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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ja    ji    




*jaRu choral singing; to blend voices in song


POC     *jaRu choral singing; to blend voices in song

Motu sarubegin a song with many voices together
Tongan tauchorus, refrain
Niue tauact together, at the same time

TOP      ja    ji    





*jila yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail


POC     *jila yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail

Nauna cilbamboo on sail
Baluan silbamboo on sail
Lou silbamboo on sail
Ahus ciltopstick of the sail
Seimat silsticks of the sail
Wayan silarope (called a stay or sheet) which holds the lower side or corner of a sail to the deck of a boat; in the case of the mainsail, it is attached to the boom; in the case of the spinnaker, it is attached to the corner closest to the mast; it acts as a gear controlling the direction of boat sailed into wind or wave
Fijian silathe sheet of a sail
Tongan silayard (for a sail to hang from); to shorten the sheet (of a sail)
Samoan tilasprit or spar of Samoan sail; mast
  tila-lalolower sprit
  tila-tūupper sprit
Tuvaluan tilamast
Rennellese tigaship’s boom
Rarotongan tiramast of canoe, boat or ship; the dorsal fin of a fish; a vernacular euphemism for the phallus; that which stands erect
Maori tiramast of a canoe; fin of a fish


*jiŋana whitebait


POC     *jiŋana whitebait

Roviana ziŋanaa very small fish resembling whitebait
Uripiv jiŋanwhitebait
Fijian ciŋanawhitebait
Samoan inaŋa <Mwhitebait of Eleotris sp.
  iŋaŋa <Awhitebait of Eleotris sp.
Maori inaŋa <Mwhitebait, the adult of the minnow Galaxias attenuatus (also the fry), and the fry of the smelt Retropinna retropinna

Note:   This interesting comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:100). The referent appears to be a range of small light-colored fish that are commonly used as bait in trolling for larger fish.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)