-tsemeluncultivated land
Paiwan (Western) tse-tsemela grass field


*Cenek thorn


PAN     *Cenek thorn

Proto-Rukai *cənəkəthorn
Tagalog tiníkthorn, spine
Bikol tunókthorn
Maranao tenekthorn, spine
Tausug tunuka thorn, spine (of plants and fish)
Fijian tono, tono-kapierce, probe, poke

Note:   Based on the Tagalog and Fijian forms, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *(t)e(n)ek ‘point, peak’.


*CeRab a belch


PAN     *CeRab a belch

Saisiyat seLaba belch
  s-om-Labto belch (as after drinking soda)
Puyuma Teraba belch
  T-em-erabto belch


PMP     *teRab a belch

Tagalog tigábweak gasp of one dying
Maloh tan-tarapto belch
Sundanese teurabto belch
Javanese a-toba belch; to belch
Sasak (ken)-terapa belch, to belch
Makassarese teraʔbelching, a belch; to belch
Chamorro tugapburp, belch, eruct
Komodo teraʔa belch; to belch
Manggarai terapto belch
Alune ma-torato belch (Ludeking 1868:217)
Kowiai/Koiwai na-torafto belch


POC     *toRap belch

Sa'a ora lulubelch

Note:   Also Isneg tarìgāb ‘to eructate. If a person eructates immediately after drinking water at the end of a meal, he loses all feeling of satiety and is not aware of having eaten anything at all’, Casiguran Dumagat tehëb ‘to belch, to burp’, Bontok tegʔéb ‘to belch’, Kankanaey tegʔáb ‘to eructate, to belch’, Tagalog tikáb ‘weak gasp of one dying’, Bikol tiʔgáb ‘belch, burp’, Palawan Batak tirʔáb ‘belch’, Hanunóo tígʔab ‘eructation, belch, belching’, Cebuano tigʔáb ‘make a jerky gasp for breath’, dugʔáb ‘belch’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tirʔab ‘to belch’, Mansaka tigaʔ ‘to belch’, Tboli telyob ‘to belch’, Toba Batak terap-on ‘to belch’, Javanese an-tob ‘a belch; to belch’, Balinese tahag ‘a belch’, ma-tahag ‘to belch’, Mongondow uriab ‘to belch’, Yamdena terak ‘to belch’. Reflexes of PAn *CeRab are relatively few and far between, although they are widely scattered, and permit a secure and unambiguous reconstruction. For reasons that remain unclear almost all Philippine reflexes are phonologically irregular, and in a variety of different ways.


*Cesek insert, pierce, penetrate


PAN     *Cesek insert, pierce, penetrate

Amis tsekpierce, stab
Paiwan tsetekhave an injection


PMP     *tesek pierce, penetrate

Mansaka tosokto stick through (as a needle through cloth)
Miri tasak aminhousepost
Kiput təsəkenter the ground (as a javelin when it lands)

Note:   Also Hiligaynon túsluk ‘pierce, prick with a pointed end’, Cebuano tuslúk ‘prick or poke something by driving something pointed into it; plug into a socket’. With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    







*Cidu spoon, ladle, dipper


PAN     *Cidu spoon, ladle, dipper

Paiwan tsirularge dipper


PMP     *tidu spoon, ladle

Manggarai (West) tisuspoon


*Cikel return, go back


PAN     *Cikel return, go back

Paiwan ts-m-ikelto return (somewhere)
  tsikel-ucome back!
Iban tikalturn back, go back

Note:   Possibly identical to *tikel (q.v.).


*CiŋaS food particles caught between the teeth


PAN     *CiŋaS food particles caught between the teeth

Saisiyat shiŋash <Afood particles caught between the teeth
Saisiyat (Tungho) ʃiŋaʃfood particles caught between the teeth
Pazeh siŋas-en a lepeŋto get in (of food particles) between the teeth
Amis tiŋashave food caught in one's teeth
Bunun tiŋas-an nipunirritated by food fibers (of the teeth)
  man-tiŋas nipusclean the teeth
Bunun (Isbukun) ciŋasfood particles caught between the teeth
Saaroa lhi-u-tiŋa-afood particles caught between the teeth
Rukai mua-cíŋasəfood particles caught between the teeth (Budai)
Puyuma Tiŋafood particles stuck between teeth
Paiwan tsiŋasfood particles between teeth


PMP     *tiŋah food particles caught between the teeth

Itbayaten tiñahfood particles inserted in between the teeth
Casiguran Dumagat tiŋafor meat or particles of food to be stuck between the teeth
Kapampangan tiŋaʔparticles of food which adhere to teeth
Tagalog tiŋáforeign matter lodged between the teeth
Bikol tiŋáparticles of food caught between the teeth
  maka-tiŋáget stuck between the teeth (particles of food)
Hanunóo tiŋáfood particle stuck between the teeth
  hi-niŋápicking of one's teeth
Aklanon tiŋáfood particles caught between teeth
  hi-níŋa(h)take out food particles between one's teeth
Cebuano tiŋáfood particle lodged between the teeth; have food particles lodged in the teeth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tiŋafood which is stuck between a person's teeth, generally meat; a toothpick; to pick the teeth
Mansaka tiŋafood between the teeth
Ida'an Begak tiŋofood rests between the teeth
Iban tiŋaʔshred, splinter, esp. food stuck between teeth
  tiŋaʔ kayuwood splinter
  tiŋaʔ pelandokhangnail
Proto-Minahasan *tiŋafood caught between teeth; pick the teeth
Ampana tiŋafood or other matter between the teeth (Adriani 1928)

Note:   Also Amis tiŋal ‘have food caught in one's teeth’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tiŋun ‘anything stuck between teeth during meal (meat, food)’. Although reflexes of *CiŋaS are common in Taiwan and the Philippines they are rare in other geographical areas, being attested so far in a single language of Borneo (Iban) and a single non-Philippine language of Sulawesi (Ampana). This word referred to particles of food (probably meat fibers in particular) that become lodged between the teeth in eating. It is likely that morphologically derived forms of the same word meant ‘toothpick’ (*Ca-CiŋaS?) and ‘to pick the teeth after eating’.


*Ciqaw fish sp.


PAN     *Ciqaw fish sp.

Tsou czoukind of tasty river fish
Kanakanabu ciʔáukind of tasty river fish
Paiwan tsiqawfish (generic)


PMP     *tiqaw₂ goatfish, family Mullidae

Aklanon tiáwa delicious soft-boned fish
Cebuano tiawkind of goatfish
Chamorro tiʔaogoatfishes: Upeneus vittatus (family Mullidae)
Rotinese tiokind of small, but ritually important fish


POC     *tiqo goatfish, family Mullidae

Loniu tiwthe Samoan goatfish: Mulloidichthys samoensis
Seimat tio-tibarbelled fish 4-5 feet in length
Motu siofish sp.
Nehan tioyellowstripe goatfish: Mulloidichthys flavolineatus
Mota tioa fish with barbels, like mullet

Note:   Also Palauan dech ‘golden-banded goatfish: Mulloidichthys auriflamma’. Tsuchida (1976:165) posited "Proto-South Formosan" *Ciq₁au ‘fish’. Zorc (1981) extended this to "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *Ciqaw ‘fish’, but cited no supporting evidence. It seems clear that PMP *tiqaw referred to the goatfish, a member of the mullet family, and hence a saltwater fish. Paiwan tsiqaw is given as a generic term for ‘fish’, and the unidentified fish in the Tsouic languages must be freshwater species. In view of these observations it is impossible to determine the meaning of PAn *Ciqaw on present evidence. Alternatively, the Formosan and extra-Formosan forms may simply not be cognate.

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    



















*-Cu 2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then


PAN     *-Cu 2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then

Paiwan tu-tsunow


PWMP     *-tu this

Ilongot (i)tuthis
Berawan (Long Jegan) tawthis
Berawan (Batu Belah) tuhthis
Kenyah (Long Wat) tewhere
Seru tohthis/that
Siang tuhthis


PMP     *a-tu away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer     [disjunct: *wa-tu]

Berawan (Long Jegan) atawhere
Chamorro guatuthere -- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee)
Roviana atuan expletive implying movement away of speaker or those addressed
  atu-atugo on!
Bugotu atugo away, go forth; forth, out, onward
Mota atof direction from the speaker, outward, forward
Tangoa atuhither
Rotuman afuaway, hence (Pawley 1972)
Tongan atuhence, away from here, out, forth, outwards, onwards, to or towards you; thither to the place aimed at or journeyed towards; onward in time
Niue atudirective particle, away form the speaker, towards the person addressed
Samoan atuaway, out (generally denotes a literal or figurative movement away from a particular position where the speaker is and in the direction of the person addressed)
Nukuoro adutoward the hearer
Rennellese atucommon directional particle indicating distance away from
Maori atucorrelative to mai, used with verbs, etc., to indicate a direction or motion onwards, or away from the speaker in reference to either time or space
Hawaiian akuparticle expressing direction away from the speaker, and time either past (with nei) or future


PWMP     *di-tu there (2p)

Tagalog d-itóhere
Subanun (Sindangan) d-ituʔthere (3p, remote)
Blaan (Koronadal) d-ituʔthere (3p)
Melanau (Balingian) d-itewhere


PAN     *i-Cu that (2p)

Thao c-icu3sg; he, she, it
Paiwan a-i-tsuthis, this one
Yami u-ituthat
Tagalog itothis
Bikol itothat (3p)
Palawan Batak ʔituhere
Aborlan Tagbanwa ituthat (2p)
Samal ituthis
Narum itawthis
Kenyah (Long Wat) itewthis
Kenyah (Long San) ituthis
Melanau (Balingian) itewthis
Dusun Deyah ituthis
Malagasy ítothis
Muna ituthat (2p)
Manggarai h-ituthat


PWMP     *si-tu there (2p)

Ifugaw hitúhere; this
Aborlan Tagbanwa s-ituthere (2p)
Kenyah (Long San) s-itewhere
Malay situposition over there


PMP     *wa-tu away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer

Muna watuthere (far, neutral)
Chamorro guatuthere -- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee)
Lau kouaway
Kwara'ae kwauaway
Sa'a wauadverb of place; there
Arosi wouaway from, there, yonder
Proto-Micronesian *watudirectional suffix: towards addressee

Note:   Also Tsou sico ‘that’, Wuvulu wau ‘postverbal particle: away from speaker’, Nggela ŋgatu ‘away, hence’. Balangaw yato ‘this’ is assumed to reflect *ia-tu, and the agreement of the initial syllable of Samal ma-itu ‘here’, Muna ma-itu ‘that’, the initial consonant of SUBC k-ituʔ ‘that (3p remote)’, Manggarai hitu ‘that’, and the final glottal stop of SUBC -ituʔ ‘that; there (3p remote)’, Blaan (Koronadal) d-ituʔ ‘there (3p)’, Malay (Sarawak)) toʔ ‘this’, si-toʔ ‘here’, and Sebop tuʔ ‘here’, i-tuʔ ‘this’ is attributed to convergence.


*Cubuq plant sprout


PAN     *Cubuq plant sprout     [disjunct: *tubuʔ]

Kanakanabu cuvuʔubamboo shoot
Saaroa cuvuʔubamboo shoot
Paiwan tsuvuqa free-standing sprout; bamboo sprout


PMP     *tubuq, tumbuq grow, germinate, sprout

Itbayaten tovoshoot (as of bamboo), growth, shoot
Ilokano túbosprout, shoot (from a seed)
Isneg mag-túboto sprout, to shoot, to germinate
Itawis túhusprout
  mat-túhuto grow (of plants)
Bontok túbuto sprout leaves; to grow; a leaf
Kankanaey túboleaf
Ifugaw túbuleaves of trees, shrubs, and plants in general; not applied to leaves which serve for special purposes, such as chewing leaves or banana leaves
Ifugaw (Batad) tūbunew growth, of a plant, weed, grass, tree growing from a seed; of a branch or plant stalk; of a fingernail, hair, tooth (also refers to new growth issuing from a pit, nut or fruit such as coconut
Pangasinan tobógrowth; to sprout, grow, increase
Kapampangan túbuʔgrow; gain, profit
Tagalog túboʔa sprout; a shoot of a plant; growth; what has grown or is growing
Bikol túbuʔinterest (as on money in a bank)
  mag-t'uboʔgerminate, sprout; to grow or mature (plants); gain or accrue interest (money)
Hanunóo túbuʔgrowth, growing
Aklanon túboʔto grow, sprout, develop; increase; interest on loan, growth
Hiligaynon pag-túbuʔgrowth
  mag-túbuʔto grow, germinate, sprout
Cebuano túbuʔgrow, become larger; earn interest; develop feelings; for water, dough or land to rise; growth; interest on a loan; leavening agent; wall stud of bamboo
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuvuʔof a seed or plant, to sprout or grow
Mansaka toboʔto grow (as plants)
Kayan (Uma Juman) tubuto grow (intr.); thing grown; rising, of the sun
  mata-n do tubudirection of the rising sun
  nubuto grow (trans.)
  tuvuto grow (intr.)
Iban tumbohshoot up, grow, arise; begin, broach (subject); call together; organize; form (group or society)
Malay tumbohplant-growth; sprouting up; eruption (of plants springing up out of the ground, and pustules on the skin)
  peñakit ke-tumboh-anskin eruption; smallpox
  tumboh-tumboh-anthings that grow; plants; crops; eruptions
Toba Batak tubuto arise, be born, grow; child; sprout
Old Javanese tuwuhgrowth, growing; life, age, span of life; condition of life, lot; body
Javanese tuwuhoutgrowth, sprout; fig., descendant; to come into existence, grow
Balinese tubuha young coconut palm which is about to fruit
  tumbuhthe first shoot of a plant; to grow, sprout, come up, emerge (of teeth); be born
  tubuha young coconut palm which is about to fruit
Proto-Sangiric *tuboto grow
Sangir tuwoyoung, still unfurled palm leaves; to grow
Mongondow tubuʔyoung or new leaves in general
Bonerate tumbuto grow
Palauan dubəʔcoconut sprouting on ground
Kola tufto grow
Gimán tubto grow


POC     *tubuq, tupuq to grow, spring up

Tolai tubuto grow, of men or animals but not plants
Kove tuvuto grow
Yabem tôpto grow
Suau tubuto grow
Hula uputo grow
Motu tubugrow; ferment; swell
  tuhu-tuhuyoung shoot
Piva tubuto swell
Arosi subuto begin to grow; to burst, of seed
Rotuman fuputo grow, to increase; growth, increase; interest (on money lent, etc.); persons of the same or about the same age
  fup-ʔakito cause to spring up or grow; to originate or create; to propose, move (a resolution)
Fijian tubugrow, increase, spring up (of plants)
  tuvushoot up, of a tree
  tuvu-ka-nathe top of a tree
Tongan tuputo grow up, spring up or come into existence, originate; to grow, increase in size, etc. (of cake, rice, etc.) to rise or swell; to bring in profit; growing, bringing in profit; and more, and one or more over; coming into existence, originating; origin, growing, growth, etc.
Niue tuputo grow, spring up; to be descended from
  tupu noaby chance, to grow by itself
Futunan tuputo grow, increase, sprout, spring up; bud; to reveal; more (in counting)
Samoan tupugrow; arise, break out; happen, occur; growth
Tuvaluan tupushoot (of a plant); grow; happen; be exceeded (of numbers; tekau tupu ‘more than twenty’)
Nukuoro dubuexceed (the amount required), too (e.g. many)
Rennellese tupusprout, as of yams, panna, coconuts; life principle and growth, of children; to sprout, grow; to rise, as a boil, cooked rice or a tidal wave; to sprout forth
Anuta tuputo grow
Rarotongan tupugrowth of any kind; a growth, a gradual increase; progress or development; a product, as of the earth; a sprout or growing shoot, a germ inception, a beginning, etc.; occurrence, that which happens, etc.; to grow, to become enlarged by natural process, to advance towards maturity; to produce, as the earth; to sprout forth or to germinate; to occur or to happen
Maori tupugrow, increase; spring, issue, begin; shoot, bud; growth; social position; genuine, own
Hawaiian kupusprout, growth; offspring; upstart, as one rising suddenly and conspicuously to high position; to sprout, grow, increase; to occur


POC     *paka-tupuq make something grow

Arosi haʔa-subuto beget
Rennellese haka-tuputo make a sprout or life principle thrive
Hawaiian hoʔo-kuputo cause growth, sprouting; to sprout


PAN     *C<um>ubuq to sprout, to grow

Paiwan ts-m-uvuqto sprout


PMP     *t<um>ubuq to sprout, to grow

Itbayaten t-om-ovogrow up, germinate, sprout
Ilokano t-um-úboto sprout, to shoot, to germinate
Bontok t<um>úbusprout leaves, grow
Kankanaey t-um-úboto shoot, to spring up, to sprout, sprout forth, to bud, grow
Ifugaw (Batad) t-um-ūbufor something to issue new growth
Kapampangan t-um-úbuʔto grow, to gain
Hanunóo t-um-úbuʔgrow
Sundanese t<um>umbuhto shoot up, of plants
Old Javanese t<um>uwuhto grow, live; come out, arise (feelings); that which grows or lives, living creature
Sangir t<um>uwoto grow


PPh     *pa-tubuq let something grow, make something grow

Isneg pa-túboa coconut used for seeds
Aklanon pa-túboʔto let grow; lend with/on interest


PWMP     *pa-tubuq-en let something grow, make something grow

Itbayaten pa-tovo-ento let grow
Bikol pa-tuboʔ-oninvest money so that it gains interest


PWMP     *tubuq-an place where something grows or is added

Itbayaten tovo-anends (of cloth, rope, etc.
Tagalog tubúʔ-anto be overgrown; to grow on or over something; to sprout or grow out from; to put forth
Bikol tubóʔ-anadd interest to
Toba Batak tubu-angive birth, beget
Old Javanese tuwuh-anplace of growing
Javanese tuwuh-anceremonial decoration for weddings symbolizing prosperity and fertility

Note:   Also Kalamian Tagbanwa tubuʔ ‘grow’, Iban tubuʔ ‘young edible shoot of bamboo’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) timbu ‘sprout up (plants, hair, teeth, seeds)’. Apparently distinct from *tu(m)buq ‘grow, thrive; swell’ (cp. Iban tumboh ‘shoot up, grow, arise’, Motu tubu ‘grow; ferment; swell’), Fijian tubu ‘grow, increase, spring up (of plants)’).


*CugCug₁ hit something against something else


PAN     *CugCug₁ hit something against something else     [doublet: *tigtig 'glancing blow, chop']

Paiwan ts-m-ugtsughit something against something else
  ma-tsugtsugbe hit (as on the head) by something


PMP     *tugtug₂ beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding

Ilokano ag-togtógto knock (on a door, etc.)
  togtóg-ento beat (a drum); to knock (on a door, etc.), to rap upon for admittance
Bontok tugtúgcrush by beating, as with a stone or a piece of wood
Kankanaey tugtúghit, run, knocked, struck against; run afoul of; come into collision
Ifugaw (Batad) tugtugbullfrog
Casiguran Dumagat togtogrhythm (of music, or of a rhythmic beat); to beat out a rhythm, to play music
Pangasinan tógtogplay a musical instrument
Tagalog tugtógsound of music; playing on a musical instrument; ringing (of bells or alarm clocks); stroke of the hour
Bikol tugtógmusic
  mag-tugtógplay a musical instrument, beat a drum
Cebuano tugtúgplay a piece of music or an instrument
Maranao totogknock, hit, sounding board
Melanau (Mukah) tutugto pound
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tutoga knock (as on a door)

Note:   Also Mansaka titig ‘strike with a hard object’. Tsuchida (1976:149) posits Proto-South Formosan *C₁ugC₁ug ‘bumped on head’.


*CugCug₂ knock or bump the head


PAN     *CugCug₂ knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Saaroa m-utu-tukutukubump the head
Rukai (Maga) me-tgútgubump the head
Paiwan ma-tsugtsugto be hit (as on head) by something
  ma-pa-tsa-tsugtsugto bump together (as two persons’ heads)
  se-tsugtsugto bump one’s head against something


PMP     *tugtug₁ knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Itbayaten togtogmusic; knocking or knock
  ma-nogtogto knock
  togtog-ento knock at
Ilokano ag-tugtógto knock
  tugtog-ento knock on something, beat on a drum
Bontok tugtugto crush by beating, as with a stone or a piece of wood
Ibaloy ma-nogtogto bump heads
  may-togtogto bump one’s head
  me-nogtogto knock, using repeated raps with the knuckles (as in asking to be received at a house)
Bikol mag-tugtógto play a musical instrument; to beat a drum
Maranao totogknock, hit; knock-kneed, bowlegged; sounding board
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) tutugto pound food substances; knock someone’s head
Old Javanese tutugto strike (knock, bump) against, hit


PAN     *C<um>ugCug knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Paiwan ts<m>ugtsugto hit something against something else; to knock on (door)


PMP     *t<um>ugtug knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Old Javanese t<um>utugto strike (knock, bump) against, hit


*Cukul huddle, bow the head


PAN     *Cukul huddle, bow the head

Puyuma ʈukulhunchbacked; bent
Ifugaw túkolhuddling position of a chicken or a bird which neither moves nor gives a sign of life
Old Javanese tuŋkulbending down, bowing the head
Balinese tuŋkulbow the head, be subject to

Note:   With root *-kul₁ ‘curl, bend’.


*Culi deaf


PAN     *Culi deaf

Papora sulideaf
Thao ma-lhurihard of hearing, deaf
  kun-lhuribe suddenly deafened, as by a very loud noise


PMP     *tuli₁ earwax; deaf

Itbayaten tilo <Mearwax, cerumen
Ivatan (Isamorong) tido <Mearwax
Tagalog tu-tulíearwax
Bikol tulíear wax
  hiŋ-tuli-ónto clean wax from the ears
Hanunóo túliear
Masbatenyo tulíearwax
Aklanon tulíear wax; ear drainage
  pa-nulíto clean one’s ears (of ear wax)
Agutaynen toli-toliearwax
  toli-toli-ento clean the earwax out of the ears
Hiligaynon a-tu-túliearwax
Cebuano a-tulíearwax; materials like earwax; a yellow paste, tobacco tars; yellow, hardened grease sticking in corners of machinery
  hin-a-tulíinstrument for getting earwax out
Maranao toli-toliearwax
Binukid tuliearwax
  pa-nuliremove wax from one’s ears
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tulicerumen
  tuliy-enhave a running ear infection
Iban tuliʔdeaf; ear-wax
Malay tulideaf; usually (but not invariably) stone-deaf, in contrast to pekak (hard of hearing)
Gayō mu-tulideaf
Old Javanese tulideaf
  tuli-tulipretend not to hear?
  kapa-tulibe deafened (temporarily) by a loud noise
Sasak tuliʔear-wax
Mongondow tuliear wax
  tuli-anto have ear wax
Dampelas an-tuliʔearwax
Ampibabo-Lauje tai nu tuliʔearwax
Tae' ka-tuli-ŋearwax
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tuliearwax
Kulisusu culiearwax
Muna tuliclean out (ear, nose), scratch in
  ka-tulisomething used to clean out one’s ears or nose
Popalia tuliear
Li'o tuliear wax
Wetan tilideaf


POC     *tuli₁ deaf; earwax     [doublet: *tule]

Kilivila tulideaf
Eddystone/Mandegusu tuliwax in the ear
Mota tulwax in the ear
Rotuman fulito be deaf
Tongan tulideaf
  teʔe-tuliwax in the ear (teʔe = taʔe ‘excrement’, in compounds)
Niue teliŋa tulideaf
Futunan tuli ~ tulitulideaf
Samoan tu-tulideaf
  faʔa-taliŋa tuliturn a deaf ear
Tuvaluan tulideaf
Kapingamarangi loŋo dulideaf (lit. ‘hearing deaf’)
Rennellese tugibe deaf, hard of hearing
Anuta tu-turideaf
Rarotongan turideafness, the state or condition of being deaf; deaf, dull of hearing or unable to hear at all
  tariŋa turithe condition of being deaf or hard of hearing; obstinacy, stubbornness
Maori turideaf; obstinate
  whaka-tu-turiturn a deaf ear to, be obstinate, be unyielding
Hawaiian kulideafness, deaf person; deaf; noisy
  hoʔo-kulideaf; to feign deafness; (fig.) disobey, be disobedient

Note:   Also Mbula tiili ‘earwax’, Nggela taliŋa ni kuli ‘wax in the ear’, kuli ‘ear’ (with irregular *t > k, and reanalysis of original taliŋa ‘ear’ as ‘cerumen, earwax’. This form seems clearly to have meant ‘cerumen, earwax’ in PMP, as it is in competition with better candidates for the meaning ‘deaf’ (as *beŋel). The shift from ‘cerumen’ to ‘deaf’ appears to have occurred more than once, presumably because of a cultural belief that deafness may be caused by an excess accumulation of earwax.


(Formosan only)

*Cumay Formosan black bear


PAN     *Cumay Formosan black bear

Kavalan tumaythe Formosan bear
  mRa-tumayto transform into a bear
Saisiyat somaythe Formosan black bear
Seediq sumaythe Formosan black bear
Amis tomaythe Formosan black bear; be fierce, violent
Favorlang/Babuza chomathe Formosan black bear
Thao cumaythe Formosan black bear: Selenarctos thibetanus formosanus (Swinhoe)
Bunun tumazthe Formosan black bear
Tsou cmoithe Formosan black bear
Kanakanabu cumáithe Formosan black bear
Saaroa cumiʔithe Formosan black bear
Siraya tumeythe Formosan black bear
Proto-Rukai comaythe Formosan black bear
Puyuma Tumaythe Formosan black bear
Paiwan tsumaythe Formosan black bear

Note:   Also Seediq kumay ‘the Formosan black bear’. This word is almost universal among the Formosan languages, being absent only from Atayal (ŋarux), Pazeh (taŋadex) and Taokas (gussin, ŋalo). There can be little doubt that *Cumay was found in PAn, but it was lost when Austronesian speakers moved into the Philippines, which has no bears. Centuries later on reaching Borneo they encountered the Malayan sun bear (Ursus malayanus) and innovated a new term, *baRuaŋ/biRuaŋ for this closely related but distinct animal. The history of Atayal ŋarux, Taokas ŋalo, which appear to be related, is unclear.


*Cumek pulverize; crumble


PAN     *Cumek pulverize; crumble

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-Tumek(of trees and bamboos) crumbling, falling to pieces
Bontok tumə́kcrush, as stone; break into small pieces, as lumps of rice
Kankanaey tumék(be pounded, etc.) to pieces, fine; crushed, pulverized

Note:   With root *-mek ‘crush, pulverize; powder’.


*CumeS clothes louse; body louse


PAN     *CumeS clothes louse; body louse

Kavalan tumesclothes louse
Saisiyat somæhbody louse
Amis (Kiwit) tumushead louse


PMP     *tumah clothes louse; body louse

Itbayaten tomahkind of tick or flea, small lice-like insect on clothes
Ilokano túmabody louse
Bontok túmakind of louse found in clothes and bedding
Kankanaey túmabody louse
Ifugaw túmabody louse
Ifugaw (Batad) tūmaa small white blood sucking clothing louse which infests soiled clothing; rascal! a jocular expletive
Pangasinan tomábody louse
Ayta Abellan tomahtiny insect like a louse found on dirty clothes
Kapampangan tumaclothes louse
Tagalog túmaclothes louse
Bikol túmaclothes louse
  tumá-onbe infested with clothes lice
Hanunóo túmaitch mites or immature lice; tiny, almost invisible insects on clothes, fabrics, or the human body
Kalamian Tagbanwa tumaʔclothes louse
Cebuano túmabody louse, similar to the head louse (kútu) in appearance and habits, but found in clothing
  tumáh-uninfested with body lice
Binukid tumabody, head louse that inhabits humans
  tumah-enbe infested with lice
Mansaka tomato have lice (in the clothes)
Kelabit tumehsmall white clothes louse
Sa'ban hmahclothes louse
Punan Tuvu' tumohlouse
Ngaju Dayak tumeclothes louse, body louse
Iban tumaʔparasitic insect, esp. louse (kutu) or nits
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tumuhflea
Malay tumainsect-parasite; louse. The insect that coolies are sometimes seen picking out of each other's hair
Karo Batak tumaclothes louse
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tumaclothes louse
Toba Batak tumadragonfly larva
Rejang tumeya bug, found usually in unclean clothes
Sundanese tumaclothes louse
Old Javanese tumalouse
Javanese tumahair louse
Madurese tumalouse
Balinese tumaclothes louse
Sasak tumakind of red clothes louse
Proto-Sangiric *tumaclothes louse
Sangir tumaclothes louse
Tontemboan tumaclothes louse
Mongondow tumaclothes louse
Gorontalo tumoclothes louse
Totoli tumaclothes louse
Dampelas tumaclothes louse
Bare'e tumaclothes louse
Tae' tumaclothes louse
  tuma-nhave clothes lice
  maʔpe-tumasearch for lice in the clothes
Mandar tumaclothes louse
Buginese tumaclothes louse
Makassarese gan-tumaclothes louse
Wolio tumalouse


PCEMP     *tuma clothes louse; body louse

Komodo tumaclothes louse
Manggarai tumaclothes louse: Pediculus vestimenti
Ngadha tumaclothes louse
Rotinese tumaclothes louse
Tetun tumawhite mite which attacks clothes
Leti tumaclothes louse
Yamdena tumekind of louse
Soboyo tumahead louse
  tuma gofolawall louse
  tuma-n tolunit
  asu-n-tumaflea on a dog
Lusi tumalouse
Kove tumalouse
Lakalai la-tumaflea, house louse, bedbug
Yabem tômlouse
Gapapaiwa tumakind of large louse
Suau tumalouse
Magori tumalouse
Mailu tumalouse, bug
Saliba tumalouse
Tubetube tumalouse
Nggela tumaa moth that gets into clothes and destroys them
Wala ne-tumlouse
Tongan tumakind of louse
Niue tumaclothes louse
Futunan tumaclothes louse

Note:   Also Pazeh umah ‘body louse’, Thao tumbush ‘clothes louse’, Bunun tumbus ‘body louse’, Maranao tom ‘human body louse’, Sasak ke-tuma ‘kind of red clothes louse’, Tetun ka-tuma ‘white mite which attacks clothes’, Kedayan tumoʔ ‘clothes louse’, Wetan toma ‘louse’, Selaru tum-lef ‘wall louse’, Kei tuman ‘small louse’, Buruese tuman ‘flea, an insect that infests clothing’, Buli tun ‘clothes louse.

This important term provides one of the key pieces of evidence that PAn *-aS and *-eS merged as PMP *-ah. Although reflexes of *CumeS are widespread they are not nearly as common as those of *kuCu ‘head louse’, thus suggesting that the latter term had greater psychological salience than the former. This observation is perhaps related to the fact that delousing as a socially significant grooming activity almost invariably involves the removal of head lice rather than body lice --- a behavioral trait which appears to be shared with other primates (as chimpanzees), and which therefore probably has pre-human origins. In the absence of other evidence for a prefix *ka- which could be added to animal names I tentatively assume that the initial elements in Sasak ke-tuma and Tetun ka-tuma are products of historically unrelated morphological processes.


*CuNuh roast food over a fire


PAN     *CuNuh roast food over a fire

Saisiyat solœhroast over a slow fire
Amis todohto burn (generic); to roast, barbecue
  todoh-ento burn something
Bunun ma-tunuhto roast right on the fire
Tsou c<m>uhuto roast right on the fire
Kanakanabu c<um>á-cunuto roast right on the fire
Saaroa c<um>a-cuɬuto roast right on the fire
Rukai (Budai) ua-cuɬuto roast right on the fire
Paiwan tsulʸuto roast something


PMP     *tunu roast food over a fire

Isneg túnoto roast
Casiguran Dumagat tunóroast in or over a fire (of meat, fish, bananas, root foods)
Kelabit tunuhburning, roasting
Murik tunuʔroasting
Malagasy tónoroast, grilled
Iban tunuburn up, consume by fire; to roast, toast (as fish)
Malay tunuconsume by fire, burn up. Of the destruction of forest by fire when clearing land for cultivation; of burning incense; of slaying one's enemies by burning; of the walls of a house being burnt
Old Javanese a-tunuon fire, ablaze; seek death by fire, throw oneself into the fire
  pa-nunw-ancremation place, pile, pyre
Javanese tunua small fire
  di-tunuput in the fire, burn; roasted (over a fire, in the ashes)
Madurese tonoto burn
Balinese tunuroast on a fire, bake on glowing coals; cremate
Proto-Sangiric *tunuto bake, roast
Sangir tunuscorch, singe
  ta-tunuthe instrument or means (hot water, etc.) by which something is scorched or singed
Proto-Minahasan *tunuburn, bake, roast
Tontemboan tunuto burn, bake, roast
Gorontalo tulufire
Balantak tunuto burn
Uma -tunuto burn
Tae' tunuto burn, roast, broil, bake; slaughter animals
  tunu kuliʔroast over a fire in the skin, as tubers
  man-tunuto burn, bake; slaughter (sacrificial) animals for one who has died
Mandar tunuto roast; roasted (as fish)
Buginese tunuto roast (as fish)
Makassarese tunuto burn, lay in the ashes; light (a lamp), bake in an oven, roast over a fire; lay in a fire (of golden ornaments, as one of the operations needed to make them beautiful; to heat up (stones); slaughter (of buffalos, goats
  at-tunu rotito bake bread
  pat-tunu-aŋoffering feast; place where burnt offerings are made
Wolio tunuto light (lamp, fire), set afire, burn, heat up, roast, bake (also pottery)
Bonerate tunuto burn
Chamorro tunuburn, barbecue, scald, broil
Komodo tunuto burn (a field), to roast (meat, corn)
Manggarai tunuto roast (young corn in the husk, unpeeled manioc)
Rembong tunuto roast (young corn) in the husk
Ngadha tunuto burn, burn off
  tunu ŋanasinge off the bristles of a sacrificial pig, an oath
Kodi tunuto burn
Anakalangu tunuburn
Kambera tunuset on fire (as a house); burn (as lime), roast, bake (as a chicken or young corn
Hawu tunuburn; fry, grill, roast (as a chicken); to light, ignite (as a lamp)
Dhao/Ndao tunuto burn
Rotinese tunuroast, bake, cook without fat (meat, fish, corn, etc.); singe off the fur of a pig, goat, etc. in making a sacrificial offering
Tetun tunuto roast, to bake (in an oven or over a fire)
  tunu fahisinge a pig (to scrape off hair and skin)
  tunu ahumake quicklime
  tunu-nbaked in an oven
Erai tunuto roast
Talur tunuto burn
Tugun tunuto burn, roast
Kisar kunuburn, roast, bake
Leti tunuset on fire, burn, roast or bake; shoot a firearm
Luang n-tunuto burn
Wetan tuniburn, roast, often combined with naja, to cook: ra-tuni ra-naja they roasted and cooked, they prepared food
Selaru tunshoot with a firearm; burn, roast on the fire; ignite, set on fire
Yamdena tunuto fry, to bake, to roast in the fire; shooting of firearms; shining, scorching of the sun
  in tu-tunufish baked in the fire
Fordata tunuroast in a fire; shooting of a firearm
  (tan)tunu-nroasted in the fire
Kei en-tunroast or stew in the fire, to bake; shoot off firearms
Dobel tunstove
Paulohi tunuroast, burn; shoot with a weapon', tunu 'to burn; to shoot
Proto-Ambon *tunuto burn, to shoot
Hitu tunuto burn
Asilulu tunuto burn; to roast or bake; to shoot
  ta-tunusomething roasted or burned
  ai ta-tunufirewood
  katihu ta-tunuroasted shrimp
Wakasihu tunuto burn
Buruese tunu-hheat the midsection of (cylinder, rod, or tube) in a flame
Sula donuto burn
Soboyo tunuto burn, singe off hair, feathers, etc. over a fire: roast
Numfor kunto fry
  kunburn, fry, roast; ignite a fire or lamp
  kunto fry
Serui-Laut tunuto cook
Nali tun-tunto burn, roast
Titan tunu-tunto burn, roast
Wuvulu unucook, roast
  unu-m-iacook it!, roast it!
Tigak tuncook
Label tuncook, burn
Tolai tunto burn, cook, roast, broil; burn down the grass on a new plantation
Kove tunuto burn
Lakalai tulu-luto burn (of a burn); be burned
  e-tulu-luhot taro
Wogeo tunuroast, burn; cook it!
Gedaged tun-icause to burn, light (a fire so it burns well), set fire
Gitua tunburn, hot
Motu tunu-ato bake pottery
Tawala tunu-yashine a light, light up
Tubetube tunto burn down, as a house or garden
Torau ta-tunuto burn
Takuu tunuto cook on hot coals, to roast
Cheke Holo tunuburn with fire
  thunube burned (living being)
Roviana tunuburn scars on the arm, as is often done by young boys
Bugotu tunumark, blot, cicatrix caused by burning
Kwaio ununative torch; to light, illuminate; divine a thief using a magical torch, unu-a cook vegetables (or edible insects) by steaming in a leaf-plugged bamboo tube on an open fire
Lau ūnua torch of dried coconut leaves tied together
'Āre'āre ūnutorch made from dry coconut leaf; go fishing at night with this torch
  haneia ūnuordeal, judgement by hot stones, trial by fire
Arosi unuraise cicatrices on the body with a burning brand
Mota tunto roast on embers, toast
Lonwolwol tUnuto light, set fire to
Rotuman fun-to cook (esp. by boiling)
Fijian tunuwarm food up again
Tongan tunucook over an open fire, to roast, grill or toast; roasted, grilled, toasted; roasting, etc.; what is roasted or being roasted, etc.; fire for roasting, etc.
Niue tunuto boil, broil, roast (as yam over the fire)
Futunan tunuroast over a fire (as breadfruit)
Samoan tunubroil; boil; (of hot drink) make; to roast, to toast, to broil, to fry, to boil (Pratt 1984)
Tuvaluan tunucook
Kapingamarangi dunucook over an open fire, boil
Nukuoro dunucook, heat up, boil (water)
Rennellese tunuto cook, roast on hot coals
  tunu kapekapecook directly on a fire, as fish, birds; barbecue
Anuta tunuroast something over an open fire; roasted
Rarotongan tunuto cook as in cooking food; to boil, as in boiling a kettle of water; to roast or bake
  tunu pakato roast on fire embers
Maori tunuto roast, to broil; inspire with fear
Hawaiian kunubroil on coals, as meat or fish


PAN     *C<in>uNuh be roasted (by someone)

Paiwan ts-in-ulʸube burnt, slaughtered


PMP     *t<in>unuh be roasted (by someone)

Ilokano t-in-únobroiled or roasted meat, fish, etc., toasted bread, etc. It is stuck on a piece of bamboo or wire and held over live coals
Isneg s-in-únoroasted
Itawis s-in-únuroasted, that which is to be roasted
Old Javanese t-in-unube burned, burned up, burned down, set fire to, be put in the fire, heated; cremated
Sangir ni-tunube singed by someone
Palauan dəlúlbroiled; roasted; sunburned


PAN     *C<um>uNuh to roast (intr.)

Paiwan ts-m-ulʸuto roast meat; burn something or someone; kill a pig or chicken


PMP     *t<um>unuh to roast (intr.)

Old Javanese t-um-unuto burn, burn up, burn down, set fire to, put in the fire, heat; cremate
Tontemboan t-um-unuto roast, as corn on a fire
Palauan d-m-ulto broil, to roast


PAN     *CuNuh-an to roast

Paiwan tsulʸu-anheat


PAN     *tunuh-an to roast

Isneg tuno-ánto roast
Old Javanese tunw-an, tuno-nwhat is burnt down, burnt remains; pile, pyre
Tontemboan tunu-anthat on which something is burned, the fire; place where something is burned
  tu-tunu, i-tunumaterial used for burning something
Makassarese tunu-aŋwhat can or will be offered in sacrifice (as a burnt offering); to sacrifice something for someone
  tedoŋ tunu-aŋbuffalo fattened for sacrifice


PAN     *ki-CuNuh (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan ki-tsulʸuburn oneself; join in a sacrificial feast


PAN     *ki-tunuh (gloss uncertain)

Palauan kə-dúlburn each other


PAN     *ma-CuNuh roasted

Paiwan ma-tsulʸuto be hot


PAN     *ma-tunuh roasted

Itawis ma-túnuthat which is to be roasted
Old Javanese ma-tunw-a-tunw-anto set everything on fire
Tontemboan me-tunuto burn, bake, roast
Tae' ma-tunucooked thoroughly, well-cooked
Buginese ma-tunucooked well
Irarutu ma-tunto fry


PMP     *ma-nunuh to roast

Isneg ma-núnoto roast
Kelabit nunuhto burn, to roast
Murik nunuʔto roast over a fire, as meat
Nias ma-nunulight, kindle, ignite; roast in a fire; burn; to shoot, fire a weapon
Balinese nunuroast on a fire, bake on glowing coals; cremate
Sangir ma-nunuscorch, singe; burn, pour hot water over a pig to facilitate scraping off the bristles
Gorontalo mo-luluroast in hot ashes (as cassava)
Palauan mə-lúlto broil, roast; get oneself sunburned
  mə-lúl a ʔadcremate
  mə-lúl a ʔausmake lime from coral
Serui-Laut nunuto cook


PWMP     *maR-tunuh to roast

Isneg mag-túnoto roast
Itawis mat-túnuto roast
Malagasy mi-tónoto roast
Mandar mat-tunuto ignite, light (as a lamp); to roast (as a fish)
Buginese mat-tunuto roast (as fish)


PPh     *tunuh-en be roasted by someone

Ilokano tuno-énto roast, to broil, to toast; to singe, to scorch, to sear
Gorontalo tulu-woloroasted, as cassava in hot ashes


POC     *tunu tunu roast food over a fire

Titan tunu-tunto burn
Tanga tun-tunhot (water, weather)
Label tun-tunto cook, to burn
Gitua tun-tunhot
Motu tunu-tunubake pottery (collective)
Cheke Holo tu-tunumake small fires in a garden area to remove the debris which has been cut down to clear the ground
Nggela tunu-tunudot, spot, blot
  tunu-tunu-gaspots all over; brand with fire, touch or prick with burning brand
Sa'a u-unu, u-unu-unuburn in the fire, roast flesh on the embers; raise cicatrices on the body by burning
  u-unu-unuyoung men's game played on sand, two sides each with its oven (umu); the game is to wrest one of the opposite side and put him into the oven
  u-unu-hito burn
Mota tun-tuna roasted, toasted yam
  tu-tunhot; dear (as a friend)
Fijian tunu-tunuhot
Kapingamarangi dunu-dunucook over an open fire, boil
Nukuoro dunu-dunucook, heat up, boil (water)
Maori tunu-tunuto roast; faint-hearted, afraid

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak tino ‘what is singed, singed off (hair, feathers); what is roasted on hot coals’; ma-nino ‘to singe off hair or feathers, roast on hot coals’, Laha kunu-r ‘to bake’, Lou nunun ‘roast over hot coals’. The basic sense of this term seems to have been ‘to roast (tubers, meat, fish, etc.)’, with reference either to an open fire or to a bed of embers --- in other words, to cook without water or fat by direct exposure to heat. Reflexes in Wolio and Motu suggest that PMP *tunu also applied to the firing of clay pots, a concept which is in every sense similar to that of roasting except that the object is inorganic. In many of the available sources a reflex of *CuNuh is additionally given as the translation equivalent of ‘to set on fire, to kindle, to ignite (as a lamp)’ and ‘to burn (something)’.

Reflexes in Kambera, Tetun and Palauan suggest that this verb was applied to the burning of calcium carbonate to make quicklime, but it is not entirely clear whether it could be applied to any type of object. In addition the agreement of Paiwan and several languages of central and southern Sulawesi in supporting the meaning ‘to sacrifice animals’ suggests that *CuNuh referred to burnt offerings, presumably as a part of funeral ceremonies. One other recurrent semantic reflex --- that of the firing of a weapon (Nias, many CMP languages) is assumed to be a convergent innovation following the introduction of firearms. Finally, in parts of the central Solomons the ritualistic practice among young males of raising cicatrices on the skin through burning evidently led to a semantic shift to ‘mark left by burning’, and then just ‘dot, spot, blot’ (Nggela).

The Formosan part of this comparison was first recognized in print by Tsuchida (1976:133).


*CuŋCuŋ make a booming sound


PAN     *CuŋCuŋ make a booming sound

Amis toŋtoŋthe sound of drums
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-Tu<a>ŋTuŋ-andrum
  pa-TuŋTuŋ-ito beat a drum
Malay tontoŋbamboo gong
Toba Batak tuŋtuŋa wooden bell
Javanese ṭoŋṭoŋ-anslitgong (Pigeaud 1938 )
Sangir tuntuŋsound of a type of large drum
Chamorro toŋtoŋpound, beat, batter, bang against, strike heavily or repeatedly with fist

Note:   Also Thao tumtum ‘beating of a drum, sound of a drumbeat’. With root *-Cuŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.


*CuqelaN condylar bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish


PAN     *CuqelaN condylar bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish     [doublet: *tuqelaŋ]

Tsou cərhəbone
Kanakanabu cuʔúanəbone
Saaroa culalhəbone
Rukai (Budai) cooɭalebone
Paiwan tsuqelalʸbone
  tsuqelalʸ nua kasiwheartwood
  ts-m-uqelalʸbe bony, have prominent bones


PMP     *tuqelan condylar bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish

Inati tolanbone
Hiligaynon túlʔanbone
Cebuano tulʔánknee joint of human being or large animals; legs or lower limbs of man or animals
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tulanbone
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) tuʔelanbone
Maguindanao tulánbone
Manobo (Sarangani) toʔlanbone
Basap tulaŋbone
Moken kelanbone
Karo Batak tulanbone
Mentawai tōlatbone
Proto-Lampungic *tuhelanbone
Old Javanese tahulan <Mbone, fish bone
  kayu tahulantree stump?; leafless tree?
Mongondow tuḷanbone
Ponosakan tulanbone
Gorontalo tulalobone
Palauan dəʔóylspine; backbone

Note:   Also Bunun tuqnađ ‘bone’. Moken regularly lost the prepenultimate syllable if it began with *q; cp. *baqeRu > keloi ‘new’, *buqaya > gaya (expected **kaya) ‘crocodile’, *RuqaNay > kanai ‘male’. The Palauan reflex of this form was first pointed out by Smith (n.d.).


*CuquR a tree: Bischofia javanica


PAN     *CuquR a tree: Bischofia javanica

Puyuma tuʔura tree used to make pigs’ troughs and to build houses, the Java cedar: Bischofia javanica, and Formosa acacia: Acacia confusa


PMP     *tuquR₂ a tree: Bischofia javanica

Hanunóo túʔuga tree (probably Bischofia javanica Blm.); shavings from the bark are rubbed on fishing lines to become dark, smooth, and more durable

Note:   Madulid (2001) reports additional cognates in Tagalog, Bikol, Panay Bisayan and Batangan Mangyan, but these could not be confirmed from independent sources.


*Curis scratch a line


PAN     *Curis scratch a line

Kavalan turislines, stripes, pattern (Li and Tsuchida 2006); line (that you draw); marks on snake skin; tattoo (Blust, fieldnotes)
  t<m>uristo draw
  turis na rimalines in the palm of the hand; fortune
Amis toris, tosira line on paper or a line of planted rice plants
Paiwan tsurisa scratch, gash (wound); a line


PMP     *turis₂ scratch a line

Maranao torisetch a line on
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) turismark out a design, a boundary, or a pattern
Malay turisskin-deep slash; long but shallow cut
Ngadha turidash, stroke, line; draw a line; lined, striped
Tetun tuito scratch a line; to scratch with a fingernail or any similar object
  tui-ka line, scratch, score, or mark

Note:   With root *-ris₂ ‘scratch a line’.


*CuSuR string together, as beads


PAN     *CuSuR string together, as beads

Kavalan tusuRthreading of beads, etc.
Bunun ma-tusulto string together, as flowers
Paiwan tsusua cord for stringing something on (as beads, millet)


PMP     *tuhuR stringing of beads, skewering of fish, etc.

Itbayaten too-tohoyrunning stitch
Tagalog túhoga stringing together of things, piercing through them to hold them
Bikol túhogto string (as beads); to skewer, place on a stick; to impale
Hanunóo túhugstringing of beads or similar objects
  pa-nuhúg-anbeads, literally 'that which is used for being strung'
Aklanon túhogpierce, pass or cut through, penetrate
  t-in-uhog-anpierced ears (for earrings)
Cebuano túhugpierce through with a string (as pearls for a necklace), a stake (as a fish impaled on a harpoon), or something else, hang something on something long
Maranao togpass something through a hole
Tboli toolthread on which beads are strung; to string beads into a necklace
Tausug mag-tuhugto string (something, as fish or beads)
Sangir tuheʔstring things together
Manggarai turto string, as beads on a thread; to stitch (a mat); to pile up (stones)
Rembong turto string beads
Ngadha tuto put in, insert (as firewood in a fire); pierce; to thread (a needle)
Tetun tuuthe spike of a fish's dorsal fin, any sharp object capable of pricking the skin; to prod, to poke, to touch with the point of a finger, or any other object for prodding
Numfor kurto string (as beads)


POC     *tuRi₁ to string (beads, fish, etc.); to skewer (candlenuts, etc.)

Tolai turto pierce, as a spear or arrow; to perforate, bore through
Magori turito thread, sew
Motu turi-aplait an armlet; sew; string fish together
Rotuman fuisingle piece of Rotuman necklace or garland
  fui-ʔakito string together, make a necklace or garland
Fijian tuilift up with a string
  tui-tui vakastring together
Tongan tuiput in, insert, e.g. hand into pocket, or thread into needle; to thread (needle, beads, etc.); make by threading (as a necklace); to stab, pierce, gore; thing for threading with, such as the small forked stick used for threading sennit when reeding a house; put on, wear (clothes)
Niue tuito sew; to pierce (with a needle or other sharp point); to wear, to put on clothes
Samoan tuistab, jab; prick, pick (with a fork, etc.); (of insect, etc.) sting; (of horse) spur; given an injection, inject; thread something through (as thread through a needle)
Tuvaluan tuithread on string (as fish); stab; pierce
Kapingamarangi duito sew; to patch; pierce with an object; skewer; to spill; to insert an extra leaflet in mat plaiting
Nukuoro duistab with a sharp object, pierce with a sharp object, sew, string (flowers or fish, etc.); straight course (of a canoe)
Rennellese tuibone, as of whale; awl or stick used as an awl; to string together, as fish, beads, coconuts; to sew, as a bugho seine or baghu mat; eat with a coconut-leaf midrib; fork; to be sharp; to insert, stick in or through
Rarotongan tuito sew, join or fasten together with a needle or thread; thread a wreath; thread shells into a neck or head ornament; thread or join up candlenut kernels on the mid-rib of the coconut frond; to pierce
Maori tuipierce; thread on a string; lace, fasten by passing a cord through holes; sew; put the hand or arm through a loop, pass the arm through another person's arm; string on which anything is threaded
Hawaiian kuito string pierced objects, as flowers in a lei, or fish; to thread, as beads; needle, pin, spike, nail, screw, any pointed instrument of wood or metal; to sting


PAN     *CuSuR-en be strung, be skewered

Bunun tusul-unto string
Itbayaten tohoy-enpierce or prick through something
  tohy-ento needle the stems of the leaves of tobacco to dry
Bikol tuhóg-onbe strung (as beads), skewered, placed on a stick, impaled


PAN     *C<um>uSuR to string beads, etc.

Kavalan t-m-usuRto thread beads, etc.
Paiwan ts-m-usuto string (beads)

Note:   Also Itbayaten ni-tohey ‘held together by passing an instrument (as tatari) through the things to be cooked’, tohey-en ‘pass through a hole (as a needle)’, Casiguran Dumagat tuhók ‘to string together, to thread on a string; pierce through, put a spit through pieces of meat (as to string fish on a line, or beads on thread)’, Sangir tuheʔ ‘string together’, Mongondow tuog ‘bead, beadwork’, mo-tuog ‘to string, as beads on a thread’, Bare'e tua ‘string on a line (as beads), skewer on a stick (as fish)’.

Zorc (n.d.) proposed PPh *tuheR ‘pass through a hole; string (beads); spit (meat)’. The fundamental idea expressed by PAn *CuSuR and its typical reflexes is that of connecting a series of similar objects by stringing or skewering. The prototypical object for stringing was beads, which were strung into necklaces, while that for skewering probably was fish, which were skewered for roasting. The loss of the medial consonant of this form through regular sound change produced a canonically anomalous monosyllabic content word in some languages, and it was perhaps in response to this situation that the POc transitive suffix *-i was reanalyzed as part of the stem.


*Cuzuq index finger


PAN     *Cuzuq index finger     [disjunct: *tuzuq₁]

Paiwan ts<aly>udjuq-anfinger


PMP     *tuzuq₂ to point out, instruct

Yami t<an>orofinger
Ilokano tudópointer, indicator
Bontok tuduto reveal; to make known; to show; to point out
Tagalog túroʔinstruction; teaching; education
  i-túroʔto instruct; to teach (emphasis on subject taught)
  i-pa-túroʔto order the teaching of a particular subject
  mag-túroʔto teach
Hanunóo túruʔpointing; direction
Malay tudohaccusation, esp. slanderous accusation; pointing out a person guilty of some heinous act
Toba Batak ma-nuduto point at something
Sundanese tuduhpointing out
Old Javanese tuduhinstruction, direction, directive, order, guidance
  a-tuduhto give directions, give guidance, point out, give orders
Javanese tuduh-tuduhto point to; to point out, advise
Balinese nuduhto command, set a task, give instructions
Tae' turopoint out, show, demonstrate
Tetun tuduto indicate, designate or nominate
  tudu liman bato point the finger at
  ha-tuduto show, to indicate, to point out, to direct

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)