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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


da    de    di    do    dr    du    









































































































































*da₁ locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du)


PAN     *da locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du)

Puyuma daconstruction marker for common nouns, oblique


PMP     *daₐ locative case marker for plural personal names

Ivatan dalocative case marker for plural personal names (living people)
Talantang Dusun dooblique case marker for common nouns
Bisaya (Lotud) dooblique case marker for common nouns
Murut (Papar) daoblique case marker for common nouns
Kadazan (Kimanis) dooblique case marker for plural personal names
Kadazan (Membakut) dooblique case marker for common nouns and plural personal names
Murut (Paluan) daoblique case marker for common nouns
Murut (Timugon) raoblique case marker for common nouns
Bisaya (Sabah) da ~ dooblique case marker for common nouns


*dabuk₁ pound, beat


PMP     *dabuk₁ pound, beat     [disjunct: *rabuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Malagasy dabokabeat, thump
'Āre'āre rapuhit, strike, whip, beat

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’.


*dabuk₂ dust


PPh     *dabuk₂ dust

Pangasinan dabókdust
Cebuano dábukcrush by pounding; crushed to fine bits, crumbled
Mansaka dabokto decay


PPh     *ma-dabuk crumbly, friable

Itbayaten ma-ravokdusty, full of dust
Pangasinan ma-rabókdusty, full of dust

Note:   Also Ibaloy tapok ‘dust as it swirls in the air or has settled on something (as when stirred by a vehicle)’. This word may contain the monosyllabic root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’, with the connection being from pounding to the result of pounding substances (into fine particles).


*dabuŋ bamboo shoot


PPh     *dabuŋ bamboo shoot

Kapampangan dábuŋshoots, young leaves
Aklanon dáboŋbamboo shoot (Masbatenyos, like most Filipinos, boil young bamboo shoots for food); immature, young (refers to children, unripe fruits or untempered metal)
Cebuano dábuŋyoung, immature; unripe fruits and vegetables; metal tempered in such a way that it is too soft; bamboo shoots
Maranao daboŋ(plant) shoot
Subanon dabuŋbamboo shoot
Binukid dabuŋbamboo shoots
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) davuŋthe edible shoots of the kewayan, (Bambusa spinosa), or the bentung bamboo
Mansaka daboŋbamboo shoot
Tiruray dobuŋbamboo shoot
Tboli dobuŋedible bamboo shoots

Note:   Mapun dabuŋ ‘bamboo shoots (used as a vegetable)’, Yakan dabuŋ ‘edible shoot of bamboo (in some areas of Basilan these are called umbut)’ are assumed to be loans from one or more Philippine sources.


*dabuq to fall


PWMP     *dabuq to fall

Sambal (Botolan) dáboʔto fall
Molbog dabuʔto fall
Dairi-Pakpak Batak en-dabuhto fall; to set, of the sun
Toba Batak man-dabu-honlet something fall
Old Javanese ḍawuhfalling, coming down (order, curse, anger, love); to fall, come down
  a-ḍa-ḍawuhto give food, bestow gifts (on the part of the king)
  ḍ<um>awuhto fall, come down
Javanese ḍawuhan order, command; to say, speak; advice; to say, tell
Wolio ndawuto fall (down), drop


PWMP     *ma-dabuq to fall

Sambal (Botolan) ma-dáboʔto fall
Toba Batak ma-dabuto fall; be fallen

Note:   With root *-buq ‘fall’. The rather dramatic semantic changes in Modern Javanese ḍawuh are prefigured in the Old Javanese form, which still retains the basic physical sense of falling, but evidently employed the term in a social sense as well (orders, curses or gifts ‘falling’ from the higher position/authority of the king onto his subjects). The resemblance of this form to Arosi rahu-taʔi ‘fall down, be prostrate; cast down, prostrate oneself’ probably is due to chance.


*dada₁ to pull, haul, drag


PCMP     *dada₁ to pull, haul, drag

Tetun dadapull, haul, drag
  dada iis(the last breath) to cause agony
Buruese dada-kto drag


*dada₂ term of reference for older female relative


PPh     *dada₂ term of reference for older female relative

Casiguran Dumagat dádaaunt
Agutaynen dadagrandmother or great-grandmother (this is an old term of reference)


*dadaN old, of things; ancient times


PAN     *dadaN old, of things; ancient times

Atayal raralold times, the old days, formerly, a long time ago, of yore, ancient
Favorlang/Babuza rarasold, contracted
Thao sasazold, of things (as a house, clothes)
  min-sasazbecome old, of material objects
  shi-sasazfor a long time, from the remote past; always


PMP     *dadan old, of things; ancient times

Ifugaw dadánold, not new, no longer new; applied to clothes, bags, blankets, anything that has been used for a long time
Ifugaw (Batad) dadánold; long-time, as an old jar, a long-time position of an agricultural leader
Kelabit dadanold, of things; long, of time
  dadan dadanfor a long time

Note:   The relationship of this form to PPh *daqan ‘old, ancient’ remains unclear, since a reduplicated form *da-daqan would not normally lose the *q in either Atayal or Kelabit.


*dagaw to play, to frolic


PPh     *dagaw to play, to frolic

Sambal (Botolan) dagáwto play
Ayta Abellan dagawgame, play; to play; a toy
Maranao dagawfrolic


*dagdag to drop, to fall down


PPh     *dagdag to drop, to fall down

Agutaynen ma-dagdagfor an object to fall off from where it is attached; for fruit to fall off a tree; to fall out of a bag or container
Tiruray dagdagto drop something

Note:   Tiruray dagdag cannot be native, but it implies borrowing from a unidentified neighboring language. Since this would be either Danaw or Manobo, the comparison would still be represented in two primary divisions of PPh as defined in Blust (1991).


*dagepak loud slap


PWMP     *dagepak loud slap

Cebuano dágpakslap hard enough to make a noise
Malay dəpaka smack

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*dag(e)qún year


PPh     *dag(e)qún year

Atta (Pamplona) dagúnyear
Hanunóo dagʔúnyear, season
Maranao ragonyear, harvest time
Manobo (Ilianen) rahunyear

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first noted schematically by Zorc (1986:163).


*dág(e)saq to wash ashore, as driftwood


PPh     *dág(e)saq to wash ashore, as driftwood

Casiguran Dumagat dágsato be washed ashore (e.g. driftwood)
Bikol mag-dagsáʔto be carried away by the current and washed up on the shore or bank
Aklanon dágsaʔget washed ashore
Agutaynen i-dagtato be carried away, drift away with the current; to wash up on shore
Cebuano dágsaʔwash to the shore
Maranao dagsaʔwash up, cast on beach


*dágus₁ continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation


PPh     *dágus₁ continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation

Ilokano dágusimmediately, right away
  dagús-ento do immediately
Isneg na-dágusimmediately, at once, directly
Bontok dagusto continue on to do another task; go to another place
Ibaloy shagosquickly, soon, immediately
Tagalog dágoshurried and sudden departure in dissatisfaction or anger; sudden hurried movement toward something
Bikol dágosthen, and then; afterwards
  i-dágosto continue doing something, to keep on, carry on with
Hanunóo d<um>águsto continue, keep on one’s way, keep on going
  dáguscontinuance, persistence

Note:   Also Pangasinan dáges ‘immediately, hastily’, on-dáges ‘to hasten’.


*dagus₂ to lodge, stay in someone else’s house


PPh     *dagus₂ to lodge, stay in someone else’s house

Ilokano dagústemporary lodging place; dormitory
  ag-dagústo stay, lodge temporarily
Bikol mag-dágosto come or go in, enter
  maki-dágosto stay or live with, to board, lodge


*dahak phlegm; cough up phlegm


PWMP     *dahak phlegm; cough up phlegm

Tagalog dáhakeffort to gather phlegm in the throat in order to expectorate
  d<um>áhakto clear the throat and spit; to hawk; to cough forcibly; to expectorate
Iban dakphlegm, mucus, sputum
Malay dahakcoughing up phlegm; mucus from the chest; cold that has settled on the chest
Javanese rakdry, of the throat; creaky, hoarse, of the voice

Note:   Also Kelabit bə-dhək ‘nasal mucus’, Javanese kerak ‘hoarse’.


*dahemuR dew


PWMP     *dahemuR dew     [doublet: *ñamuR]    [disjunct: *lamuR]

Tagalog hamóg (< earlier *lamog)dew
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dehemugdew, drops of water on plants and grass after a rain
Balinese damuhdew
Proto-South Sulawesi *damu(ɣ?)dew


*dahun leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating


PMP     *dahun leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating

Itbayaten rahonwide leaf, big leaf, broad leaf
Ibanag donleaf
Agta (Dupaningan) donleaf
Isneg adónleaf (of a plant)
Itawis donleaf
Malaweg donleaf
Yogad donleaf
Casiguran Dumagat dɔnleaf
Tagalog dáhonleaf of a plant or book; sheet of paper
Bikol dáhonleaf, foliage; page
  dáhon nin tubówhip snake (small, green and poisonous)
Hanunóo dáwunleaf; large leaves which have been cut and removed from banana plants or banana-like (Musae) plants; leaves which are still on the stalk are known as lábuŋ
Masbatenyo dáhonleaf, foliage
Bantuqanon rahonleaf
Aklanon dáhonleaf, leaves; to produce leaves
Waray-Waray dáhonleaf, foliage
Agutaynen daonleaf of a plant or tree
Hiligaynon dáhunleaf
Palawan Batak daʔonleaf
Cebuano dáhunleaf; grow leaves
Maranao raʔonleaf
Binukid dahunleaf, blade (of a tree or plant)
Manobo (Agusan) dɨunleaf
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dahunleaf of a tree or plant
Tiruray daʔuna leaf; to produce leaves
Klata daʔuleaf
Kalagan daunleaf
Mapun dawun ~ dunleaf; hair (on one’s head); blade of grass
Yakan dawena leaf (of plants and trees)
Bonggi doudnleaf
Tboli doun(of trees, plants) leaf; to leaf out
Tausug dahuna leaf (of plants and trees)
Tombonuwo rounleaf
  roun nu posuwonkind of insect
Ida'an Begak daunleaf
Murut (Tagol) raunleaf
Bisaya (Limbang) daunleaf
Kelabit daʔunleaf
Berawan (Long Terawan) dionleaf
Narum dəʔonleaf
Kenyah (Long San) laʔunleaf
Murik laʔunleaf (singular; cf. itun ‘leaves, foliage’)
Kayan daʔunleaf of a tree or any plant
Kayan (Uma Juman) daʔunleaf
Kiput dunleaf
Bintulu raʔunleaf
Melanau (Mukah) daʔunleaf
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) dəʔunleaf
Bukat daʔunleaf
Bekatan daunleaf
Lahanan daʔunleaf
Seru daonleaf
Tunjung rounleaf
Dohoi daunleaf
Ngaju Dayak dawenleaf (of plants, tree, table, rudder)
  man-dawento leaf out, sprout leaves
Paku raunleaf
Ma'anyan rawenleaf
Malagasy rávinaa leaf; fig., thin, slender
Iban daunleaf; page (of book); blade (of knife); sheet (of paper), card
  ular daunwhip snakes, Dryophis spp.
  pantak daunlesser green leafbird
  pantok daungreen broadbill
Maloh daunleaf; cooked rice
Moken daʔonleaf
Malay daunleaf; playing-card; leaf-like object; table top; blade of oar
  daun pintubody of door
  daun dayoŋblade of oar
  makan sa-daunto eat off the same plate
  ular kapak daungreen viper: Lachesis gramineus
  buroŋ daunMalayan black-throated blue flycatcher: Stoparola thalassinoides
  buroŋ sapu daunwagtail: Motacilla melanope
  ikan daunbatfish: Platax sp.
  ikan daun baruspotted moonfish: Drepane punctata
  belalaŋ daunleaf insect: Phyllium spp.
Talaud roŋŋaleaf
Sundanese daunleaf (of a tree, plant, or table)
  manuk daunkind of bird
Old Javanese ron ~ rwanleaf
Javanese ronleaf
Madurese dhaunleaf
Balinese donleaf
  don-an ~ dahun-anleaves used as plates
  don-donn-anleaves of many kinds, gathered to be eaten as vegetables
Sasak daunleaf
  be-daunhave leaves
Sangir dauŋleaf of plants
  me-dauŋto get leaves
  dauŋ u waŋokind of small green fish
Mongondow daunleaf, leaves
  daun kayusubstitute name for the bonikulu bird
Ponosakan daʔunleaf
Gorontalo duuŋoleaf
Kaidipang du:ŋoleaf
Boano aʔunleaf
Tialo looŋleaf
Balantak roonleaf
Banggai loonleaf
Uma rauleaf
Tae' daunleaf
Mandar dauŋleaf
Buginese dauŋleaf
Makassarese rauŋleaf
Muna rooleaf
Popalia roʔoleaf
Chamorro hagonleaf, foliage, frond
  hagon fahafilefish: Oxymonacanthus longirostris


PCEMP     *daun leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects

Bimanese roʔoleaf
Manggarai sauŋleaf
  sauŋ giloa fish, the murrel: Ophiocephalus striatus
  sauŋ paraa door
Sika rouŋleaves of a tree; paper, page of a book; head hair
Kodi rojoleaf
Lamboya roleaf
Anakalangu rauleaf
Kambera rauleaf; hair
Dhao/Ndao rauleaf; feather
Rotinese do-kleaf, leaf of a tree; classifier used in counting hairs, strings of beads
Atoni noʔoleaf
Galoli ai ronleaf
Erai ronleaf
Talur ai-ronleaf
Tugun ai ronleaf
Ujir rawinleaf
Dobel rakwunleaf
Teluti daunleaf
Paulohi lauleaf
Alune loi-niits leaf; leaf of
Saparua launleaf
Laha louŋleaf
Hitu lau-leaf
Asilulu lauleaf; shutter, page; numerical connector for sheets of paper, etc.
  matanulu laudoor


PEMP     *raun leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects

As a-launleaf
Moor ranuleaf
Wandamen rauleaf
Pom rauleaf
Ansus we-rauŋleaf
Woi raunleaf
Serui-Laut re-rauleaf
Nali yow keyleaf of a tree
Titan laun keyleaf of a tree
Leipon low keyleaf of a tree
Likum leʔu kayleaf of a tree
Sori lauŋleaf
Lindrou laʔu keyleaf of a tree
Wuvulu xau-leaf
Bali (Uneapa) rauŋuleaf
Arop rau-leaf
Sobei rauleaf
Tarpia dauleaf
Kis rouleaf
Ali rouŋleaf
Manam dauleaf
Sio lauleaf
Gitua rauleaf; head hair
  rau bitaikind of green snake
Yabem lauŋleaf
Numbami lauleaf; page, sheet of paper
Keapara lauleaf
Hula rauleaf
Sinaugoro lauleaf
Motu rauleaf
Nehan rau-raua plant species; two types: a yellow leaf and green leaf variety, fam. Leguminoseae, coral bean species; coral trees (leaves can be eaten as a spinach substitute: Erythrina variegata, Erythrina indica
Nggela rauleaf; prefix to names of trees
  rau-rauleaves, leavage, foliage
Toqabaqita rauleaf, leaflet
Sa'a räuleaf; leaf used as a wrapper in cooking
Arosi rauleaf; prefix to names of trees; plank
Sikaiana lauleaf
Pohnpeian tehleaf, sheet, page
Chuukese chééleaf; sheet; width, breadth (of flat objects only)
Puluwat rééleaf
Piamatsina rauleaf
Nokuku raileaf
Malmariv rau-leaf
Aore rau-leaf
Araki dauleaf, palm leaf
Raga rauleaf
Lingarak no-ronleaf
Leviamp raunleaf
Axamb raunleaf
Maxbaxo n-raunleaf
Rotuman rauleaf, (of grass) blade; tobacco; sheet or leaf of paper
Wayan rauleaf; ; hair of the head; page, leaf of paper
Fijian drauleaf; hair of the head
  drau ni kauleaf of a tree
  drau ni kurokind of fish
Tongan lau ~ louleaf; sheet, layer, of paper, board, etc.; blade; flat, of bat, saw, etc.; hair of the head
  lau-papaboard, plank
Niue lauleaf of a tree; page of a book
  lau-lautable; plaited coconut leaves on which a feast is spread; to spread
  lau-papafloor; board, platform
Samoan lauleaf; blade of a knife; thatch; classifier for flat, thin objects
Kapingamarangi lauleaf; eave of a house; long hair on the temples (former masculine hair style)
  lau-iga-dagalargest kind of tuna
Rennellese gauleaf; bark, as of hibiscus or Gnetum latifolium; count with classifier
Anuta rauleaf; frond; head hair; sheet of paper
  te rau poethe flat surface of canoe paddle blade
Rarotongan rauleaf (in composition)
Maori rauleaf; blade of a weapon; plume, spray, feather
  rau-raufoliage; thatch
Hawaiian lauleaf; frond; to leaf out
  hoʔo-lauto grow leaves, to leaf out
  lau-lauwrapping, wrapped package; packages of ti leaves or banana leaves containing pork, beef, salted fish, or taro tops, baked in the ground oven, steamed or broiled
  lau-papaa broad flat, as of coral, lava, reef; board, lumber

Note:   Also Toba Batak daon ‘leaf, medicine’, Arosi rawa Also Toba Batak daon ‘leaf, medicine’, Arosi rawa ‘leaf’. The secondary meaning ‘head hair’ is widespread in the languages of eastern Indonesia and the Pacific, and looks very much like a Papuan contact feature. Since this apparent innovation is found as far east as Polynesia it probably was acquired by or before Proto-Oceanic times, and then transmitted like any other feature of the language as Austronesian speakers spread eastward beyond the reach of Papuan contact. The fact that it also appears in Sama-Bajaw languages, but nowhere else in western Indonesia or the Philippines, lends strength to the hypothesis that it is due to Papuan contact, since the Sama-Bajaw almost certainly were involved in the spice trade that linked the Moluccas of eastern Indonesia with various ports in western Indonesia and the southern Philippines, and so would have had many opportunities for contact with Papuan-speaking groups.

In addition, polymorphemic reflexes in Bikol, Iban, Malay, and Gitua suggest that *dahun figured in the name for the whip snake, a small, green poisonous species that presumably is well camouflaged in foliage, and hence extremely dangerous. Although a specific term cannot be reconstructed on the basis of known evidence, this may have been PMP *hulaR dahun. The names of various birds (Iban, Malay, Sundanese, Bolaang Mongondow) fish (Malay, Sangir, Chamorro, Manggarai, Fijian, Kapingamarangi), and insects (Tombonuwo, Malay) that incorporate a reflex of PMP *dahun may be products of convergence, or retentions of terms for which the surviving evidence is too fragmentary for reconstruction, and the common element in expression such as Malagasy daun pintu ‘body of door’, Manggarai sau? para, Asilulu matanulu lau ‘door’ probably is the result of historically secondary changes.


PWMP     *ma-dahun leafy, dense, of foliage

Isneg m-adónto produce one leaf
Tagalog ma-dáhonleafy, having many leaves
Bikol ma-dáhonleafy
Waray-Waray ma-dáhonabundant, of leaves
Old Javanese ma-ron ~ ma-rwanwith leaves, sprouting leaves
Uma mo-rauto have leaves
Mandar ma-dauŋleafy, dense, of foliage


PWMP     *maŋ-dahun to have or sprout leaves

Cebuano manáhunprosper, do well financially
Mapun nawunbegin to develop leaves
Malagasy man-drávinato bud, as leaves, to bear leaves
Tae' men-daunrich in leaves, having leaves
Mandar men-dauŋto have or sprout leaves


PWMP     *maR-dahun to leaf out, sprout leaves

Isneg mag-dónto produce one leaf
Tagalog mag-dáhonto grow or sprout leaves
Bikol mag-dáhonto sprout leaves
Masbatenyo mag-dáhonto grow leaves
Tausug mag-dahunto develop leaves
Iban be-daunhave leaves; to flame, of fire
Malay ber-daunleafy, to have leaves

Note:   Possibly also Buginese mad-dauŋ ‘to flutter in the breeze, as a flag or pennant’.


PMP     *dahun-dahun foliage, leaves

Aklanon dahón-dahóngrass snake
Cebuano dáhun-dáhunany insect that looks like a leaf
Old Javanese ron-ḍonleaves
Balinese don-donfoliage


POC     *raun-raun foliage, leaves

Nggela rau-rauleaves, foliage
Wayan rau-rauleaves
Fijian drau-drauthe leaves on which food is served up; the cover or wrapper of anything
  drau-drau tabonohidden by leaves, as fruit on a tree
Niue lau-lautable, plaited coconut leaves on which a feast is spread
Maori rau-raufoliage; thatch; a divination rite in which leaves were used
Hawaiian lau-lauwrapping, wrapped package; packages of ti leaves or banana leaves containing pork, beef, salted fish, or taro tops, baked in the ground oven, steamed or broiled

Note:   The agreement between Malay makan sa-daun ‘eat from the same plate’ and Fijian drau-drau ‘the leaves on which food is served up’ are a reminder that in the Austronesian world traditional ‘tables’ (at least for feasts) probably were banana leaves laid out on the ground on which the food was placed.


PMP     *dahun nu taliŋa the auricle or shell of the ear

Isneg adón talíŋathe auricle or pinna of the ear
Yakan dawen teyiŋethe external ear
Malay daun teliŋaouter edge of earlobe
Tae' daun taliŋa ~ don taliŋashell of the ear


POC     *raun ni taliŋa the auricle or shell of the ear

Anuta rau tariŋaearlobe

Note:   Also Balinese don kupiŋ ‘the tip of the ear’, Manggarai sauŋ tilu ‘shell of the ear’.


*dajam accustomed to, tame


PAN     *dajam accustomed to, tame

Pazeh daxamaccustomed to


PAN     *ma-dajam accustomed to, tame     [doublet: *ma-najam]

Favorlang/Babuza ma-darramaccustomed to
Tolai ma-rămdocile, tame, domesticated

Note:   Also Fijian lasa ‘easy, contented, tame, accustomed’.


*dajem chills, as of malaria


PAN     *dajem chills, as of malaria

Saaroa ma-saremecold
Kelabit dademcold, fever
Kayan laremto feel cold due to fever; general name for malaria or other sickness; feeling of coldness in cold surroundings
Ngaju Dayak daremfever
Iban dadampuerperal fever
Palauan kər-rásəmcold, chills


PAN     *ma-dajem chills, as of malaria

Bintulu mə-rarəmshiver
Maloh ma-rasemcold (Hudson 1967)
  ba-rasamcold (King 1976)

Note:   Also Paiwan djadjełem ‘shivering (with cold or malaria)’, ragem ‘chills and fever’, Ilokano daggáŋ ‘fever’, Miri dasem ‘cold’, Nggela malaho ‘cold, chill; be ill with malaria’, Mota malaso ‘cold’.


*dakdak slam down with force


PWMP     *dakdak slam down with force

Cebuano dakdákfall down with a bang; throw something down with force that is heavy, fall down with a bang on the rump; knock someone on the head; heap blame, abuse on someone
  dakdák ulánfor a rainstorm to break
Binukid dakdakto slam, throw something down with heavy force
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakdakto slam something down on something
Mapun dakdakstrike something or someone repeatedly (as laundry with a wooden paddle)
Kelabit dedʰakway of slapping or tamping something to make it more compact
  nedʰakwhen constructing a levee in the paddy field, to slap the wet clay with a large paddle or club to make it more compact; prior to wrapping cooking rice in leaf packages, to pat, squeeze and press the rice into a compact massusing a small wooden padded called bugo
Toba Batak man-dakdakreduce, knock off; to hammer, pound, chip off
  man-dakdak batuto hew stone
  ma-dakdakto fall, of fruits
Muna dhadhathe sound of something falling in great numbers (as mangoes falling in quantity all at once from a tree)


*dakél big, large (in size or quantity)


PPh     *dakél big, large (in size or quantity)

Yami rákovery big, large
  rak-rakoolder (as an elder brother)
Itbayaten rakoxlarge, big, huge, vast
  ka-rako-rakoxsize, magnitude
  pa-rakox-anto enlarge
Agta (Dupaningan) dakálbig, large
Itawis dakálbig
  mad-dakálto grow
Bontok dakə́lbig, large, bulky
  cakə́l si búlanfull moon
Ifugaw dakólmuch, many
Ibaloy shakelmany, much, lot of, plenty of
Pangasinan dakélmuch, many; often
Kapampangan dakálmany, much
Bikol dakólmany, much, plenty, a lot; abundant, bountiful
  mag-dakólto abound, accumulate, increase in number
Palawan Batak dakə́lmany
Maranao dakelmany, plenty
Binukid mig-dakelto increase in number, make plentiful
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakelbig
Proto-Sangiric *dakelbig; many


PPh     *ma-dakél many

Pangasinan ma-rakélmany
Subanon mo-dakolmany
Binukid ma-dakelmany, much, lots of, plenty
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-zakelmany


PPh     *ka-dakel-án majority, largest part

Yami ka-rako-anthe rest; majority
Itbayaten ka-rakox-anbody (person, car, etc.)
Bikol ka-dakl-ána majority, a large part
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ke-zekel-anmajority

Note:   Also Ilokano dakkél ‘big, large; great’, d<um>akkél ‘to grow, grow up, become large’, Isneg dakkál ‘great, large, big’, manakkál ‘to increase, said of water’, Casiguran Dumagat dikkél ‘big, large; much’, Kankanaey dak-daké ‘great, large, big; high, lofty, tall; wide, capacious, immense’, Bikol dakúlaʔ ‘big, large, great, gross’, Hanunóo daká ‘large, big, great; broad, wide, expansive; tall’, d<um>aká ‘grow, increase in size, expand, grow up’, Palawan Batak dakúlaʔ ‘big, large’, Waray-Waray , Cebuano dakúʔ ‘big, great’, Mansaka dakoraʔ ‘large, big’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dekelaʔ ‘big’, Tiruray dakel ‘big’, ke-dakel-on ‘a large supply of something’, Maranao dakolaʔ ‘large, big, main, great’, Tausug dakulaʔ ‘great, large, big, huge (referring to objects, people, projects, etc., but not emotions or feelings)’.

This is one of the most distinctive innovations defining the Philippine subgroup, as it is an item of basic vocabulary that appears to have replaced *Raya ‘big, large, great’. Despite its general regularity there are a surprising number of irregular reflexes of this form, including unexplained gemination of *k in several northern Philippine languages, loss of *-l in Kankanaey and replacement of *l by glottal stop in Cebuano Reflexes of *dakelaq are confined to members of the Greater Central Philippine group and appear to be derivatives of *dakel, although the actual morphological relationship is obscure in most languages. Chamorro dankolo ‘big, large, great, huge’ shows a general similarity to this word, but multiple irregularities show that if it is not a chance resemblance it must be borrowed from a Philippine source.


*dakep catch, seize; embrace


PAN     *dakep catch, seize; embrace

Thao sakup ~ sapukto catch, as a runaway pig
  mapa-sakupplay tag, play a game of catching one another
Itbayaten rakepwrestling
  mi-rakepto wrestle (of two persons)
Ilokano daképcopulation between animals
  ag-daképto embrace; catch; copulate (animals)
  pa-dakep-anto copulate; breed
Isneg mag-dakápto handle a scoop net
Bontok dakə́pto copulate, of animals in general
Kankanaey men-daképcopulate
Casiguran Dumagat dikəpto catch, grab, snatch
Kapampangan mag-dakápto catch, apprehend
Tagalog dakípcatching, holding onto
  ma-dakípable to catch or arrest
Remontado dakápto hold
Bikol mag-dakópto apprehend, catch, capture; to collar, arrest, take into custody
Hanunóo dakúpseizure, arrest, capture
Aklanon dakópto capture, catch (as dog, person, fish)
Waray-Waray dakópthe act of catching or capturing
Hiligaynon mag-dakúpto catch, to trap, to snare, to capture; to arrest
Cebuano dakúpto catch; apprehend, arrest; catch fire
  d<in>akp-ana suspect (one apprehended on suspicion of guilt)
  dakup-dákupgame of tag; play tag
Maranao dakepcatch, capture, arrest
Binukid dakepto catch, seize, capture, arrest (someone)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakepto seize, arrest
Mansaka dákupto catch, seize (as a dog or chicken)
  dakúpto wrestle
Ida'an Begak rakopcatch
Kenyah dakepcaught, used in story-telling
Malay dakapfolding the arms or hands over one another; clasping, embracing
Karo Batak sin-dakepa measurement, as much as a man can enclose with both arms encircling
  n-dakep-iembrace someone, hold in the arms
Toba Batak man-dahopto embrace
  san-dahopas much as a man can enclose with encircling arms
Sundanese si-dakepcross the hands over one another
  di-si-dakep-keuncrossed over one another, of hands or arms
Balinese nakepgrab something with the flat hand (e.g. a fly); seize, arrest
  dakep-abe arrested
  dakep-dakeptry several times to catch a fly
Sasak be-se-dakepwith arms crossed over the chest
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rakoQto catch (as fish)
Kulisusu mo-rakoto catch (as fish)
Makassarese rakaʔunit of measure: as much as a man can encircle with both arms (as a tree)
  an-rakaʔto embrace
Wolio rakocatch, arrest, take prisoner
  rako-aprisoner of war
Muna rakoto catch, capture
  rakof-icatch many times (as fish)


POC     *rakop embrace

Fijian rakov-ato embrace


PAN     *d<um>akep to catch, capture; embrace

Thao s-m-akupcatch, seize, grasp in the hands or arms
Tagalog d<um>akípto catch, capture, arrest


PAN     *dakep-en be caught, captured

Thao sakp-inbe caught (as fish, animals, people)
Itbayaten rakp-ento wrestle with
Ilokano dakp-ento catch, seize, capture
Bontok dakp-ənto copulate, of animals in general
Kapampangan dakp-anbe caught, be apprehended
Tagalog dakp-ínto catch, capture, arrest

Note:   Also Manggarai daké ‘embrace’. This verb is well-supported by reflexes in the Philippines and western Indonesia which are clearly cognate with Thao sakup, but reflexes in CEMP languages are virtually unknown (Capell 1968 lists Fijian rako-va ‘embrace’ only in the English index, and this may be a chance resemblance).

The fundamental meaning of PAn *dakep appears to have been ‘to seize, catch something that is trying to escape’. With smaller animals this would involve use of the hands, but with larger animals (as pigs) or people it would involve both arms, thus leading to the extended meaning ‘to embrace’ in several languages (where the object is not trying to escape). However, semantic agreements between Thao and Cebuano forms of this base suggest that an affixed (perhaps reduplicated) may also have referred to the childrens’ game of ‘tag’, and agreements between the Batak languages of northern Sumatra and Makassarese of southern Sulawesi indicate that at a later period it may have functioned further as a term of measurement for the girth of trees or other objects that are measured by an ‘embrace’.


(Formosan only)

*dakeS a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp.


PAN     *dakeS a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp.

Kavalan zaqescamphor
  msa-zaqesmake camphor oil
Atayal (Mayrinax) rakuscamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora
Pazeh dakescamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora
Amis rakescamphor tree
Thao shakisha tree with light wood traditionally used for canoe hulls: camphor laurel
Bunun (Takituduh) dakuscamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora
Tsou cʔosəcamphor laurel: Cinnamomum Camphora
Kanakanabu cakesecamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora
Rukai (Budai) Dakesecamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora
Paiwan ḍakescamphor laurel: CinnamomumJaponicum, Cinnamomum camphora

Note:   This comparison was first pointed out by Li (1994).


*da(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to


PMP     *da(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to

Tiruray daŋketadhere to something
Sundanese daŋkɨtnear, very near
Manggarai daketsticky, viscous


POC     *rago to stick, adhere

Nggela raŋgostick, adhere

Note:   Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak darket ‘be parasitic on’. With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*daki dirt on skin; dandruff


PAN     *daki dirt on skin; dandruff

Basai tsakidirt
Kavalan zaqidirt on skin
  sa-zaqihave dirt on one’s skin
Pazeh dakidirt, garbage, waste; dandruff
  daki-anget dirty
Tsou caʔidirty


PMP     *daki dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth

Itbayaten rachirust
Isneg dakítartar of the teeth
Kankanaey dákisoiled, dirty (applied to cups, etc.)
Aklanon dakídandruff
  daki-hónhaving dandruff
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dakito soil something
Mansaka dakidirt in hair
Iban dakiʔdirt or stain on the skin
Malay dakidirty secretion on the body; dirt on the person
Simalur dai ~ daxidirt on the skin
  dai-m balaŋsoot on the bottom of a cooking pot
Karo Batak ndakidirt on the teeth, tartar
  ndakin-ndirty, of the teeth
Toba Batak dahidirt
  dahi mateold, scrub-resistant dirt
Nias daʔidirt (especially on body and clothing)
Sundanese dakidirt on the skin, dirty crust on the skin
Balinese dakidust, dregs, dirt, mud; dirty, muddy
  daki-n limaexhaustion
Sasak dakidirty
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rakifine dirt
Manggarai sakidirty (of the body)
Ngadha zakidirt, filth; dirty, soiled
Riung zakidirty
Li'o rakidirty (of the body)
Dhao/Ndao raʔidirty
Mambai raidirty
Galoli raidirty
Selaru raidirty
Kamarian lai-adirty, filthy
Paulohi laibody dirt
Alune laidirt
Boano₂ lai-adirt

Note:   Also Isneg daí, daxí ‘tartar of the teeth’, Maranao dakiʔ ‘dirt, filth, residue left in pipe, dandruff’. This term evidently referred to dirt on the skin, including dandruff, and perhaps at a later point in time it also referred to tartar on the teeth, as attested by semantic agreements between Isneg of northern Luzon and Karo Batak of northern Sumatra.


*dakiS climb, ascend


PAN     *dakiS climb, ascend

Kavalan zaqisto climb (tree, ladder), to ascend
Saisiyat manaki ʃascend
Pazeh mu-dakisto ascend, to climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.)
Ngaju Dayak dakiwhat is climbed (mountain, other things)
  man-dakito climb
Malay dakiuphill work, climbing (of the sun rising towards its zenith; also of people scaling a hill together)
  men-dakiclimb (mountain, hill); ascend (sun)


PAN     *d<um>akiS climb, ascend

Trobiawan ɮ<um>akisto climb
Kavalan m-zaqis ~ z<m>aqisto climb, ascend
Pazeh mu-dakisascend, climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.)

Note:   Also Tajio pan-daʔe ‘climb (a mountain)’, Bare'e mo-dake ‘climb up, ascend’. This comparison is very thinly distributed, being attested so far only in Formosan languages, Malay and Ngaju Dayak (where it may be a Malay loanword), and in some of the languages of central and northwest Sulawesi, where it shows an irregular lowering of the final vowel.


*dakit join along the length; raft


PMP     *dakit join along the length; raft

Binukid dakitadjacent, next to (land); for a plot of land to adjoin, be located next to, or be adjacent to another plot of land
Kadazan Dusun dakitto dock, berth, come alongside
Balinese dakitput very close
Mongondow dakitraft
Sika dakit-wiiŋcleave, stick together (earth, flour, resin)


POC     *rakit join along the length, raft

Motu rai-aprepare a canoe for the sea; tie the outrigger on; tie two canoes to make an irai (double-hulled canoe)

Note:   Also Ivatan daakit (length unexpl.) ‘raft’, Maloh daʔit, dahit ‘raft’. With root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’.


*dákit ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.)


PPh     *dákit ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.)

Itawis mad-dákitto cross (river, street, etc.)
  ma-dákitto be able to cross (river, street, etc.)
Ifugaw dákitto cross a river
  dakít-anplace where a large river can be crossed
Bikol mag-dákitto ford or cross a stream
  dakít-anto move to a different house


*dakuC snatch, grab


PAN     *dakuC snatch, grab

Paiwan djakutsgrab, take in hand (noncylindrical objects)
Pangasinan dakóthandful; to take a handful
Tagalog dakóta handful, a graspful
Chamorro hakotsnatch, grab
Tetun rakutpull, grab, snatch away

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *Dakut ‘handful, scoop up’. Normally *d, *D, and *k became h in Chamorro.The retention of *k as a stop in this form is unexplained.


*dalág mudfish, murrel


PPh     *dalág mudfish, murrel

Ilokano dalágkind of freshwater mudfish, called borikikkik when very small, or borikaw when small, Ophiocephalus striatus
  dal-daláglizard fish of the Synodontidae family
Isneg dalágkind of freshwater mudfish
Bontok dalágkind of freshwater fish
Pangasinan dalágmudfish
Tagalog dalágmudfish
  dalág dágatsergeant fish
Hanunóo dalága species of mudfish (Opiocephalus striatus Bloch)
Cebuano dalágsnakehead, edible freshwater fish: Ophiocephalus spp. (also called haluan)
  dalág tásikfish similar to the snakehead but found in the sea

Note:   Also Itbayaten dalag ‘mudfish’, Hanunóo darág ‘mudfish sp. (Opiocephalus striatus Bloch)’, Mapun dalag ‘mudfish’. The Itbayaten and Mapun words almost certainly are loans from Tagalog or some other Central Philippine language.


*dalágan rushing of water; rapids, cascade


PPh     *dalágan rushing of water; rapids, cascade

Ilokano daláganrapids, cascade
Bikol daláganto run, dash, scamper, scurry; gallop, jog, lope, trot
  pa-dalagán-onto propel forward; to run a business; to manage, operate, supervise
Hiligaynon daláganrun, dash, dart, scamper
Cebuano daláganfor a person to run; for a machine to run, function; speed, velocity; circulation


*dalak thunder


PWMP     *dalak thunder     [disjunct: *delek]

Subanun (Sindangan) dɨ-dalakthunder
Maloh dalakthunder


*dálaw pay a visit, drop by to see someone


PPh     *dálaw pay a visit, drop by to see someone

Casiguran Dumagat dálawto visit
Pangasinan dálawto pay a visit
Kapampangan dálovisitor, especially an unexpected visitor
  d<um>áloto pay a visit
Tagalog dálawvisitor, guest; a visit
  pag-dálawa visit, a call
  dalaw-into visit someone
  d<um>álawto visit, to call; drop in, pay a visit
Bikol mag-dálawto visit

Note:   Given its fairly tight geographical clustering this comparison may be a product of borrowing from Tagalog


*dalayap kind of citrus tree and fruit


PAN     *dalayap kind of citrus tree and fruit

Paiwan djalayapCitrus depressa (tree and fruit)
Ilokano daláyapshrub with lemonlike fruits, Citrus lima, used in native medicine to cure fever
Isneg daláyapa variety of lemon, Citrus lima
Ifugaw daláyaplemon
Pangasinan dalayáplime (fruit or tree)
Ayta Abellan dalayapsour citrus fruit
Tagalog dáyaplime tree, also known as bilulo, the fruit of which makes pleasant ale: Citrus aurantifolia

Note:   Also Hanunóo dáyap ‘a lemon tree (probably Citrus aurantifolia) and its edible fruit; the leaves are boiled and the resultant decoction is drunk for sore throat’. While Tagalog dáyap is a possible reflex of *dalayap, Hanunóo dáyap is not, and it remains unclear whether this is a loanword from Tagalog, or whether disyllabic reflexes of this form point point to a PPh doublet *dáyap.


*daldál talkative, loquacious


PPh     *daldál talkative, loquacious

Ilokano daldáltalking idly; gossipmonger; speaking with the mouth full
  daldal-énsubject of useless talk
Casiguran Dumagat dáldaltalkative, bragging, gossiper (in an obnoxious way)
  ma-dáldalbe a loudmouth
Pangasinan dáldaltalkative (also, derogatory term for Chinese)
Tagalog daldálgossip; gossiping; jabber; chattering; loquacious, talkative
  ka-daldál-ancompanion in gossiping
  ka-daldal-ánhabit of gossiping
  daldál-anexchange of gossip
  daldal-ánto gossip to someone (emphasis on person to whom gossip is relayed)
Bikol ma-daldáltalkative; vocal
  mag-daldálto gossip; to talk a lot
  maki-daldálto gossip with, talk a lot to
Agutaynen i-daldalto talk nonstop about something; to gab about something
Hiligaynon d<um>áldalto backbite, to spread false malicious talk, to talk against
Cebuano daldálreveal a secret in idle gossip


*dalej housefly


PWMP     *dalej housefly     [doublet: *lalej]

Berawan (Long Terawan) dilənhousefly
Simalur daloghousefly


*dalem in, inside; deep


PAN     *dalem in, inside; deep

Favorlang/Babuza lalluminside


PMP     *dalem insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.)

Yami rahemdeep
  ma-rahemvery deep
  ka-rahem-andeep place
Ilokano dálemliver
Itawis a-dálamdeep
Bontok dáləminside, of a container; underneath, when something is resting on top, as a knife beneath a basket
Kankanaey a-dáemdeep, profound
Ifugaw dalómunder, beneath; deep, low
  a-dálomdeep (depth of a river, pond, or lake)
  ad-dalómbeneath, at the bottom (of a container); at the underworld
  mun-dalómthe unwoven ‘lowest’ part of the warp (in loom weaving)
Ifugaw (Batad) dālomthe lower belly of an animal, person; the lower flank cut, of a butchered animal
Ibaloy nay-daemthe area inside, esp. inside a house
Pangasinan daléminside (a pile, etc.); depth
  a-ralémdeep; become deep
Tagalog lálimdepth; drop; a distance down
  ka-lálim-anprofundity, depth
  l<um>álimto deepen, become deeper
Bikol ha-ráromdeep, profound
  mag-ráromto grow deeper
Masbatenyo ha-dalómas a cough that is deep inside; deaf
  hi-dalómdeep (this has both a literal and a figurative meaning); deep part
Abaknon lalomdeep
Aklanon dáeomto get deep(er)
Hiligaynon mag-dálumto deepen, become deep
Cebuano dálumbeneath, below (a house, etc.)
Binukid dalemto deepen, as of water
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dalemto deepen, as of water
Mansaka darumspace below and around a house; yard; down; below
Tiruray dalemthe insides, the middle; any plant seed that develops inside some covering of plant tissue; (taboo) the clitoris
Mapun lawomdepth (as of the tide); deep (of thinking, common sense, wisdom, speech, understanding, etc.); late into the night; serious, of a sickness
Yakan lalemdeep (of a hold or body of water, also figuratively of thinking, speaking or wisdom)
Dumpas a-lalomdeep
Tombonuwo o-lalomdeep
Ida'an Begak dallomdeep
Bisaya (Lotud) a-ralomdeep
Bisaya (Limbang) lalomdeep
  si-alomin, inside
Bisaya sa laləmin, inside
Lun Dayeh dalemdepth; within
  ŋe-dalemto deepen (as knowledge)
Kelabit dalemdeep
  ŋe-dalemto deepen
Sa'ban beləmdeep
Kenyah (Long Anap) daləmdeep
  kaʔ daləmin, inside
Kayan dalemdeep; thoughtful, peaceful; understanding; intelligent, wise, sensible
Bintulu daləmdeep
Melanau (Mukah) daləmdepth, as of water
Ngaju Dayak han-dalemdeep (water, river); hole in wood, wound; jealous
  kan-dalemthe depths, profundity
  man-dalemto deepen, make deeper, as by letting water into a flooded area
Malagasy lálinadeep, profound
  man-dalinato deepen, make deep, aggravate guilt
  lalin-tsainadeep, profound, sagacious, shrewd, sensible (saina = ‘the mind’)
Iban dalamdeep (as water); sensible, judicious, thoughtful; in, into, inside, referring to house, heart (usually alam); however (much)
  ŋe-nalamto deepen, make deeper
Tsat la:n⁴²inside, in
Roglai (Northern) dalapin, inside
Malay dalampalace, prince’s home; inside, inner, used as a locative (di dalam ‘in’, dari dalam ‘from within’); inner, as the inner part or central room of a house; depth; deep, profound
Talaud raḷummadeep
Toba Batak di dalom lautpregnant (an allusion, lit. ‘in the sea’)
  dalom-an(of cattle) have a stillbirth
Sundanese dalemtitle and dwelling of a regent
  di dalemin; within a certain time period
  pa-dalem-andwelling of a prince, palace
Old Javanese daleminner part, interior; inner part of the kraton (palace)
Javanese daleminside of, within; the inner rooms of a house; house, home; walled-in residence compound of an aristocratic family
  (a)dalem kame; my (also a response when called)
  pa-dalem-ana building lot
Balinese dalemdeep, as the sea; the deep (sea); respect, regard; king
  dalem-aŋbe made deep
Sasak dalemdepth, innermost part; deep, within
  be-dalemgo inside
  pe-dalemto deepen, make something deeper
Tonsea lalembelow
Lolak si-dalomliver
Mongondow ko-daḷomdepths
  poko-daḷom-onmake it deep!
Totoli dei lalominside
Uma ralainside, inside part
  hi ralain, inside, within
Bare'e rayainternal part, interior
  ri rayain, within
  raya banuathe interior of a house
  tasi rayainner sea, small, partly enclosed gulf or bay
  raya ntaua person’s inner self; mind, heart, thinking, opinion, emotions
  kodi rayaoffended, aggrieved
  majaʔa rayaangry
  masusa rayabeset with thoughts, worried, concerened
  mawoŋko rayahappy
Tae' man-dalandeep
Mandar lalaŋinside; at
Makassarese lalaŋin, inside, inmost
Muna laloheart; seat of emotions (many idioms relating to feelings are formed with this word); wish, desire
  so lalo(according to) one’s inner conviction
  lalo mpoolihealthy
  po-lalowin someone’s heart, try to become favorite
  si-laloof one heart, in harmony, united
Popalia laro <Min, inside
Chamorro halomin, into, inside; enter
  san-halominside, interior; internal; in, into
Hawu ɗarain, within (both spatial and temporal)
Rotinese dale(k)inside, within; insides of something (particularly a person); heart, the inner person
Atoni t-nananinside; between
Tetun (Dili) laranin, inside
Erai ralanin, within, inside; heart; contents, usually postposed
Tugun oi-ralaninside
East Damar ralma-liver
Leti rarmathe interior, what is inside; fig. heart, feelings; in, inside
  ai rarmeheartwood
  raram-riarmawill, desire
Wetan ralmainside (a house, etc.) interior; heart, feelings
  ralam-(with various qualifying words) to like, love, be in love, long for, pity; worry, be worried, depressed; angry, embittered; sick
Selaru ralainside; inner feelings; heart
Yamdena dalaminside; contents; in
  dalam loloisad, sorrowful
  dalam mabuwehumble, lowly
  dalam mefanashot-tempered
  dalam ŋamoneopen-handed, generous
  dalam yatakmiserly, stingy
Nuaulu anoinside
Alune laleheart, inner part; contents
Asilulu lale-interior; one’s emotions
Boano₂ laleinside
Minyaifuin i-laloin, inside


POC     *ralom insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings

Numbami laloinside; mind, intelligence, understanding
Motu lalothe inside; the mind
  lalo-ato think; to remember
  lalo-anipersuasion (lit. ‘eating of the mind’)
Takuu lalobelow, underneath, down
Luangiua lalobelow, under
Nggela lalodeep, as the sea; profound, as a remark
Lau lalocenter, middle, as of a garden; inner room, yard, enclosed space; between two things, not one or the other (as between black and white)
  lalo-ito pity
  lalo-nacentral, inner
Sa'a laloinside, within; middle
Arosi rarothe inside, inner part; the feelings, heart, mind, disposition; in, within
Proto-Micronesian *laloinside
Gilbertese nanothe interior, the inside; contents; soul, conscience, heart, will, desire, sentiment, opinion, conviction, disposition, inclination, etc. (many derivatives relating to character, feelings, etc.)
  nano-nanodeep, abstract, sublime, unfathomable, hard to understand
  nano-ato think about, keep in mind, be preoccupied with, be busy about
  nano-aŋacompassion, pity, sympathy; to sympathize
  nano-raupeace, tranquillity of soul, peace of mind
Pohnpeian loaldeep
  loal-einside (him, her, it)
  loal-eidmiss a person or place, be homesick
  loal-ekeŋintelligent, smart
  loal-lapdaring, reckless, bold, adventurous
Chuukese nónu-deep; under or below the surface; interior (in compounds only)
Woleaian laldeep; deep place; inside, mind, heart
  lalo i laŋiworried, frightened, insecure
Tongan laloplace or space below or lower down; lower
  lalo-ʔakau-abe subject to, habitually give way to, defer to or be under the influence or control of (lit. ‘under the tree’?)
Niue lalobelow, under; the bottom; the west
  lalo laŋithe earth, world (lit. ‘beneath the sky’)
  lalo taŋatathe common people
Futunan lalothe bottom, area beneath
Samoan lalodown; under, below, beneath
  faʔa-laloto cook, roast (in a stone oven)
  lalo laŋiearth, world; region, area; human race, mankind
Tuvaluan lalounder; below; the bottom
  ki lalodownwards, to the bottom
  mau-lalodeep (of water or holes); high (of cliffs, trees, etc., when speaker is at the top); low
  faka-mau-lalohumble; humility
  lalo laŋithe earth
Nukuoro lalodown; under
  lalo de laŋibeyond the horizon, far away from the atoll
Rennellese gagobelow, under, underneath, alongside; bottom; west, western; to go down or westward; below in rank
Anuta rarodown (direction); below (place); west
Rarotongan rarobeneath, under, below; down; the under or lower part or portion; west, westward, towards sunset, to leeward
Maori rarothe bottom, the under side; down, downwards, down below; beneath, under, the underworld; the north, north wind
Hawaiian lalodown, downward, low, lower, under, beneath; depths, lowness; leeward, southern
  ko laloof or belonging to below; the people from below


PMP     *i dalem below, beneath; inside

Ibaloy i-daemto put something inside, into the interior (as inside a house or car)
Tagalog i-lálimbottom; space just below a surface (not necessarily the bottom space)
  ka-i-lálim-anthe very bottom; uttermost depth; the lowest point
  maŋ-i-lálimto be present underneath; to be underlying; to be deep-seated
Bikol i-ráromunderneath, under, below, beneath; on the bottom, underlying
  mag-i-ráromto place beneath
Masbatenyo i-dalóminterior; beneath (the skin, etc.); deep inside
Aklanon i-dáeombelow, bottom, underneath
Makassarese i-lalaŋin, inside; at, upon, by
  tu-ma-i-lalaŋtitle of the highest official in the pre-Islamic Kingdom of Goa


POC     *i rarom below, beneath; inside

Lau i lalowithin
Sa'a i laloin the middle of
Chuukese i-nónunderwater
Hawaiian i lalobelow, underneath


PAN     *ma-dalem deep

Favorlang/Babuza mo-lallumin; deep
Tagalog ma-lálimdeep, as a river; deep, meaning hard to understand; profound
Bikol ha-ráromdeep, profound
  mag-ráromto grow deeper
Aklanon ma-dáeomdeep
Hiligaynon ma-dálumdeep
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-zalemdeep
Lun Dayeh me-dalemdeep
Mongondow mo-dalomdeep
Totoli ma-lalomdeep


POC     *ma-ralom deep

Hawaiian ma-lalobelow, underneath


PWMP     *pa-dalem make something deep, deepen

Bikol pa-rarom-onto deepen
Mapun pa-lawommake something deep


PWMP     *dalem-en put something into a container

Bontok dalm-ənto put underneath, as a basket; to bury, of weeds
Mapun lawom-unput something into one’s mouth


PMP     *dalem qatay hold within (of emotions, thoughts)?

Malay dalam hatito oneself, secretly or silently (lit. ‘in one’s heart/liver’)


POC     *ralom qate (gloss uncertain)

Nukuoro lalo adesolar plexus (considered the seat of feeling); ade = ‘liver’

Note:   Also Taokas yarum ‘inside’, Pazeh karum ‘inside of the house’, Tausug karajum ‘deep (of the ocean)’, Kayan alem ‘deep’, Kayan (Uma Juman) haləm, Murik tələm, Miri aləm ‘in, inside’, Mota roro ‘sink down, be low, be deep’. Tagalog dalamhátiʔ ‘affliction; grief; extreme sorrow; wrench, pain’, ipag-dalamhátiʔ ‘to mourn; to feel or show sorrow over’ is a transparent borrowing of an idiomatic expression from Malagasy attesting to the considerable influence that Malay was beginning to have in the region of Manila Bay in the period immediately preceding the arrival of the Spanish.

This is an extremely rich comparison in terms of the many directions that the primary sense has taken in various daughter languages. The basic meaning of PMP *dalem appears to have been ‘insides, area within, inner part of something’. From this sense it originally had or developed a secondary sense of ‘inner self, feelings, disposition’, an association that is strikingly exhibited by Ilokano dálem or Mongondow si-daḷom ‘liver’ (the seat of the emotions in traditional Austronesian-speaking societies), and that becomes increasingly more prominent in the glosses of compounds in southern Sulawesi, eastern Indonesia, Melanesia and Micronesia (but not in Polynesia).

A second meaning of this term that is found throughout the language family is ‘deep’, both in a physical sense (deep water, deep pit), and in the abstract sense of ‘profound, as an idea’. Through the latter nuance it has developed into the verb ‘to think, to remember’ in languages such as Motu. Finally, preceded by the generic locative marker *i the expression *i dalem meant ‘in, inside, within’. For a possible explanation of the connection between the notions ‘inside’ and ‘below’ cf. Blust (1997).


*dalig buttress root


PPh     *dalig buttress root     [doublet: *dalij, *daliŋ]

Kapampangan dalígwall, partition
Maranao daliglarge root, buttress
Manobo (Tigwa) daligroot
Sangir daligəbuttress root and the groove between buttress roots that project above ground

Note:   Simalur dalig ‘buttress root’ could also be assigned to *dalig, thus raising the level of this reconstruction from PPh to PWMP. However, since Simalur –g can reflect either *g or *j this form has been assigned to the more robustly attested variant.


*dalih to assume, act on a supposition, be the reason for an action, escuse for something


PWMP     *dalih to assume, act on a supposition, be the reason for an action, escuse for something

Casiguran Dumagat dahíl <Mbecause of, in view of
Tagalog dáhil <Mcause of action, reason or motive for action; justification, excuse; point, reason; the why
Aklanon dáhil <Mbecause
Malay dalehsubterfuge; equivocation
Old Javanese d<um>alih <Mto believe (think) something to be, take for, guess; to presume (without foundation), suspect, accuse


PWMP     *dalih-an reason, pretext, excuse for doing something

Casiguran Dumagat dahil-anreason, because, cause
  dahi-dahil-anto make excuses
Tagalog dahil-áncause of action, reason or motive for action; justification, excuse; point, reason; the why
Aklanon ka-dahil-án-anreason, cause
Toba Batak si-dali-anpretext, pretense, excuse
Old Javanese dalih-anpretext, idea, secret (unavowed) motive (purpose, intention)
Balinese da-dalih-anopinion (expressed or thought), accusation

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) proposed a variant of this comparison, to which he added Tagalog uráliɁ ‘incitement or instigation through artifice, intrigue or deception’.


*dalij buttress root


PMP     *dalij buttress root     [doublet: *dalig, *daliŋ]

Hanunóo dalídtree buttress
Cebuano dalídlarge root which is flat and projects above the ground
Binukid dalidlarge root which projects above the ground
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dalidroot of a tree or plant; figuratively, the supporter of a datu’ or a person’s source of livelihood, such as his field, his garden, his pigs, etc.
Mansaka daridmain root
Tiruray darira root or rootlet; to produce roots
Klata dolidroot
Kalagan dalidroot
Yakan dalilbuttress root
Tboli dolilroot of a tree, problem; to take root, of plants
Blaan (Koronadal) dalilroot
Kadazan Dusun dahidbuttress root
Bukat la:litroot
Simalur daligbuttress root
Nias lalibuttress root
Dampelas rariroot
Uma raliʔroot
Bare'e lari <Mplank-shaped roots of large trees
Palauan ráysroot
  ris-elit’s root
Chamorro haleʔroot (of a plant); source, origin
Tetun lalira wart-like protuberance growing on the trunks of some trees
Kowiai/Koiwai rarinroot
Numfor rarəstree root


POC     *ralic buttress root

Nggela lalibuttress root
Kwaio lalibig tree root
  lali-naroot; base, origin
Lau laliroot, small roots
Toqabaqita laliroot
Arosi rariroot; shin
Bauro raributtress root
Rotuman rɔriprojecting portion of tree trunk, as of the ‘ifi (Tahitian Chestnut) tree

Note:   Also Tolai lalit ‘the space between the buttresses of a tree’. This form is intriguing, as it suggests that some instances of PMP *d in word-final position devoiced in POc before the change *d > r in all positions.


*dalikan trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed


PMP     *dalikan trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed

Itbayaten dalikanpart of clay stove
Ilokano dalikánhearth. Any kind, but more especially a portable earthen contrivance, more or less in the shape of a cradle, with a flat bottom and three hornlike projections ... at one end, upon which are placed the jars used in cooking
Bontok dalikána fire-place having three equidistant stones for supporting a pot
Kankanaey dalikánhearth. Pots and jars are placed on three stones; there is no chimney
Ifugaw dalikántrivet for cooking pot
Pangasinan dalikanstove (trivet)
Karo Batak dalikanthe (five) stones in the hearth which form the two trivets
Toba Batak dalihanthe three hearth-stones on which the pot is placed when cooking
Proto-Sangiric *dalikanfire-place, hearth
Wolio dalikahearth-stone, trivet
Chamorro halihanstone -- used for forming a fireplace for cooking; fireplace
  halihanstone used for forming a fireplace for cooking; fireplace
Tetun laliʔanfireplace
  fatuk laliʔanthe stones of the fireplace

Note:   Also Ifugaw dalik ‘trivet for cooking pot’, Chamorro alihan, haliʔan, NESAS (Teeuw 1958:127, 170) jalik, Bimanese riha, Manggarai likaŋ ‘trivet’. Verheijen (1967-70), Verheijen (1977a:36) points out the essential evidence on which this reconstruction rests, though he does not reconstruct a protoform himself. His suggestion that the word originally contained a suffix *-an may have been inspired by Costenoble (1940:61), who proposed a reconstruction *dalik, but without the benefit of supporting data. Mills (1981:69), on the other hand, suggests an etymon "Proto-Indonesian" *likAn ‘hearth’. Until further evidence of morphological complexity is forthcoming, it appears best to reconstruct a trisyllable.


*daliŋ buttress root


PWMP     *daliŋ buttress root     [doublet: *dalig, *dalij]

Tausug daliŋflange; buttress of a tree; comb (of a cock)
Karo Batak daliŋbuttress root
Dairi-Pakpak Batak daliŋbuttress root
Toba Batak daliŋbuttress root

Note:   Since Karo Batak daliŋ could reflect either *dalij or *daliŋ, and the former variant is far more robustly attested, the first choice would be to assign the Karo Batak form to *dalij. However, this leads to the rather improbable conclusion that Toba Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak daliŋ are loanwords from Karo Batak. Since Tausug and Taje (Tanampedagi) daliŋ require the reconstruction of a doublet with final velar nasal in any case the simplest hypothesis appears to be that all of the Batak forms reflect this third variant.


*dalíq quick, do quickly; do in a short time


PPh     *dalíq quick, do quickly; do in a short time

Pangasinan dalíhurriedly
Ayta Abellan dalifor someone to wait a moment; hurry, to do in a short time limit
Tagalog dalíʔquickness; promptness; ease; facility
  dali-ánto make or do something faster; to speed up something
Bikol ma-dalíʔhurriedly, quickly, rapidly, in a rush; terse
  mag-dalíʔto hasten, quicken (as the pace of something)
  pa-dalíʔabruptly, at once, suddenly, unexpectedly, without warning
Hanunóo dalíʔhaste, speed; hasten (toward something)
Agutaynen daliksudden; unplanned
  dalik-ento startle someone by not giving prior notice about something
Cebuano dáliʔeasy; quick, immediate; be in a hurry; do something quickly or hastily
Subanon daliʔfast, quick
Mongondow mao-daliʔ-daliʔquick, hasty; unexpected, sudden

Note:   Thanks to David Zorc for suggestions which led to an improvement in this comparison.


*dalis smooth, slippery


PAN     *ma-dalis smooth, slippery     [doublet: *dulas 'slip, slide']    [disjunct: *dalit₂]

Saaroa ma-salisismooth


POC     *maralis slippery

Manam ma-lazi <Mslippery
Bugotu ma-dalislippery
Nggela ma-ndalislippery
Sa'a ma-daligreasy, slippery
Arosi ma-dariwet and slippery, as rocks

Note:   Also Palu'e sali ‘smooth’.


*dalísay pure, high quality


PPh     *dalísay pure, high quality

Pangasinan dalísaypure, unadulterated
Tagalog dalísaypure; unadulterated; not mixed with other things
Bikol dalísayhigh quality gold
Aklanon dalísaypure, genuine; saturated through and through; strong (flavor)
Cebuano dalísaypure and unmixed, esp. coconut juice; for emotions to be pure

Note:   Also Ilokano darísay ‘beauty, excellence’, na-darísay ‘excellent, superior’, darisáy-en ‘a black and white cock’. Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*dalit₁ glue, paste, plaster, caulk


PMP     *dalit₁ glue, paste, plaster, caulk

Ayta Abellan dalitto stick to
Sundanese dalitunited, closely connected; confidential, intimate
Javanese dalita patched place, esp. in earthenware; to patch
Balinese dalitglue, paste, plaster, caulking
Manggarai dalitto plaster or stick on, lay one on another; thin outer casting
Sika dakit-dalitstick together

Note:   Also Manggarai salit ‘to smear on, as medicine’. With root *-lit₁ ‘caulk; glue’. For the semantic connection of Sundanese dalit to the other forms, see *buket.


*dalit₂ smooth, slippery


PMP     *dalit₂ smooth, slippery     [disjunct: *dalis]

Dairi-Pakpak Batak dalitsmooth, slippery


PMP     *ma-dalit smooth, slippery

Kayupulau me-daricslippery
Yotefa me-daricslippery


*dalit₃ venom, poison


PPh     *dalit₃ venom, poison

Hanunóo dálitvenom; arrow poison
Aklanon dálitvenom, poison
  dalit-anvenomous, poisonous
Agutaynen dalitvenom
  ma-dalitvenomous, poisonous
Palawan Batak dalítpoison used for blowpipe dart
Central Tagbanwa dalitvenom

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.


*dalu₁ a flying white ant or termite


PMP     *dalu₁ a flying white ant or termite

Hanunóo dal-dálua queen termite, a fat “flying ant,” particularly numerous in July; the Hanunóo use queen termites for bait and also eat them with relish after they are fried; they have a fatty taste
Malay de-daluflying white ant
Balinese da-dalua flying white ant
Bimanese (afi) ndarufirefly

Note:   Also Manggarai salo ‘lamp fly, firefly’, Ngadha salu ~ halu ‘termite, flying ant’. Since the general word for ‘termite’ in PMP was *anay, this base apparently referred only to flying termites/white ants, and perhaps only to the queen. A lexical distinction between termite as a general term and flying termite is maintained in some modern languages, as Malay, and Tae' of central Sulawesi, and so evidently continues a similar distinction in PMP. The available lexical resources for Bimanese leave much to be desired, but since the word (afi) ndaru ‘firefly’ optionally incorporates the word for ‘fire’ (afi) it appears possible or even likely that ndaru itself refers to some other type of flying insect. First recognized by Verheijen (1967).


*dalu₂ jealousy; anger; a quarrel


PWMP     *dalu₂ jealousy; anger; a quarrel

Tiruray dalewjealousy
Kelabit daluha fight, quarrel
  kə-daluha fight, quarrel
  pə-daluhto fight, quarrel with one another
Kiput dalawanger, angry; jealous, jealousy
  kə-daluhto be the object of someone’s anger or jealousy
  ŋə-dalawto be angry at or jealous of someone
Bintulu daləwa quarrel
  bə-daləwto quarrel
Melanau (Mukah) daləwa quarrel, altercation
  pə-daləwto quarrel
  d<ən>aləwto be on bad terms


*dalukap palm of the hand, sole of the foot


PPh     *dalukap palm of the hand, sole of the foot

Ibaloy shalokapsole of the foot
Ayta Abellan daokappalm of hand, sole of foot
Hanunóo dalúkappalm of the hand

Note:   PMP *palaj ‘palm of the hand’ was retained in PPh, raising questions about how these two terms differed in meaning.


*dalupániq kind of freshwater fish


PPh     *dalupániq kind of freshwater fish

Casiguran Dumagat dalupánea species of freshwater fish
Tagalog dalupániʔfish sp.: wily slipmouth
Bikol dalupániʔfish sp.: Leiognathus insigniator


*dalúpaŋ kind of shrub


PPh     *dalúpaŋ kind of shrub

Ilokano dalúpaŋkind of shrub with yellow flowers: Thespesia lampas
Tagalog dalúpaŋa shrub, the fibers of which are used in the manufacture of coffee sacks, cordage or strong paper
Bikol dalúpaŋshrub with pink flowers and sweet smelling fruit, producing fibers useful in making sacking or paper: Urena lobata
Cebuano dalúpaŋa shrub, the leaves of which are used topically for rashes and stomach ailments: Urena lobata
Mansaka daropaŋkind of medicinal plant

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*dalús clearing in forest


PPh     *dalús clearing in forest

Ilokano dalúsclean space; clearing (of a forest); completed work
  i-dalústo finish; complete; finalize
  dalus-anto clean, cleanse, make way
Palawan Batak dalúsclearing


*damaR₁ tree resin used in torches (?)


PAN     *damaR₁ tree resin used in torches (?)

Kavalan zamaRfire
Siraya (Gravius) rämäxlight
Proto-Siraya *damaγlight
Maranao ramagshine, lustre
Tiruray damarto work after dark, either in the dark or by some light
Malagasy ramia tree from which oozes gamboge [a gum resin], also called rami; it is burned sometimes by the Betsileo during the ceremony of Salamanga, and it is also used by them to anoint their idols
Iban damarresin, trade name for a natural exudation from trees (mostly of Dipterocarp spp., esp. Shorea spp.)
Malay damarresin or gum exuded by certain trees, notably of the genera Shorea and Hopea; resinous torch; resinous tree
Karo Batak damartree resin; resinous torch
Toba Batak damartree resin; resinous torch


POC     *ramaR light, luminosity

Proto-Micronesian *ramalight, luminous
Chuukese sa-ram ~ sa-ramaramlight; bright, full of light, lit up, illuminated
Puluwat ha-ŕamlight, daylight; to be light
Woleaian te-ram(a)light; to be lighted, brightened
Fijian rā-ramalight, as opposed to darkness
Tongan amato fish at night by the light of a torch
Niue amato fish for crabs, etc. with a torch
Samoan lamatree (Aleurites sp.), the candle-nut tree; the oil has many uses and the nuts are purgative; dried candle-nut kernel (a number of them may be threaded together on a stick to make a primitive torch); torch; method of fishing by torchlight
Tuvaluan lamatorch of two or three coconut leaves bound together, used in reef-fishing
  la-lamago torch fishing for flying fish beyond the reef in canoe
Kapingamarangi lamatorch; dry coconut leaves
Nukuoro lamaa dry coconut leaf
Rennellese gamalong torch made of dried coconut leaves
  gama meakind of tree (Aglaia sapindina) with inedible berries; its light-weight pink wood, split and dried, is used for torches, mallets, and formerly for handles of tattooing needles
Rarotongan ramaa torch of any kind; to catch fish by torchlight
Maori ramatorch or other artificial light; catch eels, etc. by torchlight
Hawaiian lamatorch, light, lamp
  lama-lamatorch fishing; torch; to go torch fishing


POC     *ma-ramaR to shine; shining, bright

Nggela ma-ramato shine, shining; bright
Proto-Micronesian *ma-ramamoon; bright, luminous
Marshallese me-rambright; light; flash; glow; illuminate; luminous
Chuukese ma-rammoon, month
Puluwat ma-ŕammonth, moon
Woleaian me-ram(a)moon, month
Tongan ma-lamato shine, to give light, or send out light
Futunan ma-lamatorch
  mā-lamaclear, transparent
Samoan ma-lama(of the dawn, day) break
  mā-lamadawn; twilight
  faʔa-mālamalamalight up; explain, clarify
Tuvaluan ma-lamalight (not dark); becoma light
  faka-malamamake clear (of glass or mirror); window
  faka-maalamalamaexplain; translate
Kapingamarangi ma-lamamoon, month; lantern
Nukuoro ma-lamamonth, moon
Rennellese ma-gamagamato be fairly light, as at twilight
Anuta maa-ramathe light part of the day; daylight; light, bright; intelligent
Rarotongan ma-ramamoon, month
  mā-ramalight, daylight; that which shines or is brilliant; light, bright, clear, as to sight, sound or hearing; transparent, as of water; easy to understand; to understand, comprehend; to have intellectual faculties
Maori ma-ramalight, not dark; clear, of sight or sound; transparent; easy to understand, plain
  whaka-ma-ramamake light, illuminate; explain
  mā-rama-ramasomewhat light
Hawaiian ma-lamalight, month, moon
  mā-lama-lamalight of knowledge, clarity of thinking or explanation, enlightenment, shining...

Note:   Also Kavalan Ramaz ‘fire; to cook rice’, Binukid lamʔag ‘full (moon)’, Ida'an Begak damar ‘resinous wood’ (< Malay), Ngaju Dayak damar ‘trees that yield a resin used in torches’ (< Banjarese Malay, the native term being ñatiŋ), Fijian rāma ‘to enlighten, cast light on, chiefly of the blaze of a fire’. This etymology has always been somewhat problematic. Very few reflexes are found in island Southeast Asia, and some of these are likely Malay loanwords. Oceanic reflexes are somewhat better supported, but it is not entirely clear that they are related to those further west.


*damaR₂ to stay up all night, continue until daybreak


PPh     *damaR₂ to stay up all night, continue until daybreak

Casiguran Dumagat damagto be up and awake all night (as at a drinking party)
Agutaynen damalday; morning
  mag-damalfor an event or activity to continue all night long, until daybreak
Tiruray damarto work after dark, either in the dark, or by some light

Note:   Also Ilokano ag-dámay ‘to stay up all night to watch over the newly dead’.


*damay peace, empathy, harmony between parties


PWMP     *damay peace, empathy, harmony between parties

Pangasinan dámayempathize, share in trouble, etc.
Ayta Abellan damaysympathy, help (as an ally)
  d<om>amayto sympathize with, to help (as an ally)
Kapampangan dámeinvolve oneself, sympathize
Tagalog dámaysympathetic aid; helping sympathetically
  d<um>ámayto sympathize; to show compassion for
Bikol mag-dámayto share in one another’s feelings; to understand one another
  mag-damáy-anto offer support to, lend a hand to
Hanunóo dámaysympathy
  damáy-anbe sympathized with
Malay damaypeace-making, settlement of a dispute
Gayō damepeace, peaceful
Toba Batak damepeace, peaceful
Proto-Sangiric *damaypeace
Sangir damepeace
Mongondow moyo-dameto re-establish ties of friendship, make peace with one another


*damdam fever, illness


PWMP     *damdam fever, illness

Tagalog ka-ramdam-andisorder, illness, ailment
Maranao dandamfear
Iban dadamvery cold, be cold and shivery
  demam dadampuerperal fever
Tugun pa-putiwhite

Note:   Also Mapun dandam ‘a longing for someone’ (< Malay), Tausug damdam ‘longing, yearning’ (< Malay), Bintulu mə-rarəm ‘to shiver’, Malay dendam ‘yearning; longing; feeling of love or spite’.


*damít cloth, clothing


PPh     *damít cloth, clothing

Casiguran Dumagat dámitcloth, clothing; to wear clothing
Tagalog damítgarment; dress; clothes; to wear clothing
Hanunóo ramítskirt, usually of indigo-dyed homespun cotton; the typical lower garment worn by all Hanunóo women
Mansaka damitclothes


(Formosan only)

*damuq₁ menstrual blood?


PAN     *damuq₁ menstrual blood?

Kavalan zamumenstruation
  m-zamuto menstruate
Saisiyat ramoblood
Atayal (Squliq) ramoʔblood
Pazeh damublood
Paiwan djamuqblood

Note:   Also Puyuma damuk ‘blood’, Paiwan djaq ‘menstrual blood’, ma-djaq ‘menstruate’. This comparison presents an apparent contradiction, since it is in competition with *daRaq ‘blood’, a form that is widely attested in both Formosan and Malayo-Polynesian languages. The simplest explanation would appear to be that *daRaq was found in PAn in the meaning ‘blood’, and that *damuq is a later innovation spread by borrowing among Formosan languages. However, with the possible exception of Puyuma damuk, which may be an irregularly transmitted loanword from Paiwan, reflexes of *damuq show a geographical distribution within Taiwan that cannot easily be explained by borrowing. To reconcile these problems I propose that both words occurred in PAn, but with different meanings: *daRaq ‘blood’, *damuq ‘menstrual blood’. If this solution is correct Paiwan shows a reversal of meaning, reflecting *damuq in the meaning ‘blood’, and *daRaq in the meaning ‘menstrual blood’.


*damuq₂ dew


PAN     *damuq₂ dew

Thao samuqdew
Bunun damuqdew

Note:   Although this word has so far been found nowhere else, and Thao is known to have borrowed heavily from Bunun (Blust 1996), this Thao word shows a distinctively native reflex of the initial consonant, and is therefore assumed to be part of the native vocabulary.


*dámut selfish, unkind


PWMP     *dámut selfish, unkind

Sambal (Botolan) mag-dámotto be selfish
Tagalog ma-rámotmean; stingy
  ka-ramút-anstinginess; meanness
Bikol dámotreferring to the accumulation of many things
  mag-dámot-dámotto save, accumulate, amass
Hanunóo dámutselfishness; unkindness
  ma-dámutmean, unkind; selfish


*damwa forehead


POC     *damwa forehead

Seimat kawã-forehead
Wuvulu xawaforehead
Kove ramo-forehead
Wogeo damwaforehead
Manam damwaforehead
Gedaged damo-nforehead
Mbula ndomoforehead
Gitua damoforehead
Sudest amwaforehead
Proto-Micronesian *camwaforehad, brow
Pohnpeian tahmwforehead
Mokilese soamwforehead


*dana old, of things


PWMP     *dana old, of things

Agta (Central Cagayan) danʌold (persons)
Melanau (Mukah) danaold, of things

Note:   Cf. PAn *ma-tuqaS ‘old, of persons’. This comparsion may be a product of chance.


*danáq₁ beaten track, footprints making a trail


PPh     *danáq₁ beaten track, footprints making a trail

Ilokano danátrail, path (beaten by the feet); track
Bikol danáʔa trail or pathway formed by people or animals continually passing over the same place
  maka-danáʔto form a trail in this way
Binukid danaʔfootprints, tracks; to make footprints or tracks onsomething
Tboli danaʔa pressure mark, imprint; to imprint, make a mark on


*danáq₂ that, those


PPh     *danáq₂ that, those

Bontok danathese (combined form of da na)
Kankanaey danáthese
Aklanon danáʔthat


*danaw lake


PAN     *danaw lake     [doublet: *banaw]

Puyuma danawhole filled with water (which will evaporate)
Paiwan (Western) djanawlake without outlets; estuary
Itbayaten ranawsea lagoon
Ilokano dánawlake, pond
Tagalog dánawlagoon; pond
Bikol dánawlake; lagoon
Hanunóo dánawlake, pond
Aklanon danáwlake, pond
Waray-Waray danáwlake; lagoon
Cebuano dánawpool of water
  mag-dánawform a pool in, flood
Maranao ranawlake
Binukid danawlake
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ranewlake; of a supernatural, to flood an area turning it into a lake as a punishment for misbehavior
Mansaka danawlake
Tiruray ranawlake
Kalagan danawlake
Mapun danawlake
Tboli lanawlake
Kadazan Dusun danawpaddyfield, wet ricefield
Ida'an Begak danowlake
Narum daniəwlake
Dali' danawlake
Murik lanodirty
Kayan danawmud, muddy
Kayan (Uma Juman) danomuddy water or soft muddy area in the jungle
Kiput danaawlake
Melanau (Mukah) danawlake
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) danawlake
Ngaju Dayak danawlake (must be at least 500 feet long; smaller ones are talaga)
  dana-danawlike a lake, entirely covered with water (as a field, etc.)
Lawangan danolake
Ma'anyan danawlake
Malagasy ranuwater
Iban danawlake, natural pond, shallow pool, land flooded permanently or for long periods at regular intervals
Malay danawlake; sheet of enclosed water
Toba Batak danolarger lake; pond (larger than ambar)
Rejang daneuwlake
Lampung danawlake
Sundanese danonatural lake, pool, puddle
Sangir danolake; puddle, pool
Tonsea danolake
Mongondow danowlake; the large lake between Bolaang Mongondow and Minahasa
Balaesang ranolake
Ampibabo-Lauje lanolake
Uma ranolake
Bare'e ranolake, for example the large lake from which the Poso (river) arises
  mo-ranoform a puddle (as rainwater)
  wiwi ndanolake shore, edge of a lake
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ranolake
Mori Atas ranolake
Bungku ranolake
Koroni ranolake
Wolio ranolake, large swamp
Bimanese ndanolake
Manggarai sanolake Rana-Mésé (proper name)
Rembong ranalake
Rotinese danolake, pool


POC     *rano lake

Rotuman ranoswamp, marsh, low-lying ground that is often swampy
Wayan dranoa large body of fresh water lying inland, a lake or pond
Fijian dranoa lake or piece of fresh water inland
Tongan anomarsh, swamp, large pool, lake
  ta-anoto be more or less flooded, to have pools of water in or on it; sheet of water, large pool
Samoan lanolake
Rennellese ganolake; fetal water
  Te ganoeastern district of Re and village (lit. ‘The Lake’)

Note:   Also Ilokano danʔáw ‘lake, pond’, Tagalog lánaw ‘pool, small lake; lagoon’, Aklanon baeanáw ‘puddle (of water)’, Kadazan Dusun anaw ‘paddyfield, wet ricefield’, Balinese danu, Manggarai rana ‘lake’.

Although PAn *danaw apparently meant ‘lake’, the exact meaning of this term would have depended upon the region of Taiwan that was occupied while Proto-Austronesian remained a single language, since lakes are found in some parts of the island but not in others. The wide but rather scattered distribution of reflexes elsewhere can probably be attributed to the absence of lakes or significant large bodies of fresh water in many of the environments in which Austronesian speakers settled after leaving Taiwan. In some areas a reflex of *danaw came to apply to lagoons (salt water), ponds (permanent but small collections of fresh water), or just puddles (temporary collections of fresh water after rain).

In parts of interior Borneo, where rivers are of major importance but lakes are virtually nonexistent, reflexes of this term were retained but shifted in meaning to refer to muddy areas where rainwater tended to collect but not cover the ground for long; this tendency was carried furthest in Murik where from ‘muddy area, mudpatch’ the meaning developed to ‘muddy’ (still attested in the closely-related Kayan), and then to ‘dirty’. In other areas where lakes occur, but are rare a reflex of *danaw came to refer to a particular lake, and so was preserved only in proper names, as in Mongondow and Manggarai.

The most puzzling distribution is seen in the Oceanic group, where no reflex has been identified so far except in the Central Pacific languages (Rotuman, Fijian, Polynesian), which implies that prior to reaching western Polynesia Austronesian speakers were either in continuous contact with bodies of fresh water that were designated by a reflex of POc *rano, or that they moved through areas that lacked lakes so rapidly that the term was retained in the absence of a referent until arriving in a new environment in which lakes were again encountered.

With root *-naw ‘enclosed body of water’.


*danug to punch, hit with the fist


PPh     *danug to punch, hit with the fist

Ilokano dánogfist; a blow with the fist
  ma-dánogto be hit with a fist; suffer a blow
  danúg-ento cuff; box with the fist
Mansaka danogto strike with the hand


*daNi soon, presently; almost


PAN     *daNi soon, presently; almost

Paiwan djalʸiwill soon (do something)
Ilokano dan-daníalmost, nearly; a little short of
  um-a-danito approach in time; come soon
Binukid ma-danisoon; almost


*daNum fresh water


PAN     *daNum fresh water

Basai nanomwater
Trobiawan zanumwater
Kavalan zanumwater
Saisiyat ralomwater
Papora domwater
Pazeh dalumwater
  dalum-anpond; well water
Amis nanomwater
Favorlang/Babuza dalomwater
Thao sazumwater
  min-sazumdissolve, melt
  mu-sazumenter the water, immerse oneself
Bunun danumwater
Hoanya zazum ~ salumwater
Tsou chumuwater
Kanakanabu canúmuwater
Saaroa salhumuwater
Siraya salomwater
Puyuma nanumwater (ritual term). Only used by male practitioners, as bru is used by female shamans (cf.ənay ‘water’)
Paiwan zalʸumwater


PMP     *danum fresh water

Yami ranomwater
Itbayaten ranomwater
Ilokano danúmwater; pus
Ibanag danumwater
Agta (Dupaningan) dinómwater
Isneg danúmwater; sap, liquid
Itawis danúmwater
  ma-danúmto flood
Bontok danúmwater; juice; sap; suppuration; fluid
Kankanaey danúmwater; liquid; sap, juice
Ifugaw danúmwater; also applied to whatever is watery, juicy, succulent
Ifugaw (Batad) danúma liquid, such as broth, juice of fruits and plant stalks, milk, rice beer, tree sap, water, wine
  d<um>anumto urinate (used euphemistically)
Casiguran Dumagat dinomwater, river, stream
Ibaloy shanomwater; river or other body of water (as dam reservoir); juice (as of fruit); pus, or serious drainage from a wound or sore
  ma-renomhaving abundant water, liquid; (of fruit, etc.) juicy; (of mother’s milk) abundant
Pangasinan danúmwater; become wet, watery
Sambal (Botolan) lánumwater
Ayta Abellan lanomwater; to water
Kapampangan danúmwater
  danúm-anocean, body of water
Hanunóo danúmwater; juice, as of fruits
Molbog danumwater
Bulungan danumwater
Bukat danumwater
Bekatan danumwater
Lahanan danumwater
Seru danomwater
Kanowit danomwater
Dohoi danumwater
Ngaju Dayak danumwater; juice (of fruits, sugarcane, etc.)
  ha-danumfull of water (as a field or boat); juicy (of fruits)
Lawangan danumwater
Taboyan danumwater
Maloh danumwater
Palauan ralmfresh water
  bə-rálmwatery; flat-tasting (e.g. not sweet or salty enough)
  om-rálmrinse clothes
Chamorro hanomwater, liquid


POC     *ranum fresh water

Nauna cɨnfresh water
  canu-n mattears (water-of eye)
Penchal tɨnfresh water
Loniu ʔanfresh water
Nali dranfresh water
Leipon dranfresh water
Lele d̃anfresh water; river
Bipi xanfresh water
Seimat kanfresh water
Wuvulu xanufresh water
Aua ranufresh water
Yapese raenwater, juice
Nalik danimfresh water; river
Mendak ndanfresh water
Tanga daanwater
Arop nanwater
Biliau ranwater
Lakalai la-lalufresh water; stream; river; coconut shell water jug
Sobei raniwater
Tarpia danwater
Kairiru rryanwater, drink
  niu rryancoconut milk (= water)
Kis danwater
Wogeo danfresh water
Manam daŋfresh water
Keapara nanuwater
Hula nanuwater
Motu ranuwater; juice; liquid
  ranu seiato bail out water, to pour water
Gilbertese ranfresh water, liquid, juice, sap, milk
  ae ranranwatery, liquid, juicy
Marshallese dānwater; liquid; beverage; fluid; juice; sap of coconut tree
  dān-dānwatery, slimy
Chuukese chaanliquid, juice; fresh water
  chénún maastears
Puluwat raan, liquid of any kind, pond
Woleaian shal(iu)liquid, fresh water, water-well, lake
Ulithian caluwater source
Wusi-Mana čanufresh water
Wusi-Valui tranufresh water
Namakir na-ranfresh water
Wayan dranufresh, pure (not salty)
  wai dranufresh water (contrast wai taci)
  vaka-dranuwash oneself in fresh water after being in the sea
  dranu-dranube fresh, pure (as water that is not salty); (of food) tasteless, unsalted, unseasoned
Fijian dranufresh, of water, not salt; to wash in fresh water after having bathed in salt
  vei dranu-mithe place where the tide meets the fresh water of a river
Tongan na-ranfresh water
  lanuto wash or rinse in fresh water (of something that has been in salt water); to wash oneself with fresh water after a sea bath
Futunan lanurinse off with fresh water; give a bath in a basin (of a baby)
  faka-lanurinse off with fresh water
Samoan lanuwash salt off in fresh water; liquor amnii, amniotic fluid
Tuvaluan faka-lanubathe in fresh water after a swim
Rennellese ganuto be full of liquid, as the stomach; to be rich and oily, as with coconut oil; to be saturated; to rise, as tide
  haka-ganuto fill with liquid
  ganum-iato be full of liquid; to be quenched, as thirst, or satisfied with food
Rarotongan lanuthe liquor amnii, amniotic fluid
Maori ranugravy, juice of anything cooked


PWMP     *ma-nanum pour water on

Ifugaw (Batad) ma-nanumfor someone to water something, such as cooking food, plants, a pond field
Ngaju Dayak ma-nanumfill with water, pour water


PAN     *pa-daNum to irrigate

Paiwan pa-zalʸumto irrigate


PMP     *pa-danum to irrigate

Ilokano pa-danúmirrrigation
Pangasinan pa-ranúmirrigation system
Kapampangan pa-ranumditch or inlet that directs water to the seed-bed


PAN     *pu-daNum to water, irrigate

Kavalan pu-zanumto water, as vegetables, to put in water
Thao pu-sazumto water, irrigate
Paiwan pu-zalʸumto put water in or on


PAN     *danum-an (gloss uncertain)

Pazeh dalum-anpond, well water
Itbayaten ranom-anto apply, add water
Ilokano danum-anto add water to
Casiguran Dumagat dinum-anto pour water into; wet, watery
Ibaloy shenom-anto add water to something (as cooking pot, rice field)

Note:   Also Tunjung anum ‘water’. This is one of the rare widely-distributed forms in AN languages that is absent from Dempwolff (1934-1938), since it does not appear in any of the three languages used for his ‘inductive reconstruction of Proto-Indonesian’ (1934), namely, Tagalog, Toba Batak and Javanese, and is found in only one of the eight languages used to test his reconstruction deductively, namely Ngaju Dayak. Nonetheless, throughout the AN language family outside of Taiwan *danum and *wahiR are in competition for the meaning ‘fresh water’. PMP *wahiR appears to have meant ‘stream, river’ (and the fresh water in it), while *danum referred only to the water itself.

Reflexes of PMP *danum have a peculiar distribution: they are common in Taiwan and the northern Philippines, but were replaced by other terms throughout the central and southern Philippines, and throughout all of Indonesia apart from the Barito Basin in southeast Borneo. In the Pacific they have a rather scattered distribution, being absent from Vanuatu except for two very small areas in west Santo and the Shepherd Islands. Finally, although most languages reflect only one or the other of these two terms both are found in the Admiralty Islands, where one is the common word for ‘fresh water’ in one language, and the other the semantic equivalent in a closely related language. In Fiji and Polynesia both occur in the same languages, but with different meanings (PPn *wai ‘fresh water’ : (*faka-)ranu ‘rinse with fresh water after bathing in the sea’), and in Wayan of western Fiji they co-occur in a single expression (wai dranu ‘fresh water’, as opp. wai tasi ‘salt water’).


*daŋanan handle of a knife or sword


PWMP     *daŋanan handle of a knife or sword

Maranao daŋananceremonial sword hilt
Tiruray daŋananhandle of a kris
Malay deŋananhilt of a weapon (said to be from Balinese)
Old Javanese daŋananhilt of a kris
Javanese daŋananhandle (of knife, broom, etc.)
Balinese daŋananhilt of a kris

Note:   The Philippine forms may be loans from western Indonesia. However, Malay (the usual source of western Indonesian loans in Philippine languages) is not a likely source language.


*daŋaq wide open


PWMP     *daŋaq wide open

Malagasy dana-danawide open (door, box, etc.)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak da-l-ŋahwide open (as the mouth)

Note:   With root *-ŋaq ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*daŋaw handspan


PPh     *daŋaw handspan     [doublet: *zaŋan]

Hanunóo dáŋawa unit of linear measurement, equal to the span between the extended thumb and middle finger
Aklanon dáŋawhandsbreadth (unit of measurement about 8 inches long)
Agutaynen daŋawa measurement, the breadth of one hand span
Palawan Batak dáŋawspan, eight inches
Cebuano dáŋawthe distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the middle finger extended
  dáŋaw-dáŋawinchworm, caterpillar that moves by lifting the center of its body about 2 inches
Maranao raŋawmeasure by using stretched thumb and finger as measuring tool; measuring worm, caterpillar
Subanon daŋowhandspan
Proto-Sangiric *daŋawspan (of hand)
Proto-East Gorontalic *yaŋohandspan

Note:   The semantic distinction between PMP *zaŋan₁ ‘handspan’ (which has reflexes in several Philippine languages) and the present comparison is unclear.


*daŋdaŋ broil; warm oneself or something near a fire


PAN     *daŋdaŋ₁ broil; warm oneself or something near a fire

Kavalan zazaŋto broil; to dry clothing by a fire
Pazeh dadaŋwarm (body); broil
Thao sansanto warm, to heat
  pa-sansanto roast; to heat by direct exposure to a fire
Puyuma ɖaŋɖaŋhot; warm (from sun, fire); dry in the sun or by the fire


PMP     *daŋdaŋ₁ warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire     [doublet: *gaŋgaŋ]

Yami daŋdaŋget warm
  manaŋdaŋget warm near the fire
Ilokano dadáŋwarmth of a fire; warming by a fire
Agta (Dupaningan) daŋdáŋ-anput a pot next to the fire to keep food warm
Isneg daŋdáŋto warm at a fire, to place near the fire
Itawis mad-dadáŋto warm
Bontok ʔi-daŋdáŋto place close to a fire (as clothes to dry)
  d<um>aŋdáŋto radiate heat
Kankanaey i-daŋdáŋto heat; to warm, putting it close to the fire
Ifugaw dadáŋwhat is burnt, i.e., food that has been fried or boiled over the fire until it is black
  daŋdáŋact of removing the cooking pot with boiled rice from the dalikán (trivet), and depositing it on the ashes of the hearth more or less near the fire, so that the boiled rice will be somewhat dry before it is served
Ibaloy shaŋshaŋact of warming oneself by a fire
  menaŋshaŋto warm oneself by a fire
Pangasinan dáŋdaŋheat; to heat
Tagalog daŋdáŋ ~ dandáŋwarming, heating or toasting by exposing to fire or glowing coals
  daráŋexposing something to the heat of flames or glowing coals
Bikol daŋdáŋgo near a fire to warm up, dry off
Hanunóo daŋdáŋroasting directly on coals, as of bananas
Aklanon dáŋdaŋwarm up, put near the fire, heat up
Waray-Waray daŋdáŋthe act of drying up or heating something before the fire; a direct exposure to fire; singe
Cebuano daŋdáŋheat something slightly near fire or under the sun
Binukid dadaŋ ~ daraŋto heat, dry out something slightly near a fire; put something over the coals to dry or heat
Mansaka daŋdaŋto warm over the fire (as cold hands); to dry over fire
Tausug daŋdaŋto broil or roast something (as fish) on the embers, as meat or fish
Kadazan Dusun dadaŋput something near a fire for drying; heat from a fire or rays
Eastern Kadazan dadaŋ-onto broil
Ida'an Begak daraŋto warm the body
Lun Dayeh dadaŋwarmth, heat from a fire
Kelabit dadaŋheat from a fire; be exposed to heat (as a person sitting near a fire)
Malay dandaŋlarge copper vessel for steaming rice
Toba Batak dadaŋto shine (of sun); expose to heat; put in the sun or fire to dry
Balinese daŋdaŋcopper pot, kettle
Sasak daŋdaŋpot for steaming rice
Tontemboan raraŋto dry; to roast fish
  mə-raraŋwarm oneself by a fire
Tae' raraŋbake, roast over a fire, esp. meat; do something quickly, in the blink of an eye (as in retrieving something that is roasting over a fire so that it doesn’t burn)
Makassarese raraŋradiation (of sunlight)
  aʔ-raraŋto shine, of the sun; warm oneself by a fire or in the sun
Muna dadano longer fresh, wither (of leaves, skin); cook vegetables in water
Yamdena n-dadanstay by a fire; warm oneself by a fire
Fordata n-raranstay by a fire
Bali (Uneapa) raraŋaburned skin
Lakalai lalato hold over a fire, to wilt
Manam raráŋto warm many things
  ráraŋ-ito warm something (food)
Molima lalato wilt leaves over a fire
Bugotu raraŋ-eto warm oneself at a fire
Kwaio lalalight, illuminate, warm
  alu lalaput by the fire to warm
Lau rarato shine; to be hot, warm
'Āre'āre rarato be warm, hot, of sun; fade, wither, dry up
Sa'a rara ~ raa-rarabe in the sunlight, be hot, pungent; be zealous over, be jealous over
  rara meaadminister a public rebuke (lit. ‘burn the tongue’)
Arosi rarato shrivel up, as leaves; to be hot
Marshallese rarto bleach pandanus leaves over a fire, to dry leaves by fire
Chuukese rarbe warm
Mota rarato dry before a fire
Avava rarhot
Rotuman rarato warm by the fire (oneself, a child); to fumigate; to toast or roast before an open fire; of leaves, etc., to place on the fire for a few seconds
Wayan rarabe heated, warmed; be baked hot, glowing hot (of pots being fired); be smoke, as fish
  rara-ni ~ rara-vito warm or heat something; what is warmed; wither something, dry something up, as vegetation
Fijian rarato warm oneself at a fire; of a pain, to smart slightly
  (vaka)-raraŋ-ato warm food again by placing it near a fire; to sear up banana leaves around food
  vei-rara-yakiof two persons, each lying on one side of a fire
  i raraa fire at which one warms oneself; fireplace, hearth
Tongan āto heat (sticks or leaves) over a fire in order to make them limp or soft
Futunan lalato smoke fish
Samoan lala-ŋiplace leaves (esp. banana or breadfruit leaves) on hot stones to make them more supple, and therefore easier to use as wrapping material; to boil
Tuvaluan lalaapply heat to a stick to straighten it
  lala-lalawarm leaves at a fire so they can be used as wrappings
  faka-lalaboiled pulaka (swamp taro) mashed with lolo (coconut cream)
Kapingamarangi lalato heat up
Nukuoro lalato roast
Rennellese gagato smoke, as fish on a fire; to warm, as hands on a fire
Anuta rararoast something on a spit over an open fire (only birds are prepared this way on Anuta)
Hawaiian hoʔo-lalato warm, as over a fire; warm oneself by a fire; bask in the sun; cook over a fire


PPh     *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ expose to the heat of a fire or the sun

Ilokano i-dadáŋto heat, warm at a fire
Tagalog i-daráŋexpose something to live coals or open fire in order to heat or dry
Cebuano i-daŋdáŋleave something in the sun to heat it


PWMP     *maŋ-daŋdaŋ expose to the heat of a fire or the sun

Itbayaten ma-naŋdaŋput something near the fire so that it will get heated; to post oneself near the fire
Pangasinan man-dáŋdaŋto heat
Lun Dayeh nadaŋwarm something near a fire
Kelabit nadaŋto heat
Toba Batak man-dadaŋto shine, radiate, expose to the heat of the sun or a fire


PPh     *maR-daŋdaŋ expose to fire

Ilokano ag-dadáŋgo near a fire, go near the heat
Tagalog mag-daráŋexpose something (as banana leaves) to an open fire in order to heat or dry it; to roast, make hot, singe, parch
Bikol mag-daŋdáŋto reheat; place something near the fire to warm, not putting it into the flames
Hanunóo mag-daŋdáŋroast something directly on coals
Tausug mag-daŋdaŋbroil or roast something on the embers (as meat or fish)


PWMP     *d<in>aŋdaŋ (what) was warmed by a fire

Ilokano in-dadáŋre-warmed (food)
Lun Dayeh d<in>adaŋput near a fire to warm
Kelabit s<in>adaŋwas heated by someone
Tontemboan ni-raraŋ ~ r<in>araŋwhat is roasted (already taken from the fire)


PAN     *daŋdaŋ-an place something near a fire

Puyuma ɖaŋɖaŋ-anWarm it! Dry it by the fire!
Isneg daŋdáŋ-anto warm at a fire, to place near the fire
Tagalog daraŋ-án ~ daráŋ-anlive coals or open fire used for heating or drying something


PWMP     *daŋdaŋ-en to be dried near a fire or by the sun

Itbayaten raŋdaŋ-enexpose to fire or live embers to dry, to expose to heat
Tagalog daraŋ-ínbe exposed to live coals or open fire in order to heat or dry
Bikol daŋdaŋ-ónbe reheated, be placed near a fire to warm up
Tausug daŋdaŋ-unbe broiled or roasted on the embers
Kadazan Dusun dadaŋ-onto be dried near a fire or by the sun
Lun Dayeh dədaŋ-ənsomething will be put by a fire to warm it
Tontemboan raraŋ-əndry something by a fire (imper.); grill for roasting flesh

Note:   Also Kambera dàdaluŋu ‘stay by a fire; bring into contact with a fire, set on fire’.


*daŋi near


PCEMP     *daŋi near     [doublet: *qadani]

Buruese raŋi-nnear


POC     *raŋi near

Mussau kala-ka-laŋi-nanear
Lau ga-raŋinear
Arosi ga-raŋinear

Note:   The POc form may have been *garaŋi.


*daŋkaq branch


PMP     *daŋkaq branch     [disjunct: *daŋkeq]

Dairi-Pakpak Batak daŋkahbranch of a tree
Toba Batak daŋkabranch of a tree
Ngadha dakabranch of a tree


*daŋkeq branch, twig


PMP     *daŋkeq branch, twig     [disjunct: *daŋkaq]

Toba Batak daŋkabranch of a tree
Motu rakotwig


*daŋuy to swim


PWMP     *daŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy]

Manobo (Sarangani) daŋoyto swim
Piching Land Dayak bi-doŋoito swim


*dapa palm of the hand


PAN     *dapa palm of the hand

Atayal rapaʔpalm of the hand
Ifugaw dapáto touch with the palm of one’s hand, to grope in order to find something when it is dark, or to find one’s way when traveling at night without a torch
Cebuano lapalapasole, bottom surface of the foot
Sasak dampapalm, sole

Note:   Thanks to Laurent Sagart for noting the Atayal member of this comparison.


*da(m)paD flat, level


PMP     *da(m)paD flat, level     [disjunct: *da(m)aR, *da(m)pat]

Ilokano dápatplain, level land
Cebuano lapadflat, level surface
Malay (Jakarta) damparlevel, flat, even
Buruese rapa-tflat

Note:   Also Bikol lápat ‘flat (having a flat surface)’.


*dapak marine fish, probably snapper sp.


PPh     *dapak marine fish, probably snapper sp.

Casiguran Dumagat dapákspecies of ocean fish
Agutaynen dapaka type of yellowish-brown, wide-bodied fish, caught with hook and line
Cebuano dápakfish similar to a spotted snapper in shape, but much smaller
Mapun dapaka red snappeer fish


*dapal width of the palm (?)


PWMP     *dapal width of the palm (?)

Hanunóo dápala unit of linear measurement, equal to the width of the four fingers of one hand when placed together and parallel to each other
Cebuano dápalmeasurement equal to the width of the palm with the fingers outstretched and together reckoned from the middle of the thumb to the base of the little finger
Sundanese dampalpalm of the hand; flat part of the sole of the foot

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*dapaN sole of the foot; footprint


PAN     *dapaN sole of the foot; footprint     [doublet: *da(m)pa]

Kavalan zapanleg and foot
  qi-zapantrail; follow the footprints of an animal
  qna-zpan-anfootprints, tracks
Saisiyat (Tungho) rapalfoot
Atayal (Squliq) rapalsole of the foot; footprint
Pazeh da-dapalsole of the foot
Thao sapazsole of the foot; footprint
Puyuma dapalfoot
Paiwan djapalʸthigh (person); hind leg (animal)


PMP     *dapan sole of the foot

Yami rapanbottom of the foot; keel of a boat
Itbayaten rapan no limapalm of the hand
Ilokano dapánsole of the foot
Agta (Eastern) dapánsole of the foot
Isneg dapānsole of the foot
Bontok dapánsole of the foot
Kankanaey dapánsole of the foot
  d<um>apányoung girl, little girl; young man, little boy
  d<um>a-dapánshallow, not deep
Ifugaw dapánsole, the under surface of a foot
  dapan-ónput one’s foot on something
Yogad dapansole of the foot
Pangasinan dapánsole of the foot
Bikol dapánsole of the foot

Note:   Also Seediq dapil ‘impression, imprint (especially a footprint on the ground, or mark of the hand on some object), Pazeh (Kahabu) sa-sapiɬ ‘footprint; shoes’.


*dapaR flat, level, even


PMP     *dapaR flat, level, even

Ilokano dapága plain; flat
  pag-dapag-ento flatten
Ngaju Dayak dampahflat, level (of roofs)
Malay damparlevel, flat, even


POC     *rapaR flat, level, even

Tongan lafa-lafaflat (not curved or bulging)
Niue lafa-lafalevel, flat-topped

Note:   Also Ifugaw daŋpál ‘flat; applied to certain noses’, Javanese ḍampar ‘low table (usually round) where people sit cross-legged to eat, play cards, etc.’ (< Malay). Dempwolff (1938) included Tagalog lapág ‘the space below; the floor level; the ground level’, but this is doubtful.


*dápat₁ to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely


PPh     *dápat₁ to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely     [doublet: *dapet]

Bontok dápatto be beside someone; to sleep with someone; to sit beside someone; the person beside whom one sleeps, sits, etc.
Kankanaey men-dápatto copulate
Ifugaw dápatto lay things side by side; to lie side by side
Ifugaw (Batad) dāpatfor three or more animals, people to be lying side by side, as in sleeping; of pigs, trussed and waiting to be sacrificed
Hanunóo dápatthe quality of being well joined, closeness of fit
Cebuano dápatbring something into contact with something else; administer medicine; lay hands on one, hit; use in building something; money spent on


*dápat₂ to treat with medicine


PPh     *dápat₂ to treat with medicine

Casiguran Dumagat dapatto treat with medicine
Cebuano dápatto administer medicine


*dapat₃ to lie flat; flat area


PPh     *dapat₃ to lie flat; flat area

Ilokano dápatplain, flat land
Agutaynen d<om>apatfor something to lie flat, smooth, without sticking up all over; for something to settle down flat


*dapat₄ should, ought to


PPh     *dapat₄ should, ought to

Casiguran Dumagat dápatought, should
Tagalog dápatshould; ought to; had better; must
Bikol dápatmust, ought to, should; to be obliged to, required to; it is necessary or essential that
Agutaynen dapatshould do something; should be a certain way; supposed to do

Note:   Also Malay dapat ‘able to’.


*dapdáp cut chips or bits from something, scrape off


PPh     *dapdáp cut chips or bits from something, scrape off

Bontok dapdápto chip, as wood or clay; to shape wood with short sharp blows of a bladed instrument; to remove hard caked soil with a sharp digging movement, each blow leaving a ‘cockle’ pattern
Kankanaey dapdáp-anto cut away chips of, to cut off small parts of, to lop, to clean, to smooth (wood)
Ibaloy shapshapwork of cleaning, chopping irregularities off wood or sod; also the wood chips resulting from such work
Sambal (Botolan) dapdápwood chips
Binukid dapdapto cut, slice off the kernels from (an ear of mature corn)


*dapdap₁ a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica


PMP     *dapdap₁ a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica     [doublet: *depdep]

Itbayaten rapdap ~ raprapa tree: Erythrina indica
Casiguran Dumagat dipdipa tree: Erythrina variegata L. (Madulid 2001)
Kapampangan dapdapbalete (banyan) tree, home of diwataʔ (spirits)
Tagalog dapdápIndian coral tree
Bikol dapdáptree with red, pea-shaped flowers growing in dense clusters, possessing long pods, smooth, gray bark, and young branches with prickles; wood used in fencing and for boundary posts: the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica
Hanunóo dapdápa species of tree: Erythrina variegata Linn.
Masbatenyo dápdapbeautiful red-flowering deciduous tree that loses all its leaves, then bursts forth in deep red flowers: the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica
Aklanon dápdapkind of tree
Cebuano dapdápsmall tree of the seashore, widely planted as an ornamental for its numerous bright red flowers, Erythrina variegata
Ngaju Dayak dadaptree of middling size with beautiful red blossoms; cuttings placed in the earth grow easily and quickly; commonly planted around springs, etc. to prevent erosion of the banks
Karo Batak n-dapdapa tree with red blossoms, Erythrina variegata L. (Fam. Leguminosae)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak en-dapdapkind of shade tree known for its connection with the cultivation of coffee: Erythrina indica
Toba Batak dapdapa fast-growing tree with spongy wood and gorgeous red blossoms
Old Javanese ḍaḍapa tree, Erythrina indica
Javanese ḍaḍapa certain shade tree planted by coffee bushes
Balinese ḍapḍapa species of shade tree
Sasak dadapa species of shade tree
Tontemboan raʔdapa tree, Erythrina indica
Tae' raʔdaʔlow-growing Indian coral tree, perhaps Erythrina microcarpa
Makassarese pokoʔ raʔraʔa tree, Erythrina indica
  buŋa raʔraʔred flower of the Indian coral tree
Palauan róroIndian coral tree: Erythrina variegata L.


POC     *rarap a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica

Nggela raraspecies of tree, Erythrina, red flowers
Lau raraspecies of tree with scarlet leaves, Erythrina fasca
Sa'a rarathe coral tree, Erythrina indica
  i Melutei rara‘In the shade of the coral tree’, name of a village on Uki
Arosi raraa species of tree with red flowers, Erythrina indica
Wayan rarathe coral tree, Erythrina spp. (Leguminosae); deciduous tree found mostly near coast; twigs and branchlets are prickly, flowers red; the juice of the bark is used to dilute bitter-tasting wiriwiri bark juice in medicine to treat infection (thrush) of the tongue
Fijian raraa flowering tree, Erythrina variegata, var. orientalis, Leguminosae

Note:   Also Ilokano bagbág ‘kind of tree with red flowers and leaves used to cure headaches, Erythrina indica’, Ifugaw gabgáb ‘a kind of tree bearing thorns; its fruits are reddish; it merely serves as fuel’ (Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) in Madulid 2001:253), Tagalog karapdáp ‘Indian coral tree’, Balinese ḍabḍab ‘a species of shade tree’, Tae' raʔdeʔ ‘low-growing Indian coral tree with thorny stem and branches, and red blossoms; it grows near river banks and is used as a hedge in planting a field; perhaps Erythrina microcarpa’.


*dapdap₂ to grope


PWMP     *dapdap₂ to grope     [doublet: *gapgap, *kapkap]

Ilokano dapádapto feel (touching)
  apag-dapádapslight touch with the hand
Toba Batak man-dadapto touch, feel, grope
  dadap-dadapto grope with the hands, of the blind

Note:   This form is irregular in both Ilokano and Toba Batak, where recurrent change would lead us to expect **dapdap in both languages. However, the agreement appears too close and specific to be due to chance, and clearly patterns with the better-supported *gapgap and *kapkap ‘to grope’.


*dap(e)lis to graze, brush against, strike at an angle


PPh     *dap(e)lis to graze, brush against, strike at an angle

Ilokano daplísslight touch
  daplis-ánto slightly touch someone
Pangasinan daplísmiss, failure to hit target, etc.
Tagalog daplíshitting on a tangent; just missing; grazing; glancing off
Aklanon dáplisgrazed, scratched, having an abrasion, slightly cut
Tausug mag-daplisfor something to scrape, scratch, or graze something else in passing

Note:   Also Agutaynen daplis ‘to glance off something, to “miss the mark.” Phonological irregularities show that Agutaynen daplis is a loan, and this comparison as a whole may be a product of borrowing from Tagalog.


*dapet to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely


PMP     *dapet to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely     [doublet: *dápat₁]

Ilokano dapétto grapple, seize one another; marry (regional)
Bontok dapətto place objects side by side, so that they are touching; to have the edges of two objects together; to meet
  ʔi-dapə́tto place objects side by side, so that they are touching; to have the edges of two objects together
Tagalog lapítnearness, contiguity; proximity; closeness
  ka-lapítperson or place nearby, neighbor; nearby, neighboring
  l<um>apítto approach; to draw near; to come close
Tiruray dafetto share a single blanket
  dafetto share a single blanket
Kadazan Dusun dampotto reach
Malay (Jakarta) dapetto be up against, to touch
Old Javanese ḍapətbeing close together, closely joined
  a-ḍapətclosely joined, compact, thick (darkness)
  rapət(pressed) close together, tight, closed tight
  aŋ-rapətto take up positions (closely) side by side
Javanese rapettightly closed up (as a corked bottle); placed closely together (bricks, boards, woven strips, etc.); closed tightly; keep a secret well
Tontemboan rapetattached together, like the toes of birds with paddle-feet
Mongondow dapotcome to or toward; arrive, reach; be fulfilled; bring in contact with, or bump against something; go toward a goal, to lay or set something on something else
Tae' dapeʔto reach, be able to touch
Buginese rapeʔtightly bound
Makassarese rapaʔtightly spaced (as plaiting); joined closely or tightly; bound closely to something; close to the ground
Palauan ráudclosing
  mə-ráudto close (a fishnet)
Bimanese rapuclosely spaced; nearby; jammed fast between two objects
Manggarai rapetclose together, closely spaced
Rembong rapetpinched between two objects
Ngadha rapécover a roof
Lamaholot dapeʔalmost in contact; bump up against

Note:   Also Hiligaynon dapít ‘near’, Ngaju Dayak rantep ‘close together’, rapet ‘be up against one another, stick together’, Iban rapat ‘close set, without space between’, Malay rapat ‘contact; contiguity’, Minangkabau me-rapat ‘to come together; to meet, of the village-elders meeting at the balai’, Balinese rapet ‘be close, be very near, stick together; close (a wound)’, Tae' dappiʔ ‘close by’.


*da(m)pil nudge, bump against another person


PWMP     *da(m)pil nudge, bump against another person

Casiguran Dumagat dapilrun into someone, bump into someone while walking
Malay dampiltouching one another -- of contact in contrast to mere proximity
  ber-dampil-dampilcrowding up against one another

Note:   Perhaps also Old Javanese aṇḍampil, though the available texts leave the meaning unclear.


*dapílus skidding, stumbling, losing balance


PPh     *dapílus skidding, stumbling, losing balance

Ilokano dapíloscrumbling; limping; sagging; disabled
  dapilús-ento cause to collapse
Tagalog dapílosskidding, stumbling
Aklanon dápeosto slide down (as down the railing of a stairway); to slip down (unable to take hold)
Cebuano dapílusslide straight downward


PPh     *ma-dapílus skidding, stumbling, losing balance

Ilokano ma-dapílusto collapse (due to weakness or flimsiness)
Tagalog má-dapilosto skid or stumble accidentally

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano, although the semantics are sufficiently different to bring this interpretation into question.


*dapit transport someone across a river (?)


PWMP     *dapit transport someone across a river (?)

Pangasinan dapítin the direction of, towards (the east, etc.)
Tagalog dapíta solemn religious ceremony in which a dead body is conducted from the house to the church by a priest and acolytes
Bikol mag-dápitto escort the dead (priests)
  dapít-onto escort the dead (priests)
Aklanon dápitto ferry across
  d<ae>apit-ánferry landing
  dapítsituated, located
Waray-Waray dapítin the direction of; towards; near; at the side of; place
Agutaynen dapitto accompany a procession to, from church for a funeral, wedding, baptism, etc.
Hiligaynon dapítnear
Cebuano dápitattract someone or something to go somewhere (as in using a light at night to attract fish); attract notice, attention; divert water somewhere; place; position, relative standing; direction, vicinity of
  pa-dápitput something at some place
Maranao rapitfetch a person; transport
Binukid dapitside; direction; vicinity
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dapitside; direction
Mansaka dapítto go get
Tausug dapit(pertaining to direction) at the side of
  mag-dapitto side with or favor someone
  hukuman dapitone-sided judgment
Kadazan Dusun dapitto cross
  ka-dapitcan land, cross
  d<um>apitto land
  dopit-onplace where one crosses, docks
Murut (Timugon) maki-rapitask someone to accompany one to his destination
  rapit-insomeone who accompanies one to his destination
Kenyah dapitreach, extend
Kayan dapitto reach the other side; to go to; to draw alongside of; to come to understand; to have enough rice
Mongondow dapitferry across a river (with boat or raft, also by crocodile)

Note:   Based on agreements between languages reaching from the central Philippines to central Borneo and northern Sulawesi, the original meaning of this term appears to have been ‘to cross to the other side of a river’ (not by fording, but by raft or boat). The notion of accompaniment also seems to be central to this process, hence the semantic inference that *dapit meant something like ‘to ferry across’. In several Philippine languages this earlier sense has been reinterpreted in the Christian context as describing the role of a priest in ‘ferrying’ the deceased from the place of death to the place of worship (from this world to the next). Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian bāravi ‘the seashore or coast’ in a more limited form of this comparison, but it now seems best to abondon this connection and restrict the cognate set to languages in the Philippines and western Indonesia.


*dapít place, location, direction


PWMP     *dapít place, location, direction

Pangasinan dapítin the direction of, towards (the east, etc.)
Ayta Abellan dapítpart, place, side, direction
Aklanon dápitsituated, located
Hiligaynon dapítnear
Cebuano dápitplace; relative position; direction, vicinity of
Binukid dapitside: direction, vicinity
Tausug dapit(pertaining to direction) at the side of
Kayan dapitto reach the other side; to go to, draw alongside of


*dapu be attracted to, swarm around, as ants do on finding food


PPh     *dapu be attracted to, swarm around, as ants do on finding food

Pangasinan on-dápolanding place; to alight, drop onto
Ayta Abellan dapoto surround and attack, like flies or gnats surrounding and attacking
Agutaynen dapoa person or animal that is hanging around a place that is not theirs
  d<om>apoto alight on or swarm on, gather around something; be attracted or drawn to something like a magnet
Cebuano dapufor animals to be attracted somewhere (as ants to sugar)
Mongondow dapoto perch

Note:   Also Tagalog dápoɁ ‘act of alighting, as birds do’, Aklanon dápoɁ ‘to gather together, assemble with’.


*dapuq to perch, of birds


PPh     *dapuq to perch, of birds

Pangasinan dápolanding place; to alight, drop onto
Bikol mag-dápoʔto perch or land on
  dapóʔ-ana perch, roost
Hanunóo dapúʔperching of birds
  dapúʔ-anperch, alighting place of birds
Maranao dapoʔperch, foothold, step


*dapuR₁ hearth


PMP     *dapuR₁ hearth

Yami rapoyto start a fire
Ilokano dapúgfirebrand
Agta (Dupaningan) dipogashes, dust
Isneg dappūgthe hearth
Bontok dapuldust, ashes
Kankanaey na-dápugdusty; ashy
Ifugaw (Batad) dapulashes; for something to become ashes, of any combustible material
  mun-dapulsprinkle ashes on something, as on plants to make them grow
  pa-napūl-ana fireplace
Pangasinan dápolash; reduce to ashes
Tagalog dapógan open fire
  dápugthick, black smoke from damp firewood
Bikol dapóghearth, a place for cooking; kitchen
Hanunóo dapúghearth, fireplace; ashes; probably by extension from hearth, fireplace
Aklanon dapógstove, hearth
Agutaynen dapogleaves burned in slash and burn farming
  mag-dapogto burn dried leaves
Hiligaynon dapúgstove, fireplace, fire pit
Cebuano dapúgplace in the kitchen where the cooking fire is built
Maranao rapogbonfire; build a fire
Binukid dapugto heap, pile up wood, yard trash, etc. (sample sentence indicates that this is preparatory to burning)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rapugto pile logs and branches to that they may be burned
Tausug mag-dapugto set fire to, ignite (something)
  daʔpugto set fire to (speech of the interior)
Malay dapurcooking-place; kitchen; it is a corner of the house covered with a thick layer of ashes on which are placed three or five stones to support one or two cooking pots
Acehnese dapukitchen, fireplace
  dapu pandésmith’s furnace
  ureuəŋ dapudescendants of slaves
Gayō dapurhearthstones used to support a cooking pot; hearth
  mu-dapurto use hearth stones to support a cooking pot
Karo Batak dapurhearth
Toba Batak dapurkitchen
  anak dapurcook
Sundanese dapurkitchen
Bare'e rapuhearth, cooking place
  to wono rapuwoman (‘person under the hearth’); spouse
Tae' dapoʔcooking place, hearth; figuratively: household, wedlock, marriage of man and woman
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rapuRspouse
Buginese dapoʔbrazier
Wolio rapuashes; kitchen; oven; wife, housewife; become ashes
Tugun kalau rafu-nashes


POC     *rapuR hearth

Motu rahu-rahuashes; fireplace
Ghove nak-rɔfuashes
Poro nap-rafuashes
Nggela ravuashes; burnt out, of a fire; side of a house where the fire is made
Nginia ravuashes
Longgu ravuashes
'Āre'āre rahu-ʔato be old, worn-out and dirty, of things
Sa'a laʔe rahuan albino (laʔe = leprosy)
Arosi rahu-(na)ashes
  rahu-aawhite with dust and dirty; pale with skin disease
Kahua rahuashes
Santa Ana rafuashes
Wayan dravu-dravu-abe poor, deficient, impoverished; lack richness or quality (as someone’s command of a foreign language)
Fijian dravuashes; slaked lime
  dravu-dravu-acovered with ashes; grey in color; poor; poverty
  matā-dravuhearth, fireplace
  matā-dravu ni sautūthe Magellanic Clouds (‘hearth of peace and plenty’)
Tongan ta-lafufireplace on a canoe or other small vessel
Samoan maŋā-lafuhearth


PWMP     *dapuR-an hearth, cooking place

Yami ra-rapoy-anstove
Itbayaten rapoy-anstove (in general)
Ibatan rapoy-ana stove, a tripod of three stones used for cooking
Ilokano dapug-ánreceptacle for ashes, makeshift stove; open fire
Arta dupuranhearth
Bontok dapul-anto smear with ashes, to cover with ashes; hearth; general area in a house where the fireplace is located
Ifugaw pun-dapúl-anhearth (‘place where the ashes are’)
Ibaloy shaʔpol-an ~ shepʔol-anthe kitchen firebox, fireplace, hearth
Tagalog dapug-ánfireplace, hearth; a stove in the open, using firewood
  dapúg-anto build a fire in the open
Hanunóo dapug-ánstove, cooking place
Agutaynen dapog-anto burn dried leaves
Cebuano dapúg-anplace in the kitchen where the cooking fire is built
Mapun lapoh-anstove (generic)
Yakan lepoh-anstove (in old times it consisted of a fire table that had a surface of dirt on which the fire was built and supports for the pots placed; a charcoal burner is also a lepohan, and so are gas or electric stoves)
Ngaju Dayak dapoh-anhearth, cooking place
Iban dapurhearth, fireplace for cooking
Proto-Sangiric *dapuR-anhearth, kitchen
Sangir dapuh-aŋkitchen, hearth
Tonsea ra-rampor-anhearth
Toratán rapuh-anspouse
Mandar lapur-aŋkitchen (cooking place)
Buginese dapur-ɨŋkitchen


PPh     *d<um>apuR (gloss uncertain)

Ifugaw (Batad) d<um>apulfor dust to cover a surface
Tausug d<um>apugto set fire to, ignite (something)


PWMP     *dapuR dapuR external part of something

Bahasa Indonesia dapur-dapurexternal part (of things, or parts of the body)
Karo Batak dapur-dapurthe thick side planks around a house above the floor; upper part of the chest, where the nipples are

Note:   Also Agta (Dupaningan) dapor-an ‘hearth, cooking area’, Kankanaey dapʔó ‘ashes’, Ifugaw dapʔúl ‘ashes’; is incorrectly pronounced dapúl in current speech’, Kapampangan dápug ‘bonfire; trash pile (e.g. leaves and other yard sweepings)’, Romblomanon dapu-dapu ‘dust’, Yakan dapul-an ‘clay stove (it consists of a clay vessel with openings on the sides for feeding the fire and for air; wood is used as fuel)’, Tausug dapul-an ‘a stove (both a fire table and a gas range, any cooking stove)’, Kelabit dapur ‘kitchen’ (< Malay), Ngaju Dayak dapur ‘an earth apparatus on which one cooks’ (< Malay), Javanese ḍapur, Sundanese dapur ‘kitchen’ (< Malay), Tontemboan ampor-an ‘fire hearth’, Asilulu dapur ‘kitchen’ (< Malay), Makatea refu ‘ashes’ (Polynesian loan?), Tongan efu dust; (of a person) dust, mortal remains’, efu-a ‘covered in dust, dusty’, Niue, Futunan efu ‘dust’, Samoan lefu-lefu, Tuvaluan lefu ‘ash’, Hawaiian lehu ‘ashes; ash-colored, as a chicken’.

PMP *dapuR apparently referred to the hearth, although reflexes of *dapuR-an in a number of the languages of the Philippines and western Indonesia suggest that *dapuR had a verbal meaning, and that the form with the locative suffix specified the place where this activity was performed. The close association of the cooking place in the house with accumulations of ash is reflected in a number of glosses, particularly where the sole semanic reflex is ‘ashes’, as in nearly all Oceanic languages. A similar cross-association between these meanings is seen in reflexes of PAn *qabu ‘ashes’ in some languages, as with Paiwan qavu-qavu-an ‘hearth’. A number of the languages of western Indonesia and the southern Philippines appear to have borrowed Malay dapur while at the same time retaining a native form of this word, as in Yakan, Tausug, or Ngaju Dayak. In such cases the distinction in references is not always clear.


*dapuR₂ pile up, as stones


PAN     *dapuR₂ pile up, as stones

Puyuma dapurpile up stones to build a wall
Cebuano dápugpile things of the same kind in an orderly fashion
Maranao rapogbonfire; build a bonfire
Binukid dapugto heap, pile up (wood, yard trash, etc.)
Mansaka dápogto stack (as coconuts)
Old Javanese ḍapurcluster (of trees, bamboo); pile (?)
  a-ḍapurpiled up (?)

Note:   Also Kapampangan dápug ‘trash pile (e.g. leaves and other yard sweepings)’, Tiruray rafug ‘the piles of insufficiently burned debris ready for the secondary burning of the swidden’.


*daput however, provided that


PPh     *daput however, provided that

Ilokano daput (no)provided that
Pangasinan dápotprovided that, as long as
Kapampangan dápot ~ dáputbut


*daqan branch, bough


PMP     *daqan₁ branch, bough

Dumpas raanbranch
Tatana daanbranch
Tombonuwo raanbranch
Murut (Paluan) daanbranch
Abai Sembuak daanbranch
Murut (Tagol) raanbranch
Tingalan (West) daanbranch
Sesayap adanbranch
Bisaya (Lotud) raʔanbranch
Kelabit daʔanbranch, bough of a tree
Sa'ban laʔinbranch
Murik laʔanbranch
Kayan daʔanbranch of a tree
Gaai alʔanbranch
Kelai lʔænbranch
Mei Lan Modang ləʔeə̯nbranch
Woq Helaq Modang ləʔeə̯nbranch
Kayan (Long Atip) daʔanbranch
Kayan (Uma Juman) daʔanbranch
Iban danbranch, bough
Cham dhanbranch
Moken dakanbough, branch
Malay dahanminor bough or branch of a tree (cp. cabaŋ ‘main boughs’)
Mentawai ranbranch, bough
Sundanese dahanbranch of a tree or plant
Muna raghabranch, bough
  poka-raghato fork, bifurcate, branch
Palauan ráʔəlbranch, bough; branch of government
Ngadha daabranch, bifurcation, forking
Kola ranbranch
Ujir ranbranch
Kowiai/Koiwai raʔanbranch


POC     *raqan branch, bough

Lou ran kebranch of a tree
Loniu ʔa-ʔanbranch of a tree
Nali dran-dranbranch of a tree
Leipon dran-dranbranch of a tree
Sori haŋbranch of a tree
Bipi xa-xanbranch of a tree
Wuvulu xa-xa-nabranch of a tree
Mussau laabranch
Nehan ranbranch of tree
Mono-Alu la-la-nabranch
Ghari rara-nabranch
Ulithian raabranch
Pileni na-lābranch
Rotuman bough, branch
Samoan lā-lā-(ʔau)branch
Kapingamarangi laa-hiadead branch
Nukuoro laaa branch (of a tree)
Rennellese gaʔa-inato have many branches
Hawaiian lālābranch, limb, bough, coconut frond; timber, as of outrigger boom or float; wing of an army; to branch out, form branches, diverge


PMP     *daqan kahiw branch of a tree

Kenyah daʔan kayubranch of a tree


POC     *raqan kayu branch of a tree

Mussau laa-ŋ-aibranch of a tree
Samoan lā-ʔauplant, tree; wood; apparatus, set, machine; instrument
Tuvaluan kau-laabranch of a tree
Kapingamarangi laa-gautree, stick, pole, log; bush
Nukuoro laa-gauwood, stick (of wood)
Rennellese gaʔa-kaugeneral name for any kind of log, stick, or plant (tree, bush, shrub); canoe log; shark tail; fighting club
Anuta raa-kautree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log
Maori rā-kautree; wood, timber; stick, spar, mast; weapon; wooden
Hawaiian lā-ʔautree, plant, wood, timber, forest, stick, thicket, club; blow of a club; strength, rigidness, hardness, male erection; to have formed mature wood, as of a seedling; wooden, woody, stiff, as wood; medicine, medicinal; lump or knot in the flesh; general name for canoe endpiece

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak dan, edan ‘branch’, Tongan vaʔa ‘bough, branch’, vaʔa-kau ‘stick, rod, twig or branch (esp. if broken off); cutting (for planting)’. This term has a wide, but oddly sparse distribution, being fairly well-attested in western Indonesia and Polynesia, but rarely elsewhere. The Polynesian reflexes of POc *raqan kayu ‘branch of a tree’ must have still been morphologically complex after the breakup of Proto-Polynesian, since Tuvaluan was able to transpose the historically separate elements in kau-laa ‘branch of a tree’.


*daqaN old, ancient


PAN     *daqaN old, ancient     [doublet: *dadan]

Kavalan əzanold (of things)


PMP     *daqan₂ old, ancient; formerly

Yami adanold (as a story, or clothing)
Itbayaten aʔdanold, not new, antiquated; formerly
Ivatan adanold (things)
Ilokano dáanold, ancient; obsolete; stale
  d<um>áanto get old, be old (things)
  ka-daan-anold-fashioned, outdated, antique
Ibaloy shaanold (of things); worn, showing signs of age
Pangasinan dáanold (i.e., not new)
  ka-daan-ánold, ancient
Sambal (Botolan) daʔanold (objects)
Bikol dáʔanold, referring only to things; stale (as bread)
  mag-dáʔanto age
Hanunóo dáʔanold, ancient, referring to objects and abstract things, but not to people; by extension dáʔan often means ‘previously’, ‘formerly’, ‘anciently’.
Aklanon dáanolder, ancient; the former
  kina-daánvery old, ancient
Hiligaynon dáʔanold, used, worn out; beforehand, first of all, right away
Cebuano dáanold, not new; the one before, previous
  ka-ráanolden times; very old, leftover from an olden time
  paŋa-ráanbe engaged in something over a long period of time
Mamanwa daʔanold (objects)
Maranao daʔanalready; old (as a house)
Binukid dáanold, not new; very old, from an olden time, antique; beforehand, ahead of time
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daʔanold; before
Mapun daanold (with respect to objects, in the sense of being worn, used often, out of date, out of fashion, etc.)’
  ma-daanto cause something to be old or worn out (esp. by constant wearing or using)
  pa-daanto become worn out, old
Tausug daanold (in the sense of worn, out-of-date, out of fashion, as of cloth, clothes, shoes, books, or houses)
  daan-unto cause something to be old or worn out (esp. by constant wearing, as clothes or shoes)

Note:   There is no direct evidence that the final consonant of this form was *N rather than *n, but on the assumption that it is a variant of *dadaN I reconstruct *-N.


*daqaNi day


PAN     *daqaNi day

Pazeh dali, dali-anday


PMP     *daqani day

Lampung xaniday
Chamorro haʔaniday


POC     *raqani day

Nauna lɨnday
Haku a-landay
Uruava raniday
Hoava raneday
Bugotu danimorning, daylight
Talise ndaniday
Lau daniday, daylight; weather
Sa'a däniday
Proto-Micronesian *raaniday
Pohnpeian rahnday
Ulithian raleday
Vatrata ma-randay
Lametin raniday
Aore raniday
Peterara raniday
Apma renday
Avava randawn
Sie ndanday

Note:   Also Paiwan (Western) r-m-aqałi-ałi-an ‘mid-morning (when bees come out)’, Sub-Ambon *daniʔ, Roviana, Hoava rane, Arosi daŋi ‘day’. The semantic distinction between PAn *daqaNi and PAn *waRi remains unclear.


*daq(e)taR floor


PPh     *daq(e)taR floor

Itbayaten raʔtayflooring, floor, storey
Ilokano datárfloor, bamboo flooring
  ag-datárto make a bamboo floor
Isneg datāgfloor, flooring
  mag-da-datāgto weave flooring
Itawis datágfloor
  mad-datágto floor a house
Pangasinan datálwooden or bamboo floor
Agutaynen daʔtalfloor
  mag-daʔtalto make a floor
Palawan Batak daʔtagfloor
Central Tagbanwa datagfloor of a house

Note:   Also Bontok detɁál ‘the floorboards of a granary’, Kankanaey detɁá ‘the whole floor except the hearth and the soba (place behind the hearth where occupants sleep)’, Ifugaw dotál ‘floor of houses, granaries, inhabited huts’, Ifugaw (Batad) dotal ‘the floor of a building, cave, tomb’. This comparison was first noted schematically by Zorc (1986:163). Apparently distinct from PAn *dataR ‘flat, flat or level land’, as the two words are clearly distinguished in both Itbayaten and Ifugaw, although both words in the latter language show an irregular change of *a > o in the penult.


*daqiS forehead; face


PAN     *daqiS forehead; face

Kavalan zaisface
Saisiyat ræʔiʃforehead
Papora ddesforehead
Pazeh daisface
Thao shaqishface
Bunun daqisface
Bunun (Isbukun) daXisface
Paiwan djaqisforehead


PMP     *daqih forehead; face

Miri daʔihforehead
Paku raiforehead
Dusun Deyah raiforehead
Ma'anyan raʔiforehead
Dusun Witu raʔiforehead, face
Iban daiforehead
Tsat thai³³forehead
Malay dahibrow, eyebrow
Old Javanese rahiforehead; face
Javanese raiface; front, façade, surface
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *raqiforehead, face
Muna kon-daghiforehead
Chamorro haʔiforehead


PCEMP     *daqi forehead; face

Komodo raiforehead
Manggarai saʔiforehead, face


POC     *raqe forehead

Nggela raeforehead
Wayan forehead
Fijian yadreforehead
Niue forehead
Futunan laʔeforehead
Tuvaluan laeforehead
Kapingamarangi laeforehead
Nukuoro laeforehead
Anuta raeforehead
Rarotongan raeforehead
Maori raeforehead, temple; promontory, headland
Hawaiian laeforehead, brow; cape, point, promontory

Note:   Also Tongan laʔe ‘forehead, brow’, Rennellese maga-ŋaʔe ‘forehead’. Known Oceanic reflexes of *daqiS are confined to Central Pacific languages, and all of these show an irregular lowering of the last vowel. In addition, Tongan has an irregular reflex of the initial consonant (POc *r normally > Tongan zero). The original sense of this body-part term appears to have covered both ‘forehead’ and ‘face’, but the ‘face’ sense seems to be more dominant in Formosan languages, and the ‘forehead’ sense outside Taiwan, culminating in Oceanic reflexes which to date have been recorded only in the latter meaning.


*daqu₁ a tree: Dracontomelum edule


PMP     *daqu₁ a tree: Dracontomelum edule

Ilokano daóa tree: Dracontomelum sp.
Bikol dáʔoa tree: Dracontomelum dao
Hanunóo dáʔua tree: Dracontomelum dao [Blco.] Merr. & Rolfe
Cebuano daúlarge hardwood tree
Simalur daʔukind of tree
Sundanese dahutall tree with edible sour fruits
Old Javanese rahukind of breadfruit tree
Bare'e raʔua tall tree with little durable wood and edible fruits: Dracontomelon mangiferum
Wolio raua tree: Dracontomelum mangiferum.
Manggarai saʔutall tree with sour fruit: Dracontomelum edule
Ngadha zaukind of tree

Note:   Although no other homophones are known for botanical referents, PMP *daqu₁ and PAn *daqu₂ consistently refer to different trees, and are therefore assumed to be distinct. The following reconstructions, which are restricted to WMP languages, have previously been proposed: "Proto-Malayo-Javanic" *Dahuq ‘kind of tree’ (Nothofer 1975:148), "PInd" *daqu( ) ‘tree sp., usually Dracontomelum mangiferum Bl.’ (Mills 1981:66), "PHes" *Daqu ‘timber tree: Dracontomelum mangifera’ (Zorc 1982). Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


(Formosan only)

*daqu₂ soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria


PAN     *daqu₂ soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria

Sakizaya raqusoapberry
Bunun daqusoapberry
Rukai (Maga) a-Doosoapberry
Rukai (Tona) Dawsoapberry
Puyuma (Pinan) Daʔusoapberry
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) daHusoapberry tree: Sapindus mukrossi
Paiwan (Butanglu) zaqusoapberry

Note:   Also Thao daqu (< Bunun), Kanakanabu, Saaroa caaʔu ‘soapberry; soap’. This comparison was first identified by Li (1994).


*darás quick, fast, of speech or actions; often, frequently


PPh     *darás quick, fast, of speech or actions; often, frequently

Ilokano darásquick; rapidly
  na-darásquick, fast, rapid
  daras-énto hasten, hurry up
Tagalog dalásfrequency; rapidity
  ma-dalásfrequently; rapidly, quickly
  manag-dar-darásrestless; lively; hyperactive
  ka-dalas-ánfact or state of rapidity or frequency; frequent occurrence
  dalas-ánto make more frequent
  dalás-dalásvery hurriedly or quickly
Aklanon daeásoften, frequently
Maranao darasspeak rapidly, read fast


*darusdús to slide down


PPh     *darusdús to slide down

Ilokano ag-darusdústo slide down a slope or tree
Bontok dalusdusto fall by having the base slip out from underneath
Bikol mapa-darusdósto slide; to get slid
  pa-darusdus-ónto slide s.t.
  darusdus-ánsliding board, chute; playground slide
Agutaynen ma-dalosdosto accidentally slide down from somewhere
  magpa-dalosdosfor a person to intentionally slide, cause themselves to slide down from somewhere

Note:   Also Tagalog dausdós ‘a slide; sliding down an inclined surface (intentionally)’, Cebuano dalusɁús ‘to slide down’, dalusɁus-án ‘slide, children’s playground equipment’.


(Formosan only)

*daRa₁ Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana


PAN     *daRa₁ Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana

Saisiyat (Taai) raLaɁFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana
Atayal ragathe Formosan maple, fam. Aceraceae
Seediq (Tkdaya) daraFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana
Pazeh daxaFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana
Thao lhalhathe Formosan maple, fam. Aceraceae
Bunun dalaFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana

Note:   This comparison was first pointed out by Li (1994).


*daRa₂ maiden, virgin, unmarried girl


PMP     *daRa₂ maiden, virgin, unmarried girl

Agutaynen dala-ŋpuberty, male and female
Maranao ragalady, maid, girl who is unmarried; female slave
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) raǥaa single woman; virgin
Moken dalagirl, maiden
Malay daramaiden, virgin
  anak daraunmarried girl, maiden
  ayam darapullet
  ñiur daracoconut palm not yet in bearing
Acehnese anɨʔ daramarriageable girl
Karo Batak anak darathe ring finger
Sundanese daraa young woman who has had her first child; also a female animal that has had its first young
Old Javanese rara ~ rarāgirl, maiden
  a-rarahaving an unmarried daughter or sister
Javanese lɔrɔvirgin girl, young girl of noble birth
  pa-lɔrɔyoung girls of the court
Balinese dahamaid, virgin; virginal, not having borne fruit
  daha twaold maid
Sasak darayoung girl, unmarried woman
Chamorro hagadaughter
Kisar rarefemale, of animals
Leti rarafemale, of animals that haven’t yet borne young
Wetan rarawoman
Proto-Aru *raRyoung unmarried woman (Richard Nivens, p.c.)


PWMP     *da-daRa maiden, virgin, unmarried girl

Tagalog da-lágayoung, unmarried woman from adolescence up; maiden (not common)
  mag-dalagáto grow into a teenage girl
  dálaga-hínsaid of a girl who is at the beginning of puberty
  dalaga-ŋ ináan unwed mother
Bikol da-rágayoung, unmarried woman; maiden, damsel, lass
  pagka-daragafeminity; maidenhood, virginity
Hanunóo da-rágamaid, maiden, young girl; virgin; any unmarried girl past the age of puberty
Romblomanon dalāga ~ darāgaan unmarried woman, beginning at puberty until marriage; usually a young unmarried woman; a spinster
  dalag-ītayoung unmarried girl, an adolescent female from about 12 to 17 years
Masbatenyo darágaa young female, unmarried girl, young lady, maiden; refers to a young girl of marriageable age
  mag-darágabecome a marriageable female; refers to females who become of marriageable age
Aklanon daeágagirl, young lady, young unmarried woman; maiden
Waray-Waray darágamaiden; an unmarried woman; single, as of civil status
  darag-itateenage girl
Agutaynen da-dala-ŋ-dala-ŋteenager: more often used about girls
Hiligaynon dalágaunmarried girl between the age of about fifteen to thirty
Cebuano dalágaunmarried woman; young girl who has reached maturity; reach womanhood by virtue of menstruating
  dalag-ítaa girl close to maturity but not yet mature (ten to thirteen years old)
Maranao da-ragamaiden, young woman
Tausug dāgamaiden girl, adolescent girl in puberty stage (may also be spoken of some animals)
Iban darayoung woman, unmarried woman, maiden; (of women) smart
Sundanese da-darafemales who have borne their first young (collective)
Sasak də-darayoung girl, unmarried woman
Mongondow deagayoung, of land animals and birds
  moŋo-deagayoung, of a daughter
Totoli tau dolagovirgin, young girl
Pendau ren-daavirgin, young girl
Boano tau doagovirgin, young girl
Dampelas han-daavirgin, young girl
Ampibabo-Lauje (u)ŋa-lagavirgin, young girl
Tae' anak darasister of a man
Makassarese anaʔ rarayoung girl from about nine to thirteen years of age
  anaʔ rara suntiŋyoung girl who has had her menarche (11-12 years of age)


PWMP     *ka-daRa-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ka-dalagá-hangroup of unmarried women
Cebuano ka-dalagá-hanmaidens
Old Javanese ka-rara-nmaidenhood


PWMP     *d<um>aRa in one’s maidenhood

Tagalog d<um>alágayoung female animal that has not yet borne any young
Masbatenyo d<um>arágapullet, young hen
Old Javanese r<um>arain her maidenhood, young (of a woman)
Balinese d<um>ahabe still a virgin

Note:   Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak jarah-jarah ‘female animals in general; a heifer, a hen who has laid her first egg ’. This form is erroneously said to be of Sanskrit origin in several dictionaries, as Coolsma (1930), Richards (1981), and Wilkinson (1959). The regular reflexes of PAn *R in all languages cited here, and the fact that Chamorro has a cognate form shows that this statement is false. The primary meaning of this term appears to be ‘girl between the onset of menstruation and time of marriage’, although scattered references (Tagalog, Masbatenyo, Malay, Sundanese, Tausug, Mongondow) suggest that it also applied to animals, particularly hens that have just begun to produce eggs. It may be that the term *anak daRa was used for humans to distinguish these two senses.


*daRaq blood; to bleed; menstruate


PAN     *daRaq blood; to bleed; menstruate

Taokas taxablood
Basai tsalablood
Seediq dalablood
Amis lalaʔto menstruate, have monthly period
Favorlang/Babuza tagablood
Kanakanabu caraʔəblood
Saaroa caraʔəblood
Paiwan djaqmenstrual blood
Yami ralablood
Itbayaten rayablood
  ka-rayaconsanguine, blood kin
Ilokano dárablood
  d<um>árato bleed
  pa-dara-ento bleed a person or animal
Agta (Dupaningan) digiblood
  d<um>igito bleed
Isneg dáxablood; plants
  d<um>áxato bleed
Itawis daháblood
Malaweg dágablood
Bontok dálablood
  ka-dala-ancompatible, suitable for
  d<in>álameat which is recooked in blood, after the broth of the first cooking has been removed
  d<um>álato bleed
Keley-i dalato menstruate
Ifugaw dálablood of an animal, fish, person (the blood of animals and chickens is boiled with salt and vegetables and eaten as a side dish)
  d<um>álato bleed
Ifugaw (Batad) dālablood
  in-dālato menstruate
  d<um>ālato bleed (nose, teeth, a wound, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat digeblood
Ibaloy shalablood
  on-shalato bleed, to menstruate
  shala-ansmear something with blood
Pangasinan daláblood
  d<in>ala-ánpork, etc. cooked in pig’s blood
Ayta Abellan dayablood
Kapampangan dáyaʔblood
  ka-ráyaʔone with same blood type
  matua dáyaʔa nephew older than his uncle (lit. ‘king blood’)
Abaknon lahaʔblood
Tiruray daraʔblood; to bleed
  mere-daraʔto bleed profusely, as from a cut artery
Mapun lahaʔblood
  lahaʔ-anhaving a menstrual cycle, having blood on something
Yakan lahaʔblood
  i-lahaʔto menstruate
  ŋa-lahaʔto bleed
Bisaya (Lotud) rahaʔblood
Dumpas raaʔblood
Tatana daaʔblood
Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan raablood
Murut (Paluan) daaʔblood
Abai Sembuak daaʔblood
Kujau rahaʔblood
Ida'an Begak ddaʔblood
Tingalan (West) raraʔblood
Bisaya (Lotud) rahaʔblood
Bisaya (Limbang) raʔblood
Basap daraʔblood
Bulungan darablood
Lun Dayeh daraʔblood
Tabun darablood
Kelabit daraʔblood
  deraʔ-enbleeding, as the gums
Dali' dareblood
Kenyah (Long Anap) daaʔblood
Kenyah (Long Ikang) laaʔblood
Kenyah (Long San) laaʔblood
Penan (Long Lamai) dahablood
Wahau mnæsblood
Gaai alhae̯ʔblood
Kelai lhæʔblood
Mei Lan Modang ləhəa̯ʔblood
Woq Helaq Modang ləhəa̯ʔblood
Long Gelat Modang ləheʔblood
Kayan (Long Atip) dahablood
Bintulu raʔblood
Melanau (Mukah) daaʔblood
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) daaʔblood
Bukat daʔblood
Lahanan laʔablood
Seru dablood
Tunjung dahaaʔblood
Ngaju Dayak dahablood
  ba-dahato bleed
  utaŋ dahablood payment
Lawangan dayablood
Paku iraʔ <Mblood
Malagasy rablood
  misondro drato be very angry, to faint (lit. ‘the blood rushes up’)
Iban darahblood; bleed; stock, race; the red sap of some trees
Maloh daraʔblood
Singhi Land Dayak doyublood
Tsat sia⁵⁵blood
Cham darahblood
Jarai drahblood
Moken dalakblood
Malay darahblood, in both literal and metaphorical senses; also found in many plant names
  darah putihroyal blood (lit. ‘white blood’)
Acehnese darahblood
  danoh darahdysentery
Gayō rayohblood
  mu-rayohto bleed
  mure-rayoh-ensoaked with blood, as clothing
Simalur dalablood
Rejang daleaʔblood
  daleaʔ dagiŋkinsmen, blood relatives; flesh and blood
Old Javanese rāh, rahblood
  aŋ-rah-ito inflict a bleeding wound
  rah-enblood-stained, covered with blood
Javanese rahblood (Krama)
Madurese dharablood
  a-dharato bleed
Sangir dahablood; milky sap of plants
  meʔ-dahato bleed
Tonsea daaʔblood
Totoli laablood
  maka-laato bleed
Boano laʔablood
Bare'e daablood
Tae' rarablood; smear with the blood of a sacrificial animal
  ke-rarato bleed, to menstruate
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *raRaQblood
Mori Atas reablood
Padoe reablood
Bungku reablood
Koroni reablood
Wawonii reablood
Moronene reablood
Buginese darablood
Makassarese rarablood
Wolio raablood
  ko-raato bleed, bloody
  sa-raa-raaof the same blood
Bonerate rahablood
Muna reablood
Popalia rahablood
Palauan rásəʔblood
Chamorro hagaʔblood
Bimanese raʔablood
  n-daʔato bleed
Komodo rablood; menstruation; bloody nose
Manggarai darablood
Rembong daraʔblood
Ngadha raablood; menstrual blood, menstruation; blood relationship; to bleed; blood-red colors; bloody, as dysentery
Keo lablood
Riung darablood
Li'o rablood
Lamaholot raʔablood
Waiyewa raʔablood
Lamboya rablood
Anakalangu rablood
Kambera wai riablood
Hawu rablood
Dhao/Ndao darablood
Rotinese da(k)blood; plant sap
Helong dalablood
Tetun ra-n ~ rablood
Galoli ra-rblood
Waima'a raablood
Erai rara-nblood
Tugun rara-nblood
East Damar rarblood
West Damar rowoblood
Leti rarablood; menses
Luang rarablood
Wetan rarablood
Selaru la-rblood
Yamdena dareblood
  na-dareto bleed
Watubela lalakblood
Bonfia lasablood
Bobot lasablood
Kamarian lalablood
Paulohi lalablood
Gah lala-iblood
Alune lalablood; red
Saparua lalahblood
Hitu lalablood
Asilulu lalablood; to bleed
Boano₂ lalablood
Wakasihu lala-iblood
Batu Merah lala-iblood
Morella lalablood
Buruese raha-nblood; bloody
Kayeli lalablood; bleed
Sekar rarablood
Kowiai/Koiwai rarablood
Buli lacoagulated blood; blood clot
Minyaifuin lablood
Moor rarablood
Waropen rarablood
Woi riablood


POC     *draRaq blood

Nauna cayblood
Pak hayblood
Loniu ʔayblood
Nali drayblood
Titan layblood
Leipon drayblood
Papitalai draya-blood
Drehet khablood
Sori hayblood
Bipi xayblood
Seimat ka-kablood
Wuvulu xa-xablood
Mussau raeblood
Mendak ndaablood
Lihir dalblood
Arop darablood
Kis darablood
Wogeo darablood
Manam darablood
Takia dala-blood
Keapara ralablood
Hula rarablood
Sinaugoro lalablood
Motu rarablood; descendants
Pokau rarablood
Gabadi rarablood
Tawala tala-blood
Dobuan rarablood
Cheke Holo da-darablood; bleed
Kokota da-dara-nablood
Gilbertese rarablood; stick sap
  ka-rara-eato make bleed; rust; to make rusty
Kosraean srahblood
Marshallese dablood
Pohnpeian ntablood
Mokilese insablood
  insah-n pahraŋrust
Chuukese chchablood; bloody; bleed; menstruate
Puluwat ccablood; red; be bloody
Woleaian chablood; red; bloody
Vatrata ndara-blood
Merig ndara-blood
Merlav ndarablood
Raga ndaxa-blood
Atchin ra-blood
Rano ra-blood
Lingarak ne-ndre-blood
Maxbaxo n-reblood
Pwele na-dablood
Efate (South) na-rablood
Lenakel nɨ-ta(a)blood
Iaai drablood; red
Fijian drāblood, sap


PAN     *ma-daRaq bloody, bleeding; to menstruate

Paiwan ma-djaqto menstruate
Itbayaten ma-rayain the menstruation period, to menstruate
Itawis ma-dahábloody
Lun Dayeh me-daraʔbloody or bleeding
Acehnese meu-darahbleeding, bloody
Old Javanese ma-rahbleeding
Bare'e ma-daato bleed, to menstruate


PWMP     *maR-daRaq to bleed

Ilokano ag-dárato bleed
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-digito menstruate
Isneg mag-dáxato bleed
Itawis mad-daháto bleed
Casiguran Dumagat mag-digeto bleed, to menstruate
Yakan mag-lahaʔto bleed; to menstruate
Malay ber-darahto bleed
Buginese mad-darato bleed


PMP     *daRa-daRaq bloody

Ilokano dara-darabloody
Ifugaw (Batad) dala-dālabloody
Ngaju Dayak daha-dahato bleed a little
  ka-daha-dahato bleed continuously
Buruese rah-rahabloody

Note:   Also Karo Batak dareh ‘blood’, dareh-en ‘to bleed, of a wound’, Toba Batak daro ‘blood, especially menstrual blood’, daro mata ‘coagulated blood’, Alune lalakwe ‘blood; red’, Mota nara ‘blood; bleed’. Oddly, two of the clearest reflexes of this form in the Solomon Islands are Ndovele, Mbilua ndara ‘blood’, a form found in these two non-Austronesian languages, but not in any of their Austronesian neighbors.


*daRat littoral sea, sea near the shore


PMP     *daRat littoral sea, sea near the shore

Ilokano dáratsand, silt
Agta (Dupaningan) digetsea, ocean
  ma-digetrough, of the sea
Malaweg dagatsand
Casiguran Dumagat digetocean, sea, sea water; go to the beach
Kapampangan dáyatrice fields
  dáyat malatocean, sea
Tagalog dágatsea, ocean; bay, gulf; lake
Bikol dágatocean, sea
Hanunóo dágatsea, ocean (as opposed to land)
Aklanon dágatsalt water; sea
  dagátget motion sickness, get seasick
Hiligaynon dágatsea, ocean
  dagátseasickness, nausea
Cebuano dágatsea; sea water; seasick
Maranao ragatsea, ocean
Binukid daǥatsea; ocean
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daǥatthe sea
Mansaka daǥatsea; ocean; large body of water
Tiruray dogota body of saltwater, an ocean; to resemble an ocean, as a huge lake
Tausug dagatsea, ocean, ocean water
  pa-nagatto hunt for shellfish, edible plants or other edible animals along the shore at low tide
Bintulu ratsea, ocean
Melanau (Mukah) daatlittoral sea, sea near the shore
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) daatsea
Iban daratland, as opposed to river or sea
Cham daraksea
Malay daratdry land, in contrast to coastal swamp; upland; inner or high land, in contrast to lowland
Acehnese daratland, shore
Karo Batak darat-enland (as opposed to sea or water)
Toba Batak daratland, as opposed to sea
Old Javanese rātthe world; the visible, inhabited world; mankind, created beings
Javanese ratworld
Balinese dahatdry land, shore
Sasak be-daratto land, come ashore
  daratland, solid land, terra firma
Mongondow dagatsea, saltwater; according to some speakers dagat refers specifically to shallow sea near the coast
Ponosakan yahatsea
Pendau dagatsea
Tetun raatseashore, beach at the edge of the sea
  tasi raatseashore (Mathijsen 1906)


POC     *raRat sea coast (?)

Roviana rarata-nasea coast
  vose rarataclosely follow the coast line in a canoe, etc.


PPh     *ka-daRát-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano ka-darat-ansandy place
Bikol ka-ragát-anhigh seas, open sea
Aklanon ka-ragát-anopen sea; ocean

Note:   Also Pangasinan dáyat ‘sea, ocean’, Javanese ḍarat ‘land (as contrasted with water, air)’, Sundanese darat ‘dry land in contrast with water, terra firma; darat-an ‘land (in a broader sense than darat); figurative for ‘rest’ or ‘intervening space’, Balinese dahet ‘dry land; shore’, Bare'e daga ‘substitute term for sea or lake’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed this term with the meaning ‘surface; level, plain’ (German: Fläche), but this seems clearly to be in error, as reflexes in Melanau (Mukah) of coastal Sarawak, Mongondow of northern Sulawesi, Tetun of central Timor and Roviana of the western Solomons agree in pointing to the meaning ‘littoral sea’, or perhaps ‘line where the land meets the sea’. In most Philippine languages reflexes of *daRat refer to the sea without qualification, and in Malay and some other languages of western Indonesia (as Toba Batak), which may have borrowed their term from Malay, the meaning is ‘land, as opposed to sea’. While these terms are semantically antithetical, the meaning ‘littoral sea’ serves to bridge them and suggests how the unqualified senses ‘sea’ and ‘land’ may have developed from a meaning that bridged the two. Thanks to Arlo Griffiths for pointing out Cham darak.


*daRayaʔ teem, swarm


PWMP     *daRayaʔ teem, swarm

Hiligaynon dagayaʔmany, plentiful, teeming, swarming
Kayan (Uma Juman) dayaʔswarming of fish during spawning


*daRehuŋ deep booming sound


PWMP     *daRehuŋ deep booming sound

Cebuano dághuŋgroan
Malay dəroŋdeep booming sound, such as the clanging of a bell


*daReq soil, probably clay


PAN     *daReq soil, probably clay

Pazeh (Kahabu) daxəʔearth, land
Bunun dalaqground (earth, land, place, soil)
Saaroa sareːearth, soil
Rukai (Tona) daʔéearth, soil
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) daReHearth, soil
Ilokano dagáearth, land, soil
Bikol dagáʔearth, land, soil
Dhao/Ndao raiearth
Tetun raiearth, soil, ground
  raiearth, soil, ground
Galoli rea <Mearth, soil
Talur rea <Mearth
Buruese raheground
  rah(e) isinsoil
Motu raroclay (used in making cooking pots)
Roviana rarocooking pot

Note:   Milke (1965) proposed this as an innovation of the Austronesian languages of New Guinea, while Pawley (1978:43) suggested POc *dado ‘clay pot, clay used by potters’. Tsuchida (1976:169) gives "PHes" *[zZ]aReq₂ ‘earth’, and Zorc (1981) gives "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *daReq ‘earth, clay’. Neither of the latter cognate sets contain Oceanic witnesses -- which show clearly that the initial consonant could not have been a palatal -- and Pawley's cognate set does not include non-Oceanic witnesses -- which show clearly that the medial consonant was *R.


*daRi a fish: Scomberoides sp.


PMP     *daRi a fish: Scomberoides sp.

Chamorro hagia fish: Scomberoides santi-petri (family Carangidae), pompano or jack crevally
Samoan laia fish: Scomberoides sp.
Hawaiian laia fish: Scomberoides sp.


*daRiŋ groan, moan


PAN     *daRiŋ groan, moan     [doublet: *deReŋ]

Bunun da-daliŋto moan (of a man, as when sick)
Tsou troe-creŋito moan (of a man, as when sick)
Saaroa tara-a-sariŋito moan (of a man, as when sick)
Paiwan z-m-aiŋmake noise, shout
Agutaynen mag-daliŋto moan in pain
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daɣiŋnoise, sound
  me-zaɣiŋloud, noisy
Sangir dahiŋbreathe loudly, as one suffering from asthma

Note:   All Formosan forms are from Tsuchida (1976:275), who assigns them to Proto-South Formosan *D₂aRiŋ ‘moan, shout’.


(Formosan only)

*daRiq soil, probably clay


PAN     *daRiq soil, probably clay     [doublet: *daReq]

Saisiyat (Taai) raLiʔearth, soil
Amis laliʔclay


*daRit bird of prey; to swoop down and seize prey (of raptorial birds)


PPh     *daRit bird of prey; to swoop down and seize prey (of raptorial birds)

Tagalog pag-dágitswooping and seizing while in flight, as when a hawk or an eagle snatches its prey
Bikol mag-dágitto swoop down on a catch (birds)
  maŋ-dágitto prey on small animals (birds)
Aklanon dágitto pounce upon, swoop down and seize (said of birds seizing prey)
Cebuano dágitswoop down and seize a prey; kidnap, abduct
Maranao ragitto capture, as bird of prey captures
Mansaka dagitto swoop down and seize (of birds)
Tiruray darita hawk: Spilornis cheela holospilsus (Latham)
Tausug d<um>agitfor a bird of prey to seize or snatch something
Mongondow dagitseize something in a swift motion, as a bird of prey or a crocodile does


*da(ŋ)sek crowd, push together


PWMP     *da(ŋ)sek crowd, push together

Casiguran Dumagat dasektamp down (as dirt in a hole), shake down (as a container to settle the contents)
Hiligaynon dasúkto fill (as a bag with clothes), to crowd
Palawano dasekto cram, compact s.t.
Maranao dasekpress (as in pressing down the contents of a sack), full (as the mouth)
Balinese daŋseknear, be in a crowd

Note:   With root *-sek₁ ‘cram, crowd’.


*das(e)qaR food laid out for a feast


PPh     *das(e)qaR food laid out for a feast

Ilokano dasárfood set on the table
  i-dasárto set out for use, set the table
Binukid dasʔagto lay out a large amount of meat somewhere on leaves


*daSdaS chest (anat.)


PAN     *daSdaS chest (anat.)

Kavalan zaszaschest


PWMP     *dahdah chest (anat.)

Itbayaten rahdahchest, breast
Malagasy tratrathe breast
  tratra-inaconsumptive; asthmatic
Delang dadochest
Iban dadachest, breast
  luak dadachest cavity
Tsat tha¹¹chest (anat.)
Jarai tədachest
Malay dadabreast, chest, usually in a physical or literal sense; of the whole front of the body and not a single breast (susu); used figuratively of angles and shapes, and especially in technical descriptions of a horse’s forequarters
  dada bidaŋbroad-chested
Acehnese dadachest, breast
Karo Batak tulan dadathe cartilege between ribs and breast bone
Toba Batak dadachest, breast
Rejang dadochest
  tian dadobreast-bone
Sundanese dadachest, bosom
  nepak-an dadapound oneself on the chest
Old Javanese ḍaḍabreast, chest
Balinese (High) dadachest, breast
Sasak dadachest, breast
Bare'e dadachest, breast
Tae' dadachest, breast
Mandar dadachest; lungs; pit of the stomach; breath
Buginese dadachest, breast
Makassarese dadabreast of birds, chickens and ducks

Note:   Based on Javanese ḍaḍa, Malay dada, Malagasy tratra ‘chest’, Fijian vaka-rara-kobi ‘cross the arms over the chest’, Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *ḍaḍa ‘chest’. However, both the Fijian and Malagasy forms are of doubtful cognation, and the Javanese form may be a loan from Malay.


*dataR flat, flat or level land


PAN     *dataR flat, flat or level land

Puyuma datarvillage (ritual term)
  ka-datar-anspirits of the true village in Puyuma
Paiwan na ma-zatjato be level
  ka-zatja-zatjato be level
Yami ratayflatlands, prairie
Itbayaten rataylowlands; plain region of Mayan (a place name)
Agta (Dupaningan) ditagplain, small clearing
Bontok datalname of a large, relatively level, pondfield area in the Bágiw area near Guinaang
Aklanon datágopen field, plain, prairie
Cebuano datáglevel land
Tiruray datarflat land, a plain; (of land) level or flat
Tboli datala plain; a flat area; level place; flat, level; ironed out, as a problem
Tausug datagflat, level (as a piece of land)
Basap datarflat (of surfaces)
Kayan datahlevel, flat (as farmland)
Paku ratasmooth
Malagasy rátanaa plain, level country
Malay datarsmooth; level; flat (as land)
Old Javanese ratā ~ ra-ratāa level place, plain
Javanese rataevenly distributed or spread (as soil), smooth (as pavement); roughly, approximately
Balinese dataflat, level; all
  datah-aŋbe made completely level; be treated all alike
Proto-Minahasan *dataheven, level; plain, level land
Makassarese dataraʔflat, level
Kamarian latarflat land
Paulohi latalelevel land, plain
Alune latalelevel land, plain
Asilulu ma-lataflat, level (as land)
Buruese rataplain


POC     *rataR flat or level land

Mota ratalevel ground, plain


PWMP     *maŋ-dataR to make level or flat, as in levelling land

Kayan ŋe-datahto make level or flat
Javanese ŋ-ratato smooth, to make even (as in dividing portions)


PAN     *ka-dataR-an plain, region of level land

Paiwan ka-zatja-nlevel land, plain
  k<m>a-zatja-nto level ground
Yami ka-ratay-anflatlands, prairie
Itbayaten ka-ratay-anplain region of area, plain expanse
Cebuano ka-datág-anplains

Note:   Also Bontok detal-en ‘to level’, Binukid datal ‘to level something’, Yakan datag ‘flat (as a roof)’ (< Bisayan or Danaw language), Ngaju Dayak datar ‘level, even’ (< Banjarese Malay), Sundanese datar ‘flat, even’, tanah datar ‘flat land, plain’ (< Malay), Bare'e rato ‘a plain; flat’, Muna rata ‘flat, level’ (< Malay, and ultimately Javanese). Since Cebuano has datág ‘level land’ the similar forms látad ~ látag ‘spread something out under the sun’, probably are best regarded as not reflecting *dataR, and the same would then follow for Tagalog látag ‘something spread on the floor or ground, as a carpet, mat, rug, etc.’, ma-látag ‘to be spread out’, mag-látag ‘to spread, to lay’, which Dempwolff (1938) assigned to his *DataR ‘level, flat’.


*dateŋ to arrive, reach a place


PMP     *dateŋ to arrive, reach a place

Yami rateŋarrive back home from the fields or another village
  ka-rateŋjust got home
Itbayaten rateŋidea of arrival
  ka-rateŋarrival, act of arriving
Ilokano datéŋarrival
  mag-teŋ-anto able to reach; (fig.) afford a certain price
Agta (Dupaningan) i-ditáŋbring something
Isneg datáŋto reach
  daʔŋ-an-ānto find, to overtake
Bontok datə́ŋto arrive, especially of an epidemic
Kankanaey datéŋto come home; to return home; to go arrive
Ifugaw datóŋarrival; to arrive at one’s destination, to bring something to the place where it has to be, etc.
Ifugaw (Batad) datoŋfor someone to arrive at a given place or time
  ipa-datoŋ-nafocus is on an unnamed agent which causes an epidemic sickness to arrive, such as influenza
Isinay datáŋto arrive
  mad-datáŋto arrive
Ayta Abellan lateŋarrive, come
Kapampangan dátaŋarrive, come
Tagalog datíŋarrival; act of arriving
Remontado datáŋarrive
Bikol datóŋto arrive; epilepsy
  mag-datóŋto arrive
  da-datŋ-ónan epileptic
Cebuano tuŋ-bálayto go to someone’s house (from datuŋ balay)
Maranao dateŋsustain, endure; patient; persist in being present
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dateŋfever; to have a fever
Mansaka datuŋto arrive
Tausug datuŋto arrive
Iban dataycome, arrive, reach; send; bring; until, as far as
Malay dataŋto come; to chance upon
  men-dataŋ-ito come up against, assail
  ke-dataŋ-an mautthe coming of death
Bahasa Indonesia dataŋ-dataŋjust arrived, newly arrived
Sundanese ratəŋthe swarming of insects, the clustering of many flying kites or lamps
Old Javanese ḍatəŋto come, arrive; arrival
Javanese ḍateŋ(to go) to, toward; concerning; to come, arrive
Sasak dateŋcome, arrive; up to, until
Sangir mi-ratiŋarrive, reach
Uma ratacome, reach, arrive at
Tae' ratucome, arrive
  to ratuguest
  (ka)-ratu-iarrive at
Wolio rato-ratokind of bird whose call announces people coming
Muna ratoarrive, come; reach, arrive at something
  ka-ratosuddenly arrive
  rato-haarrival time
  rato-mibring food and drink to someone; take care of someone’s life
  rato-ratolong-horned grasshopper whose call signals the arrival of a guest
Erai ratanto arrive; as far as, until; enough


PWMP     *maka-dateŋ able to arrive

Itbayaten maka-rateŋable to arrive
Tagalog maka-ratíŋto be able to arrive at
Murut (Timugon) maka-ratoŋable to arrive
Sangir maka-ratiŋto reach


PWMP     *d<um>ateŋ to arrive

Ilokano d<um>teŋto arrive, come, reach one’s destination
Agta (Dupaningan) d<um>itáŋto arrive
Kankanaey d<um>atéŋto come home; to return home; to go arrive
Ifugaw d<um>atóŋto arrive
Tagalog d<um>atíŋto arrive
Mansaka d<om>a-datuŋstranger; foreigner; new arrival
Tausug d<um>atuŋto arrive; to appeal a court case
Murut (Timugon) r<um>atoŋto arrive
Abai Sembuak matoŋarrive
Javanese ḍ<um>ateŋto, toward; to go to(ward)
Sangir mə-d<um>atiŋstrive to reach
Muna r<um>ato-novisitor, guest


PWMP     *ka-dateŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ká-ratn-ánpossible result
Malay ke-dataŋ-anadvent, approach, coming
Bahasa Indonesia ke-dataŋ-anthe arrival of something
Old Javanese ka-ḍatəŋ-anbeing reached
Sangir ka-ratiŋ-aŋarrived at through, arrived at via


PWMP     *dateŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ratŋ-anto arrive
Tagalog datn-ánto visit; to come upon; to catch someone in the act; to find someone or something upon arrival; to have menstruation
Bikol datoŋ-ánthe main entrance to a town
Tausug datuŋ-anto be a recipient, be attacked or beset (by something, as a disease, fear, laziness); place where someone stays upon arrival (as a house, hotel, or apartment); a person or body to which a (court) case is brought or referred
Murut (Timugon) rataŋ-antime, place, or reason for arrival
Old Javanese ḍatəŋ-an(recently arrived) guest
Balinese dateŋ-anguest


PWMP     *dateŋ-en (gloss uncertain)

Kankanaey datŋ-ento arrive at; to attain; to reach; to meet; to find; to light on; to come across
Tagalog datn-ínto reach, attain, or experience
Murut (Timugon) rotoŋ-onthe place where one arrives for some purpose

Note:   Also Bontok gatéŋ ‘to arrive, especially of an epidemic’, Toba Batak man-dataŋ ‘to come; happen, occur’, d<um>ataŋ ‘to appear as the sign of an oracle’, Balinese ḍateŋ ‘come, arrive’ (< Javanese), Erai ratan ‘arrive’ (< Malay?). The semantic distinction between this term and PMP *teka ‘to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete’ is unclear, as both words evidently referred to physical arrival, with extended senses that applied to emotions or physical states caused by the ‘arrival’ of epidemic disease or some adverse peersonal condition (epilepsy, fever, menstruation).


*datu lineage priest (?)


PMP     *datu lineage priest (?)

Ilokano datoMuslim ruler
Pangasinan dátuleader of a tribal group, chief
Kapampangan dátu-ʔleader, rarely used except with reference to southern Philippines or to olden days
Tagalog dáto-ʔhigh priest (Laktaw 1914); tribal chief in pre-Christian days (Panganiban 1966)
Bikol dáto-ʔ(archaic) headman, chief; also referring to the rich and influential members of pre-Hispanic Bikol society
Masbatenyo dáto-ʔchief, ruler (from Cebuano)
Aklanon dátu-ʔruler, king; rich, wealthy, powerful (through money)
Cebuano dátu-ʔrich, wealthy; title of a chief, now said only to Muslim leaders
Maranao dato-ʔchieftain, leader, boss, lord, master, king, gentleman
Binukid datu-ʔchieftain, mediator
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) datu-ʔchief, leader
Mansaka dato-ʔleader, chief; a dato-ʔ is usually someone who has wealth
Tiruray datu-ʔa Moslem nobleman; a male leader among superhuman beings
Mapun datu-ʔchief; headman; any male member or descendant of a chief’s family
  anak datu-ʔprince, the child of a chief
Yakan datu-ʔchief, headman
Tboli datu-ʔa traditional leader over a group of people living in a particular geographical area … it was expected that the position would be passed on from father to son
Tausug datu-ʔprince, any male member of a royal family; a rank bestowed on certain people
Ba'amang datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Lawangan datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Ma'anyan datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Samihim datugreat grandparent (PaPaPa)
Salako datuʔterm of address for one’s parent-in-law
Malay dato-khead of family, elder; used as a term of relationship to or of a grandfather; as a term of distinction to or of any great non-royal chief; as a term of respect to any man of age and standing
  dato-k nenekancestors generally
  dato-ŋgrandfather (very literary, and used only of or to one’s own grandfather)
  daturuler, chief … this is the old Malay sovereign title borne by the Srivijaya king of the Kota Kapur inscription (AD 686)
  ke-datu-ankindgom (of Srivijaya)
Acehnese datu ~ datoʔ ~ toʔgrandfather, ancestor; term of address for elders; title for the guardians of traditional law on the west coast; title of animals or things that are regarded as holy or especially feared
Gayō datuancestor in the female line
Simalur datu-ʔhead of a kin group and guardian of traditional law
Karo Batak datu-ktitle of the head of the urungs (federations of different villages related through a “mother” village); he is subordinate to the sultan; title of powerful magicians, spirits and deities
Dairi-Pakpak Batak datufunction among animists (‘orang kafir’) worshipping idols; shaman
Toba Batak datushaman, magician, soothsayer, doctor who makes offerings to the spirits, reads the signs in chicken entrails, selects auspicious days, and whose advice is sought in all matters of daily concern
  ha-datu-onskill in the science of the datu which could sometimes be found in a radja’ (political leader; Vergouwen 1964:132)
Minangkabau datutitle for a native medical practitioner; clever, learned
  datu-aʔtitle for administrators of customary law; term of address to an elder; grandfather (van der Toorn 1891)
Sundanese ratuprince, king, princess; in south Bantam the highest title for noblewomen
Old Javanese ratuking (rarely, queen)
  ka-ratu-nkingship, royal dignity
Javanese ratuking, queen, monarch
  kraton (< *ka-ratu-an)palace, court
Madurese ratoking
Balinese ḍatuking, chief (an archaic form of ratu)
Sasak datuprince
Sangir datuprince, king
  ka-ra-ratu-aŋtime or place of ascent to kingship
Mongondow datulord, prince, king; in earlier times people hardly dared to use the word datu, and generally called the prince ki tuang ‘the lord’
  ko-datu-anbe designated a prince
Bare'e datuthe title of the princes of Luwu’, who until 1906 were the overseers of the Toraja people (from Buginese)
Proto-South Sulawesi *datuprince, chieftain
Makassarese datuBuginese princely title
  ratuold word for karaeng, prince
  ka-ratu-aŋ(old and poetic) princely quality
Ngadha ratulord, king; noble, aristocrat
Sika ratuking
Kambera ratuleader in religious ritual; priest
  marapu ratuoldest, now deified ancestors from whom superior lineages trace their ancestry
Hawu ratuprince
Wetan raichieftain, king; to rule
Yamdena ratugreat man, king; guardian of the truth; God
Fordata ratuking
Kei rātking, ruler
Manusela latuking
Paulohi latuking
Alune latuvillage head
Proto-Ambon *datuking
Laha latuvillage head, chief
Asilulu latuking, village chief
  latu kairupaŋthe ancient ruler of Asilulu before the descent to the coast, and the spirit which guards over the site of the old village
Boano₂ latuchief
Nusa Laut laʔu-lking
Fijian ratuhonorific particle and title of rank before names of males who are chiefs

Note:   Also Balinese ratu ‘king’, Wayan rātū ‘head of a clan, the title given to one who has been installed as chief’, Samoan lātū ‘person in charge of an undertaking, e.g. a party of builders, or, in the case of women, a weaving bee’. Most reflexes of *datu in the Philippines and western Indonesia contain a vocative marker *-q (Blust 1979). PMP *datu is clearly a key cultural marker, but one that is fraught with problems. Despite the temptation to include Standard Fijian ratu in this comparison, the related words in both Wayan and Samoan suggest that Capell (1968) failed to transcribe length on the vowels of this form, and this makes a derivation from PMP *datu much more difficult. For a fuller discussion of the likely meaning of this term cf. Blust (2010).


*daup₁ to cover, covering


PPh     *daup₁ to cover, covering

Bontok daúpto cover, as with a blanket
Mansaka daópkind of covering (this is the kind of covering in which the two sides support each other as they come together at the apex)


*daup₂ to bring the hands together


PPh     *daup₂ to bring the hands together

Pangasinan man-daópto put the palms of the hands together
Tagalog daópjoined or closely touching together (as hands or end surfaces)
  mag-daópto clasp or join (esp. the hands)
Cebuano dáupto fold the hands together and place them over the breast (as in sleeping)


*dawa excuse, alibi


PPh     *dawa excuse, alibi

Bikol dawaeven if, even though
Palawano dawajustification, excuse
Tboli dawaalibi, excuse


*dawak curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance


PWMP     *dawak curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance

Kalinga dawakgeneral term for curing rite in which the medium's spirit helpers are named and invoked, and in which possession takes place
Murut (Timugon) rawakmajor ritual for exorcising of persons or houses (involves communion with a spirit familiar during a self-induced trance)

Note:   Maranao raoak ‘hope for the downfall of an individual by prayer and devilish interference’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rawak ‘a curse; to invoke a curse on someone’ appear to be distinct.


*dáwat to receive; to ask for


PPh     *dáwat to receive; to ask for

Itbayaten rawatserver, waiter, waitress
  pa-rawat-ento hand over
Ilokano dáwatrequest; petition
  ag-da-dáwatmoocher; one who always asks for something
  d<um>áwatto ask for, request, beg
Isneg daw-dáwatto beg, to ask, to demand
Bontok dáwatto receive; to take; to beg
Kankanaey i-dawátto give; to bestow; to present with
Ifugaw dáwatact of accepting, receiving something; act of giving, presenting, offering, tendering something to somebody
Ibaloy i-shawatto offer something
  man-shewatto beg, plead, ask, wish for something; to pray
Pangasinan dáwatfavor sought
  pi-dáwatto seek a favor
Aklanon dáwatto take, receive, get from above
Agutaynen mag-dáwatto reach, hand something to someone; to reach out and take something that is being handed
Cebuano dáwatreceive, accept
Maranao dawatdraw payment, receive salary
Binukid dawatto receive (something), to accept something from someone
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dawatto receive or accept either an object or someone’s reasoning or argument
Mansaka dawatto reach for (to get or receive); to accept


PPh     *ma-dawat to get, obtain

Itbayaten ma-rawatto receive
Ilokano ma-dáwatto get, obtain; something that is obtained (for free)


PPh     *dawat-en to receive, accept

Itbayaten rawat-ento receive
Kankanaey dawát-ento receive; to accept; to take
Ibaloy shewat-ento take something from someone’s hand

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-1938) included Fijian rawa ‘to be able; to get, to overcome’, Tongan lava ‘to arrive, to succeed in arriving at a place or time’, Samoan lava ‘be enough, sufficient’ in the same comparison, but they are best treated as unrelated until more convincing evidence of their connection becomes available


*dawdaw kind of marine snail


PPh     *dawdaw kind of marine snail

Ilokano dawdáwkind of marine mollusk with a brown elongated shell
Mansaka dawdawkind of saltwater snail found in mangrove swamps; it is somewhat conical, and it has a black shell and black flesh


(Formosan only)

*dawiN far


PAN     *dawiN far

Taokas tavid//tavitfar
Tsou covhifar
Rukai (Tona) maʔa-davilifar
Puyuma a-dawilfar

Note:   This word was replaced by PMP *zauq.


*daya upriver, toward the interior


PAN     *daya upriver, toward the interior

Kavalan zayawest; toward the mountains
  qa-zaya-nwestern side
Saisiyat rayaʔinland
Seediq dayaabove, upland, upriver
Pazeh dayaeast
  mia-dayatowards the east; go east
Thao sayauphill, upstream, in an uphill direction
  i-tana-sayalocated uphill from the speaker
  mana-sayago upstream, go uphill; climb a hill or mountain
Bunun (Takituduh) daðaabove
  mun daðago upward
Rukai (Mantauran) ðaɭaabove
Paiwan zayaupland; upriver
  i-zayato be higher up (as on a mountain)
  lʸia-zaya(go) high upland
Yami ralanext to the mountain, on the inside, in the north
  i-ralaOrchid Island, the name the Tao have given their own island
Itbayaten ha-rayaidea of dragging a boat toward shore (e.g. from fishing)
  i-rayaland (in contrast with the sea)
  maka-rayato approach the land by sea
Ilokano dáyaeast
  ipa-dáyato point to the east
  makin-dáyaon the east side
Isneg man-dáyaupstream
  i-man-dáyapeople who live upstream
Bontok dáyasky; heaven
Kankanaey dáyaheavens; firmament; sky
Ifugaw dáyacosmic Upstream Region, extending beyond the Sky Cupola; it is conceived as surrounding half of the earth; the cosmic Upstream Region is inhabited by the gods and spirits of the Dáya, who dwell in a number of villages situated above the lower part of the Sky Cupola; the stem dáya is also applied to any site of the Earth proper that lies nearer the cosmic Dáya (i.e. more upstream) than the habitat of the person who speaks
Ifugaw (Batad) DāyaThe Heavens (includes the earth’s atmosphere, touched by mountain peaks, where birds fly; it is the location of clouds, and the source of meteorological events, as rain, hail, thunder and lightning, storms and the like. The territory also includes outer space and involves spirits relating to, and named after various celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, numerous named stars, sunlight and so forth)
Tagalog i-láyainterior part of a territory; upper part of a town; the northern part of a place
Bikol i-ráyaupstream, inland
  mag-i-ráyato go upstream; to carry upstream
Masbatenyo i-rayáupstream, hinerland, inlands, back country
Aklanon eayádry land
  i-layáinland (section of town)
  pa-i-layáto go inland
Waray-Waray i-rayáfarm; a tract of land devoted to agriculture; the upper or interior part of a town
Hiligaynon i-layáhinterland, remote area
Cebuano i-láyaarea away from the coast or town
  pa-i-láyato go inland
  i-laya-nhunhillbilly, one from the remote interior regions
Maranao rayaupriver
Lun Dayeh dayehupriver, the source of a river on a mountain
  Lun Dayehinterior people, people from upriver
Kelabit dayehupriver, toward the interior
  me-dayehgo upriver, go toward the interior
Kenyah (Long Anap) kaʔ dayaupriver
Bintulu razatoward the interior, away from the sea
Singhi Land Dayak doyuxinterior, inland
Moken dayaupstream
Malay barat dayasouthwest
Sangir dalathere behind, on the back side
  dala einland, toward the interior
  in-dalapeople from the interior
Chamorro hayasouth (in Guam and Rota); east (in Saipan)
Selaru raland, as against sea; land side
Yamdena dayeinland, west
Fordata daainland
  n-daago inland
Asilulu lalandward side, landward direction
Manipa lainland, toward the interior
Boano₂ lalandward
Larike laelandward
Tifu daiinland, toward the interior


POC     *raya upriver, toward the interior

Mussau laehinterland, interior


PWMP     *di-daya above, in the interior

Agta (Dupaningan) di-diyaupstream (cp. di-lod ‘downstream’)
Casiguran Dumagat dí-dyaupriver
Binukid di-rayaupriver, upstream direction
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) di-zayain an upstream direction
Mandar di-ayaabove, from the interior

Note:   Forms of this base with a fossilized or near-fosslized locative marker *i or *di appear in a number of Philippine languages and in South Sulawesi languages, suggesting that in many languages the notion of ‘upriver, toward the interior’ was conceived more as a location than a direction (cf. Mills 1975:678, where he notes fossilized *di in several languages not cited here). Along with PAn *lahud ‘downriver, toward the sea’ this is one of the fundamental directional terms of PAn, marking a distinction that was preserved in many languages even after the original form which represented this meaning was lost, as with Hawaiian mauka ‘toward the interior’ (cp. makai ‘toward the sea’). For reasons that are unclear, reflexes of *daya appear to be preserved much more faithfully in Taiwan, the Philippines and western Indonesia than in areas further to the east.


*dayaŋdáŋ tree sp. with poisonous sap


PPh     *dayaŋdáŋ tree sp. with poisonous sap

Ilokano dayaŋdáŋLunasia amara plant.
Tagalog dayaŋdáŋlarge tree from which is derived a poison (abuwab) for arrow tips
Bikol dayaŋdáŋa tree with greenish-white flowers, a smooth leathery fruit and a poisonous sap: Lophopetalum toxicum


*dayap a small tree with leaves used as medicine: Citrus aurantifolia


PPh     *dayap a small tree with leaves used as medicine: Citrus aurantifolia

Casiguran Dumagat dayápcitrus tree, a type of lime with leaves used as a seasoning in viand, and sometimes as a medicine for earache, being rubbed on the outer back of the ear: Citrus aurantifolia
Tagalog dáyapa small lime tree, the fruit of which is used as a substitute for lemon
Hanunóo dáyapa lemon tree and its edible fruit; the leaves are boiled and the resultan decoction is drunk for sore throat, probably Citrus aurantifolia
Cebuano dáyapk.o. small citrus tree producing small spherical, yellow fruits, juicy and sharply acid: Citrus aurantifolia


*dáyaw to praise someone


PPh     *dáyaw to praise someone

Isneg pama-dáyawto celebrate
  dayáw-anto praise, to laud, to exalt
Bontok dáyawto honor; to praise; to worship
  dayaw ~ dayəwto show off; to boast
Ibaloy shayawhonor, esteem, respect
  sheyaw-ento honor, respect, worship someone
Pangasinan dáyewhonor, respect, praise
Ayta Abellan dayawto praise someone, to compliment
Hanunóo dáyawostentatious dress, ostentation; by extension, admiration, esteem, astonishment
Aklanon dáyawto praise, honor, laud
Agutaynen mag-dayawto praise or think highly of a person; to praise or glorify God
Cebuano dáyawto praise, comment favorably on
Tiruray dayewpraise; to praise
Proto-Sangiric *dayawto praise
Sangir daloto praise
Proto-Minahasan *dayoto praise
Mongondow mon-dayowto praise

Note:   The Bontok and Hanunóo forms appear to reverse the meaning from praising another person to praising oneself.


*dayket sticky, glutinous, adhesive


PPh     *dayket sticky, glutinous, adhesive

Bontok daykətgeneral name for the various varieties of glutinous rice or cassava
Hanunóo dáykuthoney

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*dáyu stranger, foreigner; guest


PPh     *dáyu stranger, foreigner; guest

Ilokano dáyoguest from another town
  d<um>áyoto go to another place (for livelihood)
Itawis dáyuforeigner
Casiguran Dumagat dáyuto visit, to come calling (having come from a long way); to go on a long hunting trip
  dayú-anstranger, foreigner
Tagalog dáyoforeigner, alien
  dayuh-anforeigner, alien
Agutaynen dayopeople who are living at a place but are not from there, or are not permanent residents
  mag-dayoto go and stay in a place temporarily for a purpose, usually to trade or to fish

Note:   Also Ayta Abellan dayo, dayoh-an ‘stranger, outsider, foreigner’ (< Tagalog).

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

































































*debak pound, thud


PWMP     *debak pound, thud     [doublet: *depak 'clip-clop, as of horse's hooves']

Cebuano lubákto pound, beat heavily with something (as
Maranao debakbeat a drum, knock
Malay debakwhack, smack

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*debdeb chest


PAN     *debdeb chest

Papora ddapchest
Pazeh zebezepchest
Pazeh (Kahabu) zəbəzəbchest
Tagalog dibdíbchest, breast
Hanunóo dubdúbchest, breast
Kalamian Tagbanwa dɨbdɨbchest
Palawan Batak dəbdə́́́́́bchest
Mamanwa dɨbdɨbchest
Lolak dodobchest
Totoli dodobchest

Note:   Based on Tagalog dibdíb ‘chest’, Malagasy tritri ‘suck milk’, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *dibdib ‘suck at the breast’, but he was forced to recognize an irregular change in Malagasy. Moreover, Richardson (1885) gives mi-tritry ‘to suck, suck through a tube, suck milk from the udder’. On both formal and semantic grounds, then, the Tagalog and Malagasy forms are best regarded as unrelated. Zorc (1982) posits Psph *debdeb ‘breast, chest, abdomen’.


*debek smack against


PMP     *debek smack against     [disjunct: *sebek]

Malay debakwhack, smack
Manggarai sebekdull sound, as of fruit falling to the ground

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.


*dedap a tree: Erythrina spp.


PMP     *dedap a tree: Erythrina spp.     [doublet: *dapdap₁]

Malay dedaptree name, generic for Erythrina spp.
Sangir dedaʔ kaheŋaŋ(true dadap, with leaves that are used as vegetables)
  dedaʔ u wawidadap ('dedaʔ of the pigs')
  dedaʔa tree, Erythrina indica
  dedaʔ u tiaŋ(‘dedaʔ of the belly’) have heavy, painful diarrhoea; cholera
Rotinese delathe dedap, Erythrina spp.
Buli o-lolafa tree: Erythrina indica

Note:   Also Rembong zezat ‘a tree, Erythrina spp.


*degaq clatter of a stick poking around in something


PWMP     *degaq clatter of a stick poking around in something

Cebuano lugaʔ-lúgaʔmove something in a hole back and forth (as a stick to unplug a stopped-up tube)
Malay degah-degu(onom.) clatter such as that made by polers quanting among rocks


*degdeg crowded together, packed in tightly


PWMP     *degdeg crowded together, packed in tightly

Bontok dəgdəg-ənto close up a line; to stand or sit close together; to pack tightly, as the threads in weaving
Malay bər-dədakto be massed or crowded together, as ships at a good anchorage


*de(ŋ)guk deep throaty sound


PMP     *de(ŋ)guk deep throaty sound     [disjunct: *re(ŋ)guk]

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) reŋgukto snore
Malay degoksound of liquid being gulped down; gulping down
Manggarai deguksound of the feet or the breathing of an animal

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.


*deguʔ sound of swishing water


PWMP     *deguʔ sound of swishing water

Cebuano lúguʔshake a vessel with liquid in it to slosh the liquid around
Malay degah-degu(onom.) clatter such as that made by polers quanting among rocks


*dekak shriek, as of laughter


PWMP     *dekak shriek, as of laughter     [doublet: *tekak 'cackle']

Kankanaey dekáksqueak, scream, shriek, screech
Malay dekakloud guffaw, loud chuckling laughter

Note:   With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.


*dekdek₁ pulverize, crush by pounding


PMP     *dekdek pulverize, crush by pounding

Casiguran Dumagat dəkdəkpestle (tool used to pound up the pulp of the caryota palm); to mash the pulp of the caryota palm (a process in the making of caryota starch)
Ayta Abellan dekdekto smash
Tagalog dikdíkpulverized (from pounding)
Bikol dukdókpound or crush, usually with a pestle
Hiligaynon dúkdukpound, grind
Cebuano dúkdukpound something repeatedly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dekdekpound with an object such as a hammer, stone, fist, etc.; the instrument with which one hammers
Melanau (Matu) dedekpounded rice (fine, like flour)
Iban dedakdust, powder
  dedak beraurice bran
Malay dedakpowdered rice husk; chaff; bran (used as chicken food)
Sundanese dedekrice bran
Old Javanese ḍeḍekrice chaff
Balinese ḍekḍek(of rice), grind very fine
Mongondow mo-dodokto pound rice
Bare'e mon-dodobeat, as bark in making barkcloth; rice stalk
Tae' dedekbeat, pound on rhythmically, as a drum


PCEMP     *dədək pound

Tetun dedekgive successive or repeated knocks (as on a door)

Note:   Also Hanunóo dadák ‘rice bran’. Toba Batak dodak ‘rice bran’, Javanese ḍeḍak ‘rice chaff’ are assumed to be borrowings of Malay dedak.


*dekdek₂ to tamp down, compact something


PAN     *dekdek₂ to tamp down, compact something

Puyuma ɖəkɖəkto tamp down, pack tightly (as rice in a sack, or clothes that are packed tightly together)
Ifugaw dokdokto press something which is not strongly compact; to push something with force into another thing, as the handle of a knife into the socket of its blade
  d<in>okdoksugarcane sap that is dry and has been pressed strongly, so that it became a sort of cake


*dekeC paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)


PAN     *dekeC paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)

Paiwan djeketsovercooked rice, used as paste
  se-djeketsto adhere to, stick
  ma-pa-dja-djeketsto press two things together (as one’s hands)


PMP     *deket₁ paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)

Itbayaten adketidea of sticking
Ilokano dekkétpaste; adhesive; glue
  ag-dekkétto stick; stick to each other
Isneg dakkátto adhere, to cleave, to stick
Bontok dəkətto be scorched or burned where water has boiled away, of food cooked in water
Kankanaey dekétcrust of rice which forms at the bottom of the pot
  ipa-dkétto attach; to fix; to stick; to paste
Ifugaw dokótwhat clings, adheres, sticks to something; paste, glue
Ibaloy sheketto cause something to adhere (as adhesive tape); to stick --- especially of food that sticks to cooking pots; hard, thin mass of rice that sticks to the pot after cooking; (fig.) very sharp blade (as bolo) that bites into wood or bamboo, instead of bouncing off
  may-sheketto stick to something
Tagalog dikítpaste; glue
  mag-dikítto gum or stick things together with gum
  manikítto adhere
  mapa-dikítto contact or touch accidentally
  pan-dikítpaste; glue
  dikít-anhand-to-hand, close together
Bikol dukótto glue, paste, or stick something
  maka-dukótto get stuck to, glued to, pasted to; to adhere to, cohere to
Hanunóo dúkuta dark, adherent substance, especially on the teeth, as fine blackening or betel stains
Masbatenyo dukótburned rice on the bottom of a pot
  mag- dukótto stick, adhere; this meaning is derived from the fact that cooked rice is sticky and is sometimes used to seal envelopes or informal letters
Aklanon dúkotto stick together
  pa-dúkotto dance close together
  dukóthard cooked rice at the bottom of the pot; to stick to, cling to; to get pregnant
Waray-Waray dukótthe act of pasting with paste
Hiligaynon mag-dukútto stick to, to paste on
Cebuano (SE Bohol) dukútget stuck in or so something; not move from a place, stick to a job; for starchy foods to form a crust at the pot; adhere to each other; be close to one another; for fire to catch to something
Maranao deketstick, cling
  reketpaste; attach; bear fruit
Binukid mig-deketto adhere, stick to something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deketto stick to; to adhere
Mansaka dukutcrusted rice; to stick to (as a paper sticking to a table)
Tiruray deketa paste or glue; to paste or glue
Yakan deketscorched rice (that sticks to the bottom of the pot)
Tboli dketa sticky substance; glue; tape; to stick or tack something together; to pin down
Tausug dukutburnt rice (at the bottom of the rice pot)
  mag-dukutto stick to and get burnt
Kadazan Dusun dokotattach, stick to, bind together
  to-dokot(what can be) stuck on
Lun Dayeh dəkətstick on; a suckerfish which feeds on moss at waterfalls
  nəkətto stick or paste something on (like a wall)
Kelabit deketsticky; fish that moves from boulder to boulder in the river (probably from its habit of ‘sticking’ to the rocks)
  nəkətto stick something onto something else
Kayan (Uma Juman) dəkətsmall tadpole-like fish that clings by oral suction to stones in the river
Malay dekatproximity; near
  men-dekat-kanto bring up closer
Dairi-Pakpak Batak dekettogether; and; with
Toba Batak dohotwith; and
Sundanese dɨkɨtnear, in the neighborhood
Javanese ḍeketclose, nearby
Balinese deketunite, stick to, be close to; close (a wound)
  deket-aŋbe brought together, be united
Sangir mən-dəkaʔto paste or glue something to a surface
Kambera rokututo stick, adhere to something; to paste or glue to something


POC     *rokot to stick, adhere firmly

Tolai rokotto stick, adhere firmly


PPh     *i-deket to stick, adhere

Ilokano i-dkét ~ i-dekkétto paste; glue
Tagalog i-dikítto attach, stick or affix something specific; to seal, to close by sticking; to mount, to fix in proper setting, backing, or support
Bikol i-dukótto glue, paste or stick something; to put up (as posters)


PPh     *ma-deket (gloss uncertain)

Ibaloy ma-dketsharp, as a blade that bites into wood or bamboo, instead of bouncing off
Tagalog ma-dikítto contact or touch accidentally
Agutaynen ma-deketto be crowded or squeezed together
Tausug ma-rukuthaving or producing a heavy mark, dark shade (as of pencil, ballpen, color)


PAN     *pa-dekeC to stick or paste on

Paiwan pa-djeketsto paste


PMP     *pa-deket to stick or paste on

Kadazan Dusun po-dokot-oncause or allow to attach, stick to
Lun Dayeh fə-dəkətstick together; stick or paste on
Kelabit pə-dəkəthem, stitch, line of sewing on clothes


PWMP     *d<um>eket to stick to something, adhere

Ilokano d<um>ketto stick to, adhere; fit nicely
Isneg d<um>kátto adhere, to cleave, to stick
Ifugaw d<um>kótto stick to something
Tagalog d<um>ikítto adhere; to stick to (intransitive)
Tboli d<em>ketto pin down
Tausug d<um>ukutto stick to and get burnt; (for ink, pencil lead) to adhere to a surface
Kadazan Dusun d<um><in>okotstuck
Sangir d<um>əkaʔto stick, adhere to something


PWMP     *deket-en be stuck to by something

Lun Dayeh deket-enwill be pasted or stuck on
Sundanese ŋɨ-dɨkɨt-ɨnbring something near
Balinese deket-inbe stuck to by something


PWMP     *deket deket (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog dikít-dikítadhered or joined to each other in series or layers
Waray-Waray dukót-dukótsticky, contagious
Maranao deke-deketstick or cling strongly together
Sundanese dɨkɨt-dɨkɨtvery near

Note:   Also Sasak deket ‘near, close by’, bə-deket ‘be next to one another (standing or sitting)’. With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*dekep embrace


PAN     *dekep embrace     [doublet: *dakep]

Paiwan djekepto catch (animal); to come to grips (in personal fight)
  dj<em>ekepto catch, come to grips with
Kankanaey deképLatin: habere copulam
Malay dekapfolding the arms or hands over one another; clasping, embracing
Javanese dekep, ḍekepgrasp firmly; trap, as an insect -- esp. with the downturned palm

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) derives Malay dekap from *dakep by metathesis; the variant proposed here renders this unnecessary. With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.


*deket₁ ignite, set aflame


PWMP     *deket₂ ignite, set aflame

Bontok dəkətto be scorched or burned where water has boiled away, of food cooked in water
Tagalog dikítact of kindling; a setting on fire
  mag-pa-rikítto set alight; to start a fire; to kindle
Masbatenyo mag-dukótsmoulder
Palawan Batak dɨkɨtto burn (Reid 1971)
Binukid deketfor fire to catch to (something); to catch on fire
Tausug dukut(for a flammable substance) to ignite or be ignited
Sama (Central) dokotto burn
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) deketlit, aflame
Malagasy a-réhitrato be made to burn, as a match, etc.
  mi-réhitrato set on fire, to burn
  tafa-réhitraset on fire, kindled
  voa-réhitraset on fire, made to blaze
  rehét-anato be lighted, as a fire by something already burning, i.e. a match, etc.

Note:   Also Miri an-jukat ‘to burn, as rubbish, or fields before planting’.


*deket₂ blackened, as the teeth with betel stains


PPh     *deket₃ blackened, as the teeth with betel stains

Ifugaw (Keley-i) deket ~ dekketblack or any other dark color
Pangasinan dekétblackness
  on-dekétbecome black
Hanunóo dúkuta dark, adherent substance, esp. on the teeth, as vine blackening or betel stains


*dekiŋ to bark, of a deer


PAN     *dekiŋ to bark, of a deer

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) d-em-a-dekiŋ(of deer) to cry "eking, eking"
Malay deŋkiŋsharp, high-pitched bark (of dog or barking-deer); yelp

Note:   With root *-kiŋ ‘ringing sound’.


*de(ŋ)kit touching or joined along the length


PMP     *de(ŋ)kit touching or joined along the length     [doublet: *diŋkit, *ziŋkit]

Maranao deŋkitclose together, overcrowded contact
Tiruray dekitside-by-side
Javanese ḍeŋkétadhere to, be right next to
Manggarai dekitclose together (of growing plants, etc.); frequent

Note:   Also Aklanon bíŋkit ‘join, unite, tie together’, Cebuano iŋkit ‘fingers which are joined congenitally together’, siŋkit ‘tie two coconuts together by their husks partly stripped off’, Maranao bikit ‘tie up, bind’, biŋkit ‘tie up’. Together with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *Ra(ŋ)kit ‘raft, bind logs into a raft’, these forms appear to contain a monosyllabic root *-kit₂.


*deku bent, curved


PMP     *deku bent, curved     [doublet: *deŋkul]

Ngaju Dayak dekobent, curved (tree, path, etc.)
Old Javanese dəkuto bow respectfully
Javanese ḍəkuto sit cross-legged before an exalted person in a humble and deferential attitude


POC     *roku bent, curved

Arosi roʔuto bend, fold; curl up the legs

Note:   Also Old Javanese dəkuh ‘to bow respectfully’.


*dekuk bow, bend downward


PMP     *dekuk bow, bend downward

Malay dekokhollow; dip; concavity
Balinese dekuklower a horse's head
Manggarai rekukbowing, bending over (as rice stalks)
Buruese dekukbent over


POC     *rokuk bend over

Maori rokubend, be weighed down

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.


*dekuŋ to bend over


PMP     *dekuŋ to bend over

Toba Batak dohuŋvery old, bent by age
Javanese dəkuŋwith a bend or curve
  n-dəkuŋbowing in respect
Sasak n-dəkuŋto kneel
Banggai deŋkuŋcurly, of hair; bend


POC     *rokuŋ bend, curve

Futunan lo-lokuto bend (of a branch, bough)
Samoan loʔube bent, curved
  ma-loʔuto bend (of a tree, etc. in the wind)

Note:   With root *-kuŋ ‘bend, curve’.


*deldel to force something to move


PPh     *deldel to force something to move

Ilokano deldel-énto move something to one’s advantage; put nearer to
  d<um>eldélto insist, refuse to compromise
Bontok dəldə́lto move something by applying sustained pressure against it, as by leaning against it; to push
Kankanaey deldel-ánto dun, to beset for payment
Ifugaw doldólto shove, push something forward (over the floor, ground, bench., etc.)
Ifugaw (Batad) doldolsomeone’s provoking or tempting of someone else
Ibaloy shelshelto push something with a steady, even pressure (as in forcing open a door); to push one another thus (as two carabaos head-to-head)
Pangasinan on-déldelto insist
Tiruray dedelto drive an animal into or away from something


*delek thunder


PWMP     *delek thunder     [disjunct: *dalak]

Agta (Central Cagayan) dələkthunder
Maloh dalakthunder
Chamorro huluthunder

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance, as many words for ‘thunder’ are onomatopoetic, and have similar shapes without being cognate.


*delem dark of the moon, moonless night


PMP     *delem dark of the moon, moonless night

Ayta Abellan deemthe last quarter of the moon, the dark of the moon
Tagalog dilímdark; darkness; gloom; deep shadow; dim light
Maranao delemmoonless, night which is dark, black
Binukid delemto walk around at night; (for animals, etc.) to come out at night (to hunt for food); to stalk or attack something or someone at night
Tiruray delem-onthe waning of the moon, the dark of the moon; the dark of night
Tausug dūmnight (as opposed to day)
  dūm-anto be overtaken by the night
Mongondow dolomevening, night


POC     *drolom dark

Bola mo-dolomdark, become dark

Note:   Also Wolio doloma ‘pitch-dark, black as soot (of a very dirty child)’, Muna doloma ‘very dark’ (< *delem-an?). With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’


*delep submerge, sink


PMP     *delep submerge, sink

Ayta Abellan delepto submerge, to swim underwater; to dive, to duck under water
Agutaynen man-delepto bathe, play, swim in the ocean, lake, or river
Old Javanese delepimmerse
Mongondow dolopimmerse
Bare'e dolosubmerge, sink
Manggarai delepsink


*deles bowstring


PAN     *deles bowstring

Saaroa e-seleebowstring, fishing line
Rukai (Maga) Drésebowstring
Paiwan zeletbowstring
Isneg dallátbowstring
Ayta Abellan deehbowstring
Tagalog dilíscord for guitar or bow
Bikol dulósguitar string
Old Javanese delesbowstring


POC     *rolos bowstring

'Āre'āre i-rorobowstring
Sa'a i-lolobowstring
Arosi roro-ʔito string a bow

Note:   Tsuchida (1976:128-129) gives "PHes" *D₂eles ‘bowstring’, but cites cognates only from Formosa and the Philippines .


*demdem₁ brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still


PAN     *demdem₁ brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still

Amis demdemendure, referring to illness or personal feelings
Rukai (Budai) ki-ɖəməɖəməthink/mind
Ilokano demdémrancor, grudge, ill will
  demdem-en‘to repess anger, harbor a grudge
Isneg damdámthought, idea, mind, purpose, opinion
  damdamm-ánto think about, to remember
  ipa-damdámto remind
  ma-damdámto remember
  pa-namdamm-ānremembrance, keepsake, souvenir
Itawis dandámsentiment
  mad-dándamto grieve
  ma-dandámto remember
Ibaloy i-shemshemto keep something a secret --- especially of wrong-doing
Kapampangan damdam-anhear, listen
Tagalog limlímbody warmth; heat or temperature of a brooding hen; incubation
Bikol sa gi-rumdómin memoriam, in memory of
  gi-rumdum-ónto reminisce about, to call to mind
Hanunóo dumdúmremembrance, as of people
  mag-dumdúmto remember someone
Masbatenyo dumdum-ónbe remembered, be reminded
  mag-dumdómremember well, think deeply
Aklanon dúmdumto remember, keep in mind
  pa-dúmdumto remind (of)
  pa-númdumto ponder, think, concentrate
Waray-Waray dumdómthe act of remembering the past; reminiscence; memory
  pa-numdómthe act of remembering the past; reminiscence; memory
Hiligaynon mag-dúmdumto think, to recollect, to remember, to bear in mind, to recall
Cebuano dumdúmremember to do something; think something would happen
  lumlumsit on eggs; sit on papers which need processing or attention; stay inside something; for feelings to be in the breast (as envy, loneliness)
Subanen/Subanun d-al-omdommemory
Mansaka dumdumthink about, desire
Tombonuwo ko-ondomto remember
Ngaju Dayak ba-rendemto long, yearn for
Iban dendamgrudge, feud; be spiteful
Malay dendamyearning; longing; feeling of love or spite
Gayō demdemhold a grudge
Javanese ḍemḍem(an)babble about schemes against oneself (Pigeaud 1938)
Uma rodoto keep still


POC     *rodrom₂ to brood, keep still

Tolai roroto cover, as a hen her chicks
Arosi dodoto think; to be silent

Note:   Also Yakan tentem ‘to remember something (and do it), to take something to heart’. This word apparently referred to a variety of emotions connected with remembering, and to some extent thinking, although this always appears to involve some emotional quality. On the positive side these emotions included sentiments connected with the memory of persons who have passed away, and grief (for the same); on the negative side they included holding grudges and the like. PMP *demdem ‘to brood, of hens’ may also be connected through the same cognitive linkage that makes English ‘to brood’ serve both purposes, but the meanings of forms that can most plausibly be assigned to this set sometimes diverge so widely from those connected with human emotions that I have chosen to keep it separate. With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood; remember’.


*demdem₂ gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy


PAN     *demdem₂ gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy

Bunun dumdumdark, overcast, gloomy (as the sky on a cloudy day)
Paiwan zemzempitch dark(ness)
Itbayaten remdemcloud
  mir-remdento become cloudy
  ka-remdem-anregion of clouds, atmosphere, sky
Ifugaw (Batad) domdoma large flying fox, black with grey flecks
Ibaloy demdemkind of bird: a black dove
  nan-demdemcloudy, overcast
Tagalog limlímimpending darkness (in late afternoon)
  l<um>imlímto get dark; to darken (said of late afternoon)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) demdemblack beads
Tombonuwo romdommoonless night; pitch dark
Lun Dayeh decemdark; night
Tabun dicəmdarkness
Kelabit dedhemdark; darkness
  ŋe-dedhemto wait for nightfall
Balinese demdemjet black, shining (black hair)
Tonsawang dəndəmdark
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *romdom-aNdarkness
Muna rondodark, be night
  ro-rondovery dark
  ro-rondo matapoor (of eyesight), nearsighted
  ka-rondo-aovertaken by nightfall
Palauan kə-rəmerəmperiod when moon is waning
  mi-rəmerəmdark (at night)
Chamorro homhomdark, dim, obscure, dusky, gloomy, not light-colored; bleak
Kambera runduŋudark; night
Buli doramnight; dark; evening


POC     *rodrom₁ dark, cloudy

Nauna cocdark
Pak hohdark
Loniu opitch black, of a cloudy or moonless night
Wuvulu xoxodark
Mussau sau-roromdark
Vitu rododark
Lakalai la logonight; after dark; day, as a time unit
Eddystone/Mandegusu rodomodarkness; to be dark
Bugotu rodo ponopitch dark
  rodo punidarkness
Nggela rondoblind
  ro-rondoblind; blind man’s buff; to darken
Kwaio logodarkness, night; a night, as contrasted to a day
Lau rodonight
  rodo-adark; blind
  fā-rodoto darken
  fā-rodo māto blindfold
Toqabaqita rodonight, night-time, evening (when it is dark)
'Āre'āre rotocloudy; black cloud, squall; to be dark, night; blind
Sa'a rodonight
  rodo-sibe benighted
Arosi rododark, black; night
  rodo-burupitch black
Proto-Micronesian *rocobe dark
Pohnpeian rotdark
Mokilese rosdarkness
Woleaian roshnight, darkness; be dark, black, obscure


PAN     *ma-demdem dark, overcast, gloomy

Amis (Utrecht ms.) ma-simdimdark
Bunun ma-dumdumdark, overcast, gloomy
Itbayaten ma-remdemcloudy, overcast
Lun Dayeh me-decemdark, gloomy; night

Note:   Also Nggela londo ‘dark (in phrases only)’. With root *-dem₁ ‘dark, overcast’. Given the meaning of Manobo (Western Bukidnon) demdem it is possible that Aklanon dúmdum ‘very small bead’ is also connected on account of its dark color, although Zorc (1969) gives no information related to this.


*denden to move aside; make room for, as by moving a little


PPh     *denden to move aside; make room for, as by moving a little

Itbayaten om-rendento move continually (fire, cloud, smoke, a bird, boat, airplane, etc.); to move
Ilokano i-dendénto put close to, slide to
  d<um>endénto approach, go nearer to
Isneg i-dandánto bring near; to distribute
  d<um>an-dandánto approach
Bontok d<um>əndənto move aside
Ifugaw i-dondónto put or lay something aside
Ibaloy on-shenshento move oneself a short distance (as to make room for someone else to sit down)


*denet to touch, come in contact with


PPh     *denet to touch, come in contact with

Yami adnetto touch
Itbayaten adnetidea of touching against something, idea of contact
  m-adnettouching closely, clinging closely
  pa-dnet-anto make (it) touch
Ibatan adnettouch lightly onto the surface of something
Ilokano i-dennétto steep; dip; dunk; put in contact with
  ma-i-dennétto come in contact with
Casiguran Dumagat dənətto press, to make an impression on, to push against (with the finger or hand); to sign a paper by making a thumb print; to brand a carabao


*deŋan with, in conjunction with; companion


PMP     *deŋan with, in conjunction with; companion     [doublet: *deŋen, *diŋan]

Bikol duŋánconcurrent, coinciding, simultaneous, together
  mag-duŋánto do something simultaneously
  maki-duŋánto do something at the same time as someone else
Hanunóo duŋánconcerted action, togetherness
Agutaynen mag-deŋanto go together somewhere; to do something together at the very same time; familiar spirit (a familiar spirit is one which acts as a companion or a servant to a person)
Cebuano dúŋandone or happening at the same time; do something together or at the same time
Lun Dayeh deŋanwith; company; friend
Malay deŋanan auxiliary word that gives an adjectival or adverbial meaning to what follows. Usually translated by some preposition, especially by ‘with’
Toba Batak doŋancompanion, partner, comrade, friend
  doŋan sabaŋsomember of the same tribe or ethnic group
  doŋan saripespouse
  mar-doŋan iŋkaurice with vegetables
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *roŋaNtogether, with; companion; spouse
Mori Bawah me-roŋado together
Moronene roŋado together
Proto-South Sulawesi *dɨŋŋanaccompany


POC     *droŋan with, in conjunction with; companion

Kwaio doŋato follow
  doŋa-ajoin with in an enterprise; mingle with, join strands together
Lau doŋaa pair; to follow; together
  doŋa-ato join
Sa'a doŋaa pair, a couple
Arosi doŋaa pair (as of coconuts)


PWMP     *man-deŋan go with, accompany someone

Ngaju Dayak man-deŋankeep company with, accompany
Toba Batak man-doŋan-iaccompany someone
Mandar man-daŋŋaŋto add to something


PWMP     *maR-deŋan do something simultaneously

Bikol mag-duŋándo something simultaneously
Toba Batak mar-doŋanhave a companion or partner


*deŋdeŋ₁ to cook vegetables


PPh     *deŋdeŋ₁ to cook vegetables

Yami deŋdeŋto cook (as fish)
Ibatan deŋdeŋto overcook food, esp. vegetables
Ilokano ag-deŋdéŋto boil vegetables
  d<in>eŋdéŋa boiled vegetable dish
Bontok dəŋdəŋto cook a side dish for rice, such as vegetables or fish
Kankanaey deŋdeŋ-énto cook vegetables
Ifugaw doŋdóŋcooking of vegetables


*deŋdeŋ₂ thunder; roaring or thunderous sound


PAN     *deŋdeŋ₂ thunder; roaring or thunderous sound

Kavalan zeŋzeŋthunder
  m-zeŋzeŋto thunder
Paiwan z<al>eŋzeŋto make the sound of wind
Itbayaten reŋreŋto sound like the roar of an airplane, the buzzing of bees, etc.


*deŋen with, in conjunction with; companion


PWMP     *deŋen with, in conjunction with; companion     [doublet: *deŋan, *diŋan]

Ngaju Dayak deŋenand, with, next to; for; sign of the dative
Sundanese dɨŋɨnwhat is eaten with the rice
Buginese reŋŋeŋfriend, associate


*deŋeR to hear; sound


PAN     *deŋeR to hear; sound

Puyuma ɖəŋərname; sound (ritual term)
  pu-ɖəŋərgive a name
  tu-ɖəŋərsong, as of a bird
Paiwan la-deŋa ~ la-ŋedato hear


PMP     *deŋeR to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight

Yami reŋeyhear
Itbayaten a-dŋeyidea of hearing
Ilokano deŋŋégto hear, to listen, respond to; react to
Isneg d<in>aŋ-daŋágheeded, listened to
Bontok dəŋəlto listen; to hear
  pa-dŋəlto tell; to make known; to relate
Ifugaw doŋólto hear, listen
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-noŋolfor a person, a living thing with ears, to hear or listen to someone or something, as the call of a bird, a cry, music, noise, talking; to hear about someone or something; for someone to obey someone
Casiguran Dumagat diŋehto put something up to your ear to listen (as a watch to see if it is ticking)
Pangasinan deŋélto hear
  na-ŋel-ánwas heard
Ayta Abellan leŋeto hear; to listen
Tagalog diŋígaudible; can be heard
Bikol daŋógreputation
  daŋóg-dáŋogclearly audible
  daŋóg-daŋóghearsay, innuendo
Hanunóo duŋúghearing, listening; perceiving; the more commonly used form is dunúg
Inati ka-rŋedto hear
Aklanon dúŋoglisten to, hear, give ear to
  duŋógfame, honor, reputation
Kalamian Tagbanwa dɨŋɨlto hear
Hiligaynon duŋúghonor, fame, reputation
Cebuano duŋúgto hear; to listen; heed one’s requests; reputation, honor; be bruited about, widely known; hear one another
  magka-dúŋughear one another
  mu-duŋúgto heed
  pa-duŋug-dúŋugsay something in someone’s earshot to embarrass him or give him a hint
Binukid deŋegreputation, honor
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deŋega person’s reputation or good name
Mansaka duŋugto hear
Tausug duŋugto listen, hear, pay attention to or take heed (by listening)
Rungus Dusun o-roŋowto hear
Bisaya (Limbang) nu-ruŋawto hear
Bisaya ŋa-rəŋəwto hear
Kayan deŋahnews, report
Kayan (Uma Juman) dəŋahnews
Melanau (Mukah) dəŋahnews
Paku ka-reŋeyto hear
Malagasy reniheard; perceived, as a scent
Malay deŋarlistening to; to hear
Nias roŋoto hear
Enggano dohõ-ito hear
Old Javanese rəŋə-rəŋəremaining in the ear, continuously audible
Mongondow do-doŋogear, what one hears with (priestly language)
Ponosakan doŋohto hear
Kaidipang duŋoguto hear
Tialo loŋohear, listen to
Lauje loŋohear, listen to
Balantak roŋorto hear
Banggai mo-loŋol-i-konlisten to something
  mon-doŋol-ilisten to
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *roŋoRto hear
Wolio raŋoto hear
  po-raŋoable to hear (opposite of being deaf); hearing
Palauan or-reŋəshear; listen to; obey
Chamorro huŋokhear; heed; be informed; perceive by the ear; gain knowledge
Bimanese riŋato hear
  ka-riŋato inform, give news of
Sika renato hear something (as a rumor); to feel, have a feeling, as in feeling feverish; feeling, sentiment
Lamaholot dəŋəʔto hear
Kédang dəŋərto hear
Kodi roŋŋoto hear
Anakalangu raŋuhear
Hawu rəŋi ~ rəŋeto hear, understand
Rotinese nene-neneto listen
  ma-neneto hear
Tetun ronato hear, to listen, to pay attention to
Vaikenu nɛnato hear
Waima'a deneto hear
Kisar derneto hear
Yamdena n-deŋarto hear, be obedient
  na-deŋarto have good hearing, able to hear well
Fordata n-renarto hear
Kola renato hear
Masiwang b-lokato hear
Alune leneto hear
Gimán loŋato hear
Sawai m-loŋɛto hear
Buli loŋato hear
Mayá ꞌdo¹²nto hear
Minyaifuin loŋoto hear
Irarutu noŋgərto hear


POC     *roŋoR to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight

Tigak loŋokobey, listen
Nalik ləŋərto hear
Tanga to hear
Label loŋorto hear
Tolai loŋor-oito hear, obey, listen, heed
Bali (Uneapa) loŋor-ito hear, listen
Vitu loŋor-iato hear
  loŋor-ia poleaobey, agree, follow the advice
Arop a-loŋoto hear; to know
Biliau loŋto hear
Amara -loŋoto hear
Kove loŋonito hear
Bebeli loŋoto hear
Mengen loŋoto hear
Manam loŋoto hear
  loŋor-ito obey, to listen
  loŋo-loŋoto hear
Gedaged loŋto know, to have knowledge of, to be acquainted with, be aware of, be sensible of, to hear, learn, learn by heart, be able, be careful of, to make possible, to perceive, comprehend, understand, apprehend, be cognizant of, to fathom, make out, discern; have a premonition, to notice, feel, sense, observe, be conscious of
Sio a-loŋoto hear
Mbula -leŋhear, listen
Mekeo (East) roŋoto hear
Sudest loŋw-eto hear
Nehan loŋorhear, listen, obey
  loŋoro namanatehear with understanding, find out by listening
Piva noŋonoto hear
Luangiua loŋoto hear, listen
Bugotu roo-roŋoto hear, receive a report; news, tidings
  roŋo-ragafame, glory; to be famous
  roŋo-vito hear
Nggela roŋoto hear or be heard
  roŋo-hito hear or be heard
  roŋo-vito hear or be heard; to listen; to feel; to obey; to enquire about
  roŋo-roŋonews; fame; custom; rank or position
  roŋo-roŋo lavi-laviidle rumor, gossip
Kwaio loŋolisten
  abu-loŋounable to hear; fail to realize
  fufu-loŋo-siapay attention to a person who is talking
  loŋo-ato hear
Lau fufu-roŋoto listen; to hear; disciple
  roŋo-ato hear, listen to; to perceive, to smell
  roŋo-lahearing, perceiving
Toqabaqita roŋohear, listen
  roŋo-ato hear, listen to
  roŋo-laathe way in which something or someone sounds to someone
'Āre'āre noro-a <Mhear, hear tidings of, understand
  noro-a kenito inquire about a girl as a prospective bride for a man
Sa'a roŋo-roŋoto hear, to listen, to hear tidings of; to understand; to ask in marriage
  roŋo saaito understand
Arosi roŋoto hear, listen, obey; to feel, endure; correct, as the use of a word; disciple
  roŋo-taʔaa discord, ugly sound; incorrectly used, of a word
Sikaiana lonoto hear
Gilbertese oŋohear, obey
Kosraean lɔŋhear, listen to (someone)
Marshallese reŋʷhear, listen
Pohnpeian roŋhear
Mokilese roŋhear, listen
Chuukese roŋhear, obey, listen
Mortlockese roŋoroŋhear, listen
Puluwat roŋhear, listen, obey
Woleaian roŋoroŋhear, listen
Satawal roŋhear, listen
Carolinian roŋhear, listen
Mota roŋoto feel, hear, smell, taste, apprehend by senses; be patient of, be in a passive state
  roŋo maulto endure with patience, suffer long
  roŋo ruato have two tastes (as half fresh, half salt)
  roŋo-taghear, taste, smell, feel something
  roŋo-vagto feel, suffer
  roŋo-roŋolisten to, hear
Nokuku rono-ato hear
Araki doŋoto hear someone or something; feel physically; feel one way or another, feel well or ill; feel that, realize that something is going on; feel like, fancy (doing)
Apma roŋoto smell
Lingarak -roŋto hear
Leviamp -ruto hear
Avava roŋto feel; to hear
Lonwolwol lɔŋ-nεto hear, to feel (not only hearing, but general personal feeling, and sense of smell, are expressed by lɔŋ-nε)
Southeast Ambrym loŋEto hear, feel
Paamese loŋehear; listen to; feel; pay attention to
  loŋ selūsienobey
  loŋ-loŋaware; wise
  loŋ-loŋo-niget to hear about, become aware of
Rotuman roŋoto be reported, heard of, generally known; to be notorious or famous; report, news, repute, reputation, fame
Wayan roŋobe heard, perceived with the ears; be understood; (of news, rumors, etc.) be heard abroad, i.e. reported, talked about; (of a person) be known, famous, have a reputation; (of an engine, machine, etc.) resound, be audible, make a noise, work
  i-roŋonoise, sound; news
  i-roŋo-roŋonews, report; hearing, sense of hearing; stethoscope, hearing aid
  roŋo-cihear something, hear the sound of something
  roŋo-ruaignore or shun advice, take no heed of what one is told
  roŋo-roŋolisten, hear; sound, make a sound
  roŋo-roŋo-ipay attention to something, listen attentively to something
Fijian roŋoto hear; to make a noise (of an engine), to spread, to be heard (of a report), to be famous (of a person or place)
Tongan oŋoto sound, be heard or to be heard about; to appeal, carry weight, impress; to be felt or perceived or realized or appreciated; to hear, to have the sense of hearing; to be sentient, able to feel; sound; report, story; fame, reputation; hearing, sense of hearing; feeling, emotion; report or story that is ‘floating about’ but is unauthenticated, rumor
  oŋo-ʔito hear; to perceive, feel --- pain, pleasure, taste, smell, etc.; to be aware or conscious of, to realize, to appreciate; to feel for, sympathize with
  oŋo-oŋonews, report or reputation
  oŋo-oŋo-afamous, renowned
Niue oŋoa report, message
  ta-oŋoto echo
  tu-oŋofame; to be widely known
  tuku-oŋoto publish, pass on (as news)
Futunan loŋoto hear, be heard (from a distance)
  loŋo-āto be noisy
  loŋo-fiato understand, know
  loŋo-nabe known, celebrated, famous; to be announced, proclaimed
  loŋo-ʔito feel
  loŋo-loŋoto hear faintly; rumor, hearsay; to inform; to summon
Samoan loŋoperceive by hearing or some other sense, other than sight; large wooden gong (used for calling people to church); sound
  lau-loŋoresound, echo
  loŋo-loŋoto tell, inform
Tuvaluan loŋohear; sense; feel pain or emotion; tell news; a bell; news; a canoe bringing news
  faka-loŋoto obey; act of hearing
  laŋo-nahear; feel; think
Kapingamarangi loŋonews; to hear
  loŋo-aato be annoyed or disturbed by noise
  loŋo-noto perceive, to feel, to hear
Nukuoro loŋohear, feel; news
  loŋo ihobe aware of, experience, perceive, feel (in one’s mind or body)
  loŋo-loŋoacuity of hearing
  loŋo-loŋo i leaalarumor
Rennellese goŋonews, report, message, account, story, fame, reputation, invitation, messenger; to hear, listen, feel, taste, to go in order to hear, as news
  haka-goŋoto hear, listen, obey, feel, taste
  goŋo-aʔato be irritated by noise; to be nervous, nerve-racking (of noise)
Anuta roŋoto hear
  roŋo-roŋoto hear about
Rarotongan roŋoto apprehend by the senses, except sight; to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste; news, tidings, a report or a rumor, fame, a flying report, a current story, notoriety
  roŋo-nuigreatness, great fame, celebrated; renown, a great name or reputation; famed, renowned, illustrious
  roŋo-roŋo-ānotorious, of ill report, infamous
Maori roŋoapprehended by the senses, except sight; hear; obey; tidings, report, fame; peace after war
  roŋo-ruaconflicting news; having two reputations
Hawaiian lononews, report, remembrance, rumor


PWMP     *ma-deŋeR audible

Ifugaw ma-dŋólaudible
Bikol ma-daŋógaudible
Banggai mo-loŋolto hear


PPh     *maka-deŋeR to be able to hear

Ilokano maka-ŋégto be able to hear
Bikol maka-daŋógto hear, overhear
Mongondow moko-doŋogto hear, be able to hear
Gorontalo moʔo-duŋohuable to hear


PPh     *maki-deŋeR (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten machi-dŋeyto consult
Mongondow moki-doŋogto listen, try to hear


PWMP     *man-deŋeR to hear

Itbayaten man-ʔa-dŋeyto hear, to listen
Malagasy man-drenito hear; to perceive a scent
Bahasa Indonesia men-deŋarto hear
Gorontalo mo-duŋohuto hear


PWMP     *maR-deŋeR listen to, heed

Bikol mag-daŋógto listen to
Bahasa Indonesia ber-deŋarlistened to, followed, obeyed


PWMP     *pa-deŋeR (gloss uncertain)

Bontok pa-dŋəlto tell; to make known; to relate
Aklanon pa-duŋógto honor, celebrate, give honor to
Nias fa-roŋoto hear from all sides
As fɔlɔnɔto hear


POC     *pa-roŋoR (gloss uncertain)

Bugotu va-roŋoto hear, listen to, obey


PWMP     *paka-deŋeR (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano paka-duŋúghear many things; cause someone to hear


POC     *paka-roŋoR (gloss uncertain)

Arosi haʔa-roŋoto tell, give news, inform
Wayan vaka-roŋolisten; obey, take heed of what one is told
Fijian vaka-ro-roŋoto hear, listen, obey
Samoan faʔa-loŋoto hear; listen; pay attention; obey; feel
Rarotongan aka-roŋoto hear, to listen, to obey, to yield to, to pay attention to, to heed; obedience; obedient
Maori whaka-roŋocause to hear, inform; listen; attend to, obey
Hawaiian hoʔo-lonoto listen, hear, obey; obedient


PWMP     *ka-deŋeR-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ka-dŋey-anhow heard, where heard
Aklanon ka-duŋg-án-anhonor, fame, repute
Cebuano ka-duŋg-án-anhonor
Bahasa Indonesia ke-deŋar-anable to be heard; to be heard


PWMP     *d<um>eŋeR to hear

Ilokano d<um>ŋégto hear
Bontok du-d<um>ŋəlone gifted in hearing the omens of birds
Ifugaw d<um>ŋólcan hear, able to hear
Ifugaw (Batad) d<um>oŋolfor the ear to hear, and thus to function properly
Tausug d<um>uŋugto listen, hear, pay attention to or take heed (by listening)
Old Javanese r<um>əŋöto hear
  r<um>əŋö-rəŋöto listen in an effort to hear everything that is said


PPh     *deŋeR-en to listen to

Itbayaten a-dŋey-ento listen, to heed, to hear advice
Ilokano deŋg-ento hear, listen to
Bontok dəŋl-ənto listen; to hear
Bikol daŋog-ónto listen to
Tausug duŋug-unto listen
Gorontalo duŋoh-elobe heard, listened to

Note:   Also Kankanaey deŋén ‘to hear’, ma-dŋé ‘to be heard’, dŋé ‘to listen; to give hearing; to pay attention’, Tagalog diníg ‘audible; can be heard’, Agutaynen deŋeg ‘dignity, honor’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dineg, Berawan (Batu Belah) ŋə-liŋah, Lawangan diŋaʔ, Proto-Sangiric *diŋiR ‘to hear’, Sangir diŋihəʔ ‘be heard; audible’, Makassarese al-laŋŋereʔ ‘to hear’, ka-laŋŋer-aŋ ‘audible’, Manggarai deŋé ‘to hear; to feel, have a feeling’, Ngadha déŋé ‘to hear, believe; follow, conform with; pay attention to’, Tawala nonola ‘hear; smell’, Niue loŋo ‘bell; drum hollowed out of wood’; loŋo-na ‘to hear, sense, understand, smell’; faka-loŋo-loŋo ‘to silence; to be calmed’. With root *-ŋeR ‘hear; noise’.

The basic sense of this word in both PAn and PMP was clearly ‘to hear’ both in the sense of receiving an auditory impression and in the sense of receiving information, or news (hence: ‘to hear about’). As in many traditional cultures where knowledge was transmitted orally, the sense of ‘to hear’ or ‘to listen’ also incorporates connotations of ‘to understand’. Other meanings that derive from the primary notion of hearing are ‘to obey, heed’, and ‘fame, reputation; famous’ (= ‘heard about, bruited about’). The most puzzling semantic feature of this base is its extension in a number of Oceanic languages to any sense other than that of sight. Although this is rarely mentioned in glosses of reflexes outside the Oceanic subgroup, there are indications of a similar notion in Malagasy reni ‘heard; perceived, as a scent’, and Sika rena ‘to feel, have a feeling, as in feeling feverish; feeling, sentiment’. I am indebted to Nick Thieberger, Malcolm Ross, Ross Clark and Hans-Werner Hatting who responded in December, 2011 to an inquiry in regarding this matter and provided useful discussion and data.


*deŋkul to bend, fold


PWMP     *deŋkul to bend, fold

Malay dəŋkulknee
  mən-dəŋkulto bend the knee
Javanese ḍeŋkulknee
Balinese deŋkulknee
Banggai deŋkulto bend; bent


*deŋut restless, impatient, annoyed


PWMP     *deŋut restless, impatient, annoyed     [disjunct: *reŋeC, ReŋeC 'angry, annoyed']

Cebuano luŋút-luŋútrestless, moving about and talking in anger, exasperation, impatience to do something
Iban deŋutmurmur, grunt, whine, squeal (as young pigs), any protesting sound
Malay deŋutgive out a long low murmuring note, esp. of a quail

Note:   With root *-ŋut ‘mumble, murmur, mutter’.


*de(m)paD flat and wide


PWMP     *de(m)paD flat and wide     [disjunct: *da(m)paD]

Tagalog lapádflat and wide
Iban demparflat (of forehead or back of hand)

Note:   With root *-paD ‘flat, level’.


*depah fathom


PAN     *depah fathom

Kavalan zpifathom
  mu-zpito measure by fathom
  sa-zpito stretch two arms
Puyuma dəpameasure of two arms stretched wide
Itbayaten hadpa (<adpah) <Midea of stretched-arms length, or of fathom
Ilokano deppáarmspan
  saŋa-dpameasurement of the arms extended, about six feet
Isneg dappáfathom, a measure of length containing six feet; the space to which a man can extend his arms
Bontok dəpathe measurement between the fingers of one’s outstretched arms
Kankanaey sin-depáone fathom, about six feet
Ifugaw dopáfathom, measure of length recognized among the Ifugaw
  hin-dopáone fathom length
Ifugaw (Batad) dopaa unit measure of an arm span, i.e., a distance measured between the fingertips of two outstretched arms
Casiguran Dumagat dəppafathom (a length measurement, about five feet; the length from one fingertip to the fingertip of the other outstretched arm)
  sa-dpaone fathom, one span; to take a measurement by fathoms
Ayta Abellan depaharmsbreadth
Tagalog dipáthe length of both arms stretched out; a fathom
Bikol dupáan arm’s length
Hanunóo dupáfathom; a unit of linear measurement, equal to the distance between the tips of one’s extended arms; arm span
Masbatenyo dupáfathom, two arms length
Abaknon dappato measure with armspan; fathom
Aklanon dupáarmsbreadth, armspan [unit of measure]; to stretch out one’s arms, hold one’s arms out sideways
Waray-Waray dupáa unit of measure of full arms length; to stretch out someone’s arms widely
Agutaynen depaa unit of measure the distance of outstretched arms
Cebuano dupáto extend the arms out sideways (as in Christ on the cross); bar the way with outstretched arms; measure something by fathoms
Maranao repafathom --- a measure
  sa-repaone fathom
Binukid depameasurement, the length from the fingertips of one hand to the fingertips of the other measured with the arms outstretched; to measure (something) in this way
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) repaone fathom; the length of one’s outstretched arms; to measure by fathom or by outstretched arms
Mansaka dupaarmspan, fathom
Mapun dappaan armspan (a measure of length or depth)
  nappato measure something by armspans
  pa-dappato measure something by armspans; to extend one’s arms out on both sides
Yakan deppearm span (measurement of length; both arms are stretched out, and one measures from fingertip to fingertip)
Tausug dupaan armspan (a measure of length or depth)
Tombonuwo ropoarmspan
  duwo no ropotwo armspans
  r<in>opa-anmeasured with armspans
Basap dəpafathom
Lun Dayeh defeha measurement indicated by the span of both arms outstretched between the tips of the middle fingers; a fathom, six feet
Kelabit depehfathom, distance between two outstretched arms
Kenyah depameasurement (two yards)
  ŋa-depato measure in fathoms
Wahau paʔfathom, distance between outstretched arms
Gaai paʔfathom, distance between outstretched arms
Kelai paʔfathom, distance between outstretched arms
Mei Lan Modang paʔfathom, distance between outstretched arms
Woq Helaq Modang paʔfathom, distance between outstretched arms
Long Gelat Modang paʔfathom, distance between outstretched arms
Kayan (Uma Juman) dəpaʔfathom
Kiput dəpihfathom
Bintulu rəpafathom
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) dəpafathom
Ngaju Dayak depæfathom
Malagasy refia fathom, two yards, the measure from tip to tip of the fingers across the chest when the arms are spread out
Iban depaʔspan of the arms outstretched (between tips of middle fingers), fathom; lengths of cane, rope, etc., and generally where English measure is in yards
Tsat pa¹¹fathom, armspan
Rhade əpafathom, span of outstretched arms
Moken depa ~ adepafathom
Malay depameasure of length represented by the span of the outstretched arms; to measure in this way
Acehnese deupafathom
Gayō depafathom
  se-depaone fathom
Simalur rəpafathom
Karo Batak depafathom
  si-depaone fathom
Toba Batak dopaunit of measurement: both arms outstretched across the chest; fathom
Nias dõfafathom
Sundanese deupafathom
  ŋa-deupato measure in fathoms
  sa-deupaone fathom
Old Javanese ḍəpafathom (the outstretched arms as a measure of length)
Javanese ḍəpafathom (measure of length, i.e. the distance between the fingertips of the outstretched arms)
  nəpato measure in fathoms
Balinese depafathom (measure = distance from fingertip to fingertip of both outstretched arms)
  ha-depaone fathom
Sasak depafathom
Sangir dəpafathom
Tontemboan rəpafathom
Tonsawang dəpafathom
Mongondow yopafathom, unit of measurement between the outstretched arms
Uma dopofathom
  ha-nopoone fathom
Tae' daʔpafathom
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ropafathom
Buginese rəppafathom
Makassarese rappafathom, distance between the tips of the middle fingers of the outstretched arms
Wolio ndapafathom
Muna rofafathom, double arms length; measure in arms’s lengths (with outstretched arms)
Manggarai depafathom
Rembong depafathom
Ngadha depameasure with outstretched arms, as in divination
Lamaholot dəpãto measure in fathoms
Kambera ràpafathom
  man-dàpaa fathom long, said of the horns of buffalos
Tetun rohafathom, the length of the extended arms
Leti reafathom
Wetan rewaa unit of measure (fathom, about six feet)
Selaru refathom
Yamdena defefathom
  n-defto fathom, measure by fathoms
Fordata refafathom
  n-refato fathom, measure by fathoms
Kei refa fathom
  en-refa-kto measure in fathoms
Dobel respan, fathom
Kamarian reafathom
Asilulu leafathom
Boano₂ leafathom
Buruese repafathom
Kowiai/Koiwai refarmspan, fathom
Taba lofarmspan, fathom
Buli loffathom
  lof-saone fathom
Numfor roffathom


POC     *ropa fathom

Lakalai la-lova-laa fathom
  la-lova-la i-saaone fathom
Motu rohafathom; length
  roha-iato measure; to fathom
Dobuan roafathom
Mota rovato stretch out the arm, stretch out at arms’s length; to measure with the stretch of the arms; a fathom
Tongan ofafathom, six feet; (in gardening) the distance between two consecutive rows of yams, etc.
Niue ofaa fathom; to measure in fathoms (i.e. with outstretched arms)
Futunan lofafathom, distance from tip to tip between outstretched arms
Nukuoro lohafathom (the span of one’s outstretched arms)
  loha-lohato measure off in fathoms
Rennellese gohafathoms of line or distances; to be such


PPh     *i-depa extend the arms sideways

Ilokano i-deppáto extend the arms; hang on a cross
Tagalog i-dipáto open the arms wide; to stretch out the arms
Masbatenyo i-dupáextend the arms


PPh     *man-depa to measure in fathoms

Pangasinan man-depáto spread with outstretched arms
Bikol man-dupáto measure with the arm
Sangir mən-dəpato fathom, measure in fathoms


PPh     *maR-depa extend both arms sideways

Ilokano ag-deppáto extend the arms
Isneg mag-dappáto extend both arms
Agutaynen mag-depato measure with outstretched arms
Tausug mag-dupato extend one’s arms to the side


PWMP     *d<um>epa to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms

Tagalog d<um>ipáto open the arms wide; to stretch out the arms
Old Javanese ḍ<um>əpato span, enclose
Tontemboan r<um>əpato measure in fathoms


PWMP     *depa-en to