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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ha    he    hi    hu    



















hakut hakut






























































*ha marker of a tag question


PMP     *ha₁ marker of a tag question

Bontok ʔatag question, typically with a rising intonation
Tagalog hainterrogative particle meaning: what is it? or what do you mean?; interrogative particle meaning: do you understand?; exclamatory interrogative particle with the element of surprise or reproach: is that so?
Manggarai -apostposed question marker
Leti aemphatic particle used to indicate a question


*ha- adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure


PMP     *ha-₁ adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure

Ifugaw a-kind of prepositional prefix which makes certain word-bases adjectival and descriptive, as if they were preceded by the preposition 'with'; in the Kiangan area an- is preferred to simple a- for some word-bases: a-tike/an-tike/ 'short (with shortness)'
Bikol ha-adjectival affix prefixed to adjectives denoting height, length, and depth
Cebuano ha-adjective forming affix added to adjective referring to degree. It has no meaning other than to give a formal flavor to the style: ha-taás 'tall', ha-láyuʔ 'far', ha-lapad 'broad'
Kadazan Dusun a-adjectival prefix
Buludupi a-adjectival prefix
Malagasy a-a verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb. Thus from fafy, sowing, we get a-fafy, used of the seed sown, in correlation to the passive verb fafazana from the same root, used of the ground sown
Mentawai a-prefix indicating the completion of an event e.g. bala 'come out', a-bala 'it is out'
Javanese a-prefix, adjective and verb formative; having, characterized by: doh, a-doh 'far-off, distant'
Makassarese a-prefix used before adjectives (mostly in 17th and 18th century texts)


POC     *a- adjectival prefix

Arosi a-an adjectival prefix, showing condition, often a shortened form of the prefix ta or ma

Note:   Possibly also Fijian ca- ‘passive prefix’. The distributional distinction between *ma- and *ha- is unclear, although both occur in different attested languages as active or fossilized affixes on stems such as *zauq ‘far’. Semantically, the former appears to have been exclusively stative/adjectival, whereas the latter may have had a passive/adjectival sense. I am indebted to David Zorc for comments that led to improvements in this entry.


*hábas tumor in the mouth of an animal


PPh     *hábas tumor in the mouth of an animal

Ilokano ábaskind of tumor or swelling that grows in the mouths of animals
Tagalog hábascallosity in the mouth (of horses, etc.)
Cebuano hábasgrowth which develops in horses' mouths which causes hardship in eating
Maranao abaschicken pox

Note:   Also Tiruray abas ‘the measles’; abas-en ‘sick with the measles’. Possibly a Greater Central Philippines loan in Ilokano.


*habed hindrance, obstacle


PWMP     *habed hindrance, obstacle

Ilokano abbédobstacle, hindrance (mostly used for material obstruction)
Tagalog habídentangling obstacle
Bahasa Indonesia hambathold back, impede
Toba Batak abothindrance, impediment, obstacle
Old Javanese (h)awerrestrain, suppress, check, stop, prevent

Note:   Also Malay embat ‘to obstruct’.


*habél weave cloth


PPh     *habél weave cloth

Ilokano abéltextile, (woven) cloth, web, texture, tissue, woven fabric
Bontok ʔabə́lweave cloth
Ifugaw abólweaving; whatever pertains to weaving
Pangasinan abélcloth
Tagalog hábitexture of fabric, woven pattern on fabric
Bikol habólthe weave of cloth
Hanunóo hábulweaving of cloth
Aklanon háboeblanket, use a blanket
  habóeto weave
Palawan Batak ʔabélclothing, garments
Cebuano habúlweave with a hand loom
Mamanwa habɨlblanket
Maranao aolto weave
  aol-aʔloom for weaving
Subanon m-abolto weave cloth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) havelweave cloth
Tiruray ʔawelweave cloth
Kalagan abulblanket
Kadazan Dusun avospinning, weaving
Murut (Timugon) awolweave; woven material
Mongondow aboḷto weave
Gorontalo wawoloto weave


PWMP     *maŋ-habel weave cloth

Ilokano maŋŋ-abélweaver
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-avoto spin, to weave


PPh     *maR-habél to weave, be weaving

Ilokano ag-abélto weave
Bikol mag-habólweave cloth
Mongondow mog-aboḷto weave


PPh     *habel-án loom for weaving cloth

Ilokano pag-abl-ánloom
Tagalog habih-ánloom
Bikol haból-anloom
Hanunóo h-ar-abl-ánbackstrap loom for weaving cotton garments and blankets
Tiruray ʔawel-onloom


PWMP     *habel-en be woven

Bontok ʔabl-ənwhat is woven
Tagalog habih-ínthings to be woven, orders for weaving
Bikol habl-ónbe woven; woven cloth
Cebuano habl-únblanket, sheet, or anything used as covering for sleeping; hand loom; cloth woven in a hand loom
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hevel-enwoven cloth on the loom which is not yet complete
Kadazan Dusun ovoh-onwhat is spun or woven

Note:   Malay hambal ‘rug, carpet’ appears to be distinct (cp. Malay (Jakarta) ambal ‘rug, carpet’, with last-syllable /a/, not /e/).


*habhab to gulp, devour, eat like a pig


PPh     *habhab to gulp, devour, eat like a pig     [doublet: *tabtab]

Ilokano um-abʔábto drink while kneeling (from a faucet); to drink from the palms of the hands; to drink without a cup
Ibaloy abʔab-ento swill, gulp, drink copius draughts of a liquid, perhaps loudly (as water, gin); also can apply to a person who eats voraciously out of hunger
Tagalog habhábnoisy manner of eating and gobbling up large chunks (as by dog or pig)
Cebuano habhábfor pigs to eat; for people to eat (derogatory)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) habhabof a person, to eat as an animal eats, without the use of hands (used only in a derogatory or joking sense); of a pig, to eat in its characteristic manner

Note:   Also Cebuano hakhák ‘to eat food greedily, and in a hasty, unrefined manner’.


*habuk powdery substance, dust


PMP     *habuk powdery substance, dust     [disjunct: *qabuk, etc.]

Cebuano hábukfertilize plants with compost
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) havuk-havukthe white powdery scale which forms on exposed parts of the body when a person does not often bathe; the powdery film on a mature squash or any white scale or powdery substance on something; to become covered with white scale or with a powdery film
Malay (h)abokpowdery stuff; dust; chaff
Sasak awuk-awukash

Note:   With root *-buk₁ ‘decay, crumble; powder’.


*hábuŋ temporary hut, shelter


PPh     *hábuŋ temporary hut, shelter

Ilokano áboŋhut
Isneg ábuŋhut
Bontok ʔábuŋa house; one’s residence
Kankanaey paŋ-ábuŋmember of the family; cohabiting; husband and wife
  sin-paŋ-ábuŋone whole family; all those who inhabit one house
Ibaloy aboŋhut, shelter, house of poor construction
  man-eboŋto stay or live in a hut
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) abuŋhouse
Pangasinan abóŋhome, house, dwelling
Tagalog háboŋtemporary shed or shelter made of leaves, grass, cloth or canvas; hovel; an open shed for sheltering cattle, etc.

Note:   Also Ifugaw áboŋ ‘any sort of habitable hut built with light materials’ (probably from Ilokano). A version of this comparison was first noted schematically by Zorc (1986:163).


*hacuk enter, penetrate


PWMP     *hacuk enter, penetrate     [disjunct: *hasuk]

Cebuano hasúkinsert something into a hole or sheath
Kayan asukpush in, push along, push away
Iban acokthrust, pierce, poke


*hadas anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare


PWMP     *hadas anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare

Tagalog hárasFoeniculum vulgare: local name for anís (Eng. 'fennel'), the seeds of which are used for flavoring
Malay adasfennel. Also (specifically) adas pedas or 'peppery adas' in contrast to adas manis ... 'sweet adas' or aniseed
Lampung adasplant whose seed is used to produce an oil: Foeniculum vulgare
Old Javanese hadasanise (Foeniculum vulgare)
Javanese adasfennel
  leŋa adasaromatic oil taken for stomach ache
Balinese adasmint, a sort of herb used in medicine and cooking
  adas manisaniseed

Note:   Also Toba Batak adas ‘anise, fennel’ (from Malay), Madurese addas ‘kind of plant’.


*hadawiq far, distant


PPh     *hadawiq far, distant

Yami araifar
  arai-into feel it is too far
Itbayaten harawiʔfar, distant; distance
  micha-harawito be far from each other
  h<om>arawito keep away from, to go far away
Ivatan ma-raiʔfar
Bontok ʔadáwwifar, distant
Kankanaey adawífar, far off, at a distance, remote
Ifugaw adáwi ~ adawífar

Note:   Also Bontok dáwi ‘far, distant’. The semantic distinction beween this form and PPh *adayuq remains unclear.


*hadiq no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives)


PWMP     *hadiq no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives)     [doublet: *hediq]

Atta (Pamplona) arino, not
Ifugaw adino, not
Binukid hádiʔno, not
Bisaya andino, not
Gondang adéʔno, not

Note:   Also Itbayaten alih ‘not, none’, Kapampangan alíʔ ‘not’, pay-alíʔ ‘deny’.


*hag(e)kes wrap around; hug


PPh     *hag(e)kes wrap around; hug

Ayta Abellan akehbelt; a band to tie or buckle around the body (usually at the waist)
Bikol hagkósbelt; strap
  mag-hagkósto tie a belt around
Hanunóo hagkúsa twilled rattan pocket belt worn by all adult men and women
Agutaynen aʔketbelt
  mag-aʔketto wear a belt; to tie, fasten something around the waist
Maranao akesboa, entangle by a boa; embrace, hug

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle; wrap firmly around’.


*hagetik sound of ticking


PWMP     *hagetik sound of ticking

Cebuano hagtíksharp clicking sound
Javanese di-geṭiktap or flick finger against

Note:   With root *-tik₂ ‘ticking sound’.


*hagetuk sound of knocking


PWMP     *hagetuk sound of knocking

Cebuano hagtúkloud knocking sound
Javanese di-geṭokrapped on the knee or head

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*haguk deep throaty sound


PWMP     *haguk deep throaty sound

Tagalog hágoksnore; sound of snoring
  h<um>ágokto snore
Cebuano háguksnore
Balinese agukshout

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep, throaty sound’.


*hakep grasp, embrace


PWMP     *hakep grasp, embrace

Hiligaynon hákuphandful, fistful
Cebuano hakúpscoop up with one hand; clasp something with one hand; embrace, seize or hold something by encircling it with the arms
Old Javanese aŋkepembrace tightly
Javanese akepput, hold between the lips

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, embrace’.


*hakhak laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter


PWMP     *hakhak laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter     [doublet: *hikhik]

Tagalog h-al-akhákloud laughter
Balinese akaklaugh loudly


*hakut hakut kind of mason bee or wasp


PWMP     *hakut hakut kind of mason bee or wasp

Ilokano akut-ákutkind of hymenopterous insect resembling a bumblebee but more slender, and very thin at the junction of the abdomen and the thorax
Pangasinan ákotwasp
Bikol hakót-hakótspecies of wasp nesting in wood
Hanunóo ʔakut-ʔákutwasp
Aklanon hákot-hákotbee-like insect building nests of mud
Malay akut-aŋkutmason bee, ichneumon fly: Chalicodoma spp., or Eumenes gracilis
Rejang akut-akutstinging wasp-like insect

Note:   Also Bikol akót-akót ‘species of wasp nesting in wood’, Minangkabau aŋkup-aŋkup ‘mason bee’. Probably the same morpheme as *SakuC, from this insect's habit of frequently flying to and fro to transport materials to its nest.


*halaw drive away (as animals)


PWMP     *halaw drive away (as animals)

Bikol haláwdrive away (as annoying animals, people)
Malay (h)alaudriving before one; "chivvying". Of beaters driving elephants into a trap, herdsmen driving cattle, etc. Also (in modern Malaya) to drive away
Lampung (h)alawhunt (game)


*halem night, dark


PMP     *halem night, dark

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) halem-halemof someone or something far away or in the darkness, to be silhouetted; to be only an indistinct shadow
Kelabit alemnight
Berawan (Long Terawan) lem-alemevening
Ngaju Dayak alemnight
  alem malemlast night, the previous night
Malagasy álinanight, darkness; pertaining to the night
  fi-alèm-anathe last meal at night; night time
Banjarese halambefore, last night, yesterday
Manggarai alemquiet, still (as a pitch-black night)

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’. It is unclear whether *malem ‘night’ is an affixed form of *halem (*ma-halem), or simply another morpheme which shares the root *-lem and coincidentally contains an initial syllable that matches the stative/attributive prefix *ma-.


*halhál to pant, as a dog with open mouth


PPh     *halhál to pant, as a dog with open mouth

Itbayaten ka-haxhaxpanting
  h<om>axhaxto gasp, to pant
Ilokano alʔálto pant; breathe heavily
Isneg maŋ-alʔālto pant (said of dogs)
Pangasinan álaltired
Bikol mag-halhálto gasp, pant
Cebuano halhálfor animals to pant with their mouth open
Tausug mag-halhalto protrude, hang out (as the tongue from exhaustion, heat, thirst)

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belhal-an ‘of a dog or carabao, to pant when tired’, Binukid balhal-en ‘to pant rapidly (from exertion or being overheated)’.


*halin move, transfer


PMP     *halin move, transfer

Hanunóo hálinleaving, taking off, going
Aklanon hálintransfer, move to another place
Hiligaynon hálintransfer to another place
Cebuano halínmove away from a place permanently
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) halintransfer, move from one place to another; to change, as one's appearance
Proto-Sangiric *alinto move, transfer
Manggarai aliŋto move (a horse), transfer to another place; change; go out from inside

Note:   Zorc (1985) posits "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *SaliN ‘move away, transfer’, but the cognation of the non-Philippine members of his comparison (Paiwan s-m-alilʸ ‘to isolate, put something off by itself’, ki-salilʸ ‘to isolate oneself’, Malay alin ‘to massage by magic art so as to extract a toxic foreign body from the human frame’) is questionable.


*haluh large lizard sp.


PWMP     *haluh large lizard sp.

Aklanon haeó(h)large lizard which eats chickens
Cebuano halúmonitor lizard
Balinese aluiguana

Note:   Also Hanunóo halúʔ ‘monitor (Varanus salvator Laurenti), a large lizard’. Since PWMP *bayawak almost certainly meant ‘monitor lizard’, PWMP *halu probably referred to smaller lizards of similar body form. Tentatively I suggest ‘iguana’ as the most plausible gloss.


*hamak mat


PWMP     *hamak mat     [doublet: *lamak]    [disjunct: *amak]

Sambal (Botolan) amakmat
Bikol hamákmat
  hamak-ánspread a mat on
Ngaju Dayak (h)amakmat (of rattan, reeds, etc.)
  m-amakfurnish with mats (a house)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak a-r-makmat that is not rolled up
Toba Batak amakmat woven of (Binsen)
  amah-amakstraw that is scattered under the ears of rice after the stalks are trampled to separate the grain
  amak podom-ansleeping mat

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat makmak ‘leaves which are spread out on the ground to sit on or sleep on; spread out leaves on the ground to sit or sleep on’, Singhi Land Dayak omuk ‘mat’, Sundanese samak ‘mat; sitting mat of woven pandanus leaves’, Sundanese pandan samak ‘the type of pandanus used in making such sitting mats’.


*hambej wrap around; band around something


PWMP     *hambej wrap around; band around something

Bikol (h)ambódto wrap, to band; bandage
Malay (h)ambatnoose at the deck-end of a boat's stays
Balinese ambedstrap, girth (horse)

Note:   With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*hambeŋ obstruct, block the way


PWMP     *hambeŋ obstruct, block the way     [doublet: *ambaŋ, *ampeŋ]    [disjunct: *qambeŋ]

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) haveŋblock an opening or a path so that nothing can pass, as to block other possible avenues on each side of a pig trap; a constructed barrier
Old Javanese (h)ambeŋhalted, restrained, prevented
Madurese abeŋobstruct, block
Balinese ambeŋkeep watch to prevent people from passing; close a road
Mongondow amboŋdam, dyke, kind of obstacle or roping off
  mog-amboŋto dam up, put an obstacle in the way

Note:   Also Old Javanese ambeg ‘stop flowing (of river that is dammed)’, Manggarai ambaŋ ‘obstruct, impede’.


*hambin carry in the folds of the clothing


PWMP     *hambin carry in the folds of the clothing

Casiguran Dumagat abinfold (of the part of the g-string which is wrapped around the waist, and which men use to carry money, betel chew, etc.)
Cebuano hambincarry something by folding up the front part of one's skirt or shirt and putting it in the folds
Ngaju Dayak ambinwhat is carried on the back
Iban ambinlarge wide basket with strap(s) for carrying padi
Malay ambinstrap-support; carrying in a loop of rope or band of cloth (of a child in the fold of a sarong slung from the mother's shoulder); straps or ropes passed round a load (ambinan) swung on a coolie's back, etc.
Rejang ambinshawl for carrying infant on back or at waist
Sangir maŋ-ambiŋconceal something in the folds of the clothing

Note:   Evidently distinct from *qabin ‘hold or carry under the arm’.


*hambúg proud, boastful


PPh     *hambúg proud, boastful     [doublet: *ambuŋ]

Ilokano ambúgproud, presumptuous, haughty, supercilious, arrogant, insolent
Tagalog hambógboastful, proud, vain
Bikol hambógboastful, conceited
Aklanon hámbogproud, swell-headed, boastful
Palawano ambugpride
Cebuano hambúgbig talk, most often not quite true; engage in big talk
Maranao ambogarrogant, proud, boastful, showy
Manobo (Dibabawon) hambugboasting, bluffing, pretending to be someone
Mansaka ambogboast; proud


*hametak kind of legume


PWMP     *hametak kind of legume

Ilokano amtáka variety of cowpeas with very large seeds
Isneg antáʔthe cowpea: Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl.
Bontok ʔantákkind of cowpea, commonly cultivated: Vigna sesquipedalis L.; to gather this pea
Ifugaw amtáka yellow variety of green gram: Phaseolus radiatus Linn., universally known as mongos
Bikol hamtáklong bean species
Aklanon hámtaklong bean: Vigna sesquipedalis
Old Javanese (h)ataka certain legume

Note:   Also Ifugaw antak ‘a yellow variety of green gram: Phaseolus radiatus Linn.’, Bikol anták ‘long bean species’. The similarity of Old Javanese (h)atak to the other forms cited here may be a product of chance.


*hampak slap, smack


PPh     *hampak slap, smack

Ilokano ampákslap, cuff, buffet; spank
Bikol hampákto lash, whip, flagellate
Hanunóo hampákhit, strike; beating, whipping
Aklanon hámpakto beat, belt, spank, slap
Hiligaynon hámpakbeat, whip, whack
Cebuano hampákstrike, slam with force making a noisy impact

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*hampaŋ easy, promiscuous (of women)


PWMP     *hampaŋ easy, promiscuous (of women)

Ilokano ampáŋsilly, foolish, wanton, loose (said of women)
Aklanon hámpaŋto play (a game)
Hiligaynon hámpaŋplay, clown around, gamble
Cebuano hampáŋhave intercourse (euphemism)
Ngaju Dayak anak ampaŋillegitimate child
Iban anak ampaŋbastard, child with no known or recognized father; valueless, 'black sheep'
Malay ampaŋeasy, light
Rejang apaŋillegitimate sexual union
  anoʔ apaŋbastard, child born out of wedlock
Sundanese hampaŋlight, not heavy; easy
Javanese ampaŋlight, without body
Balinese ampaŋlight, easy, not heavy

Note:   Also Malay gampaŋ ‘of little account; easy; light’, anak gampaŋ ‘child of doubtful paternity’, Malay jampaŋ ‘of little account (Selangor dialect)’, Sasak ampah ‘easy’, Sasak ampah-aŋ ‘understand something easily’. Reid (1982:207ff) maintains that medial prenasalization in Ilokano is indicative of borrowing from Malay, either directly, or indirectly through Tagalog or Sama-Bajaw. While this may be true in particular cases it is difficult to justify in the present instance, since Tagalog appears to lack a corresponding form, and although Malay has a cognate, its meaning is substantially different from that of Ilokano ampáŋ.


*hampil go together


PMP     *hampil go together     [doublet: *hampir]

Bontok ʔapílbe a twin
Kankanaey apílswing together, be two on the swing
Ifugaw apíltwins
Kapampangan man-ampílto stack dishes
Cebuano hampílattach something to something solid, as a patch or sign; spread something on top of something else or between two objects as a protection; pile flat, flexible things one on top of the other
Maranao ampil-aʔally
  ampil-ampilside lightly with someone; sympathy for someone
Tiruray ʔamfilcome to the defense of someone or something
Old Javanese um-ampilunite, join with
Mongondow mog-ampilhave constantly near one, care for or look after something (so that one doesn't lose it)
Banggai maŋ-ampil-konbring close to oneself
Manggarai ampilstay together

Note:   Also Malay hampir ‘proximity; nearly; close by’, hampir-i ‘to draw near; to approach’. Tagalog hampil ‘near’, cited by Dempwolff (1938) but not in modern dictionaries, is assumed to be a Malay loanword.


*hampir near, close by


PWMP     *hampir near, close by     [doublet: *hampil]

Ilokano um-ampírstay, come, etc. close to something
  y-ampírplace, etc. close to something
Tagalog hampilapproach, put near; place beside or against (Laktaw 1914)
Maranao ampirshoreward, near, go side-by-side
  ampir-aʔwharf, landing platform, quay
Ngaju Dayak ampiralmost, nearly
Iban ampirencroach, come foraging; approach threateningly or suspiciously
Malay hampirproximity; nearly; close by

Note:   Also Iban ampih ‘near, close’, Sundanese ampeuy ‘near by, in the vicinity’, Tae' ampiŋ ‘close by, near by, in rapid succession’, Bimanese ambi ‘ready; almost’. The evidence for PWMP *hampir is problematic. In addition to the Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak and Malay forms cited here, Dempwolff (1934-38) included proposed cognates in Malagasy, Javanese, Sa'a, Fijian, Tongan and Futunan, but these appear to be non-cognate. Moreover, it is possible that the Ilokano, Tagalog and Maranao forms are loanwords from Malay, although the semantic divergence of at least the last of these makes a hypothesis of borrowing unlikely.


*hampul heave upward


PWMP     *hampul heave upward

Tagalog hampólapex of the path of anything thrown upward; highest tip of a wave
Sundanese ŋ-ampulheave upward (of a swell at sea)
  ampul-ampul-anheave, dance (of swells at sea)


*hamuk attack, run amuck


PMP     *hamuk attack, run amuck

Tagalog hámokhand-to-hand fight
Cebuano hámuksuperhuman beings that harass people by frightening them. They usually assume the form of oversized animals if they show themselves, or may just indicate their presence without showing themselves. They may be found in any lonely place
Ngaju Dayak amokfurious, murderous attack
Banjarese hamukfurious attack, charge
Iban amokattack, run amuck; passion, enthusiasm, do with keenness, slave away at
Malay amokfurious attack; charge; amuck. Of desperate onslaughts in old romances
Sundanese ŋ-amukfuriously attack and fight, fight like a madman
Javanese amukfury, violence
  ŋ-amuk-(amuk)go on a rampage
  amuk-amuk-anattack each other violently
Balinese amukrave, be furious; attack in fury
  amuk-amuktumult, great noise; furious, mad rage
Sasak amukattack without warning, murder
Soboyo hamoʔrob

Note:   Also Old Javanese wūk ‘furious attack’, amūk ‘attack furiously’. These morphologically related forms in Old Javanese suggest that this comparison may have resulted from the borrowing of the affixed form amūk. Despite its initial appeal, this hypothesis fails to explain the initial /h/ in Tagalog, Banjarese or Soboyo.


*handem think, understand


PMP     *handem think, understand

Hiligaynon hándumwish, desire, ambition
Javanese aremto sit brooding
Sasak aremthink, understand


POC     *adom think, understand

Nggela andothink, understand
Sa'a aroto brood (cited only in the English index)

Note:   With root *-dem ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.


*hantaD visible, in full view


PWMP     *hantaD visible, in full view

Tagalog hantádexposed, in full view
Toba Batak antarclearly recognizable, easy to see
Javanese antarclearly audible
Tontemboan ataropen and spacious terrain

Note:   Also Aklanon ántad ‘gap, distance, space’, Cebuano aŋtád ‘be in line of sight’.


*hantatadu large stinging green caterpillar


PWMP     *hantatadu large stinging green caterpillar     [doublet: *katadu]    [disjunct: *antatadu]

Cebuano hantatalúkind of green caterpillar, esp. fond of caladium and taro plants, and also found on citrus, turning into a butterfly
Lun Dayeh tetaduhcaterpillar
Melanau (Mukah) tetadewcaterpillar
Toba Batak antatadukind of large green caterpillar
Angkola-Mandailing Batak antatadurather large caterpillar that adheres to leaves


*hanunaŋ a tree: Cordia dichotoma


PMP     *hanunaŋ a tree: Cordia dichotoma     [disjunct: *qaNuNaŋ]

Itbayaten hanonaŋFicus tree, found in woodlands, and on slopes in grassland
Isneg anúnaŋa tree whose leaves are prepared for the reception of good spirits, at the time of a solemn sacrifice
Maranao nonaŋa tree: Cordia dichotoma
Minangkabau nunaŋtree with fruit producing a sticky sap used as gum
Mongondow onunaŋkind of tree which produces glue
Manggarai nunaŋa tree: Cordia dichotoma


*háŋad to lift the head, raise the head


PPh     *háŋad to lift the head, raise the head

Ilokano i-áŋadto lift the head, raise the face
Bikol mag-háŋadto lift the head to look at someone who is talking
Hiligaynon haŋádto look up to, to honor, to admire, raise one’s eyes to
Cebuano haŋádto look up, turn the head up; for something usually level to tilt upwards
Binukid haŋadto look up at something
Tausug mag-haŋadto look up (as into a tree)

Note:   Also Maranao aŋag ‘look up to imploringly, plead’.


*haŋak out of breath, gasping


PWMP     *haŋak out of breath, gasping

Cebuano háŋakpant, be out of breath from exertion
Banjarese aŋak aŋak(person) in a state of complete exhaustion


POC     *aŋak out of breath, gasping

Bugotu aŋaasthma


*haŋes to breathe heavily or with difficulty


PPh     *haŋes to breathe heavily or with difficulty

Ilokano áŋesbreath; life
  ag-áŋesto breathe, respire
Pangasinan man-aŋésto breathe
Aklanon háŋosto pant (from loss of breath); breathless
Cebuano háŋusto breath heavily or with difficulty


*haŋet to gnaw, chew on


PPh     *haŋet to gnaw, chew on

Itbayaten ahŋet-ento gnaw, to bite
Bikol mag-haŋótto eat s.t. tough by pulling at it with the teeth
Cebuano haŋútto bite at, chew s.t. rubbery or sinewy


*haŋga until, as far as


PWMP     *haŋga until, as far as     [doublet: *hiŋa]

Tagalog haŋgá-nfarthest limit or boundary
Hanunóo haŋga-neven, even to, even including
Tae' aŋgaup to the end, as far as
Makassarese aŋgaboundary, limit placed on something which one must observe

Note:   Also Makassarese saŋga ‘go as far as one can’. I assume that the Tagalog and Hanunóo words contain a fosilized suffix *-an.


*haŋin wind


PMP     *haŋin wind

Itbayaten hañintyphoon, storm, hurricane
Ilokano áŋinwind, draft, current of air
Itawis áŋinwind
Tagalog háŋinair, wind, breeze
Bantuqanon haŋinwind
Aklanon háŋinair, wind
Hiligaynon háŋinwind
Cebuano háŋinair; wind; breath or air as necessary for the body, stamina; mere talk, idle words; force, agency that carries something along or influences something; become windy; be blown by the wind; get puffed up, conceited
Maranao aŋinwind
Murut (Paluan) aŋinwind
Murut (Timugon) aŋinwind
Ngaju Dayak aŋinwind (Malay loan)
Malagasy áninabreeze, wind
Delang aŋinwind
Iban aŋinwind, breeze; report, rumor, lie
Maloh so-aŋinwind
Tsat ŋin³³wind
Jarai aŋinwind
Rhade aŋinair, wind
Moken aŋinwind
Malay aŋincurrent of air; wind; (fig.) windy, of talk
  ber-aŋinbreezy, airy
  meŋ-aŋinto winnow
  makan aŋintake the air
Talaud aŋinnawind
Acehnese aŋènwind, draft; also substitute term for taʔeun 'epidemic'
  aŋèn-aŋèncharm consisting of a bit of paper with something written on it which is waved over the fire to compel a thief to return something stolen
Karo Batak aŋinwind
  ŋ-aŋinwinnow rice by pouring it slowly from a height so that the chaff is blown away by the wind
  r-aŋin-aŋinkind of water beetle
Dairi-Pakpak Batak aŋinwind, breeze
  i-aŋinwinnow rice by exposing it to the wind so that the chaff is carried away
  kendaŋ peŋ-aŋin-enwinnowing basket used to winnow rice by exposing it to the wind
Toba Batak aŋinwind
  hata aŋinrumor
  maŋ-aŋin-aŋin baritadiscontinue rumors
Nias aŋiwind, air; rumor; epidemic, pestilence
Mentawai aŋinwind (Schefold, p.c.)
Rejang aŋinwind, breeze, air
Lampung aŋinwind
Sundanese aŋinwind, breeze; air to blow, of wind
  ŋ-aŋin-ancarry away with the wind
Old Javanese (h)aŋinwind
  in-aŋin-aŋinfluttering in the wind
Javanese aŋinwind; breeze, draft; air
  ŋ-aŋinget some fresh air
  ŋ-aŋin-(aŋin)-akédry something in the wind
  aŋin ḍuḍukdrop dead; have a heart attack (folk usage)
Madurese aŋenwind
Balinese aŋinwind
Sasak aŋinwind
  aŋin pusutwhirlwind
Proto-Sangiric *aŋinwind
Sangir aŋiŋwind
  pueŋ u aŋiŋpoint of the compass
Tae' aŋinwind; air; climate
  di-aŋin-ibe dried in the wind
Mori Atas aŋiwind
Padoe aŋiwind
Buginese aŋiŋwind
  mar-aŋiŋget a breath of fresh air
Makassarese aŋiŋwind
  amm-aŋiŋhang in the wind to dry
  pamm-aŋiŋ-aŋsomething used to dry things in the wind, clothesline
Bimanese aŋiwind
Li'o aŋiwind
Sika aniŋ <Mwind
Lamaholot aŋinwind
Adonara aŋiwind
Kédang aŋinwind
Helong aŋinwind
Atoni aninwind
Tetun aninwind
Vaikenu aninwind
Galoli aninwind
Erai ani(n)wind; year (beginning with the rainy season)_
Talur aninwind
Kisar annewind
East Damar aninwind
West Damar oñowind
Luang anniwind
Wetan anniwind
Ujir aninwind
Dobel saŋinwind
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) enenwind
Watubela aŋinwind
Elat aninwind
Masiwang yakinwind
Paulohi aninewind
Laha aniŋwind
Hitu aninwind
Larike aninuwind
Buruese aŋinwind
Kayeli aninwind
Sekar yaginrain


POC     *aŋin wind

Arop yaŋenwind
Biliau yaŋwind
Wedau laginawind
Mailu aniwind
Hula aɣibreeze
Sinaugoro aɣiwind
Motu laibreeze; wind
Kilivila yagilawind
Gilbertese wind, breeze, air, gas; breath; climate; atmosphere; direction
Kosraean wind; fart
  eŋ-ibreak wind to, fart on (or at)
Marshallese wind, breeze
Pohnpeian ahŋair, wind
Mokilese air, breeze, wind
  eŋ-lavery light in weight
Chuukese eni-(in compounds only) wind, blow
Puluwat yááŋwind, air
Woleaian yaŋ(i)wind, blast, air in motion
Fijian caŋiwind, air, atmosphere
  caŋi-nabe blown about by the wind
Tongan aŋi(of the wind) to blow
  aŋi-nabe blown about by the wind
Niue aŋiblow gently (of the wind); a gentle breeze
Samoan aŋiblow (of the wind)
  aŋi-aŋi-aflutter, wave gently
  aŋi-nabe unfurled by the wind, as a flag
Tuvaluan aŋiblow, of wind
Kapingamarangi aŋi-nablown away; blown in one direction (by wind)
Nukuoro aŋiblow gently (of wind); a disturbance (of the water)
  aŋi-ablow away, cause to move (in the water)
Rennellese aŋito blow, of wind; be breeze-swept, windy
  aŋi-nablow, as wind; be breeze-swept, windy, blown upon; be blown away
Rarotongan aŋiblow, waft, as the wind: to produce, as a current of air; movement, oscillation
Maori aŋi-nablown about by the wind
Hawaiian anibeckon, wave; blow softly, as a breeze


PPh     *ma-haŋin windy

Itbayaten ma-hañinhaving a typhoon
Tagalog ma-háŋinwindy
Aklanon ma-háŋinwindy, stormy


PMP     *pa(ka)-haŋin expose to the wind

Aklanon pa-háŋinlet fresh air blow over something
Cebuano pa-háŋinexpose oneself to the wind, draft
Makassarese p(a)-aŋiŋhang up in the wind to dry, as laundry


POC     *paka-aŋin cause the wind to blow

Gilbertese ka-aŋ-await for the wind; let the wind blow (fig. = fervor, ardor, zeal)
Niue faka-aŋicause to blow (as wind)
Rarotongan aka-aŋicause to blow air upon or into
Hawaiian hoʔ-ānibeckon, wave, signal; let wind


PMP     *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin go out for some fresh air

Aklanon pa-háŋin-háŋingo out for some fresh air


POC     *paka-aŋin-aŋin refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air

Fijian vaka-caŋi-caŋigo somewhere for health's sake; take a holiday
Niue faka-ma-aŋi-aŋirefresh oneself in the open air


PWMP     *ka-haŋin-an struck by the wind

Cebuano ka-háŋin-anatmosphere, air space
Minangkabau ka-aŋin-anto have suffered from the wind, be under the influence of the wind
Sundanese ka-aŋin-ancarried away by the wind, caught by the wind
Old Javanese k-āŋin-anmoved (driven) by the wind; in the wind
Javanese k-aŋin-anexposed to or affected by wind


PWMP     *haŋin-an filled with air, bloated

Cebuano haŋin-ánkind of sea cucumber that shrinks greatly when taken out of the water
Javanese aŋin-anpaid political official
  [aŋin-aŋin-anbehave erratically]
Balinese aŋin-anbe bloated with wind
Tae' aŋin-aŋin-anbe troubled with wind in the bowels; sickness of chickens in which the skin is said to be swollen as a result of air accumulating between the flesh and the skin


PWMP     *haŋin-en suffer illness

Ilokano aŋín-ensuffer a stroke, e.g. when the heart is affected
Aklanon haŋín-onpretentious, boastful; crazy, foolish
Cebuano háŋin-uncrackpot, characterized by silly and impractical ideas
Javanese aŋin-enflatulent


PMP     *haŋin-haŋin gust, draft, current of air; rumor

Maranao aŋin-aŋinaim, purpose, preoccupation
Malay aŋin-aŋintoy windmill
Dairi-Pakpak Batak aŋin-aŋinrumor
Rejang aŋin-aŋina rumor
Old Javanese (h)aŋin-aŋina gust, draught, waft, current of wind caused by a swift movement, wing-beat, breathing, etc.)
Javanese aŋin-aŋin(-an)be/get in a draft; expose oneself to too much air
Balinese aŋin-aŋinfan
Makassarese aŋiŋ-aŋiŋwild rumor
Erai ani-ani(n)rumor


POC     *aŋin-aŋin gust, draft, current of air

Gilbertese aŋ-aŋit is windy, the wind is blowing
Tongan aŋi-aŋi(of the wind) begin to spring up, or to blow continuously
Samoan aŋi-aŋiblow (of the wind)
Kapingamarangi aŋi-aŋiwindy
Nukuoro aŋi-aŋiblow with increasing force (wind); blow continuously (wind); fan
Rennellese aŋi-aŋito blow, of wind; to stir; breezy or windy spot
Rarotongan aŋi-aŋiblow or waft mildly, in a continuous manner, blow in a gentle manner, as the wind; pulsation, the act of throbbing or oscillating
Maori aŋi-aŋilight, gentle breeze

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat haŋín ‘winnow rice (by pouring it onto the ground from a height of about 6 feet, allowing the breeze to blow through it to blow away the chaff’ (Tagalog loan), Banjarese aŋin ‘wind’; Simalur aŋén ‘wind’, mal-aŋén ‘winnow by using the wind to separate chaff from grain’, Molima yagila ‘wind’ (apparently a Kilivila loan), Niue faka-aŋi-aŋi ‘up in the air’, ma-aŋi ‘open, well-lit; to relieve, a relief’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed doublets *aŋin and *haŋin, but Old Javanese (h)aŋin, and all diagnostic Philippine reflexes support *haŋin.

As noted by Dyen (1953:31ff) Malay orthography and speech commonly exhibit variants which differ only in the presence or absence of initial /h/-, and in some cases the expected variant with /h/- is absent. Somewhat more surprising is the absence of an initial /h/- in Banjarese and Sundanese, and this fact might be used to justify a disjunct *aŋin. Finally, the distribution of this form shows some striking discontinuities. While its absence from Taiwan follows from the hypothesis that *haŋin is a PMP innovation, reflexes of *haŋin are widely distributed through the Philippines, Sumatra, Java-Bali-Lombok, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sundas, the Moluccas, Micronesia , and Polynesia , but are extremely rare both in Borneo and in Melanesia .


*haŋit anger


PMP     *haŋit anger

Ilokano áŋitthe wailing cry of a baby
  aŋ-áŋita crybaby
Bontok ʔáŋitscold, shout at
Kankanaey áŋitprovoke; be provoking; to challenge; defy; bid defiance to one
Ifugaw áŋitto challenge, summon somebody to a fight
Ifugaw (Batad) āŋitcall another to come and fight as in play, or when in earnest as of a drunk person; one who is extremely angry
  aŋīt-onthe one called to come and fight
Hanunóo háŋitanguish, regret, torment; anger
Aklanon háŋitirritated, provoked, angry
Cebuano haŋítget irked or irritated to the point of anger
Subanun (Sindangan) gaŋitanger
Tingalan (West) m-aŋitangry
Melanau (Mukah) aŋitanger
  m-aŋitprovoke, make angry


POC     *aŋit anger

Pohnpeian eŋieŋangry (honorific)
  aŋiaŋi-hbe angry at, scold

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.


*haŋus₁ gasp for breath


PWMP     *haŋus₁ gasp for breath

Kapampangan áŋuseat by sucking (sugarcane)
Tagalog háŋosout of breath due to hurry or excitement
Bikol háŋosinhale or exhale; breathe, sigh
  haŋós-haŋóspant, be out of breath, be winded
Aklanon háŋospant (from loss of breath); breathless
Hiligaynon háŋusgasp for breath, pant, breathe fast and with difficulty
Cebuano háŋusbreathe heavily or with difficulty; heavy breathing
Mansaka aŋusexhale forcefully
Toba Batak aŋuscold, catarrh


PWMP     *haŋus-en sniffle

Bikol haŋús-ontake in a breath of air
Toba Batak aŋus-onhave a cold

Note:   Also Fijian ceŋu ‘the breath; to breathe, rest, spell, leave off work’. Despite their perfect correspondence, the resemblance between Toba Batak aŋus ‘cold, catarrh’, and Hawaiian anu ‘cool, cold; coolness, temperature; cold, influenze, have a cold’ appears to be a product of chance (cp. Maori anu, anuanu ‘cold’.


*haŋus₂ odor of burnt food


PMP     *haŋus₂ odor of burnt food     [doublet: *haŋut]

Malay haŋusdestruction by fire. In contrast to being on fire or being cooked or baked
Old Javanese haŋuscovered with soot, fire-blackened
Javanese aŋussoot
Balinese aŋussmell like burnt rice
Sasak aŋusburned (in cooking)
Manggarai aŋosburnt to a crisp (of burnt corn)


*haŋút chew on, gnaw on


PPh     *haŋút chew on, gnaw on

Bontok ʔaŋútchew on; gnaw on, as a bone or corn
Bikol haŋóteat something tough by pulling at it with the teeth
Cebuano haŋútbite at, chew something rubbery or sinewy
Mansaka aŋutcut with the teeth


*hápaR chase, pursue


PPh     *hápaR chase, pursue

Bontok ʔ<um>ápalto chase away (as a dog chasing a cat)
Ifugaw (Batad) um-āpalfor someone to chase someone, something with the intention of catching or driving him or it away; to chase a thief, a pig
Bikol mag-hápagto pursue, chase


PPh     *hapáR-en be chased, pursued

Bontok ʔapál-ənbe chased, pursued
Bikol hapág-onbe chased, pursued


*hapejes smarting, stinging pain


PMP     *hapejes smarting, stinging pain     [doublet: *hapejis, *Sapejiq]

Ilokano apgésto smart; cause a sharp, acute, smart, pungent pain (said of irritants, etc.)
Kankanaey pegésacute, sharp, violent
  pegs-énto make an effort, to exert one’s self, to strain, to strive; (to work, etc.) hard
Casiguran Dumagat apdəssting, smart (as of alcohol when put on a cut)
Pangasinan ápgessmarting pain
Kapampangan paráshot, spicy, sharp-tasting
Bikol hapdóspain
Hanunóo ʔapdúsblister, especially one caused by friction
Aklanon hápdoshurt a little, be painful
Cebuano hapdússtinging, burning pain in a wound, pangs of hunger; for words to be stinging
Maranao pedespain, smart (feeling)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pezessour; descriptive of any liquid which stings an open wound
Mansaka apduspainful, smarting (as a wound)
Kadazan Dusun opodossmarting (of pain); pungent; poisonous (of snakes, etc.)
Tingalan (West) o-podosspicy
Murik perahsick; painful
Kayan perahill, sick; painful, sore; have pain
Bintulu pəɗəssick, seriously ill
Ngaju Dayak peressickness
Iban pedaspungent, hot (to taste); hot (not cold)
Malay pedaspeppery; hot to the taste
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pegespoor, miserable
Toba Batak pogospoor
Minangkabau si-padasgambier
Rejang pedeusginger
Sundanese pɨrɨspain, such as one feels when a hair is pulled
Old Javanese peDeshot (of taste), biting (of words)
Javanese peDeshot, peppery; to sting, feel a stinging sensation
Sasak pedesexperience bad luck; feel pain (at the extraction of a hair, the last of a whip, etc.)
Balantak ma-polospainful
Hawu peDasick; sickness, pain

Note:   Also Kapampangan maplás ‘sting (e.g. a wound when medicine is applied)’, Sundanese pedes ‘the ordinary pepper (whether white or black); also, strongly seasoned with pepper, peppery, hot to the tongue’, Bimanese pili ‘sick’.


*hapejis smarting, stinging pain


PMP     *hapejis smarting, stinging pain     [doublet: *hapejes, *Sapejiq]

Kalinga na-ʔapgissting pain (McFarland 1977)
Gaddang ma-ʔaːgetstinging pain
Iban pedispainful, aching, hurt, sore, be in pain
Maloh padissick
Sasak pedissour
Proto-Sangiric *pədissting, smart
Sangir pədisəʔhot sunshine
Bare'e podisour, acid; tamarind
Tae' paʔdiʔpain, painful
Proto-South Sulawesi *pɨ(dz)isburning sensation; sick
Buginese pɨsseʔsharp or sour taste; ginger
Makassarese paʔrisiʔpainful, smarting, laborious, difficult; pain
Rotinese hedi(s)pain, sickness; painful


*hap(e)lít to whip


PPh     *hap(e)lít to whip

Ilokano aplítto whip (a top); to flap (as the horse does with its tail); to whip, to lash
Tagalog haplítstroke with a lash or whip
Aklanon háplitto whip, lash
Hiligaynon háplitto blow, to strike, to hit


*hapen fishing line


PMP     *hapen fishing line

Hanunóo hapúnfishline, frequently of two-ply home-grown cotton thread
Agutaynen apenlarge monofilament line usually used for catching large fish (said to be ‘archaic’)
Cebuano hapúnfishing line
Manobo (Dibabawon) haponfishline
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hapenfishline
Kadazan Dusun t-aponfishing-angle, fishhook
Paitan aponrod-and-line
Karo Batak ŋ-ampentie something with a slipknot, as a fishhook to the fishline
  peŋ-ampenthe separate string with which the fishhook is tied to the fishline
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ampenfishline


PEMP     *apen fishing line

Buli yafanline used in harpooning sea turtles
Numfor yàfenharpoon for spearing fish and turtles


POC     *apon fishing line

Gilbertese aofibre of coconut husk, fishline, twine
Kosraean ahstring, fishing line, rope, thread, cord
Marshallese eoline, fishline
Mokilese ofishing line
Chuukese óófishline
Woleaian yoafishing line, string used for carrying baskets; band (as of a watch)
Sonsorol-Tobi jaofishing line (cited only in the English index sub line)
Fijian cavoto fish with a rod
Tongan afocord; fishing line
Niue afofishing line
Samoan afofishing line
Tuvaluan afofishing rod cord
Nukuoro ahofishing line of the sort used for adu fishing
Rennellese ahocord, line, thong, string; be on a line or string, as fish; to troll or fish with line on the reef
Rarotongan aʔofishing line, cord, string
Maori ahostring, line
Hawaiian aholine, cord, lashing, fishing line, kite string


*hap(e)rus rub, massage


PPh     *hap(e)rus rub, massage     [disjunct: *hapRus]

Ilokano aprúsrub softly, gently
Bontok ʔaplústo massage, as a tired back, using a salve such as coconut oil
Ifugaw aplú(h)act of rubbing something (e.g. a broken bone), massage
Hiligaynon háplusrub with ointment, smear
Maranao perosslide the palm on, rub off

Note:   Also Itbayaten hapxot ‘idea of rubbing on’.


*hapin liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat


PMP     *hapin liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat

Itbayaten hapinwoven mat, sleeping mat
Ivatan apinmat
Ibatan apina sleeping mat (woven of pandanus)
Ilokano ápinany kind of leaf (usually a piece of banana leaf) spread over the bottom of an earthen pot, at the inside, before the rice that has to be cooked is poured into it
Isneg ápinlayer which is placed inside the báŋa (cooking jar) before the rice is poured in: usually a section of the banana leaf
Itawis appíndiaper
Bontok ʔápinsleeping mat; banana leaf or other such object upon which food may be placed when eating out of doors
Kankanaey ápinpad, as a leaf spread inside the pot in which rice is boiled, straw spread in openwork basket used for nests, etc.
Ifugaw ápinleaf, or part of a big leaf which is spread over the bottom of containers, such as jars or baskets
Ifugaw (Batad) āpintemporary garbage container woven from the inner stripping of bamboo
Bikol hápinlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer; (fig.) eat or drink something to line the stomach before drinking liquor
Aklanon hápinput something underneath (to protect the bottom surface from heat, dirt or the like)
  hapíncover, covering, placemat
Hiligaynon hapíndiaper, lining, cover
Cebuano hapínsomething that is laid over or under something; food taken along with drinks as a digestive buffer; lay something over something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hapinpad something to avoid injury
Mansaka apínprotective pad between two things; use as a protective covering
Kadazan Dusun t-apinswaddling clothes
Murut (Tagol) apinfloor mat
Iban ampinbaby's napkin, nappy
Malay ampinswaddling-band for infant
Simalungun Batak ampinswaddling cloth
Yamdena afincover with a towel, mat, etc. to make a place to sit or to set something down
Kayeli ápinemat


PPh     *hapin-an to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for

Ilokano apin-anto place the ápin [lining] at the bottom of a pot
Bikol hapín-anto line (as shelves, boxes); to pad, insulate


PPh     *hapin-en be lined by

Itbayaten hapin-enweave mats and the like; to weave
Cebuano hapin-únbe lined by

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat lampen ‘diaper (or any clothing an infant is wrapped in)’, Tagalog sapín ‘pad, padding, cushion’, i-sapín ‘use something as an underlayer (especially for protection)’, Bikol sapín ‘lining, insulation, padding’, Tiruray amfen ‘pad of any sort used as a saddle on a riding animal; place an amfen on an animal’, Kelabit epin ‘sleeping mat’, Malay lampin ‘swathing band; wrapper wound round a very young child to prevent it injuring itself by rolling about’. Although *hapin evidently referred to any flat pad or lining used to separate surfaces that one did not wish to come into contact, its full range of referents remains somewhat unclear. The meaning ‘diaper, swaddling cloth’ is reflected only in Hiligaynon, Kadazan Dusun and a group of languages in western Indonesia which are either closely related (Malay, Iban) or in a known borrowing relationship (MALY< /lg>, SIMB). It is possible that this meaning is secondary, but I follow the rules of distribution in primary subgroups to reconstruct it here.). It is possible that this meaning is secondary, but I follow the rules of distribution in primary subgroups to reconstruct it here.


*hapRus rub, massage


PPh     *hapRus rub, massage     [disjunct: *haprus]

Ilokano aprúsrub softly, gently
Bontok ʔaplústo massage, as a tired back, using a salve such as coconut oil
Tagalog hagpós <Mgentle rubbing with the hand
Bikol hapgósrub something off


*hapun dew


PMP     *hapun₁ dew     [doublet: *ambun]

Itbayaten hapondew
Makassarese apuŋdew that has not yet condensed, but which still appears as a mist
Bimanese apucloud, fog, obscuring mist
Ngadha apudew
Li'o ae apufog, mist, dew
Sika apuŋdew, land wind that blows in the evening
Lamaholot apunfog, mist, dew
Tetun rai ahufog


*hápun to roost, of chickens; time of roosting


PPh     *hápun to roost, of chickens; time of roosting

Itbayaten om-aponto alight, to perch, to roost
Ibatan aponto roost at sunset (birds, chickens)
Ilokano áponstable, pen, enclosure, coop
Isneg áponcause to roost
Casiguran Dumagat aponlate afternoon, evening
Kapampangan ápunyesterday
Tagalog háponafternoon; roosting of fowls
Bikol háponafternoon
Aklanon háponafternoon; to roost, go to roost, settle down (birds)
Palawan Batak ʔapónyesterday
Cebuano hápunafternoon, early evening
Maranao aponperch, stay
Mansaka aponperch, alight, roost
Manobo (Sarangani) aponafternoon, evening


PPh     *hapun-an perch, roosting place for chickens

Itbayaten apon-anplace where chickens sleep at night (usually on a tree); place on which to step
Ibatan apon-anthe place where a bird normally
Casiguran Dumagat apon-anroosting place for chickens; to land (of a bird, bug or fly)
Tagalog hapun-ansupper, dinner
Aklanon hapón-anperching rod or twig, roost

Note:   Also Itbayaten apon ‘place where chickens sleep at night (usually on a tree)’. The change *u > /o/ in the Itbayaten and Cordilleran reflexes of this form is puzzling, and may indicate borrowing from Greater Central Philippines languages.


*haq(e)muq tame, docile, mild-mannered


PPh     *haq(e)muq tame, docile, mild-mannered

Yami amoashamed, embarrassed
Itbayaten haʔmofear, fright
  ka-haʔmostate of being afraid; fear
  ha-haʔmo-anto frighten
Ibatan amoafraid
Ilokano amocivilized people
  na-ámotame; gentle; domesticated
  y-amoto reconcile people
  pa-amu-ento tame; domesticate; temper; subdue
  pag-amu-ento make enemies friends as before, make people reconcile
Isneg na-ámotame, domesticated, gentle
  tagi-ámolove charms which boys place in their pouch when they go to court the girls
Bontok na-ámuto be tame, of a domesticated animal
  pa-ámua working water buffalo; a water buffalo which has been broken in
Kankanaey na-ámotame, domesticated; quiet, calm, still; docile; submissive; gentle
Ifugaw ámoconcept of tameness
  na-ámotame, as a dog
Casiguran Dumagat ámotame, domesticated, docile, submissive (referring to animals)
  pa-amo-énto tame, to domesticate, to break (a horse)
  ámo-ámoto speak softly and gently to someone with a reluctant attitude in order to win him over to your side; to act apologetically to someone with whom you have had a misunderstanding; to persuade, to induce, to win over to one’s side
Ibaloy emo-ento tame, break, train an animal (as carabao for plowing)
  amo-anto make someone or something obey
Sambal (Tina) pa-amo-onto tame


PPh     *ma-haq(e)muq tame, docile

Pangasinan ma-ámotame (refers only to animals)


PPh     *h<um>aq(e)muq to become tame or gentle

Isneg um-ámoto become tame, etc.

Note:   Also Tagalog ámoʔ ‘tameness; coaxing, supplication’, ka-amu-an ‘meekness, mildness, gentleness; tameness; tame nature, as of an animal or bird’, ma-ámoʔ ‘tame; domestic; docile; obedient; meek; benign; mild; gentle’, um-ámoʔ ‘to become tame’


*haq(e)was to climb down, dismount; unload


PPh     *haq(e)was to climb down, dismount; unload

Ibaloy on-awasto get out (as from house, bus)
Ayta Abellan awahto bring out of some kind of container; to get out of a container
Bikol mag-haʔwásto come out of the water; to fish or pull something out of the water
Aklanon háwʔasto take out (from container)
Waray-Waray hawʔásto alight; get down; disembark from; unload
Hiligaynon mag-háwʔasto take out of, to remove from inside
Binukid hawʔasto get off (a vehicle); to dismount (a riding animal); to unload, take something off (a vehicle or an animal)
Mansaka awasto get off (as from a bus); to unload (as in taking off a pack)


*hárab₁ for fish to prey on other fish


PPh     *hárab₁ for fish to prey on other fish

Cebuano hálabfor a fish to strike at another fish that is hooked
Mansaka arabto bite (as a shark)
Tiruray ʔarab(of fish) to eat one’s own young, or another fish


*hárab₂ pasturage; grazing


PPh     *hárab₂ pasturage; grazing

Ilokano ag-árabto graze, pasture
  pag-aráb-anpasture, grazing land
Isneg max-árabto pasture, to graze
Kankanaey men-álabto graze; to browse
  pa-aláb-anto drive to pasture
Hanunóo hárabpasturage, grass, and other fodder
Aklanon háeabto graze, eat grass
Hiligaynon mag-hálabto feed like animals on grass, to pasture, to graze


*haruqan mudfish


PWMP     *haruqan mudfish     [doublet: *qaruqan]

Bikol haruʔánfreshwater fish sp.,
Cebuano haluansnakehead, edible freshwater fish: Ophiocephalus spp.
Banjarese haruana murrel


*haRemaŋ kind of marine eel


PMP     *haRemaŋ kind of marine eel

Itbayaten haymaŋsea eel which stays in holes under the sea; big eel (black, spotted): Anguilla japonica Temminck, etc. (includes painted morays)
Ilokano ar(a)máŋkind of small, edible, marine shrimp
Casiguran Dumagat ágmaŋtype of ocean fish (Headland and Headland (1974)), kind of marine eel (Reid (1971:186))
Cebuano agmáŋkind of eel
Sasak amaŋmarine eel
Sangir hemmaŋmarine eel
Buruese hemamarine eel


*haRezan notched log ladder


PMP     *haRezan notched log ladder

Ilokano agdánladder; stairs, staircase; flight of stairs, steps
Ibanag addanstairway, ladder
Isneg agdānladder
Itawis áddanstairs, ladder
Itneg (Binongan) aldanstairway, ladder
Bontok ʔagdánwooden steps leading to the door of a house with raised floor
Casiguran Dumagat agdénladder; make a makeshift ladder so you can climb a tree
Sambal (Botolan) ayranstairway, ladder
Ayta Abellan aydanstairs
Tagalog hagdánstairs, ladder
Bikol hagdánstair, step
Hanunóo ʔagdánany single, inclined means of entering a typical Hanuno'o pile dwelling from the ground, especially a log or bamboo pole used in this manner. Note: Runged ladders, common elsewhere in the Philippines, are not used by the Hanuno'o
Aklanon hágdanstair(s), step(s)
Hiligaynon hágdanstairs, ladder
Cebuano hagdánstairs, ladder; ladder made of a bamboo pole with projections left at the nodes used as the footholds; something by which one climbs or improves; climb a ladder; make into, put a stair or ladder somewhere
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heɣezanladder; stairway
Mansaka agdanladder; stair
Klata addaladder
Buludupi godtannotched log ladder
Supan gədtannotched log ladder
Ngaju Dayak hejannotched log ladder
Katingan honjanladder
Jarai rəñansteps, ladder
Acehnese reuñeunsteps, ladder
Simalur aeranladder
Karo Batak redansteps, ladder (usually a notched log or pole)
Nias oraladder, stairs
Mentawai oratladder, stairs
Balinese ejanladder
Proto-Minahasan *ahdanladder, stairs
Tondano (Kakas) aharanladder, stairs
Boano elaneladder
Uma odarung of a ladder
Bare'e ejasteps, ladder, generally made of a notched log
Wolio odaladder, stairway
Manggarai redaŋladder
Rotinese edasomething used to climb up something else (Jonker 1908); ladder of house (Fox 1993)
  eda-ksteps, ladder; clamps on a tree to make it easier to climb
Leti retnasteps, ladder
Wetan retnaclimbing-pole, ladder, stairs
Selaru aresa-resteps, ladder
Dobel lolaladder
Kamarian elanladder
Manipa lanestairs
Kowiai/Koiwai roranladder, stairs


PEMP     *aRezan notched log ladder

Sambal (Tina) ayranstairs, ladder
Buli olanladder


PMP     *haRezan na batu stone stairs

Tagalog hagdáŋ batóstone steps, stone stairs
Tae' eran batustone stairs; also a place name
  eran bala batustairs made of stones stacked upon one another
Wetan retan watistairs of stone

Note:   Also Bikol hagyán ‘stair, step’, Tiruray gedan ‘ladder or stairs’, Kelabit ədʰan ‘notched log ladder’, Kenyah (Long Anap) can ‘notched log ladder’, Kiput asiːn ‘notched log ladder’, Bintulu kejan ‘notched log ladder’, Cham lañan, Rhade eñan ‘ladder’, Tae' eran ‘steps, ladder’, Kisar rokon ‘steps, ladder’, Erai esa ‘ladder, post with steps cut in it’, Dobel lola ‘ladder’, Paulohi ilane ‘ladder’. Hendon (1964) posited *haReZan, a form which is identical in all essential respects to that reconstructed here (since I do not recognize the *z, Z distinction as a feature of PAn, PMP or PWMP).


*hasaŋ gills


PMP     *hasaŋ gills

Ilokano ásaŋgill, branchia; glands at the inside of the throat; the pin of a lock that fits in the socket of a key
Isneg ásaŋthe gills of fishes
Itawis ásaŋgill
Gaddang átaŋgills (McFarland 1977)
Pangasinan asáŋgills
  nan-asáŋgilled, having gills
Sambal (Botolan) áhaŋgills
Ayta Abellan ahaŋgills
Ayta Maganchi ahaŋgills
Kapampangan ásaŋgills
Tagalog hásaŋgills
Abaknon asaŋgills
Aklanon hásaŋgill (of fish)
Cebuano hásaŋgills
  hásaŋ-hásaŋan outlet on the side of a ship's hull to let the bilge water out
Maranao asaŋgill
Mansaka asaŋgill
Kenyah (Long Wat) asaŋgills
Bintulu asaŋgills
Melanau (Mukah) asaŋgills
Iban ansaŋgills of fish
Malay asaŋgills of fish (Brunei, Sarawak)
Simalur asaŋcheek
Sundanese asaŋgills
Javanese aŋsaŋgill (fish's breathing apparatus); grate for holding coals in a brazier
Balinese aŋsaŋgills of fish
Sasak aŋsaŋgills
Proto-Sangiric *asaŋgills
Sangir asaŋgill; membrane around the seed of a mango
Proto-Minahasan *asaŋgills
Tondano ansaŋgills
Tontemboan asaŋgills of a fish
  asaŋ-enseized by the gills
Kaidipang anjaŋogills
Makassarese assaŋgills
Wolio ancagill (of fish)
  ancaŋ-iremove gills from (fish)
Chamorro guasaŋgill (of fish)
Kisar ahanneuvula
Roma ahannagills
Leti asnagills of a fish
Wetan aanagills
Kamarian asagills
Asilulu asagills
Buruese asa-ngills


PEMP     *asaŋ₂ gills

Numfor asengills
Pak asa-ninner gills
Papitalai asa-ninner gills (red substance)
Seimat axa-ngills
Wuvulu axagills
Aua ara-nagills
Gitua asa-ngills
  iga asa-nfish gills
Motu ladagills
Roviana asaŋa-nagills of a fish
Eddystone/Mandegusu asaŋagills of a fish
Rennellese asafish gills


PWMP     *hasaŋ-an have gills

Cebuano hasáŋ-anhaving gills
Kadazan Dusun asaŋ-anthe fish from which the gill is being taken out
Sundanese asaŋ-anhave gills
Balinese aŋsaŋ-angills of fish


PEMP     *asaŋ-i gills of

Paulohi asa-iits gills
Mussau asaŋ-einner gills (< pre-Mussau *asaŋa-i 'gills of')
Pohnpeian edegills

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat aháŋ ‘gills (of fish)’, Bikol ásaŋ ‘gills’, Hiligaynon ásaŋ ‘fish gill’, Tiruray asaŋ ‘gills of a fish’, Tontemboan aʔsaŋ ‘gills of a fish’, Mongondow asaŋ ‘gills of a fish’; in-asaŋ-an ‘furnish with gills’, Kambera ŋaha, ŋanja ‘gills’, Wetan aana ‘gills’, Bipi ase-n ‘inner gills (red substance)’, Sori ase-n ‘inner gills’, Ahus ase-n ‘inner gills’, Rennellese asaa ‘fish gills’.

Although widely distributed, this form is common only in the Philippines and western Indonesia. It appears to be entirely absent from Sumatra in the meaning ‘gills’, and is rare in Sulawesi and eastern Indonesia. In the Pacific it has been attested to date only in western Melanesia and in a single Polynesian language, Rennellese (although Tuvaluan kalauaha ‘gills’ may contain a reflex). In several widely separated languages *hasaŋ has been replaced by a reflex of PAn *Caliŋa ‘ear’. Some of the languages of the Proto-Admiralty, and Mussau of the St. Matthias Archipelago terminologically distinguish the external gills (gill slits) from the internal gills (red fleshy material), and it is possible that such a distinction was innovated in POc.


*haseg stuff or press in, be squeezed in


PWMP     *haseg stuff or press in, be squeezed in     [doublet: *hasek₂]

Cebuano hasúgpush something into a container and tamp it down to fill it tight (as in filling a sack with copra)
Sundanese aŋsegapproach, press in on something; also: pant, gasp for breath; oppress, stifle (as a person who is surrounded by other people, a city surrounded by an army, etc.)
Javanese aŋsegfeeling stuffed from overeating
  ŋ-aŋsegpress forward


*hasek₁ dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick


PMP     *hasek₁ dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick

Tagalog hasíksowing
Bikol hasókplant rice or corn seeds by placing them in a hole made by a pole; referring only to upland field cultivation carried out at present primarily by minority groups
Cebuano hasúkmake a hole to sow seeds in; insert something into a hole or sheath; drive in stakes or pegs; dibble stick; hole dibbled in the ground to sow seeds in; action of making a hole; peg, stake
Tiruray ʔohokto plant in general, specifically to dibble; dibble stick
Mapun um-asokto enter; go inside (a place); to allow or have someone enter
  asok-unto insert something into something else; to put something inside a place (as a machete in its sheath)
Taboyan asekdibble stick
Dusun Deyah asokdibble stick
Banjarese asakhole made with a dibble stick for planting rice
Malay asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (of stuffing food into the mouth, beating stones into a roadway, hammering earth to fill up interstices)
Sundanese asɨkdibble stick
Sumbawanese asakdibble stick
Proto-Sangiric *asikto dibble; plant rice
Sangir asiʔplant rice, more particularly the first step in the process: dibble holes in the ground
  la-asiʔthe thick, pointed dibble stick of heavy wood used to make holes for planting
Mongondow atokplant rice seed by dibbling
Gorontalo wantoʔoinsert, put in (as money into a fold of the clothing)
Manggarai acekfence post, stake; drive in a stake or post
Selaru asahole made in dibbling
Yamdena yasakpress into the ground


POC     *asok plant in holes in the ground

Sa'a ato, ato-atothrow, cast
  ato tahathrow the first yam set into the hole, of priest
Ulawa ato-atoup and down dividing sticks in a yam garden
  ato-ni waʔathrow the yams into the holes
Arosi ato, ato-atodistribute food at feasts, yams in holes for planting


PWMP     *maŋ-hasek₁ to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick

Kadazan Dusun maŋ-asokmake holes for seeds in the nursery
Taboyan ŋ-asekto dibble
Dusun Deyah ŋ-asokto dibble
Sundanese ŋ-asɨkmake a hole or holes in the ground for planting; to plant
Sangir maŋ-asiʔplant rice, more particularly the first step in the process: dibble holes in the ground
  maŋa-ŋ-asiʔthe people who make the dibble holes for planting (they walk together while singing verses connected with the planting of the rice, followed by the women, who plant the seeds
Mongondow moŋ-atokplant rice seed by dibbling

Note:   Also Itbayaten asek ‘put something in a hole’, asek-en ‘drip through holes or slits’, Casiguran Dumagat hasík ‘term for the several varieties of mountain rice; plant mountain rice with a dibble stick (in a swidden)’, Ma'anyan ehek ‘dibble stick’. With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

This word is of some value for inferences about food-production in PMP society. Dibbling is a form of planting used only for seed crops, and only for dry, as opposed to wet rice. PMP *hasek thus forms one piece of evidence for slash-and-burn dry rice agriculture among Austronesian speakers, circa 3,000 B.C. In the Pacific, where grain crops were lost, this term has only a few questionable, and if valid, semantically altered reflexes (e.g. Sa'a, Arosi ato, ato-ato). POc *pasok ‘to plant (in general)’ does not appear to be an affixed form of *hasek, but probably contains the same root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.


*hasek₂ press in, cram, crowd


PMP     *hasek₂ press in, cram, crowd     [doublet: *haseg]

Casiguran Dumagat asəkput something inside of something else
Cebuano hasúkpack inside tight by compacting or tamping it down (as copra in a sack); compressed and well-packed inside a container
Maranao asekpress (as in pressing down the contents of a sack)
  asek-asekpress hard, confine strongly and in an overcrowded condition
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hasekpress down on something
Bintulu anəw n-asəkclothing (lit. ‘thing that is squeezed into’)
Iban ansakpress back, drive back (as enemy in battle)
Malay (h)asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (of stuffing food into the mouth, beating stones into a roadway, hammering earth to fill up interstices
  ber-asak-asakcrushed together (of people in a crowd
  penoh ber-asakchockfull
Karo Batak asekasthma?
  asek-enoppressive feeling in the chest, shortness of breath
Madurese aŋsekbe crowded out of place by another person; nudge, jostle
Balinese aŋsekthrong, be close together, push on each other
  aŋsek-aŋbe pushed close together
Makassarese assaʔpress against something, push or press something in, cram in with force
Bimanese asipress, squeeze
  asi anapress, squeeze, as in giving birth


PWMP     *maŋ-hasek₂ press, cram in with force

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-asakcram something in so that it is compact or full
Makassarese aŋŋ-assaʔpress against something, push or press something in, cram in with force


PWMP     *hasek-i press, cram in with force

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-asak-ipush or press against
Makassarese assakk-ipress against something
Wolio asak-ipress, suppress (desires)

Note:   Also Tiruray asek ‘press down, compact the contents of a container or hole’, asek-asek ‘tamp, shake down slightly’. With root *-sek₁ ‘cram, crowd’.

The gloss of Casiguran Dumagat asek, and Tiruray asek (a loan word, probably from a Danaw source) could be taken as evidence that *hasek₁ and *hasek₂ are a single morpheme. Given the fairly distinct semantic reflexes of each etymon in a number of languages, however, and the likelihood that each contains a distinct root (Blust 1988:150ff) this interpretation is rejected.


*hasuk enter, penetrate


PWMP     *hasuk enter, penetrate, insert     [disjunct: *hasek₂]

Cebuano hasúkinsert something into a hole or sheath
Kayan asukpush in, push along, push away
Karo Batak asukunderstand; enter
Javanese aŋsukenter (as a house)
Balinese asukgo in, enter
  hasuk-inbe made to go in, be put in

Note:   With root *-suk ‘insert, penetrate, enter’.


*hataq raw, uncooked


PWMP     *hataq raw, uncooked     [doublet: *qetaq]

Itbayaten hatauncooked, raw (of cereal), green, immature (of fruits), food subject to cooking, unripe
  na-hataraw (of viand)
Kankanaey átagreen; raw; not mature; not dry
Ifugaw átagreen, applied to grass, leaves, unripe fruit, natural color of vegetation in general
Casiguran Dumagat átaunripe, green; uncooked
Tiruray ʔataʔthe small trees on a swidden, cut first in order to serve as kindling beneath the larger trees when the swidden in burned; raw; immature, not yet ripe, used only of fruits
Kayan ataunripe, raw
Kayan (Uma Juman) ataraw, unripe
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atauncooked, unripe
Karo Batak atahfresh, green, raw, unripe
Sundanese atahraw, unripe, not cooked; untanned
Balinese atahyoung, unripe (fruit); green (leaves); not fully cooked


PMP     *ma-hataq raw, uncooked

Itbayaten ma-hatauncooked, raw (of cereal), green, immature (of fruits)
Ivatan maːtaʔunripe, raw (McFarland 1977)
Ifugaw ma-átait will be green
Gaddang ma-ʔaːtaunripe, raw (McFarland 1977)
Kelabit mataʔraw, unripe, uncooked
Kenyah mataʔraw, unripe
Kenyah (Long Wat) m-ataʔraw
Karo Batak m-atahraw, green, unripe
Mentawai mataraw, uncooked, unripe
Balinese m-atahunripe, raw, uncooked; be green, young (leaves, fruit)
Sasak mataʔraw, unripe, uncooked
Proto-Minahasan *mataʔgreen; unripe; raw
Tontemboan mataʔgreen (also the color of the cloudless sky); unripe, raw, uncooked; small thin green snake
Uma mataʔraw
Bare'e mataraw, unripe, still green, uncooked, living
Tae' ma-mataunripe (of fruits), raw, fresh, still green, unripe, living
Makassarese mataraw, unripe, uncooked
Chamorro mataʔraw, uncooked
Bimanese madaraw, not cooked
Komodo mataʔraw (of fruit, rice); underdone, unripe
Kambera mataraw, unripe (rice, maize, etc.)
Atoni mategreen
Tetun mata-kgreen, still growing, immature; raw (not cooked), new, fresh (not stale); inexperienced
Kisar maka-makaraw, not cooked
Leti mat-mataraw, not cooked
Selaru matraw, uncooked, unripe
Yamdena mateunripe, uncooked; not yet completely dry, of wood
Fordata mataraw, uncooked, unripe
Takuu mataraw, uncooked
Rotuman mafaraw, uncooked; green, undried
Tongan mata(of fruit), green, unripe, or raw; (of copra) undried); (of timber) unseasoned, or not thoroughly seasoned (hence a newly made canoe is sometimes said to be kei mata 'still unseasoned')
Samoan mataraw, unripe
Anuta mataraw; green


POC     *mataq raw, unripe

Lou pa-matuncooked
Lenkau pa-pa-matraw, unripe
Pak pa-maruncooked, raw
Nali mam-matraw
Wuvulu a-maʔaraw, unripe
Anejom matraw
Rotuman mafaraw, uncooked; green, undried
Tongan mata(of fruit) green, unripe or raw; (of timber) unseasoned, or not thoroughly seasoned (hence a newly made canoe is sometimes said to be kei mata, still unseasoned)
Niue mataunripe; raw, uncooked; new, fresh
Futunan mataraw, uncooked (meat or fish); immature, as a young coconut not ready to be used
Samoan mataraw, uncooked, as taro
  faʔa-mata-matabe half-cooked, not cooked properly; be simple, naive (people)
Tuvaluan mataraw, half-cooked
Kapingamarangi madaraw, not cooked; ripe (of coconuts)
Nukuoro madauncooked, raw
Rennellese haa-mata ~ baa-matato be partially cooked; raw
Anuta mataraw
Maori mataraw, uncooked; unripe, of fruit; fresh, green, of foliage not dried or withered; fresh, as water
Hawaiian makaraw, as fish; uncooked; green, unripe, as fruit; fersh as distinct from salted provisions
  kā-maka-makafresh, alive, as of leaves or fresh fish; to lay green leaves on an oven
  hoʔo-kā-maka-makato ask forgiveness, to seek restoration of friendship


PWMP     *maŋ-hataq use while still ripe

Kayan (Uma Juman) ŋ-ataʔpick fruit before it is ripe
Ngaju Dayak maŋ-antapluck while unripe
Karo Batak ŋ-ataheat raw flesh
Toba Batak maŋ-ataeat raw flesh, or flesh that has been only lightly cooked

Note:   Also Iban mantaʔ, mataʔ ‘raw, uncooked, unripe, green’, Sangir tamataʔ ‘raw, unripe’, Lau maʔa ‘bright green; raw, unripe’, Kwaio maʔaa ‘raw, of food’. Malagasy manta ‘unripe, raw, crude, green’ probably is an early loan from Banjarese.


*hátaR to divide into shares, give out portions


PPh     *hátaR to divide into shares, give out portions

Itbayaten hatayshare (in general)
  hata-hatay-ento distribute, to give equally
Bontok ʔin-átalto divide into the appropriate number of piles, as in the distribution or sharing of meat or fish
Ifugaw átalact of distributing, imparting small things (e.g. betel nuts) by tossing them in different directions to those sitting around together
Aklanon hátagto give (something)
Hiligaynon hátaggift, donation
  mag-hátagto give, to make a gift, to bestow, to assign, to award
Cebuano hátagto give
Mansaka atagto give


*hatay expression of warning: watch out!


PWMP     *hatay expression of warning: watch out!

Bontok ʔatáyexpression of pleased surprise
Cebuano hatáyexpression preceding a phrase warning someone against doing something foolish: watch out
Malay (h)ati-(h)atibe careful; look out; be watchful
Bahasa Indonesia hati-hatiwatch out! take care!
Sundanese ati-atipay attention, watch out
Old Javanese ati-atigive one's full (undivided) attention

Note:   The forms in western Indonesia may reflect *qaCay ‘liver’. Some of these, as Ambai ati-ati ‘be careful’ and Simalungun Batak ati-ati ‘watch out!’ seem clearly to be borrowed from Malay, but this cannot be the case with Cebuano hatáy.


*hátuŋ fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire


PPh     *hátuŋ fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire

Yami atoŋblow (on) to help ignite
  ipi-ato-atoŋtools for starting fires, such as paper or dried reeds
Itbayaten man-hatoŋto build a fire
Ibatan atoŋblow on a piece of burning wood to make it flame
Ilokano átoŋfirebrand (for burning)
  atoŋ-anto leave a firebrand burning; arouse, incite
Bontok ʔatuŋto have a burn (as a burned hand)
Ibaloy ʔatuŋburned, scalded skin, eyes, or other body part (as by fire, boiling water)

Note:   Also Tagalog gátoŋ ‘fuel (as firewood or coal fuel)’, i-gátoŋ ‘to feed a fire; to add wood or fuel to a fire; (fig.) to stimulate, to excite more activity’.


*hawan atmosphere, space between earth and sky


PWMP     *hawan atmosphere, space between earth and sky

Casiguran Dumagat áwanclear (of underbrush, e.g. a cleared trail)
Tagalog háwanclearing (in a forest), or produced by the removal of a crowd; or, in the sky, by disappearance of clouds
Aklanon háwanclear up, clean up, make open
  ma-háwanclear, having no obstructions, expansive
Hiligaynon háwanto clear, clean from obstruction, clear a crowded area
Cebuano háwanclear an area; for an area to become clear
  hawan-ánliving room; floorspace or anything enclosed
Maranao awanclean graves
Manobo (Dibabawon) (h)awan-ancleared area
  aw-awan-anair, atmosphere between ground and sky
Mansaka awanweed rice for first time
Kadazan Dusun t-avansky, firmament, heavens, expanse
Melanau (Mukah) awancloud
Malagasy avanarainbow
Iban awancloud
Malay awancloud
Acehnese awancloud
Dairi-Pakpak Batak abanatmosphere, the firmament
Lampung awancloud
Balinese awanclouds


PWMP     *hawan hawan atmosphere, space between earth and sky

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hawan-hawanspace between heaven and earth
Karo Batak awan-awanatmosphere, space between earth and sky

Note:   Also Itbayaten ka-hawan ‘weather’. Most of the forms brought together under *hawan can be united through the notion ‘clear or unobstructed space’. However, specific applications of this idea to the atmosphere are sufficiently widespread to justify an inference that the etymon meant ‘atmosphere’ (space between earth and sky), or at least included this meaning among its referents. This inference probably is strengthened by the similar semantic range of reflexes of *awaŋ. Apparent reflexes of *hawan meaning ‘cloud’ may be chance resemblances, but are included as possible cognates through their connection with the atmosphere. Some of these, like Manggarai awaŋ ‘cloud’, almost certainly are Malay loans.


*hawaw thirst


PPh     *hawaw thirst     [doublet: *quSaw]

Yami awawthirsty
Itbayaten ahwaw <Mthirst
Ilokano awáwthirst
Bontok ʔə́wəwthirsty; thirst


*hayep animal


PPh     *hayep animal

Sambal (Bolinaw) ayepanimal
Pangasinan áyepanimal
Bikol háyopanimal; beast, creature
Hanunóo háyupanimal, especially a mammal; also by extension and colloquial usage, any object that moves, animate or inanimate
Aklanon háyopmammals, cattle
Hiligaynon háyupanimal
Palawan Batak ʔáyepinsect; animal
Cebuano háyupdomestic animal; a person with base instincts and desires
Mansaka ayuppet (as a bird); plaything; toy; wife

Note:   Also Kankanaey ayup ‘very tame, quiet, calm’.


*hayun shake, sway, swing


PWMP     *hayun shake, sway, swing

Kapampangan ayúnearthquake
Cebuano hayúnswing the arms in walking
Iban ayunswing (as for a child)
Malay (h)ayunswaying; swinging
  ayun-anhammock-cradle; swing
Acehnese ayōncradle (generally an oblong basket of plaited rattan filled with cushions)
Toba Batak aunto swing, rock, sway
Sundanese ayunto swing, sway, rock
Old Javanese (h)ayunmoving to and fro, swinging, dangling
Javanese ayunchildren's swing
  ayun-anto swing (on a swing, hanging tree roots, etc.)
  ŋ-ayunto swing something
Balinese ayunto rock, swing
  ayun-ana swinging cot for a baby; cradle; a swing

Note:   Also Cebuano háyun ‘swing the arms in walking’. Sa'a äsuesu ‘move about, be loose, unstable; to wave, of trees; to shake’, which Dempwolff (1934-38) associated with some of the forms cited here, appears to be unrelated.


*hayup to blow


PWMP     *hayup to blow     [doublet: *Siup]

Bontok ʔayúpto blow on, as a fire to make it flame
Bikol hayópblow something away
Proto-Chamic *ʔayupto blow


*háyup animal


PPh     *háyup animal     [doublet: *hayep]

Ilokano áyupanimal, beast
Agta (Eastern) háyupanimal, creature, spirit (generic for any non-human creature, especially mammals, whether natural or supernatural; includes fairies, elves, goblins, etc.)
Ayta Abellan ayopanimal
Tagalog háyopanimal; a beast

TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    

























*hebás evaporate, dry up


PPh     *hebás evaporate, dry up

Ilokano ebbéssubside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.)
Isneg abbātboil salt water, in the manufacture of salt
Casiguran Dumagat ebEsfor water to go down again after a flood
Tagalog hibásreduced in intensity (said of fever or storm), low tide
Hanunóo hubásevaporation, drying up, as of mountain streams in the dry season
Aklanon hubáslow tide
Hiligaynon hubásevaporate, dry up
Cebuano hubásdry up or drain liquids out
Binukid hebasfor water to recede; for a well or spring to dry up


PPh     *maR-hebás to evaporate, cause to dry up

Isneg max-abbātboil salt water, in the manufacture of salt
Hiligaynon mag-hubásevaporate, dry up


PPh     *h<um>ebás to subside, dry up

Ilokano um-bássubside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.)
Hanunóo h-um-ubásdry up

Note:   Also Ilokano ebbás ‘subside, abate, decrease (rivers, brooks, etc.)’, Bikol hubás, ubás ‘low water level, low tide’.


*he(m)bek sob, mumbled complaint


PWMP     *he(m)bek sob, mumbled complaint

Kankanaey ebékcry and gibber; weep and jabber; weep and grumble
Tagalog hibíkpleading, supplication; sob
Maranao mbekgive a whacking or thudding sound
Bintulu əmbəkhit, as a dog with a stick
Old Javanese aŋ-embek-embekstifle one's sobs

Note:   With root *-bek₁ ‘dull muffled sound’.


*hebun group, pile


PMP     *hebun group, pile

Hiligaynon hubúngroup
Nggela ovucrowd, heap, pile
Lau ofupile up, amass; bunch, group of people

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*hedaw stop, cease, of rain


PMP     *hedaw stop, cease, of rain

Aklanon húeawstop raining, "let up" (rain only)
Cebuano huláwdrought, prolonged period without rain
Sangir edostop, cease, end
Duke of York orofinished, of rain

Note:   Also Cebuano húlaw ‘drought’, Tolai oroi ‘to cease or stop, of rain; abate’.


*hediq no, not


PWMP     *hediq no, not     [doublet: *hadiq]

Ilokano diadverb of negation
Isneg addínot
  um-addíto refuse, not to like
Tagalog hindíʔno, not
Maranao diʔno, not
Subanun (Sindangan) ndiʔno, not
Penudjaq ndéʔno, not
Mamben ndéʔno, not

Note:   Also Sasak endi(h) ‘isn't it so?’


*hekas release, loosen, untie


PWMP     *hekas release, loosen, untie

Hanunóo hukásunloading or dismounting from an animal
Kayan kahrelease something, let go from hool, set free; spread out, e.g. a mat
Tontemboan eŋkasunfold, develop; loosen, undo, untie, release

Note:   With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.


*helek sleep


PPh     *helek sleep

Kankanaey eléksleep with somebody
Ifugaw olóksleep
Tagalog hilíksnore, snoring
Kalamian Tagbanwa eleksleep
Palawan Batak ʔéleksleepy

Note:   Also Kankanaey ek ‘be asleep, fall asleep’.


*heluŋ shade, shelter


PWMP     *heluŋ shade, shelter

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heluŋseek shelter from rain or sun
Sangir elluŋshadow
  maŋ-elluŋseek shelter in the shade
Tae' alluncovered, as the sun with clouds, shadowed, as the sunlight blocked by trees
Mandar alluŋcloud
Buginese elluŋcloud

Note:   With root *-luŋ₂ ‘to shelter, shade’.


*hemel touch, hold


PWMP     *hemel touch, hold

Tagalog himílidle tapping with the point of the fingers, doodling
Maranao meltouch
Bintulu mənhold
  məŋ-əmənhold, catch


*hemis sweet taste


PMP     *hemis sweet taste     [disjunct: *emis₁]

Bikol hamíssweet
Maranao missweetness
Tiruray ʔeméhsugar; sweet
Tboli mi(h)sweet
Kadazan Dusun omissweet
Kenyah mEsweet
Kayan (Uma Juman) misweet
  mi heñaʔsalty
Lampung missweet
Proto-Sangiric *emissweet
Proto-Minahasan *emissweet
Palu'e misweet
Li'o misweet
Sika misweet, insipid


PEMP     *emis₂ sweet taste

Buli mis-missweet


PAN     *ma-hemis sweet     [doublet: *amis, *tamis]

Hoanya mamisweet
Agta (Central Cagayan) mamitsweet
Gaddang maːmitsweet
Maranao mamissweet, cake, dessert
Manobo (Ata) moʔomissweet
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) mɨʔɨmɨssweet
Samal mamissweet
Malagasy mamysweet, delicious
Rhade ḿmihsweet
Toba Batak mamissweet
Banggai mamissweet
Chamorro mamessweet


PCEMP     *ma-emis sweet; insipid, as fresh water

Rotinese mamiinsipid, sweetish, tasteless (as water)
Selaru mamianimal fat


POC     *mamis sweet, fresh (of water)

Tolai mamivery sweet yam variety: Dioscorea rubicosa, coconut with a sweet husk which is chewed by sick persons, rather like barley-sugar
Lakalai mamia yam: Dioscorea alata
Mailu mamifresh water
Motu mamiflavor of food
Cheke Holo mamhibe sweet tasting
Bugotu mamisweet, agreeable, pleasant to the taste
Nggela mamifresh, not salt
Kwaio meminormal tasting; neither sweet nor sour
  maa-mami-labrackish water
'Āre'āre mami-ʔasweet
Sa'a mamito taste
Arosi mamifresh, good drink, water; mixed with fresh water, as the sea water near a river mouth; sweetened, freshened, as ahuhu (yam sp.) put in fresh water and its salt flavor removed
Gilbertese mamfresh water (as opposed to salt water)
Pohnpeian memsweet
Puluwat memsweet
Woleaian mam(i)sweet, sugary
Rotuman mamisweet (opposite taviri 'sour'); of water, fresh; non-intoxicating
Futunan mamihave a good taste (as sweet fruits); be tasteless, insipid (from lack of salt)
Nukuoro mamithe taste of something
Rennellese mamifat, as fish or fowl

Note:   Also Siraya mahami ‘sweet’, Isneg mit ‘sweet, tasty’, Malay manis ‘sweetness; (of colors) light’, Old Javanese manis ‘sweetness, kindness, gentleness, loveliness’, Simalur mes ‘sweetness’, ma-mes ‘sweet’, Marshallese māmet ‘fresh water; sweet coconut water; sweet, sweetish taste’. The morpheme boundary in PMP *ma-emis had evidently disappeared in POc (*mamis), but given the unaffixed reflexes in some CMP and South Halmahera-West New Guinea languages we must conclude that this was not the case in PCEMP, nor even in Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian.

Although only the meaning ‘sweet’ can be attributed to PMP *hemis/emis, in PCEMP this form had evidently acquired the additional sense of ‘insipid, as fresh water in contrast to salt water’. For the association of sweetness with animal fat in a number of Oceanic languages (seen here in Selaru mami ‘animal fat’, Rennellese mami ‘fat, as fish or fowl)’ cf. Blust (1978:18).


*henaq think, consider; thought, idea


PPh     *henaq think, consider; thought, idea

Aklanon húnaʔ-húnaʔspeculate, think of, consider; speculation, idea, thought
Hiligaynon hunáʔ-hunáʔthoughts, ideas, opinion
  mag-hunáʔ-hunáʔthink, have the idea, consider
Cebuano húnaʔ-húnaʔthink about something; think of doing something; think of something or someone; consider, think something over, ponder
Mapun honaʔ-honaʔcommon sense
Sangir ennathought

Note:   Also Bikol húnaʔ ‘opinion, judgment, view’.


*hendek moan, groan


PPh     *hendek moan, groan

Ilokano eddékto moan (when evacuating the bowels, giving birth, etc.)
Tagalog hindíkcontinuous and agonizing hard breathing; last agonizing breath of the dying

Note:   Also Ilokano eddét ‘to moan’. With root *-dek₁ ‘hiccough, sob’.


*heñat stretch


PWMP     *heñat stretch

Sasak ñatstretch, spring up
Lolak onatstretch
Mandar enneʔstretch, as rubber, spring, etc.

Note:   Hiligaynon únat ‘ductile, stretchable’ appears to reflect PPh *húñat, and Ifugaw onát ‘to draw, pull out something in order to use it’ evidently is a chance resemblance. With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.


*heŋak out of breath


PMP     *heŋak out of breath     [disjunct: *eŋap, etc.]

Cebuano huŋák-huŋákbreathe deeply and rapidly
Nggela oŋaout of breath

Note:   Probably with root *-ŋak ‘screech, howl’.


*heŋit laughter; to laugh


PPh     *heŋit laughter; to laugh

Itbayaten ahñitlaughter
  i-hñitto laugh at somebody
  h<om>ñitto laugh
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) ɨŋitto laugh
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eŋitto laugh aloud
Manobo (Ilianen) ɨŋitto laugh

Note:   This comparison was first proposed schematically by Zorc (1986:163).


*hepak split, break off


PWMP     *hepak split, break off

Cebuano hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact
Kelabit epakwhat is split
  ŋ-epakto split
Kenyah (Long Wat) paksplit
Kayan pakthe fallen sheath from palm fronds or bamboo; husk of sugarcane
Malagasy èfakaanything branching like a fork
  man-èfakabranching, forked, as trees, etc.
Karo Batak empakwood chips, wood shavings
Dairi-Pakpak Batak empakcut, sever
Toba Batak ompaksplinter
Balinese empakbreak, break off of itself (as a branch)
Sasak empakcracks in the lips (from fever)
  empak-empakchannels or cracks in the ground

Note:   Also Cebuano hupʔák ‘peel, flake off; cause something to do so’. With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.


*heqe yes; expression of agreement


PMP     *heqe yes; expression of agreement

Bontok ʔə́ʔəyes; an expression of agreement
Aklanon húʔoyes. Used quite differently than the English equivalent -- the Aklanon "yes" can mean "the former" or "yes, your statement (in the negative) is true"
Hiligaynon húʔuyes, affirmative particle
Palawan Batak ʔeʔeyes
Sundanese hɨɨh <Myes, right, correct
Mongondow oʔoexpression of agreement; yes, good, it is good
Gorontalo oːoyes, true
Uma oointerjection
Bare'e oʔosound that one makes to apologize or to show agreement
Manggarai eʔeyes, good, agreed!
Rembong esound indicating agreement


POC     *oqo yes

Gitua ooyo! (reply)
Mono-Alu oyes

Note:   Also Paiwan eʔe ‘no!’, Tetun heʔe ‘yes, that is so’, Buruese ehe ‘yes, O.K.’, Kilivila o ‘yes’. PMP evidently distinguished "yes" as the affirmation of a statement (*au) from "yes" as an expression of agreement (*heqe). The latter item appears to have been shaped by expressive universals (cp. English uh-huh), which like yes can affirm a statement, but which in contradistinction to yes is the unmarked device for expression of agreement).


*heqeguk deep guttural sound


PMP     *heqeguk deep guttural sound

Bikol haʔgóktake deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp
Sundanese eŋguk-eŋgukonomatopoetic for the sound of the turtledove
Manggarai guksound of water going down the throat

Note:   Also Kayan guk ‘to bump one thing against another’. With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.


*heReŋ groan, moan, roar, growl


PMP     *heReŋ groan, moan, roar, growl     [doublet: *huRuŋ 'rumble, groan, buzz, hum']

Tagalog hígiŋtone, cue to start singing; something heard vaguely and not well understood
Aklanon hugóŋ-húgoŋrumors
Cebuano húguŋproduce a steady humming sound
Kelabit ereŋa groan, a growl
Malay (h)eraŋmoan, cry of pain
Karo Batak ereŋto bark
  m-ereŋto bark
Toba Batak oroŋto bark (dogs)
  m-oroŋ-oroŋgrumble, complain about
Sundanese hereŋthe purring of a cat
Old Javanese hreŋdeep persistent sound; rumbling, grumbling, growling, humming
  hreŋ hreŋto rumble
Javanese ereŋkeep roaring, keep moaning with pain
Makassarese k-arraŋcry out, shout
  m-arraŋto cry (deer), to bark (dogs), to moo, bellow (cattle)
Chamorro ugoŋmoan, groan, lament, mourn, utter in lamentation


POC     *oRoŋ roar, shout

Tolai oroto call, shout
Mbula oro-oronoise, commotion
Rotuman ōmake a rumbling, rushing or roaring noise


PWMP     *maŋ-heReŋ to groan, moan, roar

Kelabit ŋ-ereŋto groan (as a sick person or a ghost), to growl (dogs)
Malay meŋ-eraŋto groan in pain
Toba Batak maŋ-oroŋto bark (dogs)
  paŋ-oroŋa dog

Note:   With root *-Reŋ ‘groan, moan, snore’. The penultimate accent in Tagalog hígiŋ and Cebuano húguŋ is unexpected, and may indicate that these forms belong elsewhere. Since no clear semantic agreement can be found between them, I assume that the reduplicated forms of *heReŋ in several languages are products of parallel evolution.


*heRuŋ roar


PWMP     *heRuŋ roar

Cebuano húguŋto produce a steady humming sound
Malagasy éronaa growl, a roar
  man-èronagrowl at, snarl at; murmur, grumble
Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨrruŋdrone, roar
Buginese m-erruŋlow droning noise
Makassarese arruŋdull roar (of wind, approaching rain, rushing of river current, etc.)

Note:   With root *-Ruŋ ‘roar, rumble’.


*hesek₁ to plant seeds by dibbling


PPh     *hesek₁ to plant seeds by dibbling

Bontok ʔəsə́kseed kept for planting; to plant, of vegetables
Ifugaw ohókput seeds in little pits
Ifugaw (Batad) ohóʔplants seeds such as corn with a dibble stick
Bikol hasókplant rice or corn seeds by placing them in a hole made by a pole


PPh     *hesek-án field made by dibbling

Bontok ʔəsk-ánto plant, of vegetables
Bikol hasok-ánhask-ánupland rice or corn fields

Note:   With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.


*hesek₂ drive in stakes or posts


PAN     *hesek₂ drive in stakes or posts

Amis hcekpost, wooden pillar
  pa-hcekput stakes of wood in the ground, as when staking claims


PMP     *esek₂ drive in stakes or posts

Aklanon usókpole of a fence, fencepole
Cebuano úsukdrive stakes into the ground
Narum cakhousepost

Note:   With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    















































*hibun cover with earth


PMP     *hibun cover with earth

Cebuano híbunfor a depression to get filled up or covered
Bare'e iwucover; cover over an opening in the ground; keep secret


POC     *ipun₂ cover with earth

Nggela ivuloosen earth with a stick; make mounds or rows in a garden; plough; a mound

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble’. Nggela ivu could, alternatively, be assigned to *qipun, *qimpun ‘heap, collection; to gather, heap up’.


*hidap suffer, bear hardships


PWMP     *hidap suffer, bear hardships

Pangasinan íraphardships, torment; be difficult; suffer
  ma-írapdifficult, hard (emotionally)
Tagalog hírapdifficulty, suffering
  hiráptired, weary; up against much difficulty
Iban idap(of illness) be subject or liable to; have a relapse or recurrence of
Malay (h)idapprotraction (of illness, sorrow or fasting).
  meŋ-idap perutto have been long without a meal
  meŋ-idap-kan rayuto nurse one's grief

Note:   Also Bikol hídop ‘eat something necessary to keep one from starving’.


*hidem keep something to oneself; silent, secret


PWMP     *hidem keep something to oneself; silent, secret

Cebuano hílumsilent, quiet; secret, not overt (as secret love); keep something secret, hush something up
Iban diau <Mstill, silent; stop, sooth
Malay diam <Mquiet, still; be silent
Malay (Java) diem <Mquiet, silent
Sundanese idemkeep secret, give no sign of

Note:   Also Bikol hílom ‘in secret; clandestine, covert, furtive, surreptitious’, Sundanese sidem ‘keep to oneself, keep a secret’. Zorc (1982:125) compares Cebuano hílum with Malay (h)ilam-(h)ilam ‘dimly or intermittently visible, as the flight of a bird in the distance’ (< *hiːləm ‘secret, hidden’).


*hideRáq lie down


PPh     *hideRáq lie down

Ilokano iddálie down, stretch, be prostrate, stretched out
Isneg iddālie down
Itawis íddaplace to lie down
Tagalog higáʔlying down; fallen flat on the back
Bikol higdáʔ <Mlie down, repose
Cebuano higdáʔ <Mlie down
Maranao igaʔlie down
Manobo (Ata) hidogoʔsleep
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hizeɣaʔlie down
Tiruray ʔiroʔlie down


PPh     *maR-hideRáq to lie down

Isneg max-iddālie down
Bikol mag-higdáʔlie down


*hig(e)pít pinch or squeeze between two surfaces


PPh     *hig(e)pít pinch or squeeze between two surfaces

Bontok ʔigpithold something between one's arm and the trunk of one's body, or between one's fingers
Pangasinan igpíttighten something
Ayta Abellan igpitto not give freedom, and be strict with
Kapampangan igpit-anto tighten something
Tagalog higpíttightness; strictness, severity; restriction, limitation
Bikol higpítstrict, tight (as regulations); drastic, harsh, rigid, stringent
Hanunóo higpíttightness, seriousness, gravity
Aklanon ígpitto clip, catch, hold between two things
Cebuano higpítnarrow, for something to be small such that it restricts motion, causes difficulty


PPh     *hig(e)pít-en be pinched or squeezed by

Bontok ʔigpít-ənbe held between one's arm and the trunk of one's body
Bikol higpít-onbe enforced (as regulations), be tightened (as restrictions)

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*higút to tie up, tighten a rope


PPh     *higút to tie up, tighten a rope

Casiguran Dumagat igútrope, line (anything used for tying)
Bikol higóttaut, tight, tense
  mag-higótto pull taut or tight; to tighten
Aklanon higótstring (for tying)
  hígotto tie up
Waray-Waray higótthe act of tying up, fastening or binding; anything used in tying up purposes; string; cord
Maranao igotto pull on belt; tighten
Mansaka igotto tighten; to pull tight (as rope); to stretch tight


PPh     *higut-an (gloss uncertain)

Casiguran Dumagat igut-anto tie (as a rope around a dog’s neck)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) higut-ana string or cord belt which is sewed into the waist of a pair of trousers


*hiket to weave a net, tie strings together


PWMP     *hiket to weave a net, tie strings together

Ilokano ikétnet
  ag-ikétto weave a net
Isneg ikátnet (general name)
Bontok ʔíkətdog collar
Kankanaey ikt-ento fasten a rope to, attach a cord to, fasten a line to; to strap, to leash
Bikol híkotnet, now primarily used for fishing, but in the past used for hunting as well
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiketto tie up; to commit suicide
Malay ikattying up, fastening; binding with string, thread, or rope
Old Javanese ikətband, tie
Sasak ikəttie securely with a rope
Proto-Sangiric *ikitto bind, tie up
Proto-Minahasan *ikətto hang up on a rope


*hikhik snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter


PWMP     *hikhik snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter     [doublet: *hakhak]

Tagalog h-al-ikhíkoutburst of pent-up laughter (cp. h-al-akhak)
Nias ikilaugh at, ridicule
Javanese ikiktitter, giggle, snigger
Balinese ikiklaugh loudly (not so loudly as akak)

Note:   Also Aklanon ilikʔik ‘to giggle, snicker’, h-il-iʔhiʔ ‘to snicker, cackle’. Dempwolff (1934-38) gives Javanese ikik which he must have found in Jansz (1913), but neither Pigeaud (1938) nor Horne (1974) lists the form.


*hikñat stretch


PPh     *hikñat stretch

Bontok ʔiknátstretch oneself, as when tired
Cebuano hiknátpull slightly with the fingers as if stretching something

Note:   Also Cebuano hiknít ‘pull slightly with the fingers as if stretching something’. With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.


*hilab abdominal pain


PPh     *hilab abdominal pain

Ayta Abellan ilabpain; to experience pain
Tagalog hílabspasm; a convulsive action causing pain in the abdomen
Cebuano hílabempty or smarting sensation in the stomach, caused by hunger, fear, or acidity
Mansaka ilabitch-causing agent

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ayta Abellan.


*hilah drag, pull


PWMP     *hilah drag, pull

Tagalog hílapull; drag; tow, towing; the thing pulled; a cartload or carload as a unit of measure; attraction, invitation
Bikol hílaa work song sung when pulling or hauling
  mag-hilato pull or haul while singing
Aklanon híla(h)to pull
Malay héladragging after oneself; hauling or lugging along

Note:   The Philippine forms may be loans from Malay. If so, however, the thematic *-h of Aklanon híla(h) is unexplained.


*hilap slice, cut (as meat)


PPh     *hilap₃ slice, cut (as meat)

Yami ilapcut pieces, cut chunks
  n-ilapcut pieces
  ka-ilap-anthickness of the slabs of meat
Ibatan idapa slice
Ilokano ílapa slice
Bikol mag-hílapto slice meat
Agutaynen ilap-ento fillet fish or meat
Aborlan Tagbanwa ilap-ilapto slice thin (as meat)


PPh     *maŋ-hilap to cut or slice meat

Yami maŋ-ilapto cut meat
Itbayaten mañ-ilapto cut finger or toenails, to cut one’s nails off
Ibatan maŋ-idapto slice meat, cut into slices
Pangasinan man-ilápto cut finely


PPh     *hilap-an (gloss uncertain)

Yami ilap-anreason for cutting into pieces
Ilokano iláp-anto cut a slice from something


PPh     *hilap-en to cut, slice (as meat)

Yami ilap-ento cut
Ibatan idap-ento slice meat, cut into slices
Ilokano iláp-ento slice
Bikol hiláp-onto slice meat


*hilat wide open, of the eyes


PMP     *hilat wide open, of the eyes

Tagalog hílatstretching of an opening (as by pulling down the eyelid)
Makassarese illaʔbe wide open, of the eyes
Bimanese ilaopen the eyes

Note:   With root *-lat₁ ‘open the eyes wide’.


*hiláw raw, unripe


PPh     *hiláw raw, unripe

Casiguran Dumagat iláweat raw food (e.g. fish, vegetables); eat green fruit
Sambal (Botolan) na-ʔilounripe, raw
Tagalog hilawuncooked; green, unripe; raw
Bikol hiláwraw, half-cooked (meat, vegetables); immature (fruits, vegetables)
Aklanon hiláwraw, uncooked; unripe
Cebuano hiláwuncooked, raw; unripe, green
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hilewunripe, uncooked
Mongondow ilowyoung, green, unripe (plants and fruits), raw (flesh)

Note:   Possibly a Proto-Central Philippines innovation which has been borrowed into Sambal (Botolan) and Casiguran Dumagat.


*hilek a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens


PPh     *hilek a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens

Yami ilektype of fish: snubnose rudderfish (considered the best type of fish)
Itbayaten hilekblackish or smoke-colored fish: Kyphosus cinerascens, Lutianus erythropterus Forskal
Ilokano ílekkind of large spotted marine fish with tasty meat, rudder fish, Kyphosus sp.


*hili village, town


PMP     *hili village, town

Yami ilivillage
  i-paŋ-ililiused to visiting other villages
  mi-ilithe village one lives in
Itbayaten hilitown proper, habitual living place; point of departure
Ilokano ílitown
  um-ilito live, reside in a town; inhabitants, citizens, residents
  maŋ-ílito visit another town
Isneg ílivillage, town, country; birthplace, residence
  eliy-anneighbor, fellow citizen
Itawis ilítown
Bontok ʔílivillage; town
  maŋ-ílistranger, foreigner; someone from another village
Kankanaey ílitown, city, village, hamlet, borough; country, fatherland, any person living outside of one's village
Ifugaw ílivillage not one's own; foreign village
  um-ilito visit, enter a village not one's own
Ibaloy ilitown; sometimes esp. the municipio town center as opposed to the barrios/barangays; (also any geopolitical unit, as province or country, e.g. ili ni hapon ‘the country of the Japanese’)
Erai ili-(n)village
  ili-hunskirt of the village
  ili-ralanvillage population
  la ili ehain another village
Talur ilivillage
Tugun ilivillage


PPh     *ka-hili-an fellow villager

Itbayaten ka-hili-antownmate, fellow man
Ilokano ka-ili-ánfellow citizen; of the lower classes
Bontok ka-ʔili-yánsomeone from the same village as oneself; fellow villager

Note:   On semantic grounds it is tempting to include Aklanon ilih-án ‘place, location’ in this set, but if so the zero reflex of *h- cannot be explained. Tentatively Aklanon ilih-án is associated with PMP *qilih ‘mountain, mountain range’, despite the problematic semantics.


*hiliŋ see, examine, look at closely


PWMP     *hiliŋ see, examine, look at closely     [disjunct: *iliŋ]

Bikol hilíŋa look; look at, look over, admire
Hanunóo híliŋlooking at something, usually near by
Cebuano hilíŋexamine something carefully, touching it to see what is there; examine one's health
Tiruray ʔiliŋ-ʔiliŋlook around, scan
Old Javanese iliŋlook at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love)
Balinese iliŋsee, look

Note:   Also Old Javanese mileŋ-mileŋ ‘run about, looking everywhere’, Sika ʔileŋ ‘to look; to resemble; to appear’.


*hilít outskirts, edge of settlement


PPh     *hilít outskirts, edge of settlement

Bontok ʔilítoutskirts of the village, uninhabited areas outside the village
Kankanaey ilítoutside of the town; fields; out of the group of houses, but still on the grounds of the town
Aklanon hilítcorner, side
Cebuano hilítsecluded, isolated in location (as a place with no near neighbors)


*hilu poison


PWMP     *hilu poison

Casiguran Dumagat ilósorcerer, witch; bewitch, make someone sick through witchcraft; to poison, be poison
Tagalog hílodizziness, giddiness, vertigo
  ka-hiluh-andizziness, giddiness, vertigo
  hiluh-ínto make someone dizzy
Bikol hílopoison
Cebuano hilúpoison ingested; poison something or someone
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiluto poison; poison
Lun Dayeh iluha poisoning
  in-iluhsickened due to food poisoning
  m-iluhbe poisoned by something eaten
Kelabit m-iluheat something poisonous so as to become sick and vomit
Iban ilaŋ-ilutree with poisonous fruits
Sangir ilubecome poisonous


PWMP     *ma-hilu poisonous

Bikol ma-hílobe poisoned
Sangir m-ilupoisonous

Note:   Also Aklanon hilóʔ, Hiligaynon hilúʔ ‘poison’.


*hílut massaging, setting of bones


PPh     *hílut massaging, setting of bones

Ilokano ílutmassage
  i-pa-ílutto have someone give a massage
  ilút-ento massage; rub; knead
Isneg ílotmassagist
Itawis ílutmidwife, masseur, native chiropractor
Bontok ʔílutto massage, as a sprained ankle
Kankanaey ílutto rub, apply massage to any injured part of the body
Pangasinan ilótmassage or rub gently
Kapampangan ílut, híluta curer (specialist in massage, sprains, bone setting)
Tagalog hílotmidwife; massaging
Hanunóo hílutmassage
Aklanon hílotrestore a broken bone; massage
Agutaynen ilotto massage muscles, joints; to set a fracture
Hiligaynon hílutmidwife; to massage, rub
Cebuano hílutmassage, pull the bones for medicinal purposes
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hilutto massage a part of the body


PPh     *hílut-en to massage, set bones

Kankanaey ílut-enapply massage
Kapampangan ílut-ancure, massage
Hiligaynon hílut-unto massage, rub


*himatún notice, observe


PPh     *himatún notice, observe

Ilokano imatóncare for, look after, attend to, heed, mark, observe, notice
Isneg imatónsign; something by which the seasons are announced (for planting, weeding, etc.); a mark, a reminder for remembering a certain place
Kankanaey imátonfind out about; notice; discern; know; recognize; distinguish
Ifugaw imátonsign at which someone is recognized
Pangasinan imatónobserve, see, witness, test with the senses
Tagalog himatóngiving of directions to find the way to a place; information, news, or instructions sent over

Note:   Also Tagalog himatóŋ ‘giving of directions to find the way to a place’, Aklanon ináto(h) ‘notice, recognize; recall, pay attention’.


*hínam crave, desire, intensely


PPh     *hínam crave, desire, intensely

Ilokano ka-inám-anbecome fond of, start relishing, acquire a taste for
Kankanaey ínampalatable; tasteful; savory
Pangasinan inámcrave for food, drink, clothing, etc.
Cebuano hínameager, intensely desirous (as to eat)
Maranao inamexpectation, prospect, hope for something
Tiruray ʔinama hopeful expectation; to hopefully expect something

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) inam ‘be in suspense; expect anxiously’. Kankanaey inam may contain the root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty’, and hence not be cognate with the other forms cited here.


*hintay wait for, spy on


PWMP     *hintay wait for, spy on

Tagalog hintáywait!
Iban intaiwait or watch for (opportunity)
Malay hintaiprying; watching secretly
Toba Batak intewait, await, expect
Old Javanese inte, intaykeep constantly in view, keep a watch on, watch narrowly, peer at
Balinese intewatch over, chaperone, spy on
Sasak intespy on, stalk

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Javanese iṭi ‘take scrupulous care of ‘, but this appears to be non-cognate.


*hinuR ripe, ripen, of fruit; reach a ‘ripe’ stage, of a head cold, a boil, etc.


PPh     *hinuR ripe, ripen, of fruit; reach a ‘ripe’ stage, of a head cold, a boil, etc.

Yami (Imorod) inoyripe
Itbayaten ja-hinoynot ripe, unripe
Tagalog hinógripe (usually said of fruits)
Bikol hinógripe, mature
  mag-hinógto ripen
Cebuano hinúgripe (as bananas); for a cold to be at a late stage, when the mucus gets thick; for acne or a small pimple to come to a head
Subanon ginugripeness
Binukid hinugripe (fruit, etc.); for fruit, etc. to be ripe; to let fruit ripen; for a boil to be ready to burst
Tausug hinug(of fruit) ripe


PPh     *ma-hinuR to ripen

Itbayaten ma-hinoyripen (fruit, infected wounds, etc.); to be ripe
Tagalog ma-hinógto ripen; become ripe; to mature; to mellow
Subanon minugripe
Tausug ma-hinugto become ripe; (of a cold) at the stage at which mucus comes out freely when the nose is blown


*hinzam borrowing, lending


PWMP     *hinzam borrowing, lending     [doublet: *Sezam]

Kapampangan indámborrow, lend
Tagalog hirámborrowing
Remontado hidámborrow
Bikol hidámto borrow
Ngaju Dayak injamborrow, lend
Malagasy índranaborrowed
Banjarese injamborrow
Iban injauborrowing, borrow
Karo Batak injamborrow, lend
Toba Batak injamborrow, lend
Sangir iraŋlend, borrow
Bare'e indadebt
  indaŋ-idebt; money that is lent
Tae' indanlend, borrow
Mandar indaŋborrow, lend
Makassarese inraŋdebt, money that has been lent to someone


PWMP     *maŋ-hinzam borrow

Toba Batak maŋ-injamlend, borrow
[Sundanese ŋ-injɨmborrow]
Tae' maŋ-indanborrow


PWMP     *maR-hinzam lend, borrow (?)

Bikol mag-pa-hidámto lend
Toba Batak mar-injama model for a sarong; a sarong that one borrows for an offering feast


PAN     *pa-hinzam lend

[Paiwan pa-sedjamto lend, loan]
Tagalog pa-hirámthing lent
  pa-hiram-ínlend something to someone
Bikol i-pa-hidámto lend
[Aklanon pa-hueámlend]
[Cebuano pa-hulámlend]
Malay p-injamborrowing
Makassarese pa-inraŋlend


PWMP     *hinzam-an person or place from which something is borrowed

Tagalog híram-anperson from whom or place from which one may borrow something
Malagasy indràm-anaused of the person from whom something is borrowed
Malay p-injam-anthing borrowed or lent; debt


PWMP     *hinzam-en thing borrowed

Tagalog hiram-ínto borrow (a thing)
Malagasy indràm-inaused of the thing which is to be borrowed


PWMP     *hinzam-i borrow from (someone)

Malay me-minjam-iborrow from
Tae' pa-indan-ilend to

Note:   Also Kayan ujam ‘a loan’, m-ujam ‘to borrow’, Sundanese injɨm ‘borrow, lend’, Ngadha idho ‘lend’. I take Kambera pinjaŋu ‘borrow, lend’ to be a loan from Malay.


*híŋak sound of rushing water or air


PPh     *híŋak sound of rushing water or air

Ifugaw íŋaknoise made by running water
Cebuano híŋakbreathe deeply and rapidly

Note:   Possibly with root *-ŋak ‘screech, howl’.


*hipaR sibling-in-law (probably of the same sex only)


PMP     *hipaR₁ sibling-in-law (probably of the same sex only)

Ilokano ípagsister-in-law
Isneg ípagBW (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB
Itawis ípagsister-in-law
Pangasinan ípagsister-in-law
Tagalog hípagsister-in-law
Bikol hípag, ípagsister-in-law
Aklanon hípagsister-in-law
Hiligaynon hípagsister-in-law, brother-in-law
Maranao ipagsister-in-law, brother-in-law
Iban iparbrother-in-law, sister-in-law, relation by marriage of the same generation
Malay iparbrotherhood or sisterhood by marriage. Loosely, of a brother-in-law or even cousin-in-law, but usually defined more closely by the use of other words with meanings that vary locally
Balinese ipahWB, HB, WZ, HBW
Sasak iparbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
Proto-Minahasan *ipagbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
Bare'e ipacompanion, comrade
Makassarese iparaʔHB, HZ, WB, WZ
Manggarai iparBW, HZ, HZH, MBD (ref.)
Rembong iparHZ
Ngadha ipaWZ (and all her female consanguines of the same generation), BW
Ende ipaFZD, MBD (w.s.)
Li'o ipasister-in-law
Sika ʔiparnephew or niece
Yamdena ifarZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.), FBDH (m.s.), FZDH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), MZDH (m.s.), FBSW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.), MBSW (w.s.), MBD (w.s.), MZSW (w.s.)
Fordata ifarZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.)


POC     *ipaR- sibling-in-law of the same sex

Tanga ifaː-kalikWB, ZH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), FZS (m.s)
  ifa-ŋHZ, BW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.)
Lakalai iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ
Gedaged iwa-nZH (m.s.)
  iwa-n painBW (w.s.), HZ
Mbula iwa-BIL, SIL
Numbami iwacousin-in-law; spouse’s (usually wife’s) cross-sex classificatory siblings
Motu iha-BIL, SIL or cousin's wife
Mono-Alu ifa-BIL, SIL, etc.
Cheke Holo iva-BIL, SIL
Varisi iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ
Eddystone/Mandegusu iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ
Bugotu iva-BIL, SIL
Nggela iva-a relative by marriage
Kwaio ifa-ZH (w.s), ZH (m.s.), WB, HB
Sa'a ihe-WZ, WB, HB, HZ
Arosi iha-BW (m.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ipag (expected **hipag) ‘BW (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB’, Old Javanese ipe (expected **ipa) ‘BIL, SIL’, Sangir ipageʔ (expected **ipaheʔ) ‘SIL and her consanguines of the same generation; also nephews and nieces’, Mongondow ipaʔ (expected **ipag) ‘BIL, SIL’, Buli ifo (expected **ifa) ‘BIL, SIL’, Mussau ie (expected **ia), ‘SIL’, Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka giva-na (expected **iva-na ‘BW (m.s.), HZ’, Roviana iva-na (expected **ivara-na) ‘BIL’.

Two semantic features of this kinship term appear to be beyond dispute: 1. it referred to affines, 2. these affines were of Ego's generation. However, the glosses in the more detailed dictionaries and in studies devoted specifically to kinship (as Elkins and Hendrickson 1984) show clearly that in most attested languages reflexes of PMP *hipaR are restricted to a specific subset of same generation affines. The challenge to semantic reconstruction with *hipaR, then, is to define this subset of kin on the basis of well-supported arguments.

Where the reflex of *hipaR is not simply glossed ‘BIL, ZIL’, it typically refers to a subset of same generation affines defined by relative sex. There are three fairly well-attested patterns: (1) in a number of the languages of Mindanao in the southern Philippines, and in Isneg of northern Luzon, reflexes of *hipaR mean ‘sibling-in-law of the opposite sex’, that is: BW > (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ and HB; (2) in a number of the languages of Mindanao and in Gaddang of the northern Philippines reflexes of *hipaR mean ‘sibling-in-law’ of the opposite sex (any speaker) and sibling-in-law of the same sex (w.s.)’, that is: BW (m.s.), BW (w.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB, and HZ; (3) in western Subanen/Subanun of the southern Philippines and in a number of Oceanic languages including Lakalai, Eddystone/Mandegusu, Varisi, and Arosi, simple reflexes of PMP *hipaR mean ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’, that is: BW (w.s.), ZH (w.s.), WB, and HZ; in Gedaged and Tanga a reflex of PMP *hipaR also means ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’, except that further distinctions are made with other qualifying words.

The latter pattern is so predominant in the available data for OC systems that it seems fairly safe to infer that POc *ipaR meant ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’, as was done by Milke (1958). Milke's POc reconstruction raises two questions: 1. What was the POc term for ‘sibling-in-law of the opposite sex’?, 2. can the meaning ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’ be attributed to PMP *hipaR? Milke answered the first question by suggesting that ZH (w.s.) and HB were terminologically equated with the husband, and that BW (m.s.) and WZ were terminologically equated with the wife. Whether such a system can be attributed to PMP is unclear. The evidence suggests that relative sex played a crucial role in definition of PMP *hipaR (as it did in the system of PMP sibling terms). The distribution of reflexes over major MP subgroups further suggests that PMP *hipaR probably meant ‘sibling-in-law of the same sex’ rather than ‘sibling-in-law of the opposite sex’, but an adequate reconstruction for the latter meaning remains to be found.


*hipaʔ lie in wait for, ambush


PMP     *hipaʔ lie in wait for, ambush

Bikol hípaʔwait for in hiding; ambush, waylay, spring upon, set upon; to lurk, skulk, slink, sneak
Ngaju Dayak impalie in wait for, ambush
Banjarese impawatch out for, beware
Iban ipaʔlie in wait for, ambush
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ipapay close heed to someone
Toba Batak ipakeep a lookout, watch sharply

Note:   Also Bikol (h)ipaɁ ‘wait for in hiding; ambush’.


*hipes to fall silent; keep quiet about something; keep a secret


PPh     *hipes to fall silent; keep quiet about something; keep a secret

Hanunóo hípusquality of being gentle, reserved, quiet
  ma-hípusquiet, calm, reserved
Aklanon híposto keep silence, be quiet; to keep secret
  ka-hípossilence, quietude
  ma-hípossilent, quiet
Agutaynen mag-ipesto quiet down, stop laughing, talking or crying; to keep quiet about a secret
Hiligaynon ma-hípusquiet, silent, still
Maranao ipessilence, keep still
Tausug mag-hipusto be or become quiet (implies an end, cessation or discontinuance of noisy activities, as of household chores, traffic, quarrel or fight, or cannonade)


*hipun₁ tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn


PMP     *hipun₁ tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn

Ilokano ípona fish which, after having been hatched in sea water, ascends rivers, where it grows and spawns. From August or September to January, about nine days after the new moon, it appears in exceedingly numerous shoals... Its meat is very much esteemed... It rarely exceeds an inch in length, and when it has grown larger, it is known by some other name
Isneg ípona fish which, after having been hatched in sea water, ascends rivers, where it grows and spawns
Ifugaw ípunvery small fishes living in rivers
Pangasinan ipónvery small fish often made into inasin (a relish made from salting fish or shrimp and leaving to age)
Cebuano hípunsmall anchovy which comes seasonally in great abundance, most common eaten preserved in salt
Maranao ipongoby
Iban anak impunsmall fry, small fish that swim in shoals
Javanese (h)impunsmall edible fishes that collect in huge compact masses at sea
Balinese impunsp. of small sea fish
Manggarai impuŋfingerling of the ikan mua that begins swimming upriver from the sea in February-March
Rembong ipunfingerling of the ikan mua (eel sp.)
Ngadha ipufish spawn
Sika ʔipuŋfishes the size of a match-stick
Tetun ihuna little fish which is crushed to make a type of pickle


PEMP     *ipun₁ tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn

Buli ifiŋvery small fish that sometimes swims upriver in huge schools

Note:   Also Kambera ipiŋu (Anakalangu ipuŋu) ‘small sea fish which migrates from the sea upriver to spawn’. Tagalog hípon ‘shrimp’, Cebuano hípun ‘small shrimp’ apparently is distinct.


*hípun₂ small shrimp


PPh     *hípun₂ small shrimp

Yami iponriver shrimp
Itbayaten hiponshrimp (largest)
Ibatan iponlobster, shrimp
Itawis ífunsmall shrimp
Tagalog híponshrimp
Aklanon híponsmall shrimp
Cebuano hípuntiny shrimp

Note:   The distribution of this form may be due to borrowing from Tagalog.


*hipuq feel, touch


PPh     *hipuq feel, touch

Tagalog hípoʔtouch, palpation
Sangir ipofeel, taste, have sexual desire

Note:   Also Maranao ipo ‘caress with the hands, rub’.


*hiqepet tight, tightness


PWMP     *hiqepet tight, tightness

Kankanaey ipéttight, taut
Ifugaw ipótwhat is too tight (of clothes)
Pangasinan ipéttightness; become tight
Cebuano hipʔút <Mnarrow space or passageway; tight in financial situation, mode of living; for clothes to be tight
Sasak impetlock, shut, close

Note:   Also Tagalog higpít ‘strictness, severity; rigor’. With root *-pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.


*hírap to slice off, cut a slice off


PPh     *hírap to slice off, cut a slice off     [disjunct: *hilap]

Ilokano írapto cut, slice
Cebuano hílapto cut a wide slice off s.t.
Binukid hilapto cut a slice off (something)


*hiras cut off


PMP     *hiras cut off

Tagalog hílascutting off of palm leaf-blades from rib, or of banana stem segments from trunk
Ngaju Dayak haris <Mcut, slice
Tae' iraʔmince, cut, chop to pieces
Proto-South Sulawesi *irascut, slice
Sika iracut, carve
Wetan iratear up, rend, tear off


*hírig lean, incline


PPh     *hírig lean, incline

Itbayaten hiliginclination
  ma-hiligfond of, inclined to
Ilokano írigincline, lean, bend (of trees, houses, etc.)
Sambal (Botolan) íliglean on
Tagalog híliginclination, leaning position; propensity, tendency
Aklanon híligfond of, inclined to, having a liking for; hobby
Cebuano híligleaning, tilted to one side; develop a tendency, inclination

Note:   Also Mongondow eleg ‘slant, tilt, be askew’.


*hírud scrape or rub off


PPh     *hírud scrape or rub off

Ilokano írudtrim off rough edges (of a board)
Isneg ilúdto pare, peel (cooked yams, taro rhizomes, etc.)
Bontok ʔíludrub one's body with the palm of the hand when bathing, in order to remove ingrained dirt
Tagalog hílodscrubbing of skin to remove dirt

Note:   Also Bontok ígod ‘scrape or rub, as with a stone when bathing; any object used for scraping the skin when bathing’, lodlod ‘rub one's body with the palm of the hand when bathing, in order to remove ingrained dirt’. With root *-rud ‘scratch, scrape’.


*hiRét tighten; constriction


PPh     *hiRét tighten; constriction

Isneg ixáttighten
Itawis ígattightness
Bontok ʔilə́tbind, tighten, make taut
Bikol higóttaut, tight; tense
Hanunóo higúttie, tying
Aklanon hígottie up
Hiligaynon higútrope, string
  mag-higutto bind, tie, secure, fasten with a string or a rope
Cebuano higúttie something up; tie something to something


PPh     *hiRet-an tighten

Isneg igt-ántighten
Bikol higót-antighten a part of something

Note:   Also Tboli hilet, Lun Dayeh giret ‘belt’, Iban sirat ‘man's waist- or loin-cloth’. Maranao igot ‘put on a belt; tighten’, igot-an ‘belt’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiǥut-an ‘a string or cord belt which is sewed into the waist of a pair of trousers’, together with the forms in Bikol, Hanunóo, Aklanon, Hiligaynon and Cebuano point to earlier *higut, probably assignable no higher than PCPH. This item probably contains a root *-ReC ‘tighten; belt’.


*hisep suck, inhale


PAN     *hisep suck, inhale     [doublet: *qiseq]

Amis hicepto slurp water
Karo Batak incepto drink (of animals); suck, slurp
Nias isõsmoke a pipe


POC     *isop suck, inhale

Label isopto drink

Note:   With root *-sep ‘sip, suck’.


*hisuq clean oneself by scrubbing


PMP     *hisuq clean oneself by scrubbing

Ilokano ísowipe, clean by rubbing
Ifugaw íhuwashing of one's face (and hands)
Ifugaw (Batad) íhuwash one or all of the following: the face, the hands and arms, the feet and legs
Tagalog hísoʔcleaning of teeth by rubbing
Bikol hísoʔrub dirt off the body with a stone while bathing
Kadazan Dusun isurub with something, as for instance in washing
Old Javanese isuh-isuhwashing
  um-isuh-ito wash
  in-isuh-anto wash
Javanese isuhwash hands or feet
Kambera ihubathe


PEMP     *isug clean oneself by scrubbing

Numfor isscour, scrub
Tolai iubathe

Note:   Also Eddystone/Mandegusu iu ‘to wash, esp. the body’. With root *-suq ‘wash, scrub’.


*hitaq groin, crotch


PPh     *hitaq groin, crotch

Tagalog hítaʔthigh
Bikol hítaʔgroin
Hanunóo hítaʔcrotch, groin
Aklanon hítaʔcrotch, groin
Kalamian Tagbanwa itakgroin
Agutaynen itakinner/upper thigh, groin area
Hiligaynon hítaʔthigh, crotch
Central Tagbanwa itakthigh

Note:   This comparison was provided courtesy of David Zorc.


*hitu catfish


PMP     *hitu catfish     [disjunct: *hituq]

Pangasinan itosmall catfish
Hanunóo hítuedible freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus Linn.) found in swamps, ponds and ditches
Maranao itocatfish
Komodo itucatfish: Macrones gulio and Plotosus canius (inflicts poisonous wounds with the serrated spines of its dorsal and pectoral fins)

Note:   Also Cebuano ítu ‘general name for catfish’.


*hituq catfish


PMP     *hituq catfish     [disjunct: *hitu]

Pangasinan ítosmall catfish
Kapampangan ítuʔcatfish or carp
Tagalog hítoʔa species of edible freshwater catfish
Bikol hítoʔfreshwater catfish sp.
Aklanon hítoʔfish sp.
Komodo itucatfish: Macrones gulio and Plotosus canius (inflicts poisonous wounds with the serrated spines of its dorsal and pectoral fins)
Kambera itumarine fish with poisonous fins

Note:   Also Bimanese édu ‘fish sp.’, Komodo étu ‘catfish’. Chamorro itoʔ ‘type of fish: Clarias batrachus, freshwater catfish’ (with initial vowel for expected **gui-) appears to be a loan from a Philippine language.


*hius leak out, of air


PWMP     *hius leak out, of air

Cebuano híusfor air to leak out; be deflated; leaky, letting air or gas out
Balinese iusexhalation


*hiwal shake or move from side to side


PWMP     *hiwal shake or move from side to side

Ifugaw (Batad) īwalmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as the soil), by moving the object back and forth, as for the wind to make a space between the foundation post of a house and the soil around it by shaking the house; to wiggle a tooth to loosen it from the gum
Cebuano hiwal-híwalwrithe, wriggle (as a worm)
Nias iwawaver, vacillate, sway, totter
  maŋ-iwamove, be unsteady, waver

Note:   Also Amis siwar ‘move or change the position of (as a table); move (as the sun)’, Tagalog íwal ‘body movement to remove pressure upon wound on the part of the body that touches the seat or the back of the chair, or the like’.


*híwaq cut, carve, slice (meat or fish)


PPh     *híwaq cut, carve, slice (meat or fish)

Ilokano saŋka-íwaone cut (of meat or fish)
Isneg íwacut, carve, dissect (meat, fish)
Tagalog híwaʔcut, incision; slice (of fish, meat, cake, etc.); wound (caused by a cutting instrument)
Bikol híwaʔto slice meat
Hiligaynon híwaʔchunk, sliced piece, one slice
Cebuano híwaʔcut something into smaller pieces or slices


PPh     *hiwáq-an cut, carve, slice (meat or fish)

Ilokano iwá-ancut, carve
Bikol hiwáʔ-anslice meat
Cebuano hiwaʔ-án-ancutting board


PPh     *hiwáq-en be cut, carved, sliced (meat or fish)

Ilokano iwá-encut open, dissect
Bikol hiwáʔ-onbe sliced, of meat


*hiwiʔ crooked, twisted (of the mouth)


PWMP     *hiwiʔ crooked, twisted (of the mouth)

Aklanon híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side
Cebuano híwiʔcrooked, winding or twisting, slanting to one side or askew; crooked, dishonest; deformed; become crooked, make something crooked; make a face at someone
Javanese iwi-iwiridicule out of disdain; malicious pleasure, shown by twisting the mouth at an angle (Pigeaud 1938)
  ŋ-iwito grimace at (Horne 1974)

Note:   Also Amis ŋiwit ‘crooked (of the mouth)’, Amis siwit ‘to slant, set at an angle’, Bontok iwin ‘bend side-ways’, Tagalog hiwíd ‘awry; out of line’, Tagalog hiwís ‘aslant, as a staircase’, Tagalog ŋiwíʔ ‘crooked-mouthed, wry-mouthed’, Aklanon kiwít ‘crooked, bent, off to one side; pull one's mouth to one side’, paŋ-iwít-kiwít ‘look wryly, show displeasure by pulling one's mouth to one side’.


*hizaw fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background


PWMP     *hizaw fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background

Tagalog hírawwhite-feathered rooster with green or greenish spots or edgings
Iban ijaudark colors on yellow or white (of fighting cocks)
Malay hijaudark-colored; a name given to greens and blues, as the prevailing color in the jungle and the sea

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak hijau ‘green, unripe’, Malagasy ma-itsu ‘green’, Iban ijau ‘green, (of leaves) healthy deep green’, Acehnese ijo ‘blue’, Karo Batak (h)ijo ‘light blue (as the sky)’, Toba Batak ijo ‘green’, Simalur ijao-ijao ‘green’, Rejang ijo ‘green, blue (of sea, sky)’, Sundanese héjo, ijo ‘green’, Old Javanese hijo, ma-hijo ‘green, blue’, Javanese ijo ‘green’, Balinese ijo ‘green’, Sasak éjo, ijo ‘green’, Sangir ido ‘green’, Buginese ijo ‘green’, Makassarese ijo ‘green’, Manggarai ijo ‘green’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) compared both Tagalog híraw (above) and hiláw ‘uncooked; green, unripe’ with Malay hijau and the related forms in Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, and Javanese, but it is now clear that Tagalog hiláw reflects earlier *hilaw ‘raw, unripe’. However, the comparison of Tagalog híraw with the words for ‘green’ in other languages also presents difficulties (e.g. Old Javanese hijo points to PWMP *q-, whereas Tagalog híraw points to PWMP *h-). Although this comparison probably will continue to provoke debate in the future, it appears most likely to me that *hizaw underwent a semantic change in Malay and was then borrowed widely in the context of trading activities, replacing reflexes of PAn *mataq ‘green, blue’ over much of western Indonesia.

TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    





hubun hubun




































*huab vapor


PWMP     *huab₁ vapor

Malay (h)uapvapor
Toba Batak uapsteam, vapor; odor
Old Javanese uwabvapor?
Javanese uwabsteam, water vapor
  ŋ-uwabboil off, evaporate


PWMP     *ma-huab₂ evaporate

Toba Batak m-uapsmell, be fragrant; rising up of vapor or odor
Chamorro ma-gapevaporate (expected **magwap)


*huaR a vine: Flagellaria indica


PMP     *huaR a vine: Flagellaria indica

Cebuano huwág(huwág)slender vine, the split stems of which are used for tying purposes: Flagellaria indica
Tiruray ʔuwara vine, Flagellaria indica Linn.
Kelabit uarkind of vine
Banjarese uarkind of plant the bark of which is used to tan skins or to steep clothes
  ma-uarredden something with uar
Karo Batak uar-uarplant sp.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak uar-puarkind of plant that is woven into rope
Sasak uarkind of creeper; when it is young it is used to make food hangers, and when it is old it is used to make walking sticks
Manggarai uarkind of rattan which grows to a length of ten to twenty meters

Note:   Also Sundanese oar ‘kind of slender cane’, Sasak oar ‘kind of creeper’, Manggarai kuar ‘kind of ratten used for tying, weaving chicken coops, etc.: Flagellaria indica’.


*hubád untie, unravel


PPh     *hubád untie, unravel

Isneg ubāduntie, unbind, let loose
Bontok ʔúbadunbind; undo; untie; undress, that is, to untie and remove one's loincloth or waist belt
Kankanaey úbadunravel, untwist, untwine, disentangle, separate, unfold, open, untie, unfurl, unbind, loosen
Ifugaw úbadloosen, detach, unleash something; open a knot
Tagalog hubádundressed from the waist up
Bikol hubádundo a knot; untie, unfasten; disentangle, untangle
Aklanon húbadunravel, untie, unwind
Cebuano húbadbreak out of a hold in wrestling or in judo; translate into another language
Tausug hubaduntie, unlash
Proto-Minahasan *ubaduntie, unravel


PPh     *maR-hubád untie, unravel

Isneg max-ubādto untie, to unbind, to let loose
Bikol mag-hubádto undo a knot; to untie, unfasten, disentangle


PPh     *hubád-en be untied, be unravelled

Isneg ubad-ānuntied
Bontok ʔubád-ənbe unbound
Kankanaey ubád-enbe unravelled
Ifugaw ubád-onbe loosened
Ibaloy obar-ento untie something (as a knot)
Bikol hubád-onbe loosened
Agutaynen obad-ento untie or unwrap something

Note:   It is tempting to analyze this form as containing the root *-baj ‘unravel, untie’. However, Isneg, Bontok, Kankanaey and Ifugaw all normally reflect *j as /g/ in final position.


*hubun hubun fontanel


PWMP     *hubun hubun fontanel     [doublet: *hubun₁]

Cebuano hubún-hubúnfontanel, the soft, boneless areas in the skull of a baby or young animal which are later closed by the formation of bone
Maranao ombon-ombon-anfontanel
Malay ubun-ubuncrown of the head, fontanel
Wolio uwu-uwufontanel


*hubun₁ fontanel


PMP     *hubun₁ fontanel     [doublet: *hubun hubun]

Cebuano hubúnfontanel, the soft, boneless areas in the skull of a baby or young animal which are later closed by the formation of bone
Maranao ombonfontanel
Kayan uvunthe fontanelle in an infant's head
Iban ubun-ajifontanelle, esp. of infant
Makassarese ubuŋfontanel, crown of the head
Sika uwuŋpart of the head between the crown and the forehead, brain pan, brains

Note:   Also Kayan luvun ‘fontanelle’.


*hubun₂ heap, pile, collection


PMP     *hubun₂ heap, pile, collection

Bontok ʔubúnto be grouped together, of a crowd of people
Kankanaey ubónassemble, gather together, congregate, meet, collect
Hiligaynon hubúngroup
Sasak ombonheap up earth
Bimanese umbuheap or pile up
Manggarai umbuŋto heap, pile up (grass, etc.)


POC     *upun₂ heap, pile

Nggela uvua pile of things

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*hubuq move something to another place


PPh     *hubuq move something to another place

Ilokano ubóto carry something somewhere
Bikol mag-húboʔto move to a new place; to move or transfer something to a new place
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) huvuʔto go and borrow fire from a neighbor


PPh     *hubuq-en move something to another place

Ilokano ubó-ento carry something somewhere
Bikol hubóʔ-onto move or transfer something to a new place


*hu(ŋ)kab open, uncover


PWMP     *hu(ŋ)kab open, uncover

Bontok ʔukábthe cover of the topil or akob baskets
Kankanaey okábskinned; flayed; barked; peeled
Kalamian Tagbanwa ukabbecome detached from
Cebuano hukábopen, remove a cover through forceful or nonhuman action
Maranao okabopen
Tausug ukabto be open or about to open
Kadazan Dusun ukabto open (of boxes), to uncover
Berawan (Long Terawan) ukamegg that is ready to hatch
Banjarese uŋkapto open
Toba Batak uŋkapopen, to open
Simalungun Batak uŋkabto open
Old Javanese uŋkab(the act of) opening
Javanese uŋkabgaping open
Balinese uŋkabto open, lift the lid of a box, untie a bandage
Sangir uŋkabtake everything out (in searching for something)


PWMP     *maŋ-hukab to open

Kelabit ŋ-ukabto open, as a door
Toba Batak maŋ-uŋkabto open
Javanese ŋ-uŋkabto uncover, open


PWMP     *hukab-en be opened

Kadazan Dusun ukab-onwas opened by
Balinese uŋkab-inbe opened

Note:   Also Hiligaynon hukʔáb ‘loosen and fall off’. With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.


*hukad to untie, unpack, undo


PPh     *hukad to untie, unpack, undo

Casiguran Dumagat ukádto untie (as a betel nut bag)
Cebuano húkadto take something out of a container by lifting it out
Mansaka okadto unpack; to open; to unwrap (as a package)

Note:   Also Ayta Abellan uka ‘untie’.


*hukaq loosen, open


PAN     *hukaq loosen, open

Amis hokaʔloosen something that was tight, as a belt
Tiruray ʔuŋkaʔopen something
Tausug ma-hukaʔloose, not tight
  hukaʔ-anloosen something, as of tie or knots, bracelet, lid, tourniquet, or wound dressing
Tontemboan ukaʔopen, be open
Mongondow uŋkaʔcome loose, as a fingernail or a frond from a palm tree
Manggarai ukalever up; to open, as an animal trap; search for small acquatic animals by lifting stones

Note:   Also Iban ukaʔ ‘open, loose, untie’, Totoli uŋgaʔ ‘break open’. With root *-kaq₁ ‘open forcibly’.


*hukas loosen, untie, undress; to separate


PWMP     *hukas loosen, untie, undress; to separate

Ilokano úkasloosen, untie, unbind, unfasten, undo, disentangle, untwine
Isneg úkasloose, loosened, free from taboo (of objects, formerly tabooed, that may be used again by living beings)
Bontok ʔúkasundo and remove rice from the basket in which it has been packed and tied
Ifugaw úka(h)to unloose, to remove what is covering something
Ibaloy okasto untie, undo, unbind, unclasp something (as a knot)
Hanunóo hukásunloading or dismounting from an animal
Aklanon húkastake off, unstitch
Kalamian Tagbanwa ukasremove a cover
Agutaynen mag-okasto take something off, remove an item such as shoes, a ring; for something to unintentially come off or fall off
Cebuano húkastake clothing off of the top part of the body; expose a secret
Maranao okascut, trigger
Tausug hukasundress
Kadazan Dusun ukasdrive away the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death
Kayan ukahloosen a knot
Malay oŋkasto slip off (as a sarong)


PWMP     *maR-hukas to separate, untie

Bikol mag-ukásremove or take off the clothes
Kadazan Dusun mog-ukasdrive away the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death


PWMP     *hukas-en be separated, untied

Ilokano ukás-enbe loosened, untied, unbound
Bikol ukas-onbe removed or taken off, of clothes
Kadazan Dusun ukas-onbe driven away, of the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death

Note:   Bikol ukás ‘remove or take off the clothes’ shows unexplained loss of the initial aspirate. This word probably referred to loosening or untying in both literal and figurative senses. In the latter sense it may have referred to ritual precautions taken to ensure the separation of the living and the dead. With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.


*hukay dig up something buried, disinter


PWMP     *hukay dig up something buried, disinter

Ilokano ukáyloosening the earth or seedbeds (obsolete)
Tagalog hukáyexcavation; grave in the ground
  hukay-índig or excavate a certain place, dig out (something buried)
Bikol hukáydig something up
Miri ukayto dig
Ngaju Dayak ukeiwhat is unpacked, opened
Malagasy óhydug open, used of a re-opened tomb; be scraped
Malay uŋkaito unloose; to take off clothes; to take to pieces
Toba Batak ukedisinter, dig or scrape out of the earth


PWMP     *hukay-an dug up

Bikol hukáy-andig into
Malagasy ohàz-anabe dug, be scraped

Note:   Also Cebuano ugkáy ‘dig out something buried’.


*hukuq hunched, bent over


PWMP     *hukuq hunched, bent over     [disjunct: *ukuq]

Cebuano húkuʔ-húkuʔbe doubled over
Balinese uŋkuhwalk in a bent posture

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.


*hulas sweat, perspiration


PPh     *hulas sweat, perspiration

Kalamian Tagbanwa ulassweat
Manobo (Dibabawon) huassweat
Subanun (Sindangan) gulassweat
Tausug hulasperspiration, sweat
Proto-East Gorontalic *(w)ulasosweat, perspiration


*hulhul₁ to bark, of a dog


PAN     *hulhul₁ to bark, of a dog

Thao hurhurto bark, of a dog
Itbayaten holholsound of barking dog
  h<om>olholto bark, of a dog
Cebuano hulhúlto bark; to shout halt; barking; shout to halt

Note:   Also Tagalog tahól ‘bark of a dog’, tahul-án ‘to bark at someone or something’ (observation courtesy of April Almarines).


*hulhul₂ to come loose, as a belt


PPh     *hulhul₂ to come loose, as a belt

Ifugaw ulúlto unbuckle, unfasten, detach (as a belt or girdle)
Binukid hulhulto lower (one’s trousers); for one’s trousers to fall, slip down


*hulit lecture, sermon, harangue


PPh     *hulit lecture, sermon, harangue

Ibaloy odit-ento say, tell, relate something, esp. of something said repeatedly (as in scolding)
Bikol húlithomily
  i-húlitto preach about


*humbak wave, billow, swell at sea


PWMP     *humbak wave, billow, swell at sea

Tagalog humbákhollow, concave (of cheeks, stomach or the like)
Hanunóo humbákwave(s) at sea, ocean waves
Aklanon húmbakwave, crest
Maranao ombakartesian well; water pump
Iban umbakwave
Malay ombakwave; billow; (in art) wavy pattern. Esp. of broken or foaming waves, in contrast to rollers (gelombaŋ) or ground-swell (alun)
Toba Batak umbakwave
Rejang umboʔwave
Sundanese ombakwave, swell (of sea)
Old Javanese umbakwave
Javanese ombaka wave
Madurese ombaʔwave, swell, billow
Balinese umbakwave, surf
Sasak umbakwave, billow
Wolio umbaswell (of sea)


PWMP     *humbak-humbak rise and fall like the swells at sea

Maranao ombak-ombakartesian well; water pump
Toba Batak umbah-umbahthe piston which is moved up and down in the bamboo tube of a traditional bellows


PWMP     *ma-humbak full of waves, as a stormy sea

Aklanon ma-húmbakwavy, stormy, rough (sea)
Old Javanese m-ombakwith waves, undulating, surging
  m-ombak-ombak-anundulating, surging, in waves

Note:   Ngadha oba ‘wave, billow’, Buruese omba ‘waves’ are assumed to be Malay loans.


*huna first, before, anterior in time


PMP     *huna first, before, anterior in time     [disjunct: *(q)uNah]

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hunago or be first; be first in relation to someone else
Narum unéhancient times
Kayan unaʔgo ahead, go first; start first; formerly, before


PMP     *h<um>una to do or go first

Mongondow m-unafirst, ancient
Tolai m-unfirst, firstly, formerly; go first, lead

Note:   Also Bintulu məna ‘old, of things; in the past, ancient’.


*hunus mercy killing; put someone out of their misery


PWMP     *hunus mercy killing; put someone out of their misery

Bontok ʔúnusto finish off; to put an end to life, as to kill an injured water buffalo
Cebuano húnusto take a human life (as in killing a slave)
Kadazan Dusun unusto die out, finish, end

Note:   Also Bontok óŋos ‘to finish off, to kill’.


*húnus a tithe, share given for help in harvesting the crops


PPh     *húnus a tithe, share given for help in harvesting the crops

Ilokano únosremuneration, share
  unós-anto give a share to someone who helped in harvesting rice, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat hunóstithe, share, commission (as in helping to harvest someone’s rice, and getting to keep a certain percentage of what you harvest)
Tagalog hunóstithe; share of the crop being harvested
  h<um>unósto get a share of the crop being harvested
  mag-pa-hunósto give a share of the crop to those harvesting
Bikol (Camarines Sur) húnostithe, often paid in gold


*huñat to stretch, straighten out


PPh     *huñat to stretch, straighten out     [disjunct: *uñat]

Ilokano unnátstretch, strain, make tense, draw tight, extend, straighten out, lay out at full length; draw out, distend
Bontok ʔúnatdraw out, stretch, pull, as cotton from a reel or string from a ball
Pangasinan onátspread out (a mat); stretch
Kapampangan uñatstretch; yawn
Bikol hunátstretch something; straighten something out
Hanunóo húnatstretching of something that will snap back when released, as of a rubber band

Note:   With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.


*huñaw wash the hands or face


PWMP     *huñaw wash the hands or face

Cebuano hunáwwash the hands
Mansaka onawwash off, remove by means of water; wash the hands
Kalagan unawwash the hands
Manobo (Sarangani) onawwash the hands
Murik m-uñowash the hands, arms or face
Proto-Sangiric *unawdip, plunge in water; melt

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’.


*huñus to molt, shed the skin


PMP     *huñus to molt, shed the skin

Tagalog hunósskin peelings, molt, as of reptiles


POC     *uñus to molt, shed the skin

Bugotu uñucast skin of snake
Tongan unuto slough, shed its skin (as snakes do), or its shell (as crabs, etc. do); skin or shell which has been shed, slough
Niue unuto shed (as a shell); to peel, to bark (as a shrub)
Rennellese unuto shed, as snake skin

Note:   Also Amis konoc ‘to pull out hair or feathers’, ma-konoc ‘to moult’, Manam nunu ‘to slough (snake)’, Arosi unusi ‘snake sp. ( = unus-i, from its frequent molting?)’. This item appears to be distinct from *Sunus ‘withdraw, pull out, extract’.


*húŋut coconut shell bowl or water scoop


PPh     *húŋut coconut shell bowl or water scoop

Ilokano úŋotscoop, made of a coconut shell
  sa-ŋa úŋotone coconut scoopful
Bontok ʔúŋuta coconut shell bowl; a piece of coconut shell; to place in such a container
Ibaloy oŋotbowl made from a half coconut shell (today the oŋot bowl is mainly used ceremonially, in rituals)
Tagalog huŋótcoconut shell used as a dipper or container for drinking water (not common)
Cebuano húŋutbowl made out of three-quarters of a coconut shell


*hupak split, peel off


PWMP     *hupak split, peel off

Ibaloy opakthe layers (compact leaves) that comprise the trunk (stem) of the banana tree; also outer leaves of such as cabbage or lettuce
Cebuano hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact
Maranao opaksplit, break
Mansaka opakstrips peeled off trunk of an abaca or banana tree
Tiruray ʔufaksplit lengthwise by driving a blade along the grain
Malagasy ófakascaling off, peeling off, as blistered skin

Note:   Also Cebuano hupʔák ‘peel, flake off, cause something to do so’. With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.


*huqem to soak


PWMP     *huqem to soak

Bikol húʔomto soak something
Melanau (Mukah) uʔemto soak

Note:   Also Aklanon húeom ‘to soak (in a liquid); marinate.


*hurus slip or slide down or along


PWMP     *hurus slip or slide down or along

Bontok ʔúlusslide down a slope
Bikol hurósslip or slide down (of something that has been tied or fastened)
Aklanon hurósslip (off), become loose
Cebuano hulúslower something attached on a string which passes through a pulley
Maranao orosslide up and down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hurusto grip something, as in the hands or fingers, and allowing it to slip through, as letting a rope slip through the hand; slip something off something, as a ring off the finger; of a person, to be forced to slide down a tree trunk
Tausug hurusslipped down, slid down
Kadazan Dusun uhusto glide down
Sasak orostrain (of garments); drag its rear end along the ground (of a dog)
Gorontalo wulutoto launch (a boat)

Note:   Also Karo Batak orus ‘glide off, slide down’. With root *-rus₂ ‘slip or slide off’.


*huRaC artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon


PAN     *huRaC artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon

Saisiyat ka-wLasvein
Proto-Atayalic *ʔugacvein, sinew
Seediq ulatmuscle, nerve, vein, artery
Pazeh huhasvein, blood vessel
Amis olattendons; blood vessels
Tsou vrocəblood vessel
Kanakanabu urácəblood vessel
Proto-Rukai *ʔoacsinew, artery
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) uRaTblood vessel, vein
Paiwan uatsvein, blood vessel; sinew


PMP     *uRat artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root

Itbayaten in-oyatvein, blood vessel
Ilokano urátvein; artery; nerve; sinew; tendon; penis (of quadrupeds); fiber; vein, streak (of wood); nerve, vein (of a leaf, etc.)
Isneg uxātvein, artery, nerve, sinew, tendon
Arta uratvein
Bontok ʔulátvein; artery; tendon
Kankanaey uátvein, artery; nerve, sinew, tendon
Ifugaw ulátartery, vein, sinew
Umiray Dumaget ugetvein
Pangasinan olátvein
Ayta Maganchi uyatmuscle, tendon, blood vessel
Kapampangan úyatveins, blood vessels
Tagalog ugátroot; artery; vein; origin
Remontado uyátvein, tendon
Bikol ugátartery, vein; nerve
Hanunóo ʔugátstrand, as of thread
Aklanon ugátblood vein; tendon
Kalamian Tagbanwa ulatsmall root; vein
Cebuano ugátvein, blood vessel; for the veins to come out from exertion or anger
  paŋ-ugátbe angry
  ka-ugát-unblood vessels
Maranao ogatblood vessel, lymphatic vessel; nerve
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) uɣatvein, of blood
Tiruray ʔuratblood vessel
Tboli ulatvein of body
Tausug ugatvein, nerve, artery, tendon
Kadazan Dusun t-uatsinew
Kujau tuhatvein
Minokok tuatvein
Murut (Tagol) uatvein
Basap oratvein
Kelabit uratvein, vessel; tendon
Sa'ban roətvein, tendon
Kenyah uatblood vessel; nerve; sinew; fibre; muscle
Murik uatvein, tendon
Kayan uhatarteries or veins; sinews; nerve fibres; the spine; nylon fishing line
Bintulu uatvein, blood vessel
Melanau (Mukah) uatvein; tendon
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) watvein
Ngaju Dayak uhatroot; vein; sinew; tendon
Malagasy ózatrasinew; vein, artery; muscle
Iban uratsinew; vein; root
Maloh uratroot; vein
Tsat zaʔ²⁴vein, vessel, tendon
Roglai (Northern) uraʔvein, vessel
Moken olatstring; vein
Malay uratnerve; vein; sinew; gland; strand (of rope); numeral coefficient for rattans and tenuous rope-like objects
  urat ketiŋAchille's tendon
Toba Batak uratroot; blood vein; nerve
Nias uoblood vein, vessel
Balinese uatsinew; muscle; vein
Sasak uratnerve; sinew; tendon; vein, artery; grain (of wood, marble)
Sangir uhaʔblood vein, vessel; muscle
Lolak ugatvein
Mongondow ugatmuscle; tendon; sinew
Petapa Taje uativein
Uma uaʔroot
Bare'e uamuscle; tendon; sinew; vein, vessel
Tae' uraʔmuscle; tendon; sinew; vein; nerve of a leaf, grain of wood
Mandar uraʔvein, vessel; tendon
Makassarese uraʔmuscle; tendon, sinew; lines in the hand; fiber; blood vein
Wolio uavein; tendon; muscle; nerve
Muna ueblood vein, vessel; tendon
Palauan ŋurdvein, artery
Chamorro gugatvein; muscle; tendon; artery; fishing line
Komodo uraʔvein, artery; sinew
Rembong uratvein, vessel
Ngadha uravein; sinew; tendon; fiber; veins in leaves
Li'o uravein, vessel
Kambera uralines in the palm of the hand; lot, fate, destiny
  uratulines in the palm of the hand; read the palm to foretell one's future
Rotinese uavein; tendon; sinew; muscle; metaphorically also: fate, destiny, lot
Tetun uatvein, artery; nerve; tendon
Erai uraktendon; sinew
Leti urtavein; sinew; muscle; the fibers of a lontar palm
Wetan ortatendon; sinew; fibre; muscle; vein
Selaru urattendon; sinew; muscle; vein
Yamdena uratvein; sinew; muscle
Fordata uratvein; sinew; tendon; muscle
Kei uratvein; tendon; sinew; muscle
Dobel kwuravein, artery; ligaments
Buruese uhatsinew; blood vessel
Soboyo uhavein, vessel; muscle
Kowiai/Koiwai uratvein; tendon
Numfor urekvein, vessel
Pom ura-ruavein
Ansus ura-ruavein


POC     *uRat artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy

Mussau uetavein, vessel; tendon
Tolai uratcoconut-fibre; gristle; ligament; sinew; tendon; tough, of flesh
Bali (Uneapa) uratavein
Bugotu ulatendon; sinew; vein
Nggela ulavein
Kwaio ulablood vessel, vein
Lingarak na-uavein
Fijian uavein; muscle
  ua ni niuraised rib on coconut-shell
Rennellese uaartery; pulse
Maori uasinew; vein, artery


PWMP     *uRat-en full of veins or tendons

Cebuano ugát-unfull of prominent veins
Malagasy ozàt-inamuscular, strong, athletic, tough, hard; stringy (of meat)


PMP     *uRat uRat veins, sinews (collective)

Hanunóo ʔugat-úgatsmall surface veins
Cebuano ugat-úgatleaves having lots of veins; for leaves to be veined
Old Javanese ot-wat, ot-otmuscle
Mbula ke ura-n ura-nroots
'Āre'āre ura-urabone marrow; vein
Sa'a ule-ulesinew; tendon
Ulawa ula-ulasinew; tendon
Tongan uo-uasinew; tendon; muscle or ligament
Samoan ua-uathews and sinews; vein, artery; pulse
Tuvaluan ua-uaartery, vein; sinew; tendon
Rarotongan ua-uasinews; tendons; muscles; ligaments; rubber
Hawaiian ua-uatough, sinewy, glutinous, viscid; not easily broken, as cord


PWMP     *uRat i daRaq artery, major blood vessel

Kadazan Dusun t-uat do zaaartery, vein
Malay urat darahartery


PMP     *uRat i lima lines in the palm of the hand

Sasak uat limalines in the palm of the hand
Boano ugat limalines in the palm of the hand
Dampelas uat limalines in the palm of the hand
[Tae' uraʔ palaʔlines in the palm of the hand]
Komodo uraʔ limalines in the palm of the hand
Ngadha ura limalines in the palm of the hand
[Rotinese lima ula-klines in the palm of the hand]
Erai lima uraklines in the palm of the hand

Note:   Also Kapampangan úgat ‘veins, arteries’, Kelabit uat ‘large root, taproot’, Sundanese urat ‘vein, vessel; muscle; sinew’, Sangir ihaʔ ‘blood vein, vessel; muscle’, Manggarai urak ‘blood vessel; vein of leaf or hand; fate, destiny’, Buli uit ‘tendon; sinew’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *uRat ‘sinew; tendon; vein’ ( = Sehne, Ader), but the range of meanings assignable to PMP and PWMP *uRat is actually much broader. It is possible that some of these are metaphorical and convergent (e.g. ‘strand’ in Hanunóo and Malay, ‘fishing line’ in Kayan and Chamorro, ‘root’ in Kalamian Tagbanwa and various languages of western Borneo), but it is equally probable that metaphorical extensions of the body-part referents were present from the beginning, and have been retained (or reported) only in some daughter languages.

In either case it is clear that by at least PWMP times *uRat was a key semantic category with numerous applications beyond the human body. In addition, Ilokano urát ‘penis (of quadrupeds)’, Cebuano ugát máyur ‘penis (humorous)’ (lit. ‘major vessel’), Balinese uat kenduŋ ‘blood-vessel of very heavy wood = penis’ suggest that PWMP *uRat also was used to refer to the penis in certain stylistic contexts.


*huRuŋ roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death)


PMP     *huRuŋ roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death)

Ilokano úŋor <Mmoan with closed mouth (when hurt or dying); sound of swollen streams, rough breakers, etc.
Ifugaw úŋul <Mroaring noise produced by the strong current of a river
Casiguran Dumagat úguŋloud roar, hum, resonance (of an airplane, wind, sea, etc.); to hum, to roar
Pangasinan oŋól <Mroar (of sea, wind, water, a crowd); to roar
Tagalog hugóŋhumming in the ear
Aklanon hugóŋ-hugóŋrumors
Cebuano húguŋproduce a steady humming sound
Tae' urruŋbuzzing of bees, growling of an angry dog
Chamorro ugoŋmoan, groan, lament, mourn, utter in lamentation


POC     *uRuŋ groan, roar

Tolai uruŋmake a loud noise or a rough sound; to roar; murmur, rumble
Motu urudeep groaning; stertorous breathing, as when near death
Tongan ūmake a big (but soft) bumping noise, to thud
Samoan ūmake a hollow sound, such as is made by waves, hornets, pigeons, engines, etc.
Maori ūinterjection representing an inarticulate sound

Note:   Also Ifugaw úŋug (< M) ‘roaring noise produced by the strong current of a river’, Pangasinan ógoŋ ‘to thunder (of any noise)’, Cheke Holo ulugru ‘growl, make noise (stomach)’, Bugotu uruŋu ‘speak loudly, make a noise’. With root *-Ruŋ ‘roar, rumble’.


*húRut to pull on or out with the fingers


PPh     *húRut to pull on or out with the fingers

Yami oyotto pull out
Itbayaten hoyotidea of being pulled out
Ilokano urút-ento pull the hair of someone while delousing; pull grass without uprooting; pull out weeds
Bikol mag-hugótto remove something with the fingers (as lice from the hair, or grains of rice from the stalk)
Cebuano húgutto pull in rope or the like; pick nits from a strand of hair
Mongondow mog-ugutto pull, tug at something; snatch away from


*hutek brain; marrow


PMP     *hutek brain; marrow     [disjunct: *qutek]

Itbayaten hotekbrain
Ivatan (Isamorong) otekbrain
Ilokano útekbrain
Isneg otáʔbrain; marrow
Itawis útakbrain
Arta utabrain
Bontok ʔútəkbrains
Kankanaey útekbrain
Ifugaw útokbrains
Yogad utekbrain
Casiguran Dumagat utékbrain
Pangasinan otékbrain, brains
Kapampangan útakbrains; marrow
Remontado utákbrain
Bikol hútokbrain
Hanunóo ʔútukbrain(s)
Aklanon útokbrain
Kalamian Tagbanwa utukbrain
Cebuano útukbrain; intelligence, mental ability
Maranao otekbrain; mind
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) utekbrain
Tiruray ʔutekbrain
  ʔutek bukalmarrow
Kalagan utukbrain
Tboli utekbrain; bone marrow
Tausug utukbrain
Rungus Dusun utoːksmart, intelligent
Bisaya (Lotud) utokbrain
Kadazan Dusun t-utokmarrow; brain
Tatana utokbrain
Murut (Paluan) utokbrain
Abai Sembuak utokbrain
Murut (Tagol) utokbrain
Tingalan (West) utokbrain
Bisaya (Lotud) utokbrain
Basap otəkbrain
Kelabit utekbrain
Murik utəkbrain
Gaai tokbrain
Kelai tokbrain
Mei Lan Modang tao̯kbrain
Woq Helaq Modang tao̯kbrain
Long Gelat Modang takbrain
Melanau (Mukah) utekbrain; marrow
Bukat utokhead
Bekatan utokbrain
Kejaman utəkbrain
Seru utokhead
Ngaju Dayak untekbrain
  untek tulaŋmarrow
  m-untekremove the marrow from bones
Banjarese utakbrain
Iban untakbrain
Moken otakhead
Malay otakbrain (considered anatomically, and not as the seat of intelligence); spinal marrow
Simalur utaʔbrain; bone marrow
Toba Batak utoh-utokbrain; bone marrow
Sundanese utɨkbrain
Old Javanese utekbrains
Javanese utekbrain; brains, intelligence
Balinese utekbrain
Sasak otakhead
Gorontalo wutoʔobrain
Pendau utoʔbrain
Boano utokbrain
Balantak utokbrain
Tae' utakbrain; marrow
Kulisusu untobrain
Komodo uteʔbrain
Manggarai utekbrain; marrow
Ngadha otebrain
Li'o otebrain
Sika otekbrains
Yamdena otak, utakmarrow of bones; brains
Proto-Ambon *ute-pith, marrow, brain

Note:   Also Yami uetek ‘brain’, Tagalog útak ‘brains; marrow; intellect, head’, ma-útak ‘brainy’, Sambal (Botolan) ɨtɨk ‘brain’. The initial consonant of this form is problematic. On the one hand Itbayaten and Bikol independently support the reconstruction of PMP *h-. On the other hand, *h- is contradicted by at least Aklanon, Cebuano, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Tausug (Hanunóo reflects PMP *h- sometimes as /h/, and sometimes as zero).

Based on the inclusion of Tongan ʔuto ‘brain’, Dyen (1953) reconstructed *qutek, but the initial consonant of his reconstruction is contradicted not only by Itbayaten, Bikol /h-/, but also by Kalamian Tagbanwa, Tboli, Moken initial zero (rather than **k-), and by Banjarese, Sundanese initial zero (rather than **h-). For these reasons I prefer to associate the Tongan form with POc *quto ‘pith of a tree’, and to assume a semantic innovation which produced a remarkable chance similarity with reflexes of PMP *hutek.


*hutuk bend, flex


PWMP     *hutuk bend, flex

Casiguran Dumagat hútukbend a limb; be bent over (of a tree limb)
Tagalog hutókbending by force of weight; flexion
  hutuk-ínto flex (a branch or stick)
Balinese uṇṭukmake a deep bow, hang the head

Note:   With root *-tuk₁ ‘bend, curve’.


*huy exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc.


PMP     *huy exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc.

Ilokano oyan interjection: calling or attracting attention
Bontok ʔuyexpression of surprise; expression used to attract someone's attention
Kankanaey uyho! hoa! whoa! Interjection used for calling
Casiguran Dumagat oyexclamation of surprise, exclamation made when calling to get someone's attention, answering someone's call, disagreeing with a statement made
Pangasinan oyhey! (exclamation to attract attention of distant person)
Tagalog hoyinterjection: an answer to a call; an exclamation of warning or calling attention
Bikol hoyhey; an exclamation of warning or a call for attention; a response when one is called
Aklanon hoecry to stop a carabao
  hoyexpression used to call the attention of another; term used to drive a dog away or stop it from barking or biting another
Cebuano huyexclamation used upon greeting someone with whom one is intimate; exclamation to attract immediate attention; exclamation uttered upon being provoked
Ngaju Dayak hoiexclamation with which one calls someone
Malay hoihey there! An interjection to call attention
Karo Batak hey! hey there!
Tontemboan oianswer to someone who calls one's name
Bare'e uicry commonly given in answer when one is called from a distance
Makassarese cry with which one hails someone else
Manggarai reply which is less courteous than apa, less refined than oi: yes? what?; answer of a woman (as when called by her husband)
Ngadha answer to a distant call
  grunting of large pigs
  uicall to a friend; to set dogs against, as in hunting wild pigs
Rotinese wé, wiexclamation


POC     *ui exclamation

Nggela uiexclamation of surprise
Tongan uicall, call out, call out to
Niue uicall, invite

Note:   Also Bikol uhoy ‘hey; a term used to call someone in the distance’.


*huyaŋ shake, sway, rock


PWMP     *huyaŋ shake, sway, rock     [doublet: *huyuŋ]

Hanunóo húyaŋphysical weakness, debility, feebleness, unsteadiness
Aklanon húyaŋshake, rattle
Hiligaynon húyaŋrickety, shaky
Cebuano húyaŋrickety, shaky; lacking in firmness, resolve, or will power
Old Javanese (h)uyaŋheat, being heated, feeling hot (also of the heart)
  a-huyaŋhot, heated, hot and bothered, restless
  aŋ-huyaŋ-huyaŋ-antoss and turn feverishly
Balinese uyaŋturn from side to side on a bed; be unable to sleep


*huyáp count, enumerate


PPh     *huyáp count, enumerate     [doublet: *ihap]

Ifugaw uyápact of counting, reckoning, computing
Aklanon huyápto count, enumerate


*huyug shake, sway, stagger


PWMP     *huyug shake, sway, stagger     [disjunct: *uyeg, *uyug, *uyuR]

Casiguran Dumagat huyóg-hugógsway back and forth (as a house during an earthquake, or a drunk person staggering along)
Javanese uyugunsteady (as someone who staggers along)


*huyuŋ shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake


PMP     *huyuŋ shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake     [doublet: *huyaŋ, *huyug]

Aklanon húyoŋshake, rattle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) huyuŋshake something back and forth, as to shake a tree to make the fruit fall, or as an earthquake shakes a house
Ngaju Dayak huyoŋaslant, tilted, as a house that has been battered by a storm
Malay (h)uyoŋrocking; swaying; crank
Karo Batak m-uyuŋ-uyuŋshake strongly, as the ground in a earthquake
Sika ojoŋshake, rock, roll
Soboyo huyuto shake, wake someone (by shaking)
  ka-huyumoveable, loose

Note:   Also Mongondow uluŋ ‘shake’.


*huzam borrowing


PWMP     *huzam borrowing     [doublet: *hizam]    [disjunct: *Sezam]

Hanunóo ʔudámborrowing; lending
Cebuano hulámborrow something; adopt, take over as one's own
Kayan ujamborrow; a loan


PWMP     *h<um>uzam to borrow

Hanunóo ʔum-udamborrow
Kayan m-ujamborrow

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)