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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    














ka- -an₁

ka- -an₂

ka- -an₃
















































kahiw haŋin haŋin




























































kam- -an












































































kapas kapas



















































































































































kayu kayu






*ka₁ conjunctive particle, and


PAN     *ka₁ conjunctive particle, and

Basai kaand
Kavalan kaand (conjunctive)
Siraya kaand
Maguindanao kaand
Mori kaand
Kulisusu kaand
Manam ʔaand
Vano ŋgaand
Buma kaand
Paamese kaand
Nengone kaand
Wayan ŋgaand
Fijian kaconjunction, "and", but used to connect sentences, adjectives, and verbs (between nouns and pronouns kei is used instead)

Note:   PAn *ka is less well-supported than PAn *maS ‘conjunction: and’, but given the restricted syntax of both forms in various languages it is possible that PAn and other early Austronesian proto-languages had more than one conjunction that can be translated as ‘and’. Alternatively, since words for ‘and’ are monosyllables in most languages regardless of genetic affiliation, this comparison may be product of convergence due to limited possibilities.


*ka₂ conditional, if


PAN     *ka₂ conditional, if

Paiwan u kaif ... were to
  ka na i-kaif not ... then
Tboli keif
Lawangan a-kaʔif
Gayō kaif
Makatea kaif
Samoan ʔa-naif


*ka₃ oblique case marker for plural personal names


PAN     *ka₃ oblique case marker for plural personal names

Saisiyat ka¹nominative and accusative case marker for common nouns
Atayal kaʔnominative case marker for common nouns
Pazeh katopic marker
Bunun kanominative case marker (no personal/common distinction)
Rukai (Budai) kaoblique case marker for common nouns
Proto-Rukai *kanominative case marker for common nouns (Ross 2006:529)
Isneg kaobjective and locative case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977)
Itawis ka-nobjective, locative and oblique case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977)
  ka-n-ioblique case marker for the singular of personal names (Tharp and Natividad 1976)
  ka-n-daoblique case marker for the plural of personal names (Tharp and Natividad 1976)
Malaweg kaobjective and locative case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977)
Itneg (Binongan) ka-npossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Kapampangan ka-ŋpossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Tagalog ka-yoblique case marker for personal nouns
Bikol kapossessive plural of personal names (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Bikol (Camarines Sur) ka-nagentive, genitive and oblique case marker for common nouns (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Kinaray-a ka-ŋagentive, genitive and oblique case marker for common nouns (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Waray-Waray ka-npossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Cebuano ka-ŋpossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Tausug ka-npossessive plural of personal names (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983)
Malay ka-a locative prefix corresponding to “ward” (upward, downward, inward, outward, Northward, etc.)
Mentawai kain, at, to, towards, from here, among, out of
Rejang ka-to, towards
Sundanese kato, towards
Madurese kato
Balinese kato; go to; at
Mongondow kopreposition: at, on, to, towards, between, from

Note:   ¹ Ross (2006:529) gives Saisiyat ka as marking both NOM and ACC, but according to Li (1978:600), and Zeitoun (to appear) it marks only the ACC.


*ka₄ 2sg. subject pronoun


PMP     *ka₄ 2sg. subject pronoun

Yami ka2sg. nominative
Itbayaten kayou (sg.)
Ibatan ka2sg. nominative
Ilokano -ka2sg. (familiar) absolutive enclitic pronoun
Isneg kayou; nominative and accusative of the abbreviated form of the personal pronoun of the second person singular: ikáw
Itawis kayou, 2sg nominative pronoun
Bontok ka2nd person minimal pronoun; you (sg.)
Kankanaey kathou, thee; you
Casiguran Dumagat ta2sg. topic pronoun
Ibaloy kayou, 2sg. topic set
Pangasinan kayou, sg., familiar, topic pronoun
Ayta Abellan ka2sg. subject pronoun, you
Kapampangan (-)kayou (sg.); ing-case, non-emphasized
Tagalog kapronoun, the postpositive form of ikáw, you (singular)
Bikol kayou; si-class second person singular pronoun
Hanunóo you (singular); occurs mainly in certain set phrases; in all of them, however, may be replaced by the more frequently used káwu
Romblomanon kayou (sg.); occurs as sentence topic following the predicate; for the topic pronoun preceding the predicate see íkaw
Masbatenyo ka2sg topic pronoun; this pronoun occurs only as a clitic to verbs and particles
Aklanon kayou singular (contraction of ikáw)
Waray-Waray kayou (used in postpositive form)
Hiligaynon kayou (short form of ikáw)
Palawano ka2sg. subject pronoun, you
Cebuano kashort for ikáw used in constructions requiring the nominative except the predicate
Central Tagbanwa ka2sg nominative pronoun, used as focused participant in verbal clauses, you
Maranao kayou -- primary
Binukid ka2sg topic pronoun: you
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ka2sg topic pronoun
Molbog ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = aka)
Rungus Dusun ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikow)
Lingkabau 2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikaw)
Abai Sembuak ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = oko)
Bisaya (Sabah) ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikow)
Bulungan ka2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ika)
Buruese kathou
Mota ka2sg, subject pronoun

Note:   The exact function of this pronoun remains unclear. It seems to correspond to *=ka(hu) ‘2sg., NOM2’ in Ross (2006:542), although that by itself does not advance our understanding. In at least Proto-Philippines *ka evidently was a post-predicate clitic that corresponded in function to the free-standing *i-kahu in pre-predicate position. This raises the question whether the occurence of free-standing and clitic pronouns in syntactic complementation was unique to the second person singular, or was a feature of the pronoun system in general. Since there is little comparative evidence to support the latter alternative, it seems likely that the 2sg. pronoun allowed this option, while other persons and numbers did not.


*ka₅ (human) member of a category


POC     *ka₅ (human) member of a category     [doublet: *kai]

Tabar kaman
Mendak ka-dioŋstranger, foreigner
Bulu ka-ka taraperson (tara = ‘mature’)
Ormu ka-ruperson
Manam ka-letiforeigner, white man

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1985), and more recently by Ross and Osmond (2016:49-50).


*ka-₁ marker of past time in temporal expressions


PAN     *ka-₁ marker of past time in temporal expressions

Paiwan tiawday before or after today
  nu-ŋidawhen (future)?
  ka-ŋidawhen (past)?
Ivatan ka-past, in temporal expressions
  ka-koyabyesterday (cp. ma-koyab ‘afternoon’)
Itneg (Binongan) ka-gídaŋyesterday (cp. gídaŋ ‘afternoon’)
Tagalog ka-gabíyesterday (cp. gabí ‘night, evening’)
Mansaka kagabiyesterday
Tausug kahapunyesterday
Kadazan Dusun koniapyesterday
Minangkabau ka-pataŋyesterday (cp. pataŋ ‘evening’)
Sangir ka-hebiyesterday (cp. hebi ‘night’)
Bantik kanehabaʔyesterday
Mongondow ko-gobiithe previous night (cp. gobii ‘night’)

Note:   The Kadazan Dusun and Bantik words contain a reflex of *niRab, *neRab ‘yesterday’. All other extra-Formosan forms are based on the word for ‘afternoon, evening’ (PMP *Rabiqi, PPh *hapun). Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *ka- ‘perfective verb prefix’.


*ka-₂ stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions


PAN     *ka-₂ stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions

Kavalan qa-immediate future: qa-patay ‘will die’ (cp m-patay ‘to die, be dead’)
Amis ka-connective in negative word combinations where ma- would be used in a positive statement (Fey 1986:370): caay ka-fanaɁ kako ‘I don’t know’ (cp. ma-fanaɁ kako ‘I know’)
Thao ka-prefix of uncertain function: k-acay ‘Drop dead!’ (a curse expressed in anger; cp. m-acay ‘die, be dead’)
Bontok ka-a stative prefix occurring only on verbs preceded by the auxiliary daan (‘yet, still’): daan ka-loto ‘not yet cooked’ (cp. loto ‘to cook’)
Kankanaey ka-stative marker in negative constructions: adi ka-atéy ‘not to die, etc.’ (cp. m-atéy ‘dead’)

Note:   For further details on this prefix cf. Blust (2003b).


*ka-₃ stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker


PPh     *ka-₃ stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker

Yami ka-‘very’ (in comparative constructions): ka-tava-tava ‘very fat’ (cp. ma-tava ‘fat’)
Ilokano ka-with the particle idí, the ka- prefix with an adjectival root translates that the quality of the adjective is at the highest level: idí ka-pintás-na ‘at the highest level of his/her/its beauty’ (cp. pintás ‘beauty’)
Kapampangan ka-prefix with descriptive bases; produces emphatic descriptives
Aklanon ka-very productive adjective prefix, indicating a high degree (when standing alone), or the superlative (when with the -an suffix) ka-gwápo ‘very good looking’ (cp. gwápo ‘handsome’)
Hiligaynon ka-adjective formative affix designating comparative and superlative degrees of comparison: ka-tahúm sa ímu ‘How beautiful you are!’ (cp. ma-tahúm ‘beautiful, pretty’)
Cebuano ka-prefix added to adjectives in exclamations: ka-gwápu sa ímu-ŋ baláy ‘What a beautiful house you have!’ (cp. gwápu ‘beautiful, good-looking’); ka-dákuɁ ‘How big it is!’ (cp. dákuɁ ‘big, great’)


*ka-₄ mate, partner, cohort


PPh     *ka-₄ mate, partner, cohort

Yami ka-company, co-: ka-kteh ‘fellow brothers and sisters, siblings’ (cp. mi-keteh ‘sibling relationship’)
Itbayaten ka-corresponding one, mate: ka-yvan ‘companion, escort’ (cp. ivan-an ‘to accompany, escort’); ka-kovot ‘spouse’ (cp. mi-chovot ‘to become spouses to one another’)
Ilokano ka-transitive verbal prefix indicating companionship of the action expressed by the root (ka-sala ‘to dance with someone’, ka-sao ‘to speak with someone’)
Ilongot ka-mate, partner: ka-duwa ‘companion’ (cp. duwa ‘two’)
Pangasinan ka-person or thing proximate to oneself: ka-aráp ‘one who is in front’ (cp. aráp ‘front’)
Bikol ka-prefix that creates nouns of accompanied action: ka-úlay ‘the person one is talking to’ (cp. maki-úlay ‘to converse with’)
Cebuano ka-affix forming nouns which mean ‘one’co-[noun]’: aku-ŋ ka-klási ‘my classmate’ (cf. klási ‘class, kind’), aku-ŋ ka-áway ‘my opponent’ (cp. áway ‘to quarrel, fight’)
Tondano ka-derives animate nouns indicating a person who shares the thing expressed by the stem: ka-Ɂawu ‘spouse’ (cp. awu ‘kitchen, hearth’); ka-wanua ‘fellow villager’ (cp. wanua ‘village’)


*ka-₅ formative for abstract nouns of quality


PAN     *ka-₅ formative for abstract nouns of quality

Amis ka-active verbal particle: ka-tayal ‘work as an activity not necessarily in process’ (cp. ma-tayal ‘refers to the activity of working’)
Itbayaten ka-creates abstract nouns of quality: ka-vayah ‘redness’ (cp. vayah ‘red color’)
Bontok ka-derivational prefix forming an abstract noun: ka-dalem ‘depth’ (cp. ‘deep’)
Ifugaw ka-creates abstract nouns: ka-tagu ‘manhood’ (cp. tagu ‘man, human being’)
Aklanon ka-noun prefix: ka-támɁis ‘sweetness’ (cp. ma-támɁis ‘sweet’)
Cebuano ka-affix added to adjectives to form nouns which mean ‘the state of being [so-and-so]’: ka-súbuɁ sadness’ (cp. súbuɁ ‘sad’)
Manobo (Sarangani) ke-certain nouns are derived from adjective or verb roots by using the prefix ke-: ke-init ‘heat, warmth’ (cp. init ‘hot, warm’); ke-okit ‘passage’ (cp. okit ‘travel’)
Malagasy ha-formative added to adjectives to make them into abstract nouns: ha-tsara ‘goodness’ (cp. tsara ‘good’)
Sasak kə-formative for abstract nouns: kə-bəleɁ ‘size, magnitude’ (cp. bəleɁ ‘big, large’); kə-kodeɁ ‘smallness’ (cp. kodeɁ ‘small’)
Mongondow ko-marker of abstract nouns: ko-loben ‘size, magnitude’ (cp. mo-loben ‘large’)
Banggai ka-formative of abstract nouns from adjectival bases: ka-lanak ‘greasiness’ (cp. ma-lanak ‘greasy’)
Wolio ka-formative for deverbal nouns: ka-bari ‘number, quantity’ (cp. bari ‘be many, much); ka-pii ‘illness’ (cp ma-pii ‘ill’)
Muna ka-deverbal noun denoting the abstraction of the verbal quality’: ka-tehi ‘fear’ (cp. tehi ‘afraid’); ka-ghosa ‘strength, hardness, health’ (cp. ghosa ‘strong, hard’)


*ka-₆ manner in which an action is carried out


PWMP     *ka-₆ manner in which an action is carried out

Mapun ka-nominalizer with adjectives or stative verbs indicating the manner of doing an action
Tausug ka-nominalizer indicating the manner of doing an action: ka-kadtu ‘his getting there’ (cp. kadtu ‘go or take something to a place’)
Toba Batak ha-the time at which, place whence, or even the particular way in which the content of the verb takes place: ha-pogos ‘suffering poverty, being poor’ (cp. pogos ‘poor’)


*ka-₇ past participle/achieved state


PMP     *ka-₇ past participle/achieved state

Murut (Timugon) ka-marker of achieved states: ka-aguy ‘tired’ (cp. (ma-aguy ‘is tired’)
Ma'anyan ka-marker of past participle or achieved states: ka-reŋey ‘heard’ (cp. reŋey ‘to hear’); ka-ituŋ ‘remembered’ (cp. ituŋ ‘to remember’)
Old Javanese ka-passive prefix: the ka- passive refers more to the state achieved, in contrast to the -in- passive, which refers more to the action: ka-bebed ‘bound, entwined’ (cp. bebed ‘band, tie, bandage’); ka-dawut ‘uprooted’ (cp. dawut ‘pull out, uproot’)
Makassarese ka-prefix that forms adjectives carrying a sense of being caused or brought about: ka-mallaɁ-mallaɁ ‘struck with fear’ (cp. mallaɁ ‘afraid’)
Nggela ka-prefix forming past participles: ka-mbihu ‘broken off’ (cp. mbihu ‘to separate, break apart’)
Fijian ka-marker of achieved states: ka-basu ‘torn open’ (cp. basu ‘break open a person’s eyes or mouth’)


*ka- -an₁ marker of the adversative passive


PAN     *ka- -an₁ marker of the adversative passive

Pazeh ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-udan-an ‘be soaked with rain, be caught in the rain’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); ka-akux-an ‘heatstroke; be overcome by heat’ (cf. paka-akux ‘to warm up, to heat’); ka-bari-an ‘be blown about by the wind’ (cf. bari ‘wind’)
Paiwan ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-sulem-an ‘be caught by darkness’ (cp.sulem ‘darkness, twilight’)
Yami ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-cimoy-an ‘be rained on (as something left outside)’ (cf. cimoy ‘rain’)
Itbayaten ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-timoy-an ‘to be caught by rain’ (cf. timoy ‘rain’); k-aɁxep-an ‘be caught by night, benighted’ (cf.aɁxep ‘night’)
Mapun ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-lasuh-an ‘to be angry (at s.o. or about s.t.); (cf. lasu ‘anger’); ka-saŋom-am ‘be overtaken by the night (i.e. for night to come while one is doing something) (cf. saŋom ‘night, the period from about 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.); ka-uwan-an ‘to be rained on’ (cf. uwan ‘rain’)
Bahasa Indonesia kə- -anmarker of the adversative passive; kə-hujan-an ‘be caught in the rain, be caught in a downpour’ (cf. hujan ‘rain’); kə-siaŋ-an ‘to oversleep’ (cf. siaŋ ‘bright daylight’); kə-tidur-an ‘to fall asleep inadvertently (as when needing to stay awake)’ (cf. tidur ‘sleep’); kə-panas-an ‘be overcome by the heat of the sun’ (cf. panas ‘hot’)
Toba Batak ha- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ha-udan-an ‘caught in the rain’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); ha-borŋin-an ‘to be overaken by nightfall’ (cf. borŋin ‘night’)
Sundanese ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-hujan-an ‘stand or walk in the rain; be rained on, be caught in the rain’ (cp. hujan ‘rain’)
Old Javanese ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-turw-an ‘overcome by sleep, falling asleep, dropping off’ (cf. turū ‘to sleep’); k-āŋin-an ‘moved (driven) by the wind; in the wind’; ka-panas-an ‘suffering from the heat; angry’
Javanese kə- -anmarker of the adversative passive; k-odan-an ‘to get rained on’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); kə-turo-n ‘to drop off to sleep accidentally, to doze’ (cf. turu ‘to sleep’)
Sangir ka- -aŋka-hebi—aŋ ‘overcome by darkness, benighted’ (cp. hebi ‘night’)
Tae' ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-uran-an ‘caught in the rain’ (cf. uran ‘rain’)

Note:   In some languages the adversative passive is expressed by the suffix *-an alone, as with Tausug ulan-an ‘to be rained on’, from ulan ‘rain’, or with the suffix *-an and some other prefix, as with Ilokano ma-tudú-an ‘to be caught in the rain’, from túdo ‘rain’. In a more limited set of languages in western Indonesia it is expressed by the circumfix *ka- -en, as with Karo Batak k-udan-en ‘timid, as goats that run to their stall when the rain begins’.


*ka- -an₂ formative for nouns of location


PAN     *ka- -an₂ formative for nouns of location

Saisiyat ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-Ɂælop-an ‘hunting ground’ (cp. Ɂælop ‘to hunt’)
Amis ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-tayal-an ‘place of business’ (cp. tayal ‘work’)
Thao ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-kalhus-an ‘sleeping place’ (cp. kalhus ‘to sleep’)
Paiwan ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-ki-tjalav-an ‘athletic field’ (cp. ki-tjala-tjalaw ‘fight over something; to contest’); ka-tsasav-an ‘courtyard in front of house’ (cp. tsasaw ‘outdoors, outside’)
Ifugaw ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-kayu-an ‘place where there is firewood’ (cp. kayu ‘tree, wood’)
Pangasinan ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-aboŋ-an ‘houses, group of houses’ (cp. aboŋ ‘house’)
Bikol ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-umah-an ‘an expanse of farmland’ (cp. uma ‘farm’)
Mapun ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-batuh-an ‘a rocky area’ (cp. batu ‘stone, rock’)
Toba Batak ha- -anformative for nouns of location; ha-mate-an ‘place where one has died’ (cp. mate ‘die’)
Javanese ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-lurah-an ‘residence of the top village official’ (cp. lurah ‘top village official’)


*ka- -an₃ formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal)


PAN     *ka- -an₃ formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal)

Paiwan (Western) ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-vavaian-an ‘womanhood, femininity, value as a woman’ (cp. vavaian ‘woman, female person’
Tagalog ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-takút-an ‘fear’ (cp. ma-tákot ‘to be afraid’)
Bikol ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-asgad-án ‘saltiness’ (cp. ma-asgád ‘salty, saline’)
Malay kə- -anformative for abstract nouns; kə-ada-an ‘existence’ (cp. ada ‘be, exist’)
Toba Batak ha- -anformative for abstract nouns; ha-mate-an ‘death’ (cp. mate ‘die’)
Javanese ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-urip-an ‘life, existence’ (cp. urip ‘living, alive’)
Tae' ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-mate-an ‘time of death’ (cp. mate ‘die, dead’)

Note:   Possibly the same circumfix as *ka- -an₂, but none of the nouns formed by this process have a clear locative sense. It is worth noting that some languages use the same affixed form in both locative and general abstract senses, as with Toba Batak ha-mate-an ‘place where one has died’ (cf. *ka- -an₂), and ha-mate-an ‘death’ (*ka- -an₃).


*kabá anxious, nervous


PPh     *kabá anxious, nervous

Ilokano ag-kabá-kabáto be anxious, perplexed
Tagalog kabápalpitation of the heart or pulse; twitter; an excited condition; to feel nervous; to have a premonition of something
Bikol kabáfright
  ma-kaba-ánto get a fright; to be startled,
  mag-kabá-kabáto throb (as the heart); to palpitate

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano.


*kábag gas pains


PPh     *kábag gas pains

Ilokano kábaggas pain; flatulence
  kabág-anto have gas pains
Casiguran Dumagat kábagflatulence, gas pain
Tagalog kábaggas pain; flatulence
Aklanon kábagto have gas pains (in stomach), suffer from hyperacidity or indigestion
Agutaynen ag-kabag-anfor someone to have gas pains, bloating
Cebuano kábagto have gas pains; gas pains


*kabal₁ clothing


PAN     *kabal₁ clothing     [disjunct: *kabaR]

Kavalan qabarclothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre
Itbayaten kavaxclothing, garment
Agutaynen kabalthe thin, cellophane-like membrane that sometimes covers a newborn infant when it is born


*kabal₂ invulnerable, invulnerability


PWMP     *kabal₂ invulnerable, invulnerability     [doublet: *kebel]

Ilokano kabálbreastplate; armor; bulletproof vest
  kab-kabal-ansurgeonfish: Acanthurus triostegus
Tagalog kabála potion, charm or talisman supposed to render one invulnerable against knives, daggers, bullets, etc.
  kabál sa sakítimmunity; reistance to disease, poison, etc
Bikol kabálan amulet which has the power of making its possessor invulnerable to the bolo and the spear, rendering these weapons dull, or suspending them in air upon attack; generally a circular piece of copper with a hole in the center, or a bit of shell roughly carved into the shape of an aníto (ancestral spirit) noted for particularly admired exploits (Bikol mythology)
Hanunóo kabáldefensive power believed to make the owner virtually invulnerable, i.e., indestructible by ordinary weapons
Ngaju Dayak kabal ~ gabalthick-skinned so that one is not harmed by blows
Javanese ŋawalto guard, escort
Bare'e kabainvulnerable
Tae' kabaninvulnerable, possessing a magical charm that makes one invulnerable so that the point of a lance or a bullet cannot penetrate the body

Note:   Some of these forms may be loans from Malay, but this seems unlikely for the lot.


*kaban₁ companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend


PWMP     *kaban₁ companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend

Hanunóo kabántogetherness, companionship
Ngaju Dayak kawanherd (of animals), flock (of birds), school (of fish); throng, crowd, multitude; species, kind; relationship
  ha-kawanstay together in herds
  ma-ŋa-ŋawanbe together in little bands
Malagasy hávanaa relation, an alliance, a friend
  haván-inato be entered into relationship with; to be consorted with
Iban kabankinsman, relation; companion, follower, supporter; group, band, herd, member of group
Malay kawancompany; party; herd; comrade; companion; friend; follower (refers to any group of living things, as a herd of elephants, flock of goats, swarm of bees, or band of robbers)
  me-ŋawanto couple; to pair (of animals)
Acehnese kawanherd, flock, crowd; friend, comrade, companion, mate; follower; assistant; adherent
Toba Batak habana herd, as of cattle
Rejang kabeungroup, party, crowd
Old Javanese kawancompanion; group
  sa-kawana group (belonging together)
  sama-kawantogether, in a group
  sa-kawan-anin groups


PMP     *maR-kaban to be friends with, to be a companion of

Hanunóo mag-kabángo together as companions
Malagasy mi-hávanato be in a state of friendship with, to be on friendly terms with, to show friendship towards

Note:   Also Tagalog káwan ‘herd; a number of animals together; flock; a group of animals or birds of one kind; swarm; a group of bees that fly off together to start a new colony; a large group of insects flying or moving about together; a school (of fish); multitude; a large number’; mag-káwan ‘to form a flock, aherd, a group or a school’.


*kaban₂ storage chest


PWMP     *kaban₂ storage chest

Isneg kabānchest, trunk, box
Itawis kabánlarge chest, trunk
Ifugaw (Batad) kabana miniature house sepulchre for the dead, of traditional design (used only for a rich person)
Casiguran Dumagat kabanwooden chest
Pangasinan kabána trunk for storing clothes, etc.
Tagalog kabánchest or trunk, esp. one for clothes
Bikol kabánchest, trunk, coffer
  mag-kabánto place something into a chest
Hanunóo kabántrunk, chest for storage; seen by Hanunóo in Christian barrios
Aklanon kabánfootlocker, trunk (for clothes)
Agutaynen kabana wooden box or trunk used like a bag or suitcase (these boxes were used in the past and are rarely used today)
Cebuano kabántrunk, chest; to store in a trunk
  kabán-kabánkind of bivalve, so called because it opens and closes like a trunk
Maranao kabanchest, case, box
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kavana trunk; a large wooden box
Tausug kabana closed coffin
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) kabansmall wooden box

Note:   Also Malay kəban ‘a four-cornered matwork bag’, Toba Batak hobon ‘very large round rice container made of bamboo strips’. Possibly a loan, but if so the source is yet to be determined.


*kabáŋ spotted, dappled


PPh     *kabáŋ spotted, dappled

Casiguran Dumagat kabáŋterm for a spotted domestic pig
Ibaloy kabaŋanimals with white spots, mixed with color, on its fur
Tagalog kabáŋmulti-colored; varicolored; spotted; white patch of skin on face or arms (used in some areas)
Bikol kabáŋtwo-toned; half and half (color, contents)
Cebuano kabáŋspotted, splotched; unevenly painted or cut
Maranao kabaŋspotted
Mansaka kábaŋto be spotted or striped (as an animal); to be nonuniform; to be variegated
Tboli kabaŋto make something spotted, speckled black and white
Tausug kabaŋspotted, piebald (of animals, fish, material, etc.)
Mongondow kabaŋwhite spots on the skin; also scar

Note:   Also Tiruray kabaŋ ‘of mixed color; (of animals only) spotted’.


(Formosan only)

*kabaR clothing


PAN     *kabaR clothing     [disjunct: *kabal]

Kavalan qabarclothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre
Paiwan kavaclothing
  pa-kavato clothe
  s<m>u-kavato take off clothes
  k<m>avato put on or wear clothing
Paiwan (Western) kavasnake slough


*kabasi kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.


PWMP     *kabasi kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.

Ilokano kabásikind of large marine fish, gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.
Casiguran Dumagat kabásesmall-mouthed threadfin fish: Polynemus microstoma
Aklanon kabásikind of fish
  k<in>abásibolo (having shape of kabási)
Cebuano kabásigizzard shad: Nematalosa nasus, and Anodontostoma chacunda
Maranao kabasifish --- herring
Malay ikan kebasibony bream or hairback, Dorosoma spp. (name on east coast of Malay peninsula)

Note:   Also Tagalog kabásiʔ ‘species of fish: gizzard shad’.


*kabat₁ wrap, bundle up


PWMP     *kabat₁ wrap, bundle up

Ilokano kabát-ento package, bundle, pack up
Maranao baŋkat <Mto pack, to tie; band
Minangkabau kabatbinding round; band; wrapper; circlet

Note:   Also Malay kəbat ‘binding round; band; wrapper; circlet’. This form suggests that Minangkabau kabat may reflect a form with penultimate schwa, thus invalidating this comparison on the PWMP level and leaving it weak on the PPh level.


*kabat₂ canoes joined together side-by-side (?)


POC     *kabat₂ canoes joined together lengthwise (?)

Gedaged kapata raft; several logs thrown over a ditch or stream
Motu kapa-kapasmall canoes joined together without space between

Note:   Possibly a chance resemnblance. Gedaged clearly loses original final consonants in most forms, but has apparent retentions in enough cases to leave open the question whether in any given comparison it may preserve a final consonant that was lost in most Oceanic languages.


*kabatíti a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp.


PPh     *kabatíti a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp.

Ivatan kabatitia vine with edible, long cylindrical fruits: Luffa cylindrica (Rubino 2000)
Ibatan kabatitia kind of luffa
Ilokano kabatítia vine with edible, long cylindrical fruits: Luffa cylindrica
Isneg kabatítia scandent, cucurbitaceous, herbaceous vine with large leaves, yellow flowers and oblong, cylindric, green, ribbed or smooth fruits that are used for vegetables; taboo to trappers that have come home after having constructed a balét trap (bow or spear trap for deer or wild boars)
Kankanaey kabatítia cucurbitaceous vine with yellow flowers, cultivated for its edible fruit: Luffa sp.
Casiguran Dumagat kabatítivariety of uncultivated plant (leaves are boiled with fish as a vegetable)
Tagalog kabatétethe Javan cucumber, a gourd-bearing liana belonging to the pumpkin family: Alsomitra macrocarpa Roem. Cucurbitaceae
Bagobo kabatitia shrub: Callicarpa caudata Maxim., Verbenaceae

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan, although this appears unlikely both because of the wide and scattered distribution from the Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao, with an apparent near-absence of the form throughout the central Philippines, and because of the manner in which beliefs about this plant are deeply embedded in some of the cultures of northern Luzon, as the Isneg gloss shows.


*kabe₁ a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets


POC     *kabe₁ a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets

Lou kamkind of fiber from a jointed vine, used to make cordage for nets
Loniu kapstring made of vine fiber
Nali kapfishing line
Lakalai la abevine used for cordage
Nggela gambespecies of creeper used for twine of fishing nets
Arosi ʔabea creeping, jointed plant, from whose strands string is made; a woman’s string girdle
Fijian kabethe skin covering the coconut leaf stalk, and used for tying


*kabe₂ wing


POC     *kabe₂ wing

Motu apewing
Vartavo γaβe-nwing
Rerep xambe-nwing

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*kabég large fruit bat


PPh     *kabég large fruit bat

Kapampangan kabága kind of bat (mammal)
Aklanon kabógfruit bat
Cebuano kabúgkind of large fruit bat with a dark brown color, growing to a five or even seven foot wingspan; the flesh is highly esteemed
Maranao kabegbat
Binukid kabegkind of large fruit bat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaveggiant fruit bat
Mansaka kabuglarge kind of bat, measuring 30 cm. in length
Tboli kebegGreater Philippine short-nosed or dog-faced fruit bat: Ptenochirus jagorii

Note:   Also Tagalog kabág ‘a species of fruit bat; a large bat’, Binukid kabal ‘kind of large bat’, Tiruray kabeg ‘a giant fruit bat: Pteropus vampyrus lenensis Mearns.’ (Danaw loan). The semantic distinction between this term and reflexes of PMP *paniki ‘fruit bat, flying fox’, both of which are reflected in a number of Philippine languages, remains unclear.


*kabej tie up, tie by wrapping around


PWMP     *kabej tie up, tie by wrapping around

Cebuano kabúdtie ropes, strings, wires around something large
Minangkabau kabatbinding round; band; wrapper; circlet

Note:   Also Malay kəbat ‘binding round; band; wrapper; circlet’. With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*kab(e)liŋ kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin


PPh     *kab(e)liŋ kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin

Ilokano kablíŋspecies of aromatic herb with pink-purple flowers: Pogostemon cablin
Tagalog kablíŋa species of aromatic herb

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano.


*kab(e)lít touch someone lightly, as to get attention


PPh     *kab(e)lít touch someone lightly, as to get attention

Isneg kabbítto touch
Pangasinan káblitto touch lightly
Bikol mag-kablítto touch someone on the arm or touch someone’s clothing to get his attention
Aklanon káblitto touch lightly with one’s finger
Cebuano kablítto touch, move something by curling the fingers; ask a favor readily from a close acquaintance or friend
  gi-k<in>ablitto play a guitar
Binukid kablitto touch, move (something) by curling the fingers; to pluck (guitar strings)
Mansaka kablitto touch lightly (so as to get attention)
Tausug kablitto touch (something) with a flicking motion of the finger, to strum (a guitar)

Note:   Also Bikol mag-kiblít ‘to touch someone on the arm or touch someone’s clothing to get his attention’. Mapun mag-kabbit ‘to pluck or play a guitar or stringed instrument; to flick someone with one’s fingers in a manner one would pluck an instrument and immediately withdraw the hand (usually in order to get someone’s attention)’ is assumed to be a loan from a Greater Central Philippines source.


*kab(e)lit to touch lightly


PPh     *kab(e)lit to touch lightly

Ibaloy kabdittrigger of a gun and other similar devices
  kabdit-ento pull such a trigger
Pangasinan káblitto touch lightly
Aklanon káblitto touch lightly with one’s finger
Binukid kablitto touch, move (something) by curling the fingers; to pluck, as guitar strings
Mansaka kablitto touch lightly (so as to get attention)


*kabi to catch, as in a trap


POC     *kabi to catch, as in a trap

Tolai kap ~ kapito catch, take, as a bird in a trap
Gedaged abito take hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take
Motu abi-ato have, hold
'Āre'āre kapia trap

Note:   Apparently distinct from PAn *kapit ‘fasten together by sewing or tying’.


*kábig to turn around, as a boat


PPh     *kábig to turn around, as a boat

Ilokano kábigto turn (a steering wheel)
Bikol mag-kábigto set a boat back on course by turning it with an oar


PPh     *kabíg-en to turn around, as a boat

Ilokano kabíg-ento turn (a steering wheel)
Bikol kabíg-onto set a boat back on course by turning it with an oar


*kabiR draw toward oneself; annex, make subject


PWMP     *kabiR draw toward oneself; annex, make subject

Casiguran Dumagat kábigto draw or pull something towards oneself (as to hug a person, to scoop up the money in gambling, to scrape dirt into a pile with a shovel; to paddle a canoe drawing the paddle towards you so that the boat will turn)
Tagalog kábigact of drawing or pulling towards oneself; vassal, subject, follower
Bikol mag-kábigto rake in with the hand (as chips in the game of roulette)
Cebuano kábigmake something move toward one; to convert
Tiruray kabigthe extent (geographical or social) of a leader's following, jurisdiction or authority
Malay kabirdrawing towards oneself. In two senses: 1. (MIN) scooping in, annexing, 2. (MAL) side-paddling
Balinese kabihbe supported
Tae' kabeʔdraw toward oneself; reach for something; grasp at something; stretch the hand out toward

Note:   Zorc (1981) proposes Proto-Southern Philippines *kábig ‘take for oneself’.


*kabit₁ hook


PAN     *kabit₁ hook     [doublet: *kawit]

Pazeh kabithook
  mu-kabitto hook
  saa-kabita hook
Amis kafitattached to, stuck to; to hang
Kankanaey kábitto hook
Pangasinan kabítattach; joint; share a part
Kapampangan kabítput, fix, attach
Tagalog kabítconnected; attached; fastened; united
Bikol kabítto attach, fasten, to clamp
Maranao kabithang onto a vehicle
Kadazan Dusun kavitto hook, pluck with a hook
Bintulu sə-kabithook at the end of a fruiting pole
Iban kabithang or hook on (as in hooking coins onto the hem of a skirt, or hanging a basket on a branch)
Wolio kabibarb on fishhook

Note:   Also Ilokano kabʔít ‘hook’, Cebuano kabɁít ‘hook, crook; hook around something, for a crook to catch onto something; cause it to do so’. With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*kabít₂ to lead, support (as a feeble person)


PPh     *kabít₂ to lead, support (as a feeble person)

Casiguran Dumagat kabítto lead someone by the hand; to walk hand in hand
Bikol mag-kabítto support, hold up (as a weak person)
Aklanon kabítto cling to, hang on to; franchise, collaborate; mistress, paramour
Cebuano kabítcling to, hang on to; join in on a transportation franchise on a minor basis; hook up to a telephone with another line; take a paramour or lover

Note:   With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*kabit₃ a vine: Caesalpinia bonduc


PPh     *kabit₃ a vine: Caesalpinia bonduc

Ilokano kabita vine: Caesalpinia bonduc
Tagalog kabit-kabaga vine: Caesalpinia bonduc

Note:   This comparison is taken from Madulid (2001), and could not be confirmed from independent sources.


*kabkáb dig a hole, hollow something out


PPh     *kabkáb dig a hole, hollow something out     [doublet: *kadkad]

Bontok kabkábto dig a hole; to hollow a piece of wood, as in making a wooden dish or bucket
Cebuano kabkábdig a hole by scooping out dirt
Sangir kəɁkabəɁa pit, a hollowing out
  ma-kəɁkabəɁbecome hollowed out, become a pit (after digging)
  ma-ŋəɁkabəɁgo into the depths (of a fish that dives, etc.


*kaboRa catfish


POC     *kaboRa catfish

Loniu kopow <Acatfish or catfish eel
Misima kaboiyastriped catfish: Plotosus lineatus
Lewo kapwocatfish
Fijian kaboasmall black fish that goes about in shoals: catfish, Siluridae

Note:   A much extended version of this comparison with many irregular forms was first proposed by Osmond (2011:42). The evidence for *R in the present comparison is confined to Misima. Osmond also includes Nggela i-gabola, which she glosses as ‘catfish sp.’ (with ga- reanalyzed as iga ‘fish’). However, Fox (1955) gives igambola ‘butterfish’.


*kabu-kabu the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra


PMP     *kabu-kabu the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra     [doublet: *kapuk]

Malay kabu-kabutree-cotton, kapok
Karo Batak kabu-kabukapok tree and fiber
Toba Batak habu-habutree which yields a kind of worthless cotton
Bare'e ka-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum
Ampana kawu-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum
Makassarese kau-kaukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum
Wolio kawu-kawuthe kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra
Manggarai kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra
Rembong kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra
Rembong (Wangka) kawu-kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra

Note:   Also Kamarian kabus ‘the silk cotton, or kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra’. This comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70). Mills (1981:64) proposes Proto-South Sulawesi or Proto-Toraja *ka[bw]u ‘kapok tree and fibre’, "Proto-Indonesian’ *ka[bw]u or ? *kabuk, but he cites no evidence from languages outside the southern half of Sulawesi.


*kabuq ladle, dipper, scoop, cup


PMP     *kabuq ladle, dipper, scoop, cup

Cebuano kabuʔdip water, scoop solids out of a container; fetch water; make, use as a water dipper; something used as a dipper or scoop
  kab-an-ancontainer for fetching water
Maranao kaboʔdipper, container to get water from wells; fetch water


POC     *kapuq ladle, dipper, scoop, cup

Tongan kapuform into a cup-like shape, esp. a banana leaf
Hawaiian ʔapucoconut shell cup


*kabuR to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm


PPh     *kabuR to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm

Ilokano ag-káburto boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger)
  ag-káburto boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger)
Bikol mag-kabógto agitate water with the hand
Maranao kambogto stir
  kambog-awdriving fish into net, trapping fish

Note:   Also Malay kəbur ‘driving before one, as beaters drive game; also of driving fish (cf. kəbar); disturbing water to stir up the mud; churning liquid or sand’.


*kabuRaw kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix


PPh     *kabuRaw kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix

Yami kavovoyawtree with orange fruit: Tabernaemontana subglobosa
Itbayaten kavoyawa tree that grows on the edge of the forest, with green to yellow-orange fruit that is eaten mostly by goats: Pittosporum oporatum Merr.
Ilokano kabúrawa variety of the kabugaw lemon
Cebuano kabúgawkind of astringently sour citrus used for hair rinse and seasoning: Citrus hystrix

Note:   Also Amis kamoraw ‘pomelo tree (in some areas)’, Itbayaten kavoogaw ‘kind of orange’, Ilokano kabúgaw ‘a kind of seedy lemon, larger than the daláyap (Citrus lima), kamúyaw ‘kind of wild lemon’, Tagalog kabuyaw ‘a species of citrus tree and its fruit’. Tagalog kabuyaw is best regarded as a Kapampangan loan, and Ilokano kabúgaw as a loan from a still undetermined source. This form appears to have a heavy history of borrowing, but the three forms cited in the main comparison are problem-free, and point unambiguously to *kabuRaw. Note that various species of Pittosporum are called ‘lemon wood’ from the lemony odor of their wood, which seems to be the unifying thread in this comparison.


*kabus₁ run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor


PMP     *kabus₁ run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor

Itbayaten kavosidea of ending
  ka-kavosact of concluding or finishing
  om-kavosto terminate, to finish
Aklanon kabósto be short, run short of, not have enough of
Cebuano kabúsvery poor, indigent; to run out of something
Binukid kabus(for food, etc.) to be insufficient, run short
Mansaka kabosto do completely (as a flood wiping out all the people, someone completely eating all the rice given to him, etc.)
Mapun kabusfor someone to have run out of something (as money, or provisions when housebound during a typhoon)
Tausug kabuslacking, incomplete, deficient, premature
  kabus-unto be lacking in, be short of, run out (of something)
  kabus-kabus(of a person) abnormal, mentally handicapped
Sangir kawusəɁa spot that remains uncovered, where the covering doesn’t extend; hiatus, opening; insufficient, inadequate
Tondano kawusto finish, use up
Balantak kabusfinished
Banggai kabusall gone, finished, consumed, used up
  maŋa-kabusto spend, squander
  po-kabus-ontil it is all gone, totally
Rembong kabusgone, used up

Note:   Also Binukid kulabus ‘(for food, etc.) to beinsufficient, run short’. With root *-bus ‘finish, end’.


(Formosan only)

*kabus₂ shrimp, lobster


PAN     *kabus₂ shrimp, lobster

Kavalan qabusshrimp (generic), lobster
Puyuma kabusshrimp

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution, although this seems unlikely since both the Kavalan and Puyuma are in contact with the sea, and there is no obvious reason why the word for such a familiar creature would be borrowed. However, PAn *qudaŋ must be reconstructed with the same meaning based on cognates in Paiwan and many Malayo-Polynesian languages, raising questions about why two terms would coexist with the same reference.


*kabut fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry


PMP     *kabut fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry

Tombonuwo kawutwhite cloud
Iban kabut(of weather) continually bad, stormy
Malay kabutanything that blurs or render indistinct
  anjiŋ kabuta dog with clouded markings
  kabut matadim-sightedness
  napas bər-kabutsteamy breath
Toba Batak habutfog, haze, mist; turbid; opaque, of a dim lamp, dirty window glass, or something obscure in the distance
Rejang kabuetfog, mist, low-lying cloud


POC     *kaput₂ fog, haze, mist

Hula kovumist
Motu ǥahumist, fog at sea, haze
Eddystone/Mandegusu ŋgabumist; dust, dirt; rain-cloud, nimbus
Nggela ŋgavuhaze, mist; hazy, misty
Lau gafuindistinct, blurred, of writing or distant object; mist
Arosi gahumist, to be misty, dim
Fijian kabufog, mist, haze


*kacaw disturb


PWMP     *kacaw disturb

Cebuano kásawmake noise by splashing in the water (so as, for example, to disturb someone who is fishing)
Iban kacawdisturbed, in disorder, confused, troubled, in a stir, annoyed
  kacaw-kacawstirring, moving, moved (as leaves stirred by a troupe of monkeys)
Malay kacawjumbled up, mixed indiscriminately
Bahasa Indonesia kacawmixed indiscriminately; tangled, disordered; disturbed, not at peace


*kaCu bring, carry


PAN     *kaCu bring, carry

Thao kacubring
Paiwan katsucarry


PMP     *katu send

Kayan katoʔto send
Totoli pa-katuto send
Balaesang pa-katuto send
Bare'e katuconsignment, what is sent; a gift that is sent
Sa'dan Toraja pa-katuto send
Proto-South Sulawesi *katuto send
Makassarese pi-katuto send
Bimanese ŋgadusend
Manggarai katusend
Proto-Ambon *katusend


PAN     *k<in>aCu was brought; what was brought

Thao k<in>acuwas brought
Paiwan k<in>atsusomething which has been carried


PAN     *k<um>aCu to bring, to carry along

Thao k<m>acuto bring
Paiwan k<m>atsuto carry


PAN     *pa-kaCu to send

Thao pa-kacuto send
Paiwan pa-katsucause something to be carried
Kayan pe-katoʔto send to
Banggai ka-patu <Msend
Tae' pa-katusend
Makassarese pi-katusend

Note:   Also Puyuma kasu ‘take along, bring’, probably a borrowing of Paiwan katsu. A number of the forms in languages of Sulawesi appear to contain a fossilized causative prefix.


*kada stalk or cluster of fruit


POC     *kada stalk or cluster of fruit

Motu adastalk (pedicel) of one banana; stalk of various fruits; body of penis; the stalk (pedicel) of a bunch of bananas is kwasi
Roviana kata-nabunch or cluster of fruit


*kadadak colic, choleric diarrhoea


PWMP     *kadadak colic, choleric diarrhoea     [doublet: *kadaqdaq]

Maranao kadadakviolent diarrhoea
Malay kədadakviolent colic; choleric diarrohea

Note:   Possibly a Malay loanword in Maranao, although the doublet *kadaqdaq makes this appear less likely.


*kadapuR rain cloud


POC     *kadapuR rain cloud

Nauna cipan kalahrain cloud (lit. ‘piece of cloud’)
Penchal kalaprain cloud
Lenkau kalaprain cloud
Loniu kaʔahrain cloud
Papitalai kandrahcloud, sky
Lindrou asi kandrahrain cloud
Bulu kadavujrain
Piva garavurain
Banoni garaurain
Gilbertese karaurain, rainwater; to rain

Note:   A somewhat different version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2003b:142), who cited Loniu kaɁæh ‘cloud’ with a vowel that does not occur in this language (cf. Hamel 1994:15). The form and gloss cited here are drawn from my 1975 fieldnotes.


*kadaqdaq colic, choleric diarrhoea


PWMP     *kadaqdaq colic, choleric diarrhoea     [doublet: *kadadak]

Tiruray kadaʔdaʔa sickness involving vomiting and diarrhea, believed to be caused by sorcery
Malay kədadahviolent colic; choleric diarrohea


*kad(e)rit sound of grating


PWMP     *kad(e)rit sound of grating

Cebuano kadlítstrike a match
Ngaju Dayak karitcrunching, gnashing of the teeth

Note:   With root *-riC₁ ‘sound of ripping, etc.’.


*kadik large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant


POC     *kadik large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant

Bulu kadistinging black ant
Nehan kadikred ant that builds nest in trees: Hymenoptera, family Formicidae
  kadik kurumlarge black ant found on the ground (has a bad sting which can last for several hours)
Simbo kadikiblack ant
Nggela gandia species of black ant, bulldog ant
Kwaio kaa-kadistinging black ant
Lau kadi ~ ka-kadibulldog ant
Toqabaqita kaa-kadispecies of black ant that stings
Fijian kadia large kind of black ant that stings
  kadi damua similar kind of red ant that destroys wood

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011a:391).


*kadkad dig a hole


PPh     *kadkad dig a hole     [doublet: *kabkáb]

Bikol kadkad-ónto dig a hole with the hand or a stick
  kadkad-ánto dig a hole in
Mansaka kadkadto dig
Sangir kəɁkadəɁpit, hole in the ground, in which for example one sets a housepost


*kadro neck


POC     *kadro neck

Mussau alo-neck
Patpatar kado-neck
Roinji aro-tua-neck
Motu gado-throat, voice, speech, language
Roro ako-throat, neck

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1985), and more recently by Osmond and Ross (2016:140).


*kaen eat


PAN     *kaen eat

Kavalan qaneat
Amis kaenpertaining to food
Thao kaneat!, lets eat!
Bunun (Takituduh) kaʔuneat
Kanakanabu kaənəfood
Proto-Rukai *kanəto eat
Puyuma əkaneat
Paiwan kanto eat
Yami kan ~ akaneat
Itbayaten kanidea of eating
Isneg kānto eat
Itawis na-káneaten
Bontok ʔək-əkanfeast
  pan-ʔəkanmeal time; time for eating
Kankanaey kaénto eat, to eat up
  siŋ-ka-kaénone meal, one repast
Ifugaw kanwordbase conveying the meaning of “eating”, especially cooked rice or sweet potatoes
Ifugaw (Batad) anthe taste of food; to eat; for a fire to consume something combustible; for a saw to cut into iron, wood
  a-ʔanthe taste of a staple or snack food, such as rice, sweet potato, bread or pastries, fermented rice grains, and fruit
Ibaloy kaneat
  ke-kenfood; will eat
Ilongot kanto eat
Pangasinan na-kánfood
Sambal (Botolan) əkanto eat
Tagalog káʔinconsumption of food; consumption of any supply, e.g. fuel
  mag-káʔinto eat frequently
Bikol mag-ka-kánto eat
Hanunóo káʔuneating; food
Romblomanon kāʔunsomeone or something eats something
Masbatenyo pag-káʔonfood
Aklanon káonto eat; to take (in chess), jump (in checkers)
Waray-Waray kaonthe act of eating
  pag-kaonthe act of eating
Hiligaynon kaʔúneat, devour
Cebuano káʔuneat; destroy by fire; consume, use up; take a man in games of chess, checkers and the like; for a man to have sexual relations with a blood relative; for a girl to be old enough to be had for sexual intercourse; for a fish to bite on one’s line
  hi-ŋáʔunfond of eating
Maranao kaneat, feed on
Binukid kaento eat (something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaʔanto eat
Mansaka kaanto eat something
Kalagan ka:nto eat
Yakan mag-ka-kanto eat
Tboli kenfood; to eat; to swallow up; to consume, as by fire, debt; to beat an opponent, as in a game
Tausug kauneat
  ka-kaunfood, meal
  pag-kaunfood, meal
Kadazan Dusun a-kanto eat, consume, wear away; (in such games as chess) take a piece, destroy (as if by eating)
Tombonuwo moŋ-o-kanto eat
Ida'an Begak kkancooked rice (< əkkan < əkan)
  məŋ-əkkanto eat
Lun Dayeh a-kana meal, food supply
Kayan kanfood eaten with rice
  mə-kanto eat vegetables, meat or fish with rice; to always have vegetables or meat for food
Sundanese ha-kanto eat, eat up; food
Sangir kaəŋfood
Tonsawang kanfood; to eat
Ponosakan kaʔanto eat
Totoli kaanto eat
Boano kaʔanto eat
Balantak kaanto eat
Banggai poo-kaanto eat together
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *kaaNeat
Moronene moŋ-kaato eat
Manggarai haŋto eat, to swallow; eaten by, consumed by (as fire); food; cooked rice
Ngadha kato eat
Li'o kato eat
Solorese kanto eat
Kédang kato eat, bite
Kola -kato eat
Bobot kanto eat
Masiwang kento eat
Kamarian aato eat
Alune kaneto eat
Hitu ato eat
Tifu kanto eat
Soboyo kañto eat
Buli ānfood; to eat
Minyaifuin -ananto eat
Numfor ānto eat
Woi -aŋto eat
Vitu hanito eat; get infected
Sobei kinto eat
Kis anto eat
Watut ganto eat
Wampar ānto eat
Rotuman ʔāto eat; to use up, go through, consume


PAN     *ma-kaen will eat (?)

Pazeh me-kento eat
Amis ma-kaento have eaten
Thao ma-kanwill eat; eat (irrealis)
Puyuma mə-kanto eat
Paiwan ma-kánbe eaten
Itawis ma-kanthat which is edible
Bontok ma-kancooked rice
Kankanaey ma-káncooked rice; in tales, however, it may mean any rice
Ifugaw ma-kánit is edible
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-ʔana main-dish food, either a staple food, normally eaten with a side dish, or a snack food, as fruits of various varieties, bread or pastries
Casiguran Dumagat ma-kanedible
Ibaloy me-kanfood; will eat
Tagalog má-káʔinto be eaten; to have something to eat; to happen to eat something
Romblomanon ma-kāʔunwill eat
Masbatenyo ma-kaʔun-káʔunvery edible
Kadazan Dusun ma-kanto eat
Bisaya (Limbang) ma-kanto eat
Narum ma-hanto feed
Kayan ma-kanto feed animals, etc. (and also used of people)
Kayan (Uma Juman) ma-kanto feed (humans)
Malagasy mamáhanato feed, to tend, to treat hospitably
Iban ma-kaito eat
Malay ma-kanto eat; to consume; to wear away; (in chess) to take a pawn or piece; (of weapons) to take effect (e.g. di-makan peluru ‘killed by a bullet’)
Acehnese ma-kan-anto eat; all food other than rice
Karo Batak ma-kan-ito feed, give food to
Toba Batak ma-ma-hanto feed animals
Old Javanese a-ma-kan-ito feed, give someone something to eat
Javanese ma-kanto feed an animal
Sangir ma-kaəŋeaten by accident; edible
Kis anto eat


PPh     *maka-kaen edible, able to be eaten; able to eat

Yami máka-ka-kanable to eat
Isneg mak-kānto be able to eat; edible stuff
Bontok mak-ma-kanedible
Tagalog maká-káʔinedible, can be eaten
Bikol maka-kánedible
Romblomanon maka-kāʔunable to eat

Note:   In contemporary standard Bikol makakán evidently is ma-kakán, but comparative evidence shows that this almost certainly is a reanalysis of earlier maka-kan.


PPh     *maki-kaen to eat together, join others in eating

Yami maci-akaneat together with someone
Ibaloy meki-kanto eat with someone, join in a meal, esp. of going to a feast
Tagalog maká-káʔinto join others at a meal


PMP     *ma-ŋaen to eat

Ilokano ma-ŋánto eat
Isneg ma-ŋānto eat
Itawis ma-ŋánto eat
Bontok maŋ-anto eat
  maŋ-an-anany pot or jar in which rice is usually cooked
Kankanaey ma-ŋánto eat; to take one’s meals; to feed
Ifugaw ma-ŋánto eat
  ma-ma-ŋánperson who gives to eat (feeds)
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-ŋanfor someone to engage in eating, especially a scheduled meal (regular meals are eaten in the morning and at night; a noon meal is more casual and irregular); for someone to eat with someone else
Casiguran Dumagat mə-ŋanto eat
Ibaloy me-ŋanto eat; to bite, cut into (as auger bit cuts into wood)
Pangasinan ma-ŋanto eat
Sambal (Botolan) ma-ŋanto eat
Kapampangan ma-ŋanto eat
Tagalog ma-ŋáʔinto eat small things or pieces of things one after another
Hanunóo ma-ŋáʔunto eat
Masbatenyo ma-ŋáʔonto eat (refers to eating a variety of things)
Agutaynen pala-ma-ŋan-andining room
Mapun ma-ŋanto eat something, consume something; to bite into something (as sandpaper into wood)
  ma-ŋan-anutensils for eating, such as spoons, glasses, plates, etc.
  ma-ŋan ma-ŋanto have a picnic
Samal maŋaneat
Gayō ma-ŋanto eat
Simalur ma-ŋanto eat; to bite (of a fish taking the bait)
  ma-ŋan ma-ŋanto eat on and on, to go on eating
Karo Batak ma-ŋan-ieat from something; eaten up by animals; consumed by fire
Toba Batak ma-ŋanto eat, consume
Old Javanese u-ma-ŋanto eat, swallow, devour
  a-ma-ŋan-ito hurt, wound
Javanese maŋaneat [Ngoko speech level]
  ma-ŋanto eat, to consume
Balinese ma-ŋanto eat
Sasak ma-ŋanto eat
Banggai maŋ-kaanto eat
Mori Bawah moŋ-kaato eat
Padoe mo-ŋaato eat
Bungku moŋ-kaato eat
Bonerate ma-ŋato eat

Note:   Also Gaddang, Yogad me-ŋŋan, Lampung me-ŋan ‘to eat’.


POC     *maŋan to eat

Arosi maŋabits of food in the crevices of the teeth after eating
  maŋa(-maŋa)to eat


PPh     *maR-kaen to eat

Agta (Dupaningan) mag-kanto eat, especially rice or a meal containing rice
Casiguran Dumagat məg-kanto eat casually
Bikol mag-ka-kánto eat; to dine on; to devour; to jump (as in checkers)
Romblomanon mag-kāʔunto eat
Masbatenyo mag-káʔonto eat
Hiligaynon mag-kaʔúnto eat, to devour
Tausug mag-kaunto eat


PAN     *pa-kaen to feed

Kavalan pa-kan ~ pa-kannto feed, to make someone eat
Pazeh pa-kanto feed (as a mother feeding her young child)
Amis pa-kaento feed, give food
Thao pa-kanto feed (as children or domesticated animals); to serve, as food or drink to a guest or honored person
Puyuma pa-kanto feed
Paiwan pa-kánto feed
Itbayaten i-pa-kanbait (for catching), refreshment, meal to be served
Ilokano pa-kánto feed
  ag-pa-kánto host a feast
Bontok pa-kanto feed, to raise, as an animal
Kankanaey mai-pa-kánto be given to eat; woof, weft
  pa-kan-anwoof, weft
Ifugaw pa-kánthread shot through the gape which the woman who is weaving made by raising the even (or the uneven) threads
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-ʔana weft thread; transverse strips of certain baskets; to weave a weft thread onto warp threads
Pangasinan pa-kánto feed; to serve food
Kapampangan pa:-pa-kanfeed someone
Tagalog pa-kaʔínration of food
Hanunóo mag-pa-káʔunto feed, give food; also, by extension, give (other things)
Romblomanon pa-kāʔunfood is allowed by someone to be eaten by someone else; an eating event, as at the reception of a baptism or wedding
Masbatenyo pa-káʔonfeast
Aklanon pa-káonto feed
Hiligaynon gin-pa-káʔunto feed
Binukid pa-kaento feed (a person or an animal)
Mansaka pa-kaanfood offered (esp. to some person)
Yakan pa-ka-kanto eat into something (as a saw); sink into something (as tires); consume something (as fire)
Narum pa-hanto feed (as a child)
Kayan pa-kanto feed (as chickens)
Kayan (Uma Juman) pa-kanto feed (animals); fodder
Malagasy fá-hananourishment, strength; ration; subsistence
Iban pa-kaito eat, consume
Malay pa-kanfodder; to eat; to feed, of animals; woof, weaving
Simalur a-ʔanto feed
Javanese pa-kananimal food
Mbula -pa-kanto feed someone
Eddystone/Mandegusu va-γan-ito eat


PAN     *pa-kaen-en to feed, be fed

Thao pa-kan-inis being fed by someone
Itbayaten pa-kan-ento feed
Ilokano pa-kan-ento feed
Agta (Dupaningan) pa-kan-anto feed a person or animal
Isneg pak-kan-ánto feed (animals)
Casiguran Dumagat pə-kan-ənto feed
Tagalog pa-kaʔín-into feed someone
Bikol pa-ka-kan-ónto feed
Tausug pa-kaun-unto feed (as children); cooked rice
Kadazan Dusun pa-a-kan-onto cause or allow to be fed
Toba Batak pa-han-ondomesticated animals


PWMP     *pa-ŋaen food

Bontok paŋ-anto feed; to feed on
Kankanaey mai-pa-ŋánviand; food; all that is edible and is eaten with rice
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-ŋanfor someone to feed someone something
Ibaloy pa-ŋan to“his meal”, designation for the first day of the aremag/siling funeral celebration, when one pig is butchered
Kalamian Tagbanwa pa-ŋanto eat
Agutaynen ag-pa-ŋan-ento be eaten
Gayō pa-ŋanto be eaten by someone
Karo Batak pa-ŋānfood, all kinds of food
Toba Batak pa-pa-ŋan-ieat a lot
Lampung pa-ŋanfood to be eaten
Sundanese pa-ŋanfood
Old Javanese pa-ŋanfood, eating
  ka-pa-ŋan-andevoured by; addicted to?
Javanese pa-ŋanfood, something to eat
Balinese pa-ŋanfood, things to eat
Sasak pa-ŋancookies made of sticky rice flour; to eat
Geser ŋga faŋato eat


POC     *paŋan food; to feed

Nauna haŋɨn-ito feed
Baluan paŋto feed
Lou to feed
Penchal haŋínto feed
Lenkau haŋto feed
Pak haŋto feed
Loniu haŋin-ifeed him!
Ere aŋ-haŋto feed
Leipon heŋen-ito feed
Ahus a-heŋto feed
Bipi hakto feed
Nalik faŋanto eat
Duke of York waŋanto eat
Bugotu vaŋato eat; vegetable food
  vaa-vaŋacrops, food
Nggela vaŋafood, properly vegetable food; to eat, have a meal
  vaŋa ni tahifood in the sea; fish, shellfish, etc.
  vaŋa-gato bear fruit; fruitful; the contents of anything
  vaŋa-vaŋato eat into, of a sore
Kwaio faŋafood; eat
Lau faŋato eat, have a meal; a meal, food; to bite, nibble, of fish
  fā-faŋato feed
Toqabaqita faŋato eat
  faŋa i anoeat food directly from the ground (rather than from a leaf, a plate, etc.) because of being in mourning
Rotuman haŋato feed


PWMP     *pa-ŋaen-an food (?)

Isneg pa-ŋan-ánto feed (human beings)
Ifugaw pa-ŋan-áneating place; eating time
Kayan (Uma Juman) pə-ŋan-anfood (in general), diet
Toba Batak pa-ŋan-anplate or anything similar from which a person eats
Old Javanese pa-ŋan pa-ŋan-anfood
Balinese pa-ŋan-anfood, things to eat
Totoli pa-ŋan-anfood
Uma pa-ŋan-abetel nut, areca nut


PAN     *p<in>a-kaen was fed by someone

Kavalan p<n>a-qanwas fed by someone
Thao p<in>a-kanwas fed by someone
Puyuma p<in>a-kan-anwas fed with something
Cebuano p<in>a-kaʔunbe fed with something special on a regular basis
Narum p<an>ahanwas fed by someone
Toba Batak p<in>a-handomesticated animals


PAN     *Si-kaen instrument used for eating

Bunun is-kaʔunany instrument used for eating, as chopsticks
Paiwan si-káneating implement; reason for eating


PMP     *hi-kaen (??)

Pangasinan i-kan-áingredients

Note:   Also Kavalan ti-qan ‘to eat with (instrumental focus)’.


PAN     *ka-kaen-an place where one eats

Pazeh ka-kan-andining table
Amis ka-k<om>aen-antable, dining area
Bunun (Takituduh) ka-kaʔun-anany place for eating, as a table
Paiwan ka-kan-andining room
Bikol ka-kan-andining room
Mapun ka-kan-anthe amount that someone can eat

Note:   Also Sangir ka-kanəŋ-aŋ ‘eating place, eating trough’. Presumably with *ka- -an ‘formative for abstract nouns’, although most reflexes of *ka-kaen-an appear to be concrete.


PAN     *ka-kaen-en edible things, food

Pazeh ka-kan-ento eat
Amis ka-kaen-enfood, things to eat
Thao ka-kan-infood; be fed by someone
Bunun (Takituduh) ka-kaʔun-unfood; anything that is eaten
Paiwan mere-ka-kan-enlarge edible thing (as sweet potato); (metaphorically) penis (“eaten” by vagina)
Yami ka-kan-enfood
Itbayaten ka-kan-enedible, edible thing
Pangasinan ka-kan-enthings to eat
Kapampangan ka-kan-anfood
Tagalog ka-kaʔin-ínsweets; tidbits; dainties
Bikol ka-kán-onfood, victuals
  ka-kan-ónto corrode; to be eaten away
Banggai ko-koon-onfood, meal


PAN     *k<in>aen was eaten; what was eaten

Pazeh k<in>an sawwas eaten by a person (someone)
Thao k<in>an sumawas eaten by someone
Itbayaten ch<in>anate, eaten; eaten part; the one eaten, something eaten
  ch<in>an-an ~leavings at the table, leftover food
Isneg kinnānpast tense of kanán, to eat
Ibaloy k<in>anwas eaten by someone
Romblomanon (nag)-k<in>āʔunwas eaten
Aklanon k<in>áonwas eaten by someone
  pa-ŋ<in>áonto have an appetite, eat well
Cebuano k<in>áʔuneaten, consumed
  k<in>áʔun sa gabassawdust (what was eaten by the saw)
Mapun k<in>a-kangeneral term for food or cooked rice
Yakan k<in>a-kanfood; staple food (usually thought of as rice)
Lun Dayeh k<in>anwas eaten by someone
Kelabit k<in>anwas eaten by someone
Narum h<in>anwas eaten by someone
Ngaju Dayak k<in>anbe eaten by someone
Malagasy mi-h<ín>anato eat, to consume, to spend
Sangir k<in>aəŋprey
Banggai k<in>aanwas eaten by someone; food


PMP     *k<in>aen what is eaten; food (cooked rice)

Mori Atas kinaʔacooked rice


POC     *k<in>an food; meat

Ere kina-nmeat; its meat
Mussau inanafood
Roviana g<in>anifood
Tongan kinameat or fish portion of a baked or roasted meal

Note:   Roviana g<in>ani is assumed to be a reformation made by infixing the reflex of POc *kani.


PAN     *k<um>aen to eat

Taokas um-anto eat
Basai k<um>anto eat
Kavalan q<m>an ~ q<m>annto eat
Sakizaya mu-kan <Mto eat
Amis k<om>aento eat
Favorlang/Babuza manto eat; meal
Thao k<m>anto eat food, to chew betel nut, to smoke tobacco
Bunun (Takituduh) maʔunto eat
  ma-maʔunto keep on eating
Tsou bonəto eat
Kanakanabu k<um>a-kaənəto eat
Paiwan k<m>anto eat
Yami k<om>anto eat
Itbayaten k<om>anto eat, to dine
Bontok k<umm>anto eat
Ifugaw k<um>ánto eat
Tagalog k<um>áʔinto eat
Hanunóo k<um>áʔunto eat
Klata kommaato eat
Tausug k<um>aunto eat
Lun Dayeh k<um>anto eat, have a meal
Kelabit k<um>anto eat
  pə-ŋ<um>anto eat
Berawan (Long Teru) kumanto eat
Narum h<um>anto eat
Kenyah (Long Anap) pə-ŋ<um>anfood (in general)
Kayan k<um>anto have a meal; to eat
Kayan (Uma Juman) k<um>anto eat
  pə-ŋ<um>anfood (in general), diet
Bukat kumanto eat
Lahanan kumanto eat
Ngaju Dayak h<um>anto eat (of people or animals)
  ma-ŋ<um>anto eat (animals), to corrode, to spread, as an abscess
  pa-ŋ<um>anwhat always spreads, “eats” up a wider area
Taboyan k<um>anto eat
Ma'anyan k<um>anto eat
Malagasy h<óm>anato eat, to consume a meal; to expend; to bite, as a saw, etc.
Sangir k<um>aəŋto eat

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) uman ‘to eat’ (presumably a back-formation from pə-ŋ<um>an ‘food (in general), where the base could potentially begin with k or zero.


PMP     *kaen-a eat it (imper.)

Itbayaten kan-aeat
Aklanon kanʔ-a <Meat it! (imper.)
Waray-Waray kaon-ato eat up
Maranao kan-aeat it
Tiruray kan-aa guest or visitor; to serve food to visitors
Wetan an-ato eat


PAN     *kaen-an place where one eats; food

Kavalan qann-anbe eaten; food
Bunun kaun-anpipe (for smoking)
Puyuma a-kan-anfood
Paiwan kan-anplace where one eats
Itbayaten kan-aneating place
Isneg kan-ánto eat; food contained in the stomach
Tagalog káʔín-aneating together (whether persons or animals)
Romblomanon kaʔūn-anplace from which something is eaten (as a plate); an eating place (any area where one eats – a table, the floor, a beach)
Masbatenyo kaʔún-anto eat with (someone)
  kaʔun-ándining room
Cebuano kanʔ-an-an <Meat somewhere regularly; place to eat (eating table, dining room, restaurant)
Maranao kan-anutensil, dish, plate
Kenyah (Long Wat) kananeating utensils (taken collectively)
Bintulu kananjar


POC     *kanan food

Pak kanfood
Loniu kanfood
Titan kanaŋ-kanto eat
Leipon kanfood
Levei kan-afood
Seimat anfood
Wuvulu ana-nafood
Mendak anəneating
  e anənfood
Nggela ganafood


PAN     *k<in>aen-an what was eaten; food

Kavalan q<n>ann-ansomething eaten
Thao k<in>an-anwas eaten by someone; what was eaten by someone


PAN     *kaen-ay will eat

Pazeh ka-kan-aywill eat, shall eat
Puyuma əkan-ayto eat (locative focus)


PAN     *kaen-en be eaten by someone; cooked rice

Thao kan-inbe eaten by someone; food
Bunun kaun-uneaten; food
Bunun (Takituduh) kaʔun-unto be eaten by someone
Paiwan kan-enfood
Yami kan-enbe eaten
Itbayaten kan-ensomething to eat, food
Ilokano kan-énfood; to eat something
  kan-kan-ensweets (rice cakes)
Agta (Dupaningan) kan-anfood, especially rice
Itawis kan-ánfood
Bontok kan-ənto eat
Kankanaey kan-kan-énbread; cake; bonbon; sweetmeat; pastry (probably < Ilokano)
Casiguran Dumagat kan-ənto eat something; food, cooked rice
Pangasinan kán-enfood
Tagalog kaʔín-into eat
Hanunóo kánʔ-un <Mbe eaten by someone
Romblomanon kaʔún-unwill be eaten by someone; something to eat
  kanʔ-un <Mcooked rice
Aklanon kán-onrice; staple food
Hiligaynon kaʔun-unto eat, to devour
Cebuano kanʔ-un <Mcooked rice or corn
Binukid kaen-encooked rice, corn grits; any staple food eaten with viand
Mansaka kan-unfood; cooked rice
Kalagan kan-ɨn(cooked) rice
Mapun ka-kan-unto eat something
Tausug kaun-unbe eaten by someone
Kadazan Dusun a-kan-on(to be) eaten, destroyed (as if by eating)
Tombonuwo o-kan-oncooked rice
Kenyah (Long Anap) kan-əncooked rice
Kayan (Uma Juman) kan-əncooked rice
Melanau (Mukah) uaʔ ka-nənany special food, as one’s favorite food
Malagasy hán-inafood, victuals, viands, nourishment; to be eaten, to be devoured, to be consumed
  mi-h<in>an kán-inato eat
Palauan kallfood


PSHWNG     *kanon₁ to eat, consume

Waropen anoto eat, consume


POC     *kanon₂ flesh; kernel

Numbami anofruit; meat; essence
Tongan kanoflesh or substance: generally used instead of ka-kano when –‘i (of) is attached, as in kano ‘i puaka, pig’s flesh, pork, and in compound expressions such as kano lelei, having good flesh or (of a sermon, etc.) meaty
  ka-kanoflesh; lean (as opposed to ngako, fat); muscle; contents or substance
  kanon-ito increase or add to (object something already heavy or painful or otherwise unpleasant); to aggravate
Niue kanograin, seed
  ka-kanokernel, flesh, meaning, contents
  kanon-iafull, filled
Futunan kanocentral part (of a road, an army)
  kano ’i matapupil of the eye
Samoan ʔa-ʔanoflesh; kernel, meat; gist, essence, heart (of the matter); fleshy; meaty, substantial (as a sermon); of words, speech, etc., be full of substance
Nukuoro ganoflesh of, meat of
Rennellese kanokernel, as of a nut; flesh, as of a coconut, fish, or bivalve; genitalia, labia
  kano sonivagina
  kano ugepenis
  ka-kanocore of wood; to have a core
Maori kanoseed
  kā-kanoseed, kernel, pip


PAN     *kaen-i eat it!

Kavalan qann-ieat (imper.)
Pazeh kan-ieat (imper.)
  ta-kan-ilet’s eat!
Bunun kaun-ito eat (imper.)
Paiwan kan-ilet’s eat!
Kayan kan-ieaten; to eat
Kayan (Uma Juman) kan-ibe eaten


POC     *kani to eat

Pak kanfood
Loniu kanfood
Titan kanaŋ-kanto eat
Leipon kanfood (keykay < Tok Pisin kaikai used by younger speakers)
Likum ya-ʔanto eat
Seimat anfood
Yapese kaayto eat
Tanga ento eat; feast
Tolai änito eat
Arop a-kanito eat
Amara -keneat
Lusi -anito eat
Kove anito eat
Bebeli kɛnto eat
Lakalai alito eat, to chew
Mengen kanito eat
Kairiru -ʔan-to eat
Manam kaŋto eat, to consume
Mbula -kaneat, consume, use up, burn up
Numbami anito eat
Ubir i-ani-nto eat
Suau ʔai-ʔaito eat
Magori anito eat
Hula anito eat
Pokau anito eat
Molima ʔaito eat
Saliba kaito eat
Papapana anito eat
Teop anito eat
Torau ani-anito eat
Takuu kaito eat
Eddystone/Mandegusu γanito eat; to bite, as a fish; food
Bugotu ganito eat up, consume
Nggela ganito eat; to burn up, consume; burnt, eaten; scraps of food
Ghari ha-hanito eat
Chuukese áni-to eat (of cooked starchy food, bread, any leafy vegetable, cooked or uncooked, cooked fish, copra; but not uncooked bananas or other fruit, uncooked fish, or cooked or uncooked meat)
Mota ganto eat food; to eat, as an ulcer or sore; to spread, as fire
Cape Cumberland hanito eat
Malmariv ani-anifood
Lametin ani-anifood
Amblong ani-anto eat
Central Maewo γanito eat
Northeast Ambae ka-kanito eat
Lingarak -kanto eat
Avava kanto eat
Axamb kanto eat
Namakir -kanto eat
Ura n-enito eat
Lenakel -kənto eat
Iaai hanto eat; meal
Dehu xento eat
Nengone kānto eat (in general), to eat vegetable food
Wayan kani(of animals) to eat, consume food; (of the sea, insects) erode, eat away at something, bore holes; use up someone’s resources, cost someone a lot
Tongan kaito eat; (of fish) to bite (at the bait); (in games) to score, make a score
Niue kaito eat
  kai-aŋaa meal, feast
Futunan kaito eat (transitive or intransitive)
Samoan ʔaito eat; bite, grip; food; score, goal, point, run
Tuvaluan kaito eat; score in a game
  mea kaifood
Kapingamarangi gaito eat
Nukuoro gaieat; food
Rennellese kaito eat, be eaten; to erode, as a sore; to smoke, as tobacco; food (rare)
  haka-kaito enlarge, as a hole in the ear
Anuta kaito eat; generic name for food crops
  kai taeeat shit! (curse)
Rarotongan kaito eat
Maori kaiconsume, eat; drink any liquid other than water, for which inu is used; bite; food
Hawaiian ʔaifood or food plant, especially vegetable food as distinguished from iʔa, meat or fleshy food; often ʔai refers specifically to poi; to eat, destroy of consume, as by fire, erode; to taste, bite, take a hook, grasp, hold on to; edible; ; score, points in a game; stake, wager
  ho-ʔaito feed, give food to


POC     *kani-a eat it

Motu ani-ato eat something
Roviana gani-ato eat
Nggela gani-aedible
Toqabaqita ʔani-ato eat
'Āre'āre ani-ato eat; to wear out, to burn
Gilbertese kani-ato eat, to devour, to consume; to gnaw; to deteriorate
Rotuman ʔani-ato eat
Fijian kani-ato eat (something specified)

Note:   Also Gilbertese kaŋ ‘to eat, to consume’, Pohnpeian, Mokilese, Kosraean kaŋ ‘to eat’, Woleaian gaŋ-i ‘eat it’.


PMP     *kaen kaen (gloss uncertain)

Hanunóo kaʔun-káʔuneat and eat!
Cebuano káʔun-káʔuneat light snacks between meals
Numfor ān-ānto eat


POC     *kani kani to eat, keep on eating

Lakalai ali-alito eat, to chew
Gapapaiwa kani-kanibe eating
Motu ani-anifood; to eat (intr.)
Molima ʔai-ʔaito eat
Roviana gani-ganito eat
Eddystone/Mandegusu γani-γanito keep on eating, feast
Cape Cumberland ʔani-ʔanito eat
North Malo xan-xanto eat
Wayan kani-kani(of land, body) be wasting away, be wasted, eaten away, eroded; keep eating, eat (frequently)

Note:   This base is exceptionally rich in affix potential. At the same time it has caused considerable confusion to some comparativists. Dempwolff (1938) posited *ka ‘to eat’, *ka-en ‘what is to be eaten, food, nourishment’, on the assumption that *kaen contained a base *ka plus the patient suffix *-en. However, this is a misanalysis, as the comparative evidence supports *kaen ‘to eat’ and *kaen-en ‘be eaten by someone; what is to be eaten, food, nourishment’. Wolff (2010:855-856), on the other hand, posits *kan ‘eat’, but has no explanation for the second vowel (or for vowel length) in widely separated languages such as Bunun, Amis, Tagalog, Hanunóo, various Bisayan and Manobo languages, Karo Batak, Sangir, Tondano, Mongondow, Totoli, Boano, Banggai and Proto-Bungku-Tolaki. Moreover, following a prior suggestion by Dahl he proposes *isekan ‘fish’ as a morphological derivative, although the comparative evidence points clearly to PAn *Sikan, with last-syllable *a, not *e (cp. Bunun iskan ‘fish’, vs. kaʔun ‘eat’).

The simplest explanation for these various confusions is that the base *kaen frequently contracted to a monosyllable because schwa next to another vowel is particularly weak, and tends to be absorbed. This is especially the case with affixed forms, and an examination of almost any dictionary of a contemporary language shows that reflexes of the base *kaen rarely occur unaffixed, and that when they do they are more likely to retain the medial vowel sequence, as with Aklanon káon ‘to eat’, but kán-on ‘rice, staple food’ (not **káon-on). Where *kaen has contracted to a monosyllable several languages independently have restored the favored disyllabism of content words through epenthesis, as in Puyuma əkan, Yami (a)kan, Bontok ek-ekan, KADAD akan, or Maloh aŋkan ‘eat’ (the latter with subsequent sporadic medial prenasalization).

The rich morphology of this base is ubiquitous in Taiwan, the Philippines, northern Borneo and northern Sulawesi, but contracts radically in languages further to the south, where only paradigmatically dissociated elements remain, as in the Uma Juman dialect of Kayan (Blust 1977:63-64), where kani, kanən, kinan, kuman, makan, pakan, pəŋanan and pəŋuman are no longer anchored to a common base, and where most of the morphology in this fragmented paradigm is fossilized (-ən, -in-, ma-, pa-, pəŋ- and –an are otherwise unknown in the language, and although a reflex of *-um- continues to function as the marker of active voice, its form is –əm-, not –um-). Similarly, for Ngaju Dayak Hardeland (1859:276) cites kuman as a dictionary entry, and notes that “Das Passiv von kuman is unregelmässig, heisst: kinan, gegessen, getrogen werden, (sind essbar).”


*kagkag to dry something in the sun


PPh     *kagkag to dry something in the sun     [disjunct: *kaRkaR]

Ilokano ag-kagkágto bask in the sun
Casiguran Dumagat kágkagto dry in the sun (of rice, meat, clothes, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kagkagto dry something in the sun
  peni-ŋagkagto warm oneself in the sun


*kahir scratch the ground, as a chicken does


PWMP     *kahir scratch the ground, as a chicken does     [disjunct: *kahiR]

Binukid kahilclaw part of chicken feet (used in scratching); for a chicken to scratch, scratch around in something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kahirthe cleared area on the ground in front of a chicken after he has scratched it clean looking for food
Iban kairto scratch, scrape with the foot (as a hen searching for food)
Karo Batak kair-kaira rake
  ŋ-kair-ito rake


*kahiR scratch the ground, as a chicken does


PWMP     *kahiR scratch the ground, as a chicken does     [disjunct: *kahir]

Tagalog káhigscratching loose soil (as fowls do); inciting two roosters to fight but holding them back by the tail, thus causing them to scratch the soil
Hanunóo kayígscratching of the ground, as by chickens
Hiligaynon káhigto rake, to shovel
Iban kairscratch, scrape (with the foot)
Karo Batak kair-kairrake
Sasak kaehscratch up the ground (as a chicken)

Note:   Also Proto-Sangiric *kaeiR ‘to scratch; sweep’. Sasak normally reflects *R as /r/, but shows *R > -/h/ in a few other forms, as *kuluR > kuluh ‘breadfruit’, or *muRmuR > kə-mumur ~ kə-mumuh ‘to gargle’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *kahiR ‘scratch’.


*kahiw haŋin haŋin type of lichen


PWMP     *kahiw haŋin haŋin type of lichen

Javanese kayu aŋin-aŋinkind of bluish-white lichen that grows on tree trunks: Usnea barbata; it is sometimes used as a medicine (van der Veen 1940)
Tae' aŋin-aŋinkind of bluish-white lichen that grows on tree trunks: Usnea barbata; it is sometimes used as a medicine
Makassarese kayu aŋina tree, Casuarina spp.


*kahug to mix, mingle


PWMP     *kahug to mix, mingle

Cebuano kahúg ~ káhugto mix moist and dry ingredients together; to stir something thick
Sangir məʔ-kaugəʔto mix together
  mə-ŋaugəʔto mix (as sand with lime in making mortar)
Mongondow kaugto stir, mix together; also to disturb


(Formosan only)

*kahuS scoop up


PAN     *kahuS scoop up

Kavalan kausscoop
  sa-kaus-ana tool used to scoop up earth or grass
Saisiyat kahœsscooping out
Thao kaushscoop up, ladle up
  ka-kaushladle for dipping up water
Paiwan kausscoop-net (for fishing or catching butterflies)


PAN     *k<um>ahuS scoop up

Kavalan k<m>austo scoop up earth, grass
Saisiyat k<om>ahœsscoop out
Thao k<m>aushscoop up, ladle up

Note:   Also Pazeh mu-haus ‘to scoop up, as noodles’. Li (1978) gives only the Actor Voice form for Saisiyat, and the base cited here is extracted without the benefit of direct attestation. This word shows -s for expected , but seems clearly to be related, and provides evidence for *h, which in general can be obtained only from reflexes in Saisiyat, Pazeh, or Amis.


*kahut to take in one’s hand; handful


PAN     *kahut to take in one’s hand; handful

Amis kahotto take in one’s hand (as rice when eating); a handful


PMP     *kaut to take in one’s hand; handful

Ilokano k<um>aútto take the contents out of an empty opening
  kaut-ento stick in one’s hand in order to take out what is inside, draw from a hole or empty place
Bontok kaut-ə́nto move a dry substance with the hands, as soil
  k<um>áutto move a wet substance, as mud, by digging into it with the fingers
Ibaloy kaot-ento insert one’s hand(s) into a hold to get something (as honey from a cleft, midwife delivering a breech)


*kai (human) member of a category


POC     *kai (human) member of a category

Bola ka-kaiboss
Medebur kai-nboy
  kai-dik-waunyoung man (waun = ‘new, young’)
Lau ʔaia person, individual; a woman; thing; kind, sort; another, different
  ʔai burijunior; second wife (buri = ‘after, behind’)
  ʔai manua flock of birds
  ʔai naosenior; first wife
  ta ʔaianyone
Toqabaqita ʔaiused to refer to collectivities of various kinds
  ʔai ni bulisipolice unit
  ʔai ni fasiathe founding family, group in a given place
  ʔai ni gavmangovernment (as a collective body)
  ʔai ni maesaga-like song which is the history of a family line
  ʔai ni niucoconut grove
Arosi aia native of, person of
  ai (ni) Wangoa native of Wango
Proto-North-Central Vanuatu *kai-masisorceror (cf. masi-ŋa ‘love magic’)
Fijian kaia male inhabitant or native of a place; it is never used alone and does not refer to women
  kai ðoloinhabitant of the mountainous interior of Viti Levu
  kai muaa sailor
  kai Peritaniaa Britisher
  kai waiinhabitant of the shore
Tongan ka-kaipeople (collectively); to be peopled, inhabited, occupied; to be attended by people, to be more or less full of people
Futunan ka-kaipeople, inhabitants
Samoan ʔa-ʔaivillage, town
Tuamotuan ka-kaibody, group of blood relatives

Note:   Also Wayan koi ‘person of a place or category specified by the following noun’, koi mua ‘sailor, seaman’, koi viti ‘inhabitant of Fiji, Fijian’, koi wai ‘inhabitant of the coast or island, islander, coastal dweller’. A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (1985), and more recently by Ross and Osmond (2016:49-50). Although this term evidently was restricted to human referents in POc, several languages of the Southeast Solomons have extended it to include animals (Lau Ɂai manu), plants (Toqabaqita Ɂai ni niu), or even inanimate referents (Toqabaqita Ɂai ni mae, although in this case there is a connection with humans).


*kaija when? (in the past)


PAN     *kaija when? (in the past)     [doublet: *ijan 'when']

Thao kaizawhen? or else
Rukai kəigawhen? (past; Ferrell 1971)


POC     *ka-ica when?

Wuvulu aigawhen?

Note:   Also Paiwan nu-ŋida ‘when? (future)’, ta-ŋida ‘when? (past)’.


*kain woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing


PWMP     *kain woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing

Ilokano káinlong skirt
  naka-káinwearing a long skirt
Kankanaey k<in>áina kind of tapis (apron, sarong), black with elaboratered and yellow designs
Casiguran Dumagat kεnwoman’s wrap-around skirt
Ibaloy kaintraditional wraparound skirt
Iban kaincloth, skirt (esp. short skirt worn by women); kinds of cloth
Malay kainwoven fabric; cloth; untailored garment; (specifically) the Malay sarong; cloth of any material


*kak sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc.


PAN     *kak sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc.

Kavalan qaqcrow
Ibatan kaka crow
  may-kakakto caw like a crow
Kankanaey kakshriek, screech, scream, as chickens do when startled
Iban kaka crow
Malay kaksound of laughter
Manggarai kakto bark, yelp, of a dog
Sa'a kaaclear the throat
Tongan to hawk, clear the throat forcibly and noisily

Note:   Also Tombonuwo kaak ‘kind of crow’. This appears to be the bare root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’, found as the last syllable in a number of CVCVC forms.


*kaka₁ flaky skin disease


POC     *kaka₁ flaky skin disease

Tolai kakamange
Roviana kakaskin disease (Leucoderma) which causes white patches on hands and feet

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*kaka₂ elder sibling


PAN     *kaka₂ elder sibling

Kavalan qaqaelder sibling (reference)
  nan-qaqato be siblings (in case of two males or one male and one female)
  qa-qaqathe eldest sibling
Amis kakaolder sibling (brother or sister); one more advanced than Ego; in a superior position
  mali-kakabrothers and sisters belonging to each other
Rukai (Budai) kákaelder sibling (address)
Rukai (Tona) kákaelder sibling (address)
Proto-Rukai *kakaelder sibling (address)
Paiwan kakasibling, first cousin; term of address for siblings or cousins of either sex (or for any young man of Ego’s generation, whether kin or not)
Paiwan (Western) ku-kakamy younger siblings (reference)
  ti-kakamy older siblings (reference)


PMP     *kaka₂ elder sibling of the same sex

Yami kakaolder brother or sister
Ivatan kakaolder sibling
Ilokano kákaelder sibling
  ag-kákatwo siblings together
Atta (Pamplona) kakáolder sibling or cousin
Itawis kakáolder sibling
Kapampangan káka-Ɂolder brother
Tagalog kaká-Ɂelder sibling or cousin
Hanunóo káka-Ɂolder sibling (both nominative and vocative)
Agutaynen kakaolder sister
Maranao kakaelder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kake-yolder or oldest sibling; the first wife of a man who has more than one
Manobo (Sarangani) kaka-yolder sibling
Bisaya (Limbang) kakoelder sibling
Ngaju Dayak kakaelder sibling of the same sex
Iban kakaelder sister
Maloh kaka-Ɂelder sibling
Malay kaka-kelder sister; (sometimes) elder brother
Karo Batak kakaolder brother or sister, older clansman
Toba Batak hahaelder sibling of the same sex; older brother’s wife (man speaking), older sister’s husband (woman speaking)
  si-haha-anthe oldest brother or sister
  hahá-ŋelder parallel sibling (vocative)
Minangkabau kaka-Ɂolder sister (in some places also older brother); term of address used with the wife of an older brother or for women who the speaker regards as older than himself
Rejang kako-Ɂolder brother or sister (actual or classificatory)
Enggano ʔaʔaelder sister, elder brother
Old Javanese kakaelder brother or sister; also used in addressing somewhat older persons, and for the husband (between man and wife)
  a-kakatoward an elder brother
Javanese kakaolder brother
  kaka-ŋolder brother; husband
  tə-kakaolder than (of siblings)
Proto-Sangiric *kaka-Ɂolder sibling
Sangir kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister, used to call an older brother or sister, and as a term of respect for older people with whom one does not wish to use a personal name
Proto-Minahasan *kaka-Ɂelder sibling
Bare'e tu-kakaolder brother or sister, older cousin
Tae' kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister (term of address)
Mori Atas kakaelder sibling
Proto-South Sulawesi *kakaolder brother
Mandar kakaolder sibling
Makassarese kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister; sometimes used by a woman as a term of address to her husband
Adonara kakaelder sibling (same sex?; Lebar 1972:93)
Kodi ghaghaelder parallel sibling
Dhao/Ndao aʔaelder sibling
Kisar kakaelder brother, male first cousin (man speaking; Lebar 1972:111)
East Damar aʔaelder sibling
Manipa hahaelder brother
Buruese kakasister-in-law (brother’s wife or husband’s sister)
Kayeli kaka-nelder sibling or cousin (possibly same sex)
Manam kakaelder brother
Motu kaka-naelder brother of a male; elder sister of a female
Pokau aʔaelder brother
Kokota kakaelder sibling
Bugotu kakaelder brother or sister (vocative)


PPh     *kaka-en (gloss uncertain)

Yami kaka-ento call someone an older brother or sister
Ilokano kaká-ento be the elder of the two

Note:   Also Proto-Rukai *taka-taka ‘elder sibling (reference)’. In some parts of the Pacific this word has evidently been borrowed into Papuan languages, where it has been better preserved than in the sources from which is probably came, as with Bilua (Vella Lavella, Solomons) kaka ‘elder brother’ (Tryon and Hackman 1983:227).


*kaka₃ fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds


POC     *kaka₃ fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds

Patpatar kakanew coconut frond that has not opened yet
Efate (North) kakcoconut mat, mesh formed by the coconut palm, used for straining liquids
Efate (South) kakacoconut mesh
Tongan kakafibrous integument at the top of coconut palms
Niue (lau)kakathe fibrous wrapping round the base of a young coconut frond
Samoan ʔaʔacoarse fibrous material found at the base of coconut leaves and used for strainers, etc.
Tuvaluan kakafiber from coconut trunk
Nukuoro gagafibrous sheathing (at the base of the petiole sheath of the flower) of the coconut tree
Rarotongan kakathe textile-like stipule at the base of the coconut leaf or frond, which was formerly used as a coarse kind of clothing; it was also used for straining expressed oil, in the preparation of arrowroot, and as a wrapper for fish nets and other articles of value
Maori kakafiber, single hair; stalk
  kā-kakastem of the fern Pteridium aquilinium var. esculentum
Hawaiian ʔa-ʔaʔacoconut cloth, vascular bundles in taro corm, chaff; fibrous

Note:   Also Hawaiian a-ɁaɁa ‘network of veins’. A slightly different version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross and Evans (2008).


(Formosan only)

*kakaCu spider


PAN     *kakaCu spider

Pazeh kakasuspider
Bunun kakatuspider

Note:   Also Thao, Tsou kakatu ‘spider’, both of which appear to be loanwords from Bunun.


*kakak caw, cackle


PAN     *kakak caw, cackle

Pazeh kakaka crow
Puyuma kakakquack of the duck and honk of the goose
  k<əm>akakto quack


PMP     *kakakₐ to cackle

Ilokano kákakthe uniform cry of the hen, when restless, looking for a nest, etc.
Bontok kákakto cackle, of a hen after laying an egg
Kankanaey kákakchatter, babble, as hens do
Tagalog kakakcackling, quacking (of hens, ducks, etc.)
Cebuano kákakcackle
Maranao kakakgobble, cackle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kakakcackle
Mansaka kakakto cackle (as hen)
Tausug kakakthe quack of a duck; a loud, coarse, burst of laughter
  mag-kakakto quack like a duck; to laugh boisterously
Malay meŋ-akak (< kakak)to quack, of a duck
  pe-kakakkingfisher (from its cry)
Malay (Kedah) kaʔkakcackling laughter
Toba Batak mar-hahakto laugh loudly
Nias mo-kaka-kakato laugh loudly
Javanese kakaklaugh uproariously
Sasak kakakboisterous laughter
Manggarai kakakguffaw
Sika kakakcackling of a hen at night
Pohnpeian wah-kahkcall or cackle loudly, of a hen

Note:   Also Amis kaɁkaɁ ‘to roar with laughter’. With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.


*kakaŋ bridle, as for a horse


PWMP     *kakaŋ bridle, as for a horse

Mansaka kakaŋbridle for a horse
Mapun kakkaŋa bit (used in a horse’s mouth)
Kadazan Dusun kakaŋbridle, halter, reins (as for a horse)
Nias kakabridle, harness (for horse)

Note:   The meaning of this term is problematic, as it is not consistent with what can confidently be inferred about PWMP culture. However, this term has a wide and scattered distribution which cannot easily be accounted for by a borrowing hypothesis. Presumably it had a somewhat different meaning in PWMP and shifted to the only meaning attested here sometime after the introduction of the horse, possibly at the time of first Indianization, roughly 2,000 years ago.


*kakap kind of large, edible marine fish


PWMP     *kakap₁ kind of large, edible marine fish

Ilokano kákapkind of edible marine fish
Tombonuwo kakaptype of scaly fish
Malay ikan kakapa large fish (‘cockup’ of India; Palmer of Queensland; Dutch kaalkop, Lates spp.)
Old Javanese kakapa large (predatory) fish, Lates calcarifer (“cockup”)

Note:   The similarity of this word to the Dutch name kaalkop (‘bald head’) raises questions about whether it is native in the languages from which it is cited here. However, since it is found in Old Javanese, which had ceased to exist before Dutch contact at the beginning of the 17th century, and since it is native to island Southeast Asia, the simplest explanation is that the native term was borrowed into European languages rather than the reverse. In English this became the unanalyzable ‘cockup’, but in Dutch it evidently underwent a folk etymology that provided it with a false morphological transparency.


*kakaq split


PMP     *kakaq split

Cebuano kakaʔchildren's word for female genitalia
Maranao kakaʔtear, torn, separate; have a gaping wound
Kiput akaːʔspread something (as tweezers) apart
Bare'e kakawith interstices, with lacunae
Kei kakaseparate, divide, split
Sa'a kakatorn, split
Arosi kakatorn, split

Note:   Also Javanese rekah ‘cracked’. With root *-kaq₂ ‘split’.


*kakas(-i) to split


POC     *kakas(-i) to split

Duke of York kaito scrape, scratch, chop up food, esp. taro and coconut
Lau kakas-ito split open
  kasito adze, chop; to knock a nut with a stone on another stone
Sa'a kakato be torn, to be split
  kaka-sito tear, to split
Arosi kakato split
  kaka-sito split something

Note:   A somewhat more extended version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross, Clark and Osmond (1998:261).


*kakawa₁ spider


PWMP     *kakawa₁ spider     [doublet: *kalawaq, *lawaq]

Ifugaw kakáwaspider
Ibaloy kakawaspider
Balinese kakawaspider
  kakawa hembuŋgiant spider

Note:   Also Bontok kawá ‘spider’, Ifugaw kaw-káwa ‘spider; belongs to the weaving terminology, to be distinguished from kakáwa, which is the current word for spider.


*kakawa₂ goby, blenny


POC     *kakawa₂ goby, blenny

Arosi ʔaʔawaa fish, blenny sp.
Bauro gagawaa fish, blenny sp.
Anejom ne-koablenny: Ecsenius sp.
Hawaiian ʔaʔawawrasse: Bodianus bilunulatus

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison with several phonologically irregular forms was proposed by Osmond (2011:99). Possibly a chance resemblance.


*kalába honeycomb


PPh     *kalába honeycomb

Ilokano kalábahoneycomb
Casiguran Dumagat kalabehoneycomb
Ibaloy kalababeehive, ant hill, wasp nest, similar insect colonies
Pangasinan kálabahoneycomb; similar nest of insect
Tagalog kalabalower section of a beehive
Cebuano kalábahoneycomb; to form or build a honeycomb

Note:   Also Ibaloy kaleba ‘beehive, ant hill, wasp nest, similar insect colonies’.


*kalabaw rat, mouse


PCEMP     *kalabaw rat, mouse     [doublet: *balabaw, *labaw]

Bimanese karavorat, mouse
Donggo karavorat, mouse
Selaru klahrat, mouse


POC     *kalapo rat, mouse

Fijian kalavoa rat


*kaladi taro sp., probably Colocasia antiquorum


PWMP     *kaladi taro sp., probably Colocasia antiquorum

Agutaynen kaladitaro root crop; this is a plant, not a vine, and the tuber can grow quite large; they are found in low-lying areas where the water stocks up
Bisaya (Limbang) kaladitaro
Iban kaladigeneric for aroids of Alocasia and Colocasia spp., and yams of Dioscorea spp.
Malay kəladigeneric for many aroids, esp. Colocasia antiquorum (the Polynesian taro); used medicinally
Balinese keladia root vegetable
Mongondow koladia tuber with very large leaves
Tae' kaladitaro, Colocasia antiquorum
Wolio kaladitaro, Colocasia antiquorum

Note:   Also Hanunóo kaládiɁ ‘a variety of taro; its leaves are white and tough’, Bonggi kəladiɁ ‘taro’.


*kalalaŋ narrow-necked water jar


PWMP     *kalalaŋ narrow-necked water jar

Tagalog kalalaŋnarrow-necked water jug
Malay kelalaŋdecanter; calabash-like water vessel


*kalamansíq citrus tree with fruit like a lemon


PPh     *kalamansíq citrus tree with fruit like a lemon

Itbayaten kalamansicalamondin orange; edible; juice of fruit is used for seasoning and curing throat-ache: Citrus microcarpa Bunge
Ilokano kalamansí ~ kalamansíŋthe Philippine lemon, smaller than the daláyap lemon: Citrus mitis
Yogad kalamánsia kind of lemon said to be better tasting than an ordinary lemon
Tagalog kalamansíʔcitrus tree bearing small acidic fruit: Aldonisis
Cebuano kalamánsi ~ kalamánsiʔa small citrus tree bearing small, round, acid fruit, orange-colored when ripe, with an easily separable peel: Citrus microcarpa

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*kalamata kind of plaitwork


PWMP     *kalamata kind of plaitwork

Maranao kalamataweave, woven material
Banggai kalamatalarge basket
Tae' kalamata(listed independently and under mata) kind of plaitwork with hexagonal openings


*kalamay sticky confection made of rice and coconut


PWMP     *kalamay sticky confection made of rice and coconut

Ilokano kalámaykind of sticky coconut sweet made of rice
Tagalog kalámaya sweet conserve made from cornmeal, rice flour or cassava flour, and cooked with coconut milk and sugar
Masbatenyo kalámaybrown sugar; this is made from sugarcane juice
Aklanon kaeámaybrown sugar
Hiligaynon kalámayrefined sugar
Cebuano kalámaysugar; brown sugar (as opposed to asúkar); make sugar; become sugar
Malay kəlamaya Malay cake

Note:   Also Iban kelami ‘cake or pudding made of rice flour and sugar’, Malay gəlamay ‘a Malay cake’.


*kalamuntiŋ kind of plant, unident.


PWMP     *kalamuntiŋ kind of plant, unident.

Ilokano kalamutiŋa plant: Pouteria macrantha (Merr.) Bachni, Sapotaceae
Malay kələmuntiŋrose-myrtle: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance in view of the misalignment of taxonomy. However, the length of this form and perfect phonological agreement are most plausibly attributed to common origin.


*kalantas Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp.


PPh     *kalantas Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp.

Ilokano kalantásPhilippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp.
Ayta Abellan kalantahkind of tree
Palawano kalantaskind of tree


*kalaqabusi a shrub: Acalypha sp.


POC     *kalaqabusi a shrub: Acalypha sp.

Kwara'ae ʔalabusia shrub: Acalypha grandis
Tikopia karāpusishrubs, Acalypha hispida and Macaranga spp.
Wayan karabusishrub common in rocky hillside garden areas, with thin oval toothed leaves, and pinkish-green spikes of small flowers: a shrub: Acalypha repandra
Fijian kalabucia plant: Acalypha insulana; also an ornamental plant: Acalypha grandis
Futunan kalaʔapusia shrub: Acalypha grandis

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2008c:238-239), and assigned to POc *ka(r,l)qabusi in view of the unexplained absence of the medial liquid in several otherwise appealing witnesses. Forms such as Tongan kala-kalaɁapusiAcalypha spp.’, with s for expected h, or the disagreement between Fijian l and Wayan r suggest a history of borrowing. In addition, at five syllables this form is suspiciously long, and may be bimorphemic.


*kalasag type of shield


PWMP     *kalasag type of shield

Ilokano kalásagshield, buckler; defender; defensive covering
  ag-kalásagto wear a shield, use a shield
Isneg kalátagshield; it is cut out of a block of wood in such a way as to be slightly convex at the outside, with a projecting longitudinal ridge in the middle; it is rectangular in shape, with a point projecting at both ends in the center; in the center of the aforementioned ridge is a knob that corresponds to the handle that is cut out at the concave side, and consists of a bar that runs in the same direction as the ridge
Bontok kalásaga wooden shield, used as protection when fighting an enemy
Casiguran Dumagat kalasagshield (used in warfare by the Ilonggot people, never by Dumagats); to shield oneself behind a shield
Tagalog kalásagemblem, coat-of-arms; shield; a piece of armor carried on the arm to protect the body in battle
  kalaság-anto provide someone with an emblem, coat-of-arms, or shield
Bikol kalásagshield
  kalaság-onto shield a blow, ward off; to shield someone
Cebuano kalásagshield
Binukid kalasaga shield
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kelasagshield
Mansaka karasagto shield (as shielding a bolo in a scabbard)
Malay kelasaklong body-shield of wood or leather with a handle at its center

Note:   Probably referred to rectangular shields; cf. *tamiŋ (Blust 1980), which appears to have designated round shields.


*kalasaR floor beam


PWMP     *kalasaR floor beam

Maranao kalasag-anpurlins
Kayan kelasahbamboo flooring of boat or canoe


*kalat thick, heavy rope


PWMP     *kalat thick, heavy rope

Hanunóo kálata tie rope for animals
Aklanon kaeátrope (made of abaca fibers)
Maranao kalatrope that holds the sail in place
Murut (Timugon) kalatrope
Lun Dayeh kalata piece of rope
  kalat sabutrope made of jute fiber
Kelabit kalatrope
Kayan kalata rope made of two or three twisted rattans --- very strong
  ŋalatpull with a heavy rope
Bintulu kalatthick rope used to control the direction of fall when felling a coconut tree

Note:   Also Javanese kelat ‘long, heavy rope used to pull trees down; rope for the sail’.


*kalatkat climb up, as a vine


PPh     *kalatkat climb up, as a vine

Ilokano k<um>alatkátto climb (said of vines and plants)
  pa-kalatkátsupport made for climbing plants
Tagalog kalatkátspreading out by climbing or creeping (as vines)
Cebuano kalatkátclimb up something using the hands and feet; climb to get, bring
Maranao kalakatto scale up a wall


*kalaw₁ bird sp.


PAN     *kalaw₁ bird sp.     [doublet: *alaw]

Paiwan kala-kalawbird sp.


PMP     *kalaw₁ a bird: the hornbill

Ilokano kálawkind of hornbill
Isneg kalláwhornbill
Tagalog kálawhornbill
Cebuano kálawthe hornbill: Buceros hydrocorax
Subanen/Subanun kalauhornbill (Churchill 1913)
Mansaka karawhornbill
Kayan kalauspecies of big bird
Kamarian alahornbill
Alune alakwehornbill

Note:   Also Kankanaey koláaw ‘hornbill’, Tboli klaw ‘white-bellied woodpecker: Dryocopus javensis’, Wolio halo ‘hornbill’, Motu galo ‘a crow: Corvus gelerita’, Manam kalo ‘raven’, Dobuan kaokao ‘raven’.


*kalaw₂ eyebrow


PAN     *kalaw₂ eyebrow

Amis kalaweyebrows
Thao karaweyebrow
Bunun kaavforehead

Note:   Blust (2003) has Thao qaraw ‘eyebrow’, but this word was recorded only once, and given the difficulty of hearing the q/k distinction before a low vowel I assume that my nonce transcription was an error.


*kalawit hook


PWMP     *kalawit hook

Tagalog kalawithook, drag hook, grapnel
Hanunóo kalawíta barbed spear point
Kenyah (Long Anap) kelawithook

Note:   Also Kelabit keluit ‘hook’. With root *-wit ‘hook-shaped’.


*kalayu a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa


PWMP     *kalayu a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa

Tagalog kalayoa tree: Lepisantheses rubiginosa
Malay kəlayua tree: Erioglossum edule

Note:   Despite the different genus designations, these plants are cited in close proximity in treatises on medicinal and poisonous plants, and presumably had similar uses in traditional pharmacology.


*kal(e)bit touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger


PPh     *kal(e)bit touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger

Ilokano kalbíta touch, a nudge
  i-kalbítto catch one’s attention by touching
  kalbit-énto nudge, pluck; make plucking motion of fingers to call someone’s attention; touch tip; pull the trigger of a gun
Bontok kalbítpull back with one’s finger
Casiguran Dumagat kalbíttrigger of a gun; to pull a trigger
Ibaloy kalbittrigger of a gun and other such devices
Kapampangan kalbitpinch, pressure
Tagalog kalbítlight touch with the finger to draw the attention of someone; plucking of the strings of a musical instrument


PPh     *kal(e)bit-en touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger

Bontok kalbit-énto pull back with one’s finger, as the trigger of a gun
Tagalog kalbit-ínto touch lightly with the finger; to pluck the strings of a musical instrument

Note:   Also Ibaloy kabdit ‘trigger of a gun and other such devices’.


*kal(e)dít to make an incision to draw blood


PPh     *kal(e)dít to make an incision to draw blood

Ilokano kaldit-énto bleed (someone); to open an abscess or boil
Bikol mag-kaldítto make an incision for the purpose of drawing blood


*kalem dark


PMP     *kalem dark

Singhi Land Dayak karumdark
Tetun kalannight

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.


*kali canal, ditch


PAN     *kali₁ canal, ditch

Amis kalichannels for water in the fields; ditch
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) karicanal, an artificial small waterway for irrigation
Ilokano káliditch; dike; drainage
Ifugaw káliditch gutter in the earth
Bikol kalícanal, ditch, trench; gutter (in bowling)
  kalí-kálismall ditch or canal; furrow, groove, rut, channel, drain; tread of a tire
  mag-kalíto leave tread marks in; to leave furrows or grooves in
Masbatenyo kalígully, canal, ditch
  mag-kalímake a canal, make a drainage ditch
Malagasy hadyditch, trench, moat, fosse
Sundanese kalenpit, groove, gutter, conduit, ditch
Old Javanese kalideep watercourse, river-bed, channel
Balinese kaliriver (in some place names)
Fordata kal-kalipit, quarry; groove


*kali- prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-)


PAN     *kali- prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-)

Paiwan kaliduŋuduŋulʸbutterfly
Casiguran Dumagat kaliduwasoul, spirit of a living person
Binukid kalibaŋbaŋbutterfly
Iban kelelawaybutterfly
Karo Batak kalimantekjungle leech
Sasak kaliotoŋmale flying ant
Sangir kaḷisusuwhirlpool, whirlwind; crown of the head where the hair whorls
Banggai kalitatakbutterfly
Makassarese kaliwaraant
Gimán kalibobobutterfly

Note:   For further details on the analysis and meaning of this affix and its variants see Blust (2001).


*kalia large fish, probably grouper


POC     *kalia large fish, probably grouper

Lenkau kelilarge sea fish, grouper
Nali kaliylarge sea fish, grouper
Titan kalilarge sea fish, grouper
Leipon kelilarge sea fish, grouper
Sori ariylarge sea fish, grouper or rock cod
Bipi kalilarge sea fish, grouper
Seimat alilarge grouper, up to six feet in length
Wuvulu alialarge sea fish, grouper
Arosi ariaa large species of freshwater fish
Fijian kaliaspecies of fish, called ulu rua from the peculiar formation of its forehead

Note:   This word almost certainly referred to the grouper, perhaps together with the rock cod, in Proto-Admiralty . Its meaning in POc is less clear. Fijian kalia probably is the name of the double-headed parrotfish, and it is conceivable that Tongan kalia, Samoan ʔalia ‘double canoe’, Rotuman karia ‘k.o. large canoe with outrigger’ is a metaphorical derivative from this fish name. Kwaio alia ‘pike-like large freshwater fish’ and related forms elsewhere in the Southeast Solomons reflect *alia, and are distinct from this.


*kalih a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers


PAN     *kalih a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers

Proto-Atayalic *kariʔto dig
Pazeh saa-karidigging stick
Thao karidig up or out, as tubers
  kari-anbeing dug up, of a place
Bunun (Takituduh) ma-kaihto dig (Tsuchida 1976)
Siraya karidig
Paiwan kalia hole that has been dug
  ma-kaliearth to be dug or disturbed
  k<ar>a-kalito dig everywhere, dig indiscriminately


PMP     *kali₂ a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers

Yami ni-key-kalidug up (as sweet potatoes)
Itbayaten kalihole in the ground, pit
  mi-chalito dig, to excavate, to dig (a pit, hole), to make a hole for planting yams
  kali-ento dig out, to dig up something from the ground
Ivatan (Isamorong) kadito dig
Ilokano kálihole; pit
  ag-kálito dig
  i-kálito bury something, inhume
  pag-kálidigging instrument
  kali-ento dig out, exhume
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-kalito dig
Ifugaw muŋ-kálito dig
Casiguran Dumagat kaleto dig up roots (using a bolo to dig with)
Pangasinan kalígold mine
Hanunóo kálidigging up, as of rootstocks, tubers, etc.
Hiligaynon mag-kálito dig up (as sweet potatoes)
Maranao kalidigging stick; dig
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kália digging stick used for digging sweet potatoes, cassava, etc.
Mansaka karito dig up (as sweet potatoes)
Bukat ŋalito dig
Paku ŋadito dig
Malagasy mi-hadito dig, to delve
Iban kalidig up or out
Malay galidigging; surface mining
  meŋ-galito dig up yams
  gali-analluvial mine
Karo Batak ŋ-kalito dig, dig up
Toba Batak maŋ-halito dig (as a grave), dig up (as yams)
Sundanese kalidigging up of something
  ŋali-anto dig up, dig for something; dig or root something up
Sasak kaliʔdig
Tontemboan kaligutter, drain; dig out, dig a gutter
Mongondow mo-kalito dig, dig up; busy with digging
  k<in>ali-anplace that is dug up
Tae' kalidig
  pe-kalidigging stick
Muna selito dig, dig up
Chamorro halito harvest root crop
Manggarai halito dig up the ground
Palu'e kalito dig
Sika galito dig out or up
Dhao/Ndao kaito dig
Rotinese kalito scratch, dig in the earth (of a dog, chicken); to dig a hole
Helong galito dig
Atoni hanito dig
Erai kalito dig
Yamdena n-kalto dig, dig into; to hollow out trees
  n-kal asakmake holes for the planting of tubers
  ka-kalidug up
Fordata kalito dig
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) kelto dig
Buruese kali-kto dig, as a trench
As kail <Mto dig


POC     *kali ~ keli to dig

Arop a-kelto dig
Bebeli kelto dig
Kaulong kilto dig
Sengseng kelto dig
Ali ʔeilto dig
Saliba kelito dig
Luangiua ʔelito dig
Malmariv elidigging stick
Amblong eldigging stick
Apma kilito dig
Lingarak i-ɣilto dig
Leviamp -ɣlito dig
Avava ilto dig a hole; dig up
Southeast Ambrym kilto dig
Maori karito dig, dig for, dig up
Hawaiian ʔeli ~ ʔalito dig, excavate


PMP     *ma-ŋali to dig, dig up

Yami ma-ŋalito dig up (as in digging up taro)
Malagasy ma-ŋadito dig, to delve
Iban ŋalito dig, dig up or out
Sundanese ŋalito dig, dig up
Sasak ŋaliʔto dig
Mongondow mo-ŋalito dig, esp. a grave
Tae' maŋ-kalito dig; to have the occupation of digger
Bimanese ŋarito dig


PAN     *ka-kalih digging stick

Bunun (Takituduh) ka-kaihdigging stick (Tsuchida 1976)


PMP     *ka-kali digging stick

Yami ka-kalispade, shovel, metal stick


PWMP     *pa-ŋali digging stick (?)

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pe-ŋalito dig up sweet potatoes
Malagasy fa-ŋadia spade
Karo Batak pe-ŋalia stick or other implement used for digging things up
Sundanese pa-ŋalia piece of bamboo, wood, or iron used in digging
Sasak pe-ŋaliʔdigging stick
Tae' paŋ-kalia piece of ground that has been dug up for planting, but not yet planted


PAN     *k<um>ali to dig up, excavate, as tubers

Saisiyat (Taai) k<om>aLihto dig something up
Seediq k<m>arito dig (Ferrell 1969)
Thao k<m>arito dig, as in loosening the soil with a pick
Saaroa k<um>a-kalito dig
Siraya k<m>arito dig
Paiwan k<m>alito dig a hole
Ilokano k<um>álito dig into
Tontemboan k<um>alidig postholes


PAN     *k<in>alih-an place that has been dug up

Paiwan k<in>ali-anplace where a hole has been dug


PMP     *k<in>ali-an place that has been dug up

Mongondow k<in>ali-anplace that has been dug up

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Taai) k<om>olʸih ‘to dig something up’, Banggai maŋ-gali ‘to dig’ (apparently from Malay), Wetan kai ‘to dig, dig up, dig out’, Watubela galik ‘to dig’. Although this word refers to general digging in many languages, there are a number of indications that it referred more specifically to the digging up of tubers, in particular yams. In some languages, as Ilokano, Ifugaw, or Malagasy, reflexes of PAn *kali ‘canal, ditch’ and the present reconstruction appear to have fused into a single form as a result of phonetic similarity and the common element of excavation shared by both.


*kalik wooden headrest


POC     *kalik wooden headrest

Gedaged kalikhead (neck) rest (support); pillow
Wayan kalipillow (formerly made of wood)
Fijian kalinative pillow, made of wood; lay one’s head down on something
Tongan kalinative wooden pillow or headrest (carved, with two short legs)
Futunan kaliwooden headrest with short legs
Samoan ʔalibamboo pillow, headrest

Note:   Also Mbula kiliigi ‘pillow (something on which to rest one’s head, traditionally made out of wood)’. Osmond and Ross (1998) give POc *kalik ‘native wooden pillow’, based on a similar distribution. This form is in competition with POc *quluŋan for the same meaning, thus raising a question about possible semantic distinctions. A clue is found in Futunan where Moyse-Faurie (1993) gives kali ‘wooden headrest with short legs’, but ʔuluŋa ‘wooden headrest without legs’. Since reflexes of the latter are considerably more common than reflexes of *kalik, it is likely that headrests without legs were more commonly used than those with legs, perhaps correlating with a distinction of social class (*kalik ‘wooden headrest with short legs’ being the prerogative of the upper class?).


*kalika rock cod, grouper


POC     *kalika rock cod, grouper

Nauna kelismall to medium-sized groupers
Lou keliyrock cod, grouper
Loniu kelismallest type of grouper
Ere kaliysmall grouper
Leipon kelilargest kind of grouper
Levei kaaliprock cod, grouper
Sori ariyrock cod, grouper
Lindrou kaliksmall to medium-sized groupers
Bipi kalirock cod, grouper
Seimat alilarge grouper (about 6 feet long)
Wuvulu aliarock cod, grouper
Satawal yaniyrock cod (generic): Epinephelidae

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:67). While a Proto-Admiralty form is well-established, the extension to POc depends crucially on a single witness for which little published data exists, and it is possible that the resemblance of Satawal yaniy to Proto-Admiralty *kalika is a product of chance.


*kalikiq kind of edible fruit


PWMP     *kalikiq kind of edible fruit

Minangkabau kelikéhpapaya
Bare'e kalikipapaya
Tae' kalikithe papaya: Carica Papaya

Note:   The papaya is a New World cultigen, and PWMP *kalikiq therefore cannot have had this meaning. Adriani (1928) marks the Bare'e word as a loan from Buginese and the same may be true of Tae' kaliki. However, Minangkabau kelikéh cannot easily be explained in this way, and the simplest solution on the basis of current evidence is that *kalikiq referred to a native fruit that resembles the papaya and shifted reference to the introduced plant both in Sumatra and in Sulawesi.


*kalim-petpet firefly


PWMP     *kalim-petpet firefly     [doublet: *qali-petpet, *salim-petpet]

Ayta Abellan kaliteptep <Mfirefly
Karo Batak kalimpetpetfirefly
Uma kalipopoʔfirefly
Wolio kali-kalimpopofirefly


*kaliŋ bunch, cluster, as of fruit


PWMP     *kaliŋ bunch, cluster, as of fruit

Hanunóo kalíŋbunch
  kaliŋ-ancluster of small palm fruits
Iban kaliŋcluster of fruit


*kaliŋaw to forget, be forgotten


PWMP     *kaliŋaw to forget, be forgotten

Kapampangan kaliŋwanforget
Bikol mag-liŋáwto forget, to dismiss
  ma-liŋaw-ánto forget
  pag-ka-ma-liŋaw-onforgetfulness, absent-mindedness
  liŋaw-ánto forget, dismiss
Aklanon liŋáwto be noisy, make a racket
  ma-liŋáwnoisy, boisterous, raucous
Hiligaynon mag-liŋáwto distract, to bother, to amuse, to relax
Manobo (Ata) kaliŋowforget
Mansaka liŋawforget
Malagasy hadínoforgotten
  ma-nadínoto forget, to neglect
  hadinó-inabe forgotten, neglected

Note:   Given such forms as Malagasy ma-nadíno < *maŋ- + *kaliŋaw, it seems likely that this base morpheme was trisyllabic. However, its resemblance to a potential disyllable *liŋaw with prefixation by *ka- ‘past participle, achieved state’ may have led speakers of Central Philippine languages to reanalyze it as *ka-liŋaw, hence the various affixational possibilities in Bikol which are not shared outside this subgroup.


*kaliŋkiŋ little finger, pinky


PWMP     *kaliŋkiŋ little finger, pinky

Tagalog káliŋkiŋ-anlittle finger; little toe
Malay kəliŋkiŋlittle finger

Note:   Also Malay kəleŋkeŋ ‘little finger’.


*kalis harden one's feelings, become inured


PWMP     *kalis harden one's feelings, become inured

Ilokano kalísdissimulate, dissemble, disguise (one's thoughts, etc.), express (one's thoughts, etc.) with difficulty
Malay kalisirreceptive; (fig.) transient, superficial -- of feelings
Sundanese kalisput someone or something out of one's thoughts, to think no more of someone or something
Old Javanese a-kalishard, unfeeling, unreceptive, callous, indifferent; untouched, unscathed


*kalít to cheat, deceive


PPh     *kalít to cheat, deceive

Ilokano kalítcheat
Bikol kalítfraud, deceit
Waray-Waray kalíttreacherous attack
  pag-kalítthe act of making or doing something, as of inflicting bodily harm on someone with treachery


*kalo neck


POC     *kalo neck

Ere kʷalo-nhis neck
Mussau alo-neck
Cape Cumberland kalo-neck
Nokuku alo-neck

Note:   Also Nali koyu-, Merlav ndalo-, Tangoa ralo-, Axamb nə-xalua-, Apma kawo- ‘neck’. The possessive paradigm in Ere shows o ~ u (cf. kʷalu ‘my neck’, kʷalu-m ‘your neck’, raising questions about the underlying form of the final vowel in languages of the Admiralties. This form may have been *kʷalo.


*kalu to stir


PMP     *kalu to stir

Maranao kaloto stir; stirring rod
Singhi Land Dayak karuchto stir about
Asilulu kaluto stir


POC     *kalu stir, mix

Nggela kaluto stir up
  kalu-kaluto stir up; soup
Mota kalto stir round and round, mix by stirring

Note:   Also Arosi Ɂaro ‘to turn round and round, to stir around’.


*kaluban sheath for bolo or knife


PPh     *kaluban sheath for bolo or knife

Ilokano kalúbansheath (covering knives or blades)
  i-kalúbanto sheathe
Casiguran Dumagat kalubanbolo sheath; to sheathe a bolo
Tagalog kalúbanscabbard; a sheath or case for the blade of a sword, dagger, etc.
  kalúban ng barilholster

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution. Weighing against this interpretation is the observation that Ilokano has kalúb ‘cover, lid’, kalub-án ‘to cover, put a lid on’, while Tagalog kalúban is not synchronically derivable from a base kálub.


*kalug to shake something, as an egg or coconut


PPh     *kalug to shake something, as an egg or coconut

Yogad kalúgto shake, as the contents of a container
Pangasinan man-kalógto shake up and down
Hanunóo kálugshaking
Agutaynen mag-kalog-kalogto shake something


*kalumpaŋ a tree: Sterculia foetida


PMP     *kalumpaŋ a tree: Sterculia foetida

Tagalog kalumpáŋa wild almond tree (Sterculia foetida) the flowers of which have a rather offensive odor, while the fruit yields an oil that can be used for illumination purposes
Cebuano kalumpaŋspreading tree bearing foul-smelling flowers which are a deep red in color, and kidney-shaped fruit: Sterculia foetida
Malay kelumpaŋa tree: Sterculia foetida
Bare'e kayumpaŋ ~ kalumpaŋa tree: Sterculia foetida
Wolio kalumpaa tree: Sterculia foetida
Kambera kalumbaŋua stalwart tree: Sterculia foetida

Note:   Also Malay kelapoŋ ‘a tree: Sterculia foetida; its roots and leaves are used medicinally’. The CMP evidence for this form was first pointed out by Verheijen (1984).


*kaluŋ curved


PWMP     *kaluŋ curved

Kadazan Dusun kahuŋdeformed (foot, hand)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kaluŋcurved, of carabao horns
Rejang kaluŋnecklace
Bare'e kalustiff, of something that has been bent for some time (as a limb); bent (as fingers that have cramped)

Note:   With root *-luŋ₁ ‘bend, curve’.


(Formosan only)

*kaluŋkuŋ deep resounding sound


PAN     *kaluŋkuŋ deep resounding sound

Amis kaloŋkoŋthe echo of thunder
Tiruray keluŋkuŋan owl, Otus sp.

Note:   With root *-kuŋ₂ ‘deep resounding sound’. Possibly a convergent innovation from the same monosyllabic root.


*kam- -an formative for collateral kin


PWMP     *kam- -an formative for collateral kin

Yami kam-ina-naunt (< *ina
Rungus Dusun kom-ina-nfather’s sister, mother’s sister
  kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother (< *ama ‘father’)
Murut (Timugon) kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother
  kam-ina-nfather’s sister, mother’s sister
Bisaya (Limbang) kam-ina-naunt
  kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother
Ba'amang kam-anak-ansibling’s child, cousin’s child (< *anak ‘child’)
Banjarese kam-anak-ansibling’s child, cousin’s child (< *anak ‘child’)
Mentawai kame-ina-nfather’s sister
  kam-ama-nmother’s brother

Note:   Also Western Subanon kom-anak, Western Bukidnon Manobo anak-en ‘nephew, niece’, Mamanwa amaɁ-en ‘uncle’ (amaɁ ‘father’), inaɁ-en ‘aunt’ (inaɁ ‘mother’), the first lacking a suffix and the last three a prefix. A parallel pattern whereby the terms for parental siblings are derived from the words for ‘father’ and ‘mother’ by use of a circumfix different from *kam- -an is seen in some Philippine languages, as Pangasinan, with paŋ-ama-en ‘uncle’, and paŋ-ina-en ‘aunt’.


*kamaguŋ large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor


PPh     *kamaguŋ large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor

Ilokano kamágoŋa tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor
Bikol kamagóŋa tree, Philippine mahogany, producing a light red wood streaked with reddish-brown, used in the making of furniture; also producing an edible fruit: Diospyros discolor
Hanunóo kamagúŋa tree, (Diospyros discolor Willd.?); the term is used only to designate young trees the wood of which is still light in color; for older trees or wood having a darker, seasoned color the term used is baluntínaw
Cebuano kamagúŋkind of large forest tree producing a prized, hard, black wood used as building material and for making canes; the fruit is brown and hairy with white flesh and edible: Diospyros discolor (varieties bearing few seeds are planted and sold commercially as mabúlu)
Maranao kamagoŋPhilippine teak, camagon


*kamaliR bachelor’s house, men’s house


PMP     *kamaliR bachelor’s house, men’s house

Yami kamaligboat house
Ilokano kamáligkind of low granary or warehouse, lower than the agamang but with a larger capacity
  i-kamáligto store in the granary
Kankanaey kamáligkind of box or case found under houses, used for a sleeping place, mostly in the daytime, for a playroom of little children, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat kamáliggranary (house for storing rice until it can be threshed, put in sacks, and transferred to a house or storehouse)
Tagalog kamáligwarehouse, storehouse, shed; barn; granary; building where grain is stored
Bikol kamáliga temporary shelter, consisting of a roof and posts, but no walls, built in the fields or along the coast to protect harvested crops, boats, etc.
  kará-kamáliga hut or shed
Masbatenyo kamáliggranary, barn, animal stable
Aklanon kamáliggrain house or shed
Waray-Waray kamaligbarn, barnhouse, storage
Hiligaynon kamáligbarn
Cebuano kamáligstorehouse for farm products; stable for work animals
Maranao kamaligshed, type of shelter
Binukid kamaligstorehouse for farm products
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kemaliga large but temporary house or shelter; to erect such a house or shelter
Tausug kamaliga (private) storehouse for harvested grain
Old Javanese kamalira particular kind of (religious?) building
Sasak kemaliʔholy place, holy object
Mongondow komaligthe house of the prince: palace. In priestly language: house
Banggai kamalipalace, residence of the prince
Bare'e komaliworkshop of a blacksmith; forge
Buginese kamaliʔbedroom
Wolio kamalipalace (esp. single-storey)
Muna kamalipalace (the former house of the Muna king in the old Kota Muna)
Hawu kemalihouse; member of the household
Loniu kamanman, male
  lo komanmen’s house (lit. ‘in the men’s house’)
Nali kamaymen’s house; man, male
Ere kimalman, male
Titan kamalmen’s house; man, male
Leipon kimelman, male
  lo kimelmen’s house (lit. ‘in the men’s house’)
Ahus kamalman/male; men’s house
Kuruti kamalmen’s house; man, male
Papitalai kamalmen’s house
Sori amaŋmen’s house
Lindrou kamenmen’s house
Mota gamalclubhouse of suqe (club) or of a single high rank
Mosina gemelmen’s house
Lakona gamelmen’s house
Piamatsina hamalimen’s house
Malmariv amalimen’s house
Amblong amalmen’s house
Araki ham̈alimen’s clubhouse, where eminent men traditionally meet and take important decisions
Peterara xamalmen’s house
Northeast Ambae kamalimen’s house
Raga xamalimen’s house
Apma kamelmen’s house
Atchin amalmen’s house
Lingarak na-ɣamalmen’s house
Leviamp na-m̋elmen’s house
Maxbaxo na-γamarmen’s house
Bonkovia kamelimen’s house
Vowa kamalmen’s house
Namakir na-kamalmen’s house
Makatea kamalimen’s house

Note:   Also Ifugaw kamálig ‘a wooden floor constructed under an Ifugao house when its inhabitants celebrate the expensive kamálig feast … In hudhúd literature kamálig is used in the sense of hagábi, “lounging bench”; it is set under the house of a wealthy family,’ Ilongot kamari ‘squarish domestic house, raised 6 to 15 feet above the ground’ (Lebar 1975:104), Pangasinan kamálir (expected **kamálil) ‘granary’, Kapampangan kamálig ‘storehouse’, Yakan kamalig ‘storage shed, chicken house, shelter for animals. (A small house for storage of different kinds of things such as rice, corn or implements. It is often built on the ground without flooring, or the floor is close to the ground. Sometimes it consists of a roof only)’, Sangir kamalir-aŋ ‘shed, hut, esp. for a boat’. Not to be confused with Ilokano kamarín ‘barn, granary’, Agta (Eastern) kamárin ‘any small house used for storage; barn’, Ifugaw (Batad) kamalín ‘a relatively large building, as a house built to be lived in; a barn, church, school building’, Cebuano kamarin ‘warehouse with an iron roof’, Mansaka kamarin ‘storage shed’, all of which appear to be borrowings of Spanish camarín ‘small side-chapel; (actor’s) dressing-room; closet’, some acquired directly, as Ilokano kamarín, Cebuano kamarin, or Mansaka kamarin, but others indirectly, as Agta (Eastern) kamárin, which is said to be from Ilokano

As noted in Blust (1987) the most reasonable gloss for this challenging form is ‘men’s house’, that is, a dormitory for unmarried men. According to Fox (1993b:12) “This designation assumes, however, the existence of Melanesian type men’s houses among the early Austronesians prior to their contact with the non-Austronesian populations of New Guinea,” and he notes that “Tryon (1993), assigns *kalamiR the gloss, ‘granary, shed’. It might therefore be appropriate to see the widespread Western Malayo-Polynesian reflexes as a retention and the usages found in Oceania as an innovation.” Quite apart from his repeated mis-citation of the form as *kalamiR (three times in a single 13-line paragraph), and his patently false assertion that “widespread Western Malayo-Polynesian reflexes” support the meaning ‘granary’, there are a number of problems with this statement. First, Fox apparently fails to understand that *kamaliR must be reconstructed for Proto-Oceanic, as this is the only gloss (apart from ‘man, male’ in the Admiralties) that reflexes of *kamaliR have in Oceanic languages. But Proto-Oceanic was spoken by a language community that had only recently arrived in the western Pacific, and that shows little influence from the Papuan languages that were already present in this region. Second, in the context of the wider set of ‘house’ terms considered by Blust (1987) *lepaw is clearly a better PMP candidate for the meaning ‘granary’, as it is attested in this sense in both CMP and WMP languages, whereas *kamaliR is attested in this meaning only in the Philippines. Third, a search through Tryon (1995) turns up no reference to ‘granary shed’, and hence no data that was not already considered in Blust (1987). Fourth, Fox’s suggestion that bachelor’s houses were unknown to Austronesian speakers prior to reaching New Guinea is fundamentally at odds with the ethnographic evidence, since the institution of bachelor’s houses has been described for inter alia, the Amis, Tsou, Rukai and Puyuma of Taiwan (Chen 1988:271ff), the Lepanto and Bontok of northern Luzon (Keesing 1962:121, Lebar 1975:83), the Modang of east Kalimantan (Guerreiro 1998), the Acehnese of northern Sumatra (Loeb 1972:221ff), the Mentaweians just west of Sumatra (Lebar 1972:42), the prehispanic Chamorros, Palauans, and Yapese of western Micronesia (Alkire 1977:21, 30ff, 33ff) ), the Ende of central Flores (Lebar 1972:87), the Sika of east Flores (Lebar 1972:89), the Solorese of east Flores and Adonara (Lebar 1972:92), and the Tanimbarese of the southern Moluccas (Lebar 1972:112). Surprisingly, Green and Pawley (1999:55ff) adopt the same position, concluding that PMP *kamaliR meant ‘granary’ despite the fact that this meaning is attested only within the Philippine subgroup, that the Greater Central Philippine languages of Sulawesi reflect it in other meanings, as ‘palace’ (Mongondow), or ‘boat house’ (Sangir, where, however, *R is reflected as /r/ instead of expected /h/), and that in some of the languages of northern Luzon, as Kankanaey, kamálig describes a sleeping place used “mostly in the daytime.”

In conclusion, the great semantic diversity of reflexes makes it difficult to confidently reconstruct a gloss for PMP *kamaliR, but ‘men’s house’ seems by far the most plausible alternative, as special structures that serves both as dormitories for unmarried men and as men’s clubhouses are widely attested in traditional Austronesian-speaking societies, and POc *kamaliR could have had no other meaning.


*kamandag venom of a poisonous snake or insect


PPh     *kamandag venom of a poisonous snake or insect

Casiguran Dumagat kamándagpoison (of a centipede, poisonous snakes, the atang-atang crab, the hahong fish, etc.)
Tagalog kamandágvenom; the poison of snakes, spiders, etc.
  ma-kamandágpoisonous, venomous
Bikol kamandágvenom
  ma-kamandag-ánto be poisoned by venom (as from a snake bite)
Agutaynen kamandagsmall black fuzzy worms, like caterpillars, which live on leaves (they eat the leaves of rice plants, causing much damage)
Palawan Batak kamandágpoisoned tip of blowpipe dart; root used to make poison
Cebuano kamandágpoison venom


*kamansi the seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi


PPh     *kamansi the seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi     [doublet: *kamansiq]

Hanunóo kamánsia tree and its edible fruit: Artocarpus camansi
Cebuano kamansibreadfruit with seeds, the seeds and pulp of which are eaten as a vegetable when not ripe: Artocarpus camansi
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kemasithe seeded breadfruit tree and its fruit: Artocarpus camansi
Mansaka kamansibreadfruit
Tiruray kemaseybreadfruit


*kamansiq the seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi


PPh     *kamansiq the seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi     [doublet: *kamansi]

Casiguran Dumagat kamánsispecies of seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi
Tagalog kamansíʔa kind of tree of the breadfruit family
Maranao kamansiʔbreadfruit


*kamantigi a plant: Impatiens balsamina


PPh     *kamantigi a plant: Impatiens balsamina

Ilokano kamantígiImpatiens balsamina, balsam, touch-me-not, used in native medicine against boils
Cebuano kamantígian ornamental annual growing up to two feet high, bearing red, white, and pink flowers, and and fleshy capsules which burst when touched: Impatiens balsamina

Note:   Also Tagalog kamantígiɁ ‘a species of succulent herb’, Cebuano kalamantígi ‘a plant: Impatiens balsamina’. Possibly a loan distribution.


*kamaŋ creep, crawl


PWMP     *kamaŋ creep, crawl

Kankanaey kámaŋcrawl on all fours
Aklanon kámaŋcrawl on all fours
Cebuano kámaŋcreep, crawl
Lingkabau k<um>amaŋto crawl
Kadazan Dusun kamaŋto crawl
Abai Sembuak ŋgamaŋto crawl
Lun Dayeh kamaŋcreeping, crawling (as a very young child)
Kayan kamaŋcrawl, crawling, advancing on all fours


*kamaŋa kind of useful stone


PPh     *kamaŋa kind of useful stone

Bontok kamáŋakind of soft red stone; the soil which results from the deterioration of this stone
Aklanon kamáŋa(h)flint, fine stone used for sharpening razor
Maranao kamaŋagrindstone, whetstone
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kemaŋawhetstone; to whet a knife or other tool

Note:   Also Sangir kamaŋsa ‘whetstone’. Possibly a chance resemblance between Bontok and the other languages, since Greater Central Philippine languages agree in pointing to a whetstone, while the Bontok referent lacks the properties of this type of stone.


*kamaŋi a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L.


PWMP     *kamaŋi a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L.

Hanunóo kamáŋiplant species, Ocimum sanctum L.. The leaves have some reportedly medicinal value; when dried the herb is placed among clothes to scent them
Cebuano kamaŋy-andried form of the resin obtained from almasiga (Agathis philippinensis) and other forest trees. It is burned over coals for its smoke, which is used in folk medicine and other rituals for magical purposes, and also as a mosquito smudge
Malay medaŋ kemaŋistrongly scented plant the leaves of which are used in native medicine: Cinnamomum parthenoxylon
  selaseh kemaŋibasil: Ocimum canum, used as a seasoning for food
Sasak kemaŋiplant used as a vegetable: Ocimum sanctum L.
Wolio kamaŋikind of plant used for making fragrant face powder: Ocimum basilicum


*kamaRi a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata


POC     *kamaRi a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata

Nali kemeythe rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata
Titan kameythe rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata
Gilbertese kamaa fish, the rainbow runner

Note:   This comparison was proposed by Osmond (2011:72). Until further confirmation can be found it must be considered tentative.


*kamas scratch


PWMP     *kamas scratch

Maranao kamasscratch
Bare'e kamascratch with the nails, as an itchy spot


*kamatu double-headed parrotfish


POC     *kamatu double-headed parrotfish     [disjunct: *amatu]

Titan kamatudouble-headed parrotfish: Bolbometopon
Seimat amatua large reef fish, probably double-headed parrotfish
Lukep (Pono) kamatularge bottom-feeding reef fish that swims in groups and has a large protrusion on its head

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:96-97).


*kamay hand


PAN     *kamay hand

Amis kamay ~ kayamhands, including the arm
Yami kamayfinger; width of a finger (unit of measurement)
  ka-kamayfinger, toe
Itbayaten ka-kamayfinger, limbs (of crustaceans)
Tagalog kamáyhand
Cebuano kamáysummon by a wave of the hand
Taboyan kamɨyhand
Minyaifuin kamehand
Kokota kame-nahand
Zabana kamehand


*kamaya plant sp.: Diospyros discolor


PAN     *kamaya plant sp.: Diospyros discolor

Amis kamayaa bush, the Taiwan Ebony Velvet Apple: Diospyros discolor
Paiwan (Western) kamayamango: Diospyros discolor
Itbayaten kamayaspecies of plant (Ebenaceae, Diospyros discolor)
Hanunóo kamayáa species of tree (family Ebenaceae)


*kambu lower stomach, bladder


PMP     *kambu lower stomach, bladder

Makassarese kambuthe innermost part of something; pith of palms
  ak-kambuthrust into the body, as a piercing weapon
Kodi kambubelly
Kambera kambubelly; womb
  ihi kambuwhat is found in the belly: intestines, food
Tetun kabu-nstomach, abdomen (of humans)
  kabu-n morasstomach ache
  kabu-teekpot-bellied (an insult)
  ai-n kabu-ncalf of leg
Galoli abu-rbelly
Watubela kabubelly
Manusela abu-intestines
Proto-Ambon *kabu-guts, belly


*kambur mix


PMP     *kambur mix

Ilokano kambórmixing
  ag-kambórto mix together (various substances)
Maranao kamborstir, mix
Ngadha kabhuto mix

Note:   Possibly with root *-buR₁ ‘rice gruel; to mix’, but if so the Maranao form shows an unexplained change *R > r.


*kambuR sprinkle, scatter (seed, etc.)


PMP     *kambuR sprinkle, scatter (seed, etc.)

Bare'e kambusprinkle with pounded rice, as the coffin of one who has no surviving siblings
Fijian kabusow or scatter small seeds

Note:   With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow; sprinkle’.


*kam(e)qáw kind of urn for storing food


PPh     *kam(e)qáw kind of urn for storing food

Ilokano kam-ʔáwkind of broad-mouthed jar used for holding lard
Tagalog kam-ʔáw ~ kamáwreddish earthen pan or bowl
Cebuano kam-ʔáwshallow earthen bowl used to hold food; to put in a small earthen bowl


*kamet do with the hand


PMP     *kamet do with the hand     [doublet: *kemet]

Itbayaten kametpick up
  ma-ŋametto pick up (by hand)
  kamt-anwhere to hold in picking up (something)
Ibatan kametto grasp something with the tips of the fingers, especially cooked rice
Kankanaey ma-kámetdiligent; active; assiduous; sedulous; laborious; industrious
Casiguran Dumagat kaməthand, arm (exclusive of the fingers)
Bikol kamóthand
  ma-kamt-ánto acquire, get, possess
  kamot-ónto handle
Cebuano kamúthand; do with the hand; be obtained, achieved
  k<in>amútdo something by hand
Mansaka kamotfinger; claw
Tausug kamuta handful
  k<um>amutto scoop (something) with the hand
Kayan kameta light touch with fingers
Buli ka-kamohand (and arm)

Note:   Also Sambal (Botolan) gamɨt, Pangasinan kámot ‘raise food to the mouth; eat with the hands’, Kapampangan gamát ‘hand (sometimes used to mean lower arm in general)’, Proto-Sangiric *kamet ‘to signal with the hand’.


*kamiá ginger plant with fragrant white flower


PPh     *kamiá ginger plant with fragrant white flower

Ilokano kamiáspecies of fragrant white flower
Tagalog kamyáspecies of herb which bears fragrant flowers
Bikol kámyasweet-scented white lily: Hedychium coronarium
Aklanon kámyawhite flower, camia
Cebuano kamyákind of ornamental ginger producing good-sized, white, fragrant flowers; the rhizomes are used medicinally: Hedychium coronarium

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.


*kamiri the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana


PMP     *kamiri the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana

Hanunóo kamiriAleurites moluccana Linn. (Madulid 2001)
Iban kemiritree bearing hard nuts, candle nut, Aleurites triloba Forst.
Malay buah kəmiricandle-nut
Sundanese kamiria tree with a nut similar in shape to a walnut which yields an oil, and can be used in a game like marbles
Old Javanese kamiri ~ kamerithe candle-nut tree: Aleurites triloba
Javanese kemiricandlenut; candlenut tree
Tetun kamiia tree with oily fruit, the candlenut: Aleurites Moluccana

Note:   Also Asilulu kamiri ‘kind of spice, candlenut, Aleurites moluccana’ (said to be from Malay). Although the Asilulu term may be a Malay loan, this is much harder to argue for Hanunóo, since the term is unknown in many Philippine languages that have borrowed much more heavily from Malay.


*kamisu spittle; to spit


POC     *kamisu spittle; to spit     [doublet: *kanisu]

Lihir kamicspittle
Banoni kamisuto spit
Mono-Alu amisuto spit
Owa misuto spit (loss of CV- unexplained)

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross and Osmond (2016:280).


*kamit scratch


PMP     *kamit scratch

Kayan (Uma Juman) kamitscratched
Tolai kamitscratch, catch, as a thorn in the clothes


*kamkam to seize, take by force


PWMP     *kamkam to seize, take by force

Ilokano kamkámgreedy
Casiguran Dumagat kamkamto appropriate the land of a neighbor (illegally)
Tagalog kamkámappropriation of things for self; usurpation; claiming or taking something without right
Bikol mag-kamkámto appropriate someone else’s property
Cebuano kamkámtouch with the fingers; take something that is not one’s own (as in embezzling funds)
Toba Batak maŋ-haŋkamseize for oneself


PPh     *kamkam-en to appropriate to oneself illegally

Ilokano kamkam-énto acquire unjustly or illegally
Kankanaey kamkám-ento take up, to gather up, to pick up with both hands; to take (etc.) everything, all the whole
Tagalog kamkam-ínto take for oneself, excluding others; to claim or take without right
Bikol kamkam-ónto appropriate someone else’s property

Note:   Samoan ɁaɁa-mi ‘to fetch’ may also be connected.


*kampi to defend


PPh     *kampi to defend

Casiguran Dumagat kámpito take the side of someone in a conflict; to be partial to someone; to take sides, favor
  kámpi-kámpito stay with one’s own kind (as for girls to stay with girls, and boys with boys); to be loyal to one’s own kind (e.g. relatives); to stick together
Tagalog kampítaking the side of someone in a conflict; biased; favoring one side too much
  ka-kampially; one who cheers for a team, etc., rooter, fan
  maki-kampíto join an alliance
  kampí-kampíbeing on the same side in a conflict, etc.
Bikol kámpiside, faction, part; referring to a transaction in which the buyer receives one part more than he gives, such as exchanging four parts of rice for five parts of coconut wine
  ka-kampí sato be biased in favor of; to be partial to; to be onesided in someone’s favor
Cebuano kampítake sides with
Mansaka kampito defend (as a person in a conflict)


PPh     *k<um>ampi to join, unite with in taking sides

Ilokano k<um>ampíto join, offer allegiance to
Tagalog k<um>ampíto ally; to unite or join by alliance; to follow; to cheer for; to take the side of

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*kampil plaited palm leaf bag or pouch


PWMP     *kampil plaited palm leaf bag or pouch

Palawano kampilsmall plaited container in two parts
Maranao kampil-oʔsatchel, basket
Tausug kampila woven container of coconut leaves used for keeping fruit or raw or cooked provisions
Ngaju Dayak kampila pouch woven of leaves and used mostly to carry copper money
Malay kampillarge envelope-shaped matwork bag
Toba Batak hampilcartridge pouch
Old Javanese kampilbag, pouch (for money or valuables)
  ka-kampil-anto put in a bag
  ma-kampilcarrying the treasures (regalia, heirlooms, etc.)
Javanese kampila small purse woven from dried grass
Balinese kampilpurse, bag

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan distribution.


*kampis deflate, shrink


PMP     *kampis deflate, shrink

Ilokano kápisempty, flat, flat-chested
Maranao kampisdeteriorate, atrophy
Kadazan Dusun kampisflat and thin, flatten
Manggarai hampésshrunken; empty stomach

Note:   With root *-pis₁ ‘deflate, be empty’.


*kampit to adhere, stick to


PMP     *kampit to adhere, stick to

Tagalog kápit ~ kapítadhering; sticking; stuck; glued
  i-kápitto stick, paste or glue something onto something else (stress on the object)
  k<um>ápitto adhere or stick
  kapít-anto stick or glue onto something (stress on the place)
Aklanon kápitcling to, adhere to


POC     *kabit₂ to adhere, stick to

Fijian kabito adhere or stick to
  kabi-tato adhere, stick to (trans.); sticky, gluey

Note:   Apparently distinct from *kapit ‘to fasten...’


*kampuŋ abdomen, belly


PCEMP     *kampuŋ abdomen, belly     [doublet: *kempuŋ]

Kodi kambubelly
Kambera kambubelly; womb
Tetun kabun ~ kabustomach, abdomen (of humans)
  kabu fuanfetus
  ain kabuncalf of leg
Galoli abu-rbelly
Erai kapunbelly
Watubela kabubelly
Kamarian apubelly
Proto-Ambon *kabu-guts, belly
  *kabuguts, belly
Kowiai/Koiwai ambunabdomen


POC     *kabuŋ stomach of an animal

Nauna kahu-nstomach of a person, fish or animal
Baluan kapu-nstomach of an animal
Penchal kahu-nstomach of an animal

Note:   Also Lou kou-n ‘stomach of an animal’, Tongan kōpū ‘gullet of a fish’, Futunan kopū ‘swim bladder of a fish’, Hawaiian Ɂōpū ‘belly, stomach, abdomen, tripe, giblet, gizzard, bladder, crop of a bird’.


*kamu₁ sheath of a coconut?


POC     *kamu₁ sheath of a coconut?

Lou kamusheath of coconut flower
Duke of York kamustem of a bunch of coconuts
Sa'a kämu i niufallen sheath of coconut


*kamu₂ chew, move to and fro in the mouth


POC     *kamu₃ chew, move to and fro in the mouth

Gedaged kamu-kamumove something to and fro in the mouth; move the lips when chewing; nibble around a kernel held in the mouth; gnaw at somethting
Cheke Holo gamueat
Tolo kämuto eat the betel mixture (cited in Ivens 1929 as the equivalent of Sa’a dämu)
Lau kamuchew (betel nut)
'Āre'āre kamuchew betelnut
Tahitian ʔamuto eat
Maori kamuto eat; munch, move the mouth as if eating

Note:   This comparison was first proposed in Blust (1978:143-144), and more recently in an extended form by Ross and Osmond (2016:232).


*kamuniŋ a tree: Murraya sp.


PMP     *kamuniŋ a tree: Murraya sp.

Bikol kamuníŋa tree: Murraya paniculata
Cebuano kamuniŋsmall tree of the secondary forest: Murraya paniculata
Malay kayu kemuniŋbeautiful veined yellow wood: obtained from Murraya exotica and used for making kris-handles and scabbards
Old Javanese kamuniŋkind of tree with yellow wood: Murraya sp.
Sasak kemuniŋtree with yellow wood used for kris handles
Manggarai kemuniŋa tree: probably Murraya exotica
Wahai kamonia tree: Murraya sp.

Note:   Also Old Javanese kumuniŋ ‘kind of tree with yellow wood: Murraya sp.’, Bare'e kamoni ‘a tree, the leaves of which are much used: Clerodendron minahasae’.


*kamwa-kamwa Ficus sp.


POC     *kamwa-kamwa Ficus sp.

Misima ka-kamʷatree with small rounded, light green leathery leaves, white motley-colored bark, and small, fig-shaped fruit
Santa Ana kamʷa-kamʷasandpaper cabbage: Ficus wassa

Note:   A slightly larger version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2008b:309). Until further supporting evidence is forthcoming this reconstruction must be considered highly tentative.


*kana- classiifer for edible possession


POC     *kana- classifier for edible possession

Lou ka-marker of edible possession
Seimat an-marker of edible possession
Manam Ɂana-marker of edible possession
Tami ka-marker of edible possession
Dobuan Ɂamarker of edible possession
Nggela ga-makes possessive pronouns with pronouns ŋgu, mu, na: ga-ŋgu, ga- mu, ga-na ‘my, thy, his’, but only with things to eat and drink, and certain other words
Arosi Ɂa-nahis, hers, its; when food, drink, medicine or anything acting on the person is referred to
Pohnpeian kenemarker of edible possession
Woleaian gale-possessive classifier for food
Mota ga-possessive marker of close relationship, generally of food
Araki ha-possessive classifier for food
Raga ga-marker of edible possession

Note:   Also Wayan ke- ‘prenominal particle; food possession-marker, indicating that the possessed thing is eaten, or is considered as food-producing’, Fijian ke ‘possessive noun, used with suffixed pronouns, indicating (1) that the object is to be eaten, (2) concerning a person or thing, (3) expressing certain characteristics of a person or thing’.

The shape of this important grammatical morpheme is debatable. Lichtenberk (1985:117) posited POc *ka-, but this fails to account for the reflex of a nasal in Seimat, Manam, Pohnpeian or Woleaian. In view of POc *kana ‘food’ it seems likely that the possessive classifier was itself a possessed noun, hence Nggela ga-ŋgu vundi ‘my banana’ (to eat) < POc *kana-gu pudi ‘my food (which is a) banana’. Like many grammatical morphemes that have high text frequency, *kana in possessive constructions was shortened to ka- in most languages. This word is ultimately related to a suffixed form of PAn *kaen ‘to eat’, but its rather independent development in POc merits an independent entry.


*kana₁ food


POC     *kana food₁

Proto-Admiralty *kanafood
Nauna kana-ntaste
Levei kanafood
Likum kana-yfood
Sori ana-yfood
Seimat anfood
Wuvulu an-anato eat
  ana-iaeat it!
Aua anafood
Nggela ganafood
  ga ganaedible
Arosi kana-kanato have a nice taste in the mouth
Proto-Micronesian *kanafood
Gilbertese kanato eat, to devour, to consume, gnaw; deteriorate
Chuukese ana-food to eat; food portion (of cooked starchy food)
Mota ganato eat food
  gana-ganaan eating, meal, feast
Iaai anfood
Fijian kanato eat; a meal

Note:   Also Kairiru ʔanaʔ ‘food’. In some languages reflexes of this form are verbal, but POc *kani is more plausibly reconstrucible as the verb ‘to eat’. Possibly a reflex of PAn *kaen-an ‘place where one eats’, but this remains uncertain.


*kana₂ enemy


POC     *kana₂ enemy

Mono-Alu kana(song word) war
Roviana kanaan enemy, a foe
Bugotu kanaenemy
Nggela kanaan enemy
  kana-hagito be an enmity with

Note:   Possibly identical to *kana ‘food’, although the suffixed Nggela form suggests *kanas. The known reflexes of this form are restricted to languages in the Solomon Islands, and although these fall into different primary branches of Oceanic the possibility of diffusion cannot be completely ruled out.


*kanadem a tree: Diospyros sp.


PPh     *kanadem a tree: Diospyros sp.

Yami kanarema tree: Diospyros kotoensis
Ivatan kanarema tree: Diospyros lanceifolia Roxb. (Madulid 2001)
Hanunóo kanáruma species of tree
Bisayan (Panay) kanaluma tree: Diospyros ahernii Merr. (Madulid 2001)


*kana-kana to think, ponder


POC     *kana-kana to think, ponder

Gedaged kan-kanto think, consider, reflect, muse, cogitate, deliberate, speculate, meditate, imagine, ponder
Bugotu ganato think
Nggeri gana-ganato think, suppose, intend


*kanam sing; song


POC     *kanam sing; song

Gedaged kanama song, hymn
Kwaio ganato sing
Lau kanato hum; to sing old songs
  kana fāfito hum or sing a lullaby to a child
Toqabaqita kanakind of traditional song; to sing (traditional kana or modern songs)
'Āre'āre kanasing, in incantations to a spirit in order to know a cure against a sickness
Sa'a kana ~ kana-kanato sing; a song
Ulawa kana ni henuadance songs
Arosi ganato sing
  idu ganacompose a song (usually in dreams)
  gana-ganato sing
  gana-riaacclaimed in song, sung of


*kanaŋa a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata


PMP     *kanaŋa a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata

Ngaju Dayak kanaŋatree with fragrant blossoms from which an odorous yellowish oil is extracted
Malay kənaŋaa tree known for its sweet-scented flowers; the dried flowers are used medicinally to mitigate fever
Sundanese kanaŋaname of a tree with yellow, fragrant flowers
Old Javanese kanaŋatree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata
Makassarese kanaŋatree with redolent flowers: Cananga odorata
Manggarai kenaŋatall, straight tree with yellow, lightweight trunk; its bark is used for walling and flooring
Buruese kanaŋaa tree having fragrant flowers, the “kumbang of Ambon”: Cananga odorata

Note:   Also Tetun kanaŋa ‘a tree of the nutmet family (Myristica), with highly perfumed flowers’ (with irregular velar nasal).


*kanap₁ creep, crawl


PMP     *kanap₁ creep, crawl

Bikol kanápto creep (on)
Cebuano kánapspread over an area (as measles over the body)
Kayan kanapcrawling, creeping very slowly (of insects, plants)
Lakalai gala, gala galato crawl


*kanap₂ dark, obscure


PPh     *kanap₂ dark, obscure

Kankanaey naka-kánapdark; obscure
Ifugaw kánapcomplete darkness
Cebuano kanap-kánapblurred, dim eyesight; for the eyesight to become blurred


*kanari tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune


PMP     *kanari tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune     [doublet: *kaŋaRi]

Malay kənarithe Java almond, a very handsome shade tree planted in avenues in Java; its seeds are rich in oil and its sap produces the elemi (k.o. resin) of our pharmacopeia: Canarium commune
Javanese kənaria certain tree and its pecan-like nuts
Tontemboan kanarithe canarium tree and its nut: Canarium commune
Wolio kanarikind of tree and its fruit, Java almond: Canarium commune
Bimanese kanaricanarium almond
Solorese kenaricanarium almond
Wetan kənaritree with oleiferous seed
Kowiai/Koiwai anarwalnut
Baluan kanaicanarium almond
Sori kenaicanarium almond

Note:   Citing data from Verheijen (1990) together with Oceanic material, Ross (2008:315) has posited PCEMP *ka(nŋ)aRi ‘canarium almond, Canarium spp.’. However, the Javanese, Tontemboan, Bimanese and Solorese reflexes of *kanari all point to a proto-form with *r, not *R (Malay and Wetan are ambiguous), and although the Sori reflex of *r is h in initial position, its intervocalic reflex is unclear. On balance, then, it seems best at least tentatively to posit PMP *kanari, reflected in WMP and CMP languages, and a doublet *kaŋaRi that co-existed with this form in POc (reduced by loss of the first syllable in some languages).


*kanarum tree sp.


PMP     *kanarum tree sp.

Hanunóo kanárumtree sp.
Tboli kenaluma tree; black dye for the abaca fiber is obtained by boiling its leaves
Arosi ʔanaru, kanarutree sp. with large leaves


*kanawa a tree: Cordia spp.


PMP     *kanawa a tree: Cordia spp.

Iban kenawapalm yielding a large areca nut, sp. unident.
Makassarese kanawakind of tree
Palauan kəláugeiger tree: Cordia sebestena L.
Gilbertese kanawaa tree: Cordia subcordata
Nukuoro ganavatree sp.: Cordia subcordata Lam.


*kanaway kind of white bird: probably gull sp.


PMP     *kanaway kind of white bird: probably gull sp.

Ilokano kannáwayheron with white plumage, living in the vicinity of rivers and brooks
Isneg kanáwaykind of heron with white plumage
Cebuano kanáwaywhite sea bird, some 6 inches long and 4 inches high, found perched on driftwood or on sea corals
Murut (Timugon) kanawaywhite cattle egret
Malay (Brunei) kenawailarge white Borneo bird
Kowiai/Koiwai anawacommon tern


POC     *kanawe kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp.

Lou kanaseagull
Loniu kanawblack bird similar to sea gull
Titan kanawseagull
Nggela ganaeseagull
Kwaio ʔanakwegull variety
Arosi ʔanawewhite; Tropic Boatswain bird: Phaeton aethurus
Bauro ganawewhite, of birds only

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun kandavai ‘a white heron that often perches on buffaloes’. PMP *kanaway probably designated the white cattle egret or a similar heron, but in POc the word evidently was transferred to some type of gull.

In spite of problems with the comparative phonology, Milke (1968) assigned Nggela ganae, and such forms as Mailu anawe ‘small seagull’, Siâ ka-na-nawe ‘seagull’ to POc *(ŋ)gana(g)e ‘seagull’. It now seems likely that these forms belong with the present cognate set. Sangir manu kaŋ ‘seagull’, which Milke regarded as external support for his POc reconstruction, appears to be unrelated.


*kandaŋ enclosure, pen for animals


PWMP     *kandaŋ enclosure, pen for animals

Tombonuwo kandaŋpen for animal
Ngaju Dayak kandaŋa stall, stable, a place that is fenced in
Malay kandaŋfenced enclosure for animals
  kandaŋ ayampoultry-run
  kandaŋ babipig-sty
Toba Batak handaŋfence; enclosure
Old Javanese kanḍaŋpen, cowshed
Javanese kanḍaŋanimal pen
  kanḍaŋ pitikchicken coop

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kanDaŋ ‘enclosure, pen’. Possibly a Malay loan distribution, as cognates are found only within the area where Malay loanwords are common.


*kandiŋ goat


PWMP     *kandiŋ goat     [doublet: *kambiŋ]

Pangasinan kandíŋgoat
Bikol kandíŋgoat
Kayan (Busang) kadiŋgoat

Note:   Also Yami kagliŋ, Bontok keldiŋ, Kankanaey kaldí ‘goat’.


*kandis a tree: Garcinia sp.


PWMP     *kandis a tree: Garcinia sp.

Hanunóo kandístree with reddish fruits: Garcinia rubra Merr.
Palawano kandistree with tart or sour fruits
Iban kandisgeneric for trees, Garcinia sp., yielding edible fruit
Malay kandistree yielding an acid fruit: Garcinia atrolineata
Gayō kanisa tree: Garcinia atronileata
Karo Batak kandiskind of tree


*kandoRa cuscus, phalanger


PCEMP     *kandoRa cuscus, phalanger

Watubela kadolamarsupial
Taba docuscus
Buli dokind of small marsupial


POC     *kadoRa cuscus, phalanger

Nauna kocaycuscus, phalanger
Penchal kotaycuscus, phalanger
Sori ohaycuscus, phalanger
Seimat koxacuscus, phalanger
Mussau aroacuscus, phalanger
Bali (Uneapa) ghandoracuscus
Vitu hadoracuscus, possum
Manam ʔodoracuscus, phalanger
Kilivila kwadoyacuscus, possum

Note:   All reflexes in languages of the Admiralty Islands (Seimat, Sori, Penchal and Nauna here) show metathesis of the vowels, pointing to Proto-Admiralty *kodaya. Also Nggela kandora ‘cuscus, phalanger’. Osmond and Pawley (2011:225-226), cite a number of other Oceanic reflexes of this form, and note that /r/ for expected /l/ in Nggela and various Southeast Solomonic languages “is consistent with borrowing from Meso-Melanesian neighbors in the western Solomons.”


*kanduŋ womb?


PWMP     *kanduŋ womb?

Tagalog kandóŋheld on the lap (as a mother holding her child)
Iban kandoŋwomb, foetus; (of padi, fruit) in bearing, fruiting, having fruit set and swelling; (of women) pregnant, conceive
Malay kandoŋcarrying in an enclosed space, of pocketing, being with child
Bahasa Indonesia kanduŋpocket, pouch; womb
Minangkabau padi mə-ŋandoŋrice in the ear


*kaniá own, one’s own; self


PPh     *kaniá own, one’s own; self

Ilokano kaniá ~ kanyácombines with -ko pronouns to form the obliques
  kaniá-kto me
  kaniá-mto you (sg., informal)
  kaniá-nato him, her, it
Casiguran Dumagat kániyaown
  kani-kániya a bileone’s own house
Tagalog kaniyá ~ kanyáhis; her; hers
  kaniyah-ínto appropriate something for himself or herself
  kani-kaniyá, kanyá-kanyáeach his own
Bikol kanyáto each his own; every man for himself
  kanyá-kanyáŋ bayadDutch treat
Palawan Batak kányahe

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*kani-kani scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs


POC     *kani-kani scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs

Vitu hani-haniget infected
Motu kani-kanifull of dirt, weeds or mud (metaphor of infectious diseases, wars, raids or killing)
Nggela kani-kania skin disease which leaves white scars or patches on the skin, different from taeniaho (‘showing first patches of leprosy, whiter than kani’)
'Āre'āre kania skin disease, white spots
Wayan kani-kani(of land, body) be wasting away, be wasted, eaten away, eroded; (of skin) be flaky, scaly, as patches of skin in a habitual kava drinker
Fijian kaniscales and roughness of the skin caused by excessive drinking of yaqona (kava); also the dregs of yaqona in the cup or bowl

Note:   Pawley and Sayaba (2003) associate Wayan kani-kani with the unreduplicated base kani ‘eat, consume food’, and a similar idea appears in Vitu hani-hani ‘eat; get infected’, where the extension of the basic sense of ‘eat’ is quite transparent. However, reflexes in other languages, as Motu, Nggela or 'Āre'āre suggest that *kani-kani may have been a distinct form that overlapped phonetically with the reduplicated form of *kani ‘eat’, and was semantically close enough that speakers in several language traditions drew a connection between cutaneous scruffiness and an infection that was ‘eating’ the skin.


*kanisu to spit at (as an insult?)


PEMP     *kanisu to spit at (as an insult?)     [doublet: *kanus, *qanus]

Wandamen kanisusaliva
Serui-Laut kunuisaliva
Kurudu kenisasaliva
Pak kanuhsaliva; to spit
Seimat kan i anuhu-saliva
Mussau kanusuto spit
Kairiru qVnsspit out at
Motu kanudito spit; spittle
  kanudi-ato spit on
Samasodu ki-knisuto spit
Marau₂ nisuto spit

Note:   Also Tanga kamus, Wogeo kusu ‘to spit’, Takia lusu ‘saliva’, ulusu ‘to spit’, Mbula kauzi ‘spittle, saliva (white or red)’, Tubetube kaiso ‘to spit out, as betel nut or bad food’, Gapapaiwa kanu, Mono-Alu amisu, Selau kimsə, Mbareke kamisu ‘to spit’. The Kairiru form is said to have a first-syllable vowel that varies with the vowel of the proclitic subject pronoun. This comparison is frustrating in that most forms are irregular in some way. However, its doublet POc *qanusi appears to be more amenable to systematic treatment, and between the two forms it seems far more likely that we are dealing with a set of historically related forms rather than a collection of similarities produced by chance.


*kanoŋ flesh, meat, coconut flesh


POC     *kanoŋ flesh, meat, coconut flesh

Lukep (Pono) kano-fruit (of, e.g.., breadfruit), inner substance
Mutu anoŋ-aseed, fruit
Arosi ʔanobulb, tuber, part of a tree below the ground
Tongan kanoflesh or substance (generally used instead of kakano in genitive constructions and compounds)
  ka-kanoflesh; lean (as opposed to fat); muscle
Samoan ʔa-ʔano[gloss]
Rennellese kano[gloss]
  ʔanokind, nature, character, type, likeness, resemblance, image, color, moral quality, meaning


POC     *kanoŋ qi mata eyeball

Numbami mat-anoeyeball
Wedau mata ano-naeyeball
Tongan kano ʔi mataeyeball

Note:   Osmond and Ross (2016:121) argue that the word for ‘eyeball’ is a compound formed from *kanoŋ ‘flesh, meat’, a genitive marker, and the word ‘eye’. As further support for their analysis they cite a number of compounds of similar semantic composition that use unrelated morphemes meaning ‘sprout’, ‘seed’, ‘fruit’, ‘egg’ and the like.


*kantuk nod the head in drowsiness


PWMP     *kantuk nod the head in drowsiness     [disjunct: *qantuk]

Tboli kotuknod (the head)
Ngaju Dayak kantoksleep; exhaustion
Bahasa Indonesia kantuksleepiness


*kanúmay kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp.


PPh     *kanúmay kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp.

Ilokano kanúmaya tree: Diospyros multiflora
Isneg kanúmaya kind of ebony; its timber is used in the manufacture of pestles, shafts of spears and helves of axes and hatchets; its crushed fruits are used for poisonng fish
Hanunóo kanúmaya tree, possibly Diospyros maritima Blm.; the fruits are pounded and pulverized for use as a stupefier or poison for eels and shrimp
Sangir kanumea tree belonging to the Anacardiaceae with black outer bark and yellow inner bast; the base is poisonous and so is not used in burning lime: Semecarpus heterophylla


*kanuqus squid, cuttlefish


PWMP     *kanuqus squid, cuttlefish     [doublet: *aRud 'scrape, shave (as rattan)']

Casiguran Dumagat kanóssquid, cuttlefish, Sepia sp.
Bikol kanóʔossquid
Maranao kanoʔossquid
Tiruray kenuwessquid
  kenuwes-ona place where squids may be found, hence used to mean very far out to sea, over very deep water
Mapun kanuussquid
Yakan kenuʔuslarge variety of squid
Tausug kanuusa large squid
Balinese kenuscuttlefish, ink-fish

Note:   Also Mongondow kandut ‘kind of cephalopod found in estuaries’, Totoli kanduus ‘squid’, Sasak kenaus ‘octopus, squid’. For further discussion, cf. Blust (1978:147).


*kanus spittle; to spit (intr.)


PEMP     *kanus spittle; to spit (intr.)     [doublet: *kanisu, *qanus₂]

Mussau kanusuto spit
Gapapaiwa kanuto spit


PEMP     *kanus-i to spit (trans.)

Wandamen kanisu <Msaliva
Serui-Laut kunui <Asaliva
Pak kanuhsaliva
Motu kanudito spit; spittle
  kanudi-ato spit on

Note:   Also Mbula kauzi ‘spit, spittle (white or red)’. This comparison, the essential core of which was first noted by Milke (1968), is problematic in several ways. First, the data leaves no real choice except to reconstruct doublets *kanus and *qanus. The first of these is attested only in Oceanic languages, yet an apparent suffixed form *kanus-i can be assigned to Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, forcing the conclusion that *kanus was also present in Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, even though direct evidence for this is absent. Second, a parallel problem arises with *qanus, where reflexes of the simple base are known only in Polynesian languages, but reflexes of the suffixed form have a wider distribution, implying that both *qanus and *qanus-i were found in POc, even though no direct evidence is known for the former.


*kaNasay a fish: the mullet


PAN     *kaNasay a fish: the mullet

Amis keɫatsaygray mullet


PMP     *kanasay a fish, the mullet

Yami aknasay <Mkind of fish: mullet
Ivatan aknasaya fish: mullet
Mentawai kanashaikind of fish
Palauan kəlátkind of fish
Fordata anahakind of fish
Proto-Aru *kanasaa fish: the mullet


POC     *kanase a fish, the mullet

Lou kanaskind of fish
Loniu kanaskind of fish
Ahus kanasmullet
Southeast Ambrym anasmullet
Fijian kanacekind of fish
Tongan kanahemullet


*kaNawaS a small tree bearing round, green fruit: Ehretia spp.


PAN     *kaNawaS a small tree bearing round, green fruit: Ehretia spp.

Paiwan kalʸavasa tree: Ehretia thyrsiflora
  kalʸawas-lʸawas-enmuch Ehretia thyrsiflora


PMP     *kanawah a small tree bearing round, green fruit: Ehretia spp.

Tagalog kanawaa small tree: Ehretia acuminata (Madulid 2001:348)


*kañu-kañu to shake, as a house in an earthquake


POC     *kañu-kañu to shake, as a house in an earthquake

Roviana kanu-kanuto shake, as water in a vessel or bottle
Bugotu kañuto shake, of earthquake; to shake off
Nggela kanu-kanuto shake, as a bottle
  kanu-lito shake and make rattle
Arosi ʔonu-ʔonuto shake, as tree in wind, house in earthquake
  ʔonu-hito shake (something)

Note:   Also Bugotu añu ‘to shake, of earthquake’. Although this comparison contains languages that are generally assumed to belong to different primary branches of the Oceanic group (Ross 1988), they all are found within the Solomon islands archipelago, and the possibility that this is a loan distribution therefore cannot be completely ruled out.


*kañul to shake, as the earth in an earthquake


POC     *kañul to shake, as the earth in an earthquake

Manam kanul-akito shake
Bugotu kañuto shake, of earthquake; to shake off
Vaturanga ka-kanuto shake


POC     *kañul-kañul to shake repeatedly

Roviana kanu-kanuto shake, as water in a vessel or bottle
Nggela kanu-kanuto shake, as a bottle
  kanul-ito shake and make rattle
'Āre'āre anu-iato shake, move

Note:   Roviana shows unexplained loss of the final consonant.


*kaŋ animal sound


PMP     *kaŋ animal sound     [doublet: *kaŋkaŋ 'resounding sound']

Isneg kāŋ (length unexplained)onom. for the chirping of aŋká insects (green insect that resembles, but is larger than the locust)
Kankanaey kaŋclang, clank, clink
Maranao kaŋowl (but see note to kekuŋ 'owl')
Iban kaŋkind of frog
Sangir manu kaŋseagull
Bare'e kaalong protracted sound of calling, singing or weeping
Tae' kaŋbark of a dog
Manggarai kaŋmake a sound
  ŋ-kaŋto bark, of a dog
Rembong kaŋsound of a dog in pain
Sika kaŋa crow
Motu kato bang (of a moving thing)
Sa'a kaabang, bash, fall with a bang


*kaŋa be open, as the mouth


PMP     *kaŋa be open, as the mouth

Tboli kaŋatoothless; gaps, as when several teeth are missing
Ngaju Dayak kaŋabe open (mouth, shellfish)
Manggarai kaŋabe open (mouth)
Nggela kaŋadrink by pouring down the throat (usual Melanesian method)

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*kaŋaRi tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune


POC     *kaŋaRi tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune     [doublet: *kanari]

Titan aŋeialmond
Patpatar ŋarcanarium almond: Canarium indicum
Kove aŋahicanarium almond
Manam kaŋaricanarium almond
Gedaged kaŋazthe various species of the genus Canarium; also the mature seed, which is edible
Takia aŋarcanarium almond
Nggela ŋalicanarium almond
Mota ŋaicanarium almond
Sakao aŋaCanarium almond
Raga aŋainative almond; kidney
Toak ŋaicanarium almond
Nakanamanga na-ŋaicanarium almond
Sye n/aŋaiCanarium sp.
Anejom na-ŋaicanarium almond

Note:   This comparison was proposed in a fuller form by Ross (2008:315-316).


*kaŋeqa fissured, slightly cracked


PMP     *kaŋeqa fissured, slightly cracked

Cebuano kaŋʔaslightly open, having come off, having a long crack
Beta kaŋaopen
Manggarai kaŋaopen, of the mouth


*kaŋkaŋ₁ spread the legs wide


PWMP     *kaŋkaŋ₁ spread the legs wide

Bikol mag-kaŋkáŋto walk with the legs spread apart; to walk with the arms out, as if something is tucked under the armpits
Aklanon káŋkaŋto stretch or spread out one’s feet
Cebuano kaŋkáŋfor two or more things which are joined at the base to spread apart (as leaves of a book, legs wide open)
Malay kaŋkaŋstraddling wide
  buroŋ kaŋkaŋ katupa long-legged, wide-striding waterbird
  mə-ŋaŋkaŋto walk with the legs wide apart, or with long strides
  tər-kaŋkaŋwith legs flung wide apart --- of dead bodies on a battlefield; of a door, to be ajar at a wide angle
Karo Batak kaŋkaŋto walk or sit with legs wide apart
Toba Batak par-h<al>aŋkaŋ-anspace between the upper thighs, the crotch
Javanese kaŋkaŋto sit with the legs spread apart; a certain large crab (from the way it holds its pincers wide apart?)
Pendau ter-kaŋkaŋspreading open the legs or feet

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*kaŋkaŋ₂ resounding sound


PAN     *kaŋkaŋ₂ resounding sound

Puyuma kaŋkaŋnoisy
Kankanaey kaŋkáŋto ring; to cause to sound; to clank; to clang; striking a sonorous body
Ifugaw (Batad) kaŋkáŋthe whine of a dog in fear; to whine in fear (of a dog)
Ayta Abellan k<ay>aŋkaŋcrying or yelping of a dog
Tagalog kaŋkáŋprolonged yelping of dogs, crying of babies or loud gossiping of people
Ngaju Dayak kaŋkaŋrepeated barking of a young dog
Gedaged kaŋkaŋthe sound made by a ripe coconut (timber) when it is snapped with the finger
Gitua kaŋkaŋkind of sound

Note:   With (onomatopoetic) root *-kaŋ₂ ‘bark, croak’. Some of these forms may be products of convergence.


*kaŋkaŋ₃ cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis


PMP     *kaŋkaŋ₃ cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis

Isneg kaŋkáŋkind of cramp that affects the whole body, but more especially the fingers and toes, and ends in death; a spirit who causes the kaŋkáŋ cramp
Kayan kakaŋstiffened (as the arms); rigid; in convulsions; cramps
Iban te-kaŋkaŋstiff with cold, wet and chilled, terror-struck (as of someone paralyzed with fear of thunder); stiff (as the corpse of a dog)
Bare'e kaŋkaŋ-istiff, rigid; stiffened
Muna kaŋkastiff (as one’s arms)
Manggarai kaŋgaŋstiff (of a corpse); dead; dessicated (of the body, wood); stiff, of clothes that have been ironed

Note:   Also Malay (Kedah) cekaŋ ‘taut, astretch’, Manggarai keŋgaŋ ‘stiff (of a corpse)’. The voiced onset of the second syllable of Manggarai kaŋgaŋ is unexplained. With root *-kaŋ₃ ‘stiff, rigid; cramps’.


*kaŋkaŋ₄ kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk


PWMP     *kaŋkaŋ₄ kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk

Itbayaten kaŋkaŋbird (general term)
Ibatan kaŋkaŋeagle
Sasak kaŋkaŋkind of sparrow-hawk


*kao heron, probably Egretta sp.


POC     *kao heron, probably Egretta sp.     [doublet: *kaopa]

Yapese k’aaw ~ k’owheron
Sursurunga kautaxon including Zebra heron and Nankeen night heron
Mengen (Poeng) gaoreef heron
Takuu kaosmall thin wading bird resembling a heron
'Āre'āre aothe black heron
  ao ekethe white heron, egret

Note:   A longer version of this comparison which contains a number of phonologically irregular forms was first proposed by Clark (2011:289)


*kapak beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping


PMP     *kapak beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping

Ngaju Dayak kapakbeating, flapping of wings
Toba Batak hapak-hapaka clapper of bamboo used as a scarecrow
Sasak kapakbeat the wings
Mori moŋ-kapa-kapato flap the wings
  mo-kapa-kapaflap the wings
Asilulu kapaksound of two slaps (or more)


POC     *kabak beat, flap the wings

'Āre'āre apawing
  apa-ato flap the wings
Samoan ʔapa(of bird’s wing, turtle flipper, etc.) to beat, lash
Nukuoro gabato flap (as wings)
Rarotongan kapato flap, to flutter, as the wings of a bird; to palpitate, to move, as wings


POC     *kaba-kabak flap the wings repeatedly

Sa'a apa-apawing; shoulder
Tongan kapa-kapaside fin; to flap the wings
Niue kapa-kapato flutter, to flap the wings (as a bird)
Samoan ʔapa-ʔapafin; wing of an aircraft
Rennellese kapa-kapaflippers, as of turtle, stingray, whale; base of fish fins
Anuta kapa-kapato flap wings
Rarotongan kapa-kapato flap repeatedly, to flutter repeatedly, as the wings of birds
Maori ka-kapato palpitate; to flutter, quiver

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*kapal thick, as a plank


PWMP     *kapal thick, as a plank

Pangasinan kapálthickness; become thick
Kapampangan kepalthickness
  pa-kapal-anmake something thick
Tagalog kapálthickness; thick, the thickest part; legion, a great many; wealth, riches
Kadazan Dusun kapathick (of flat things)
Bisaya (Limbang) kapalthick
Kelabit kapalthick
Sa'ban apalthick
Berawan (Long Terawan) kapanthick
Narum hapalthick
Sebop kapanthick
Kenyah (Long Anap) kapanthick
Penan (Long Labid) kapanthick
Murik kapanthick
Kayan (Uma Juman) kapalthick, of planks, etc.; having thick flesh around the seeds, of fruit
Kiput kapanthick
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan) kapanthick
Bukat kapanthick, as a plank
Siang kapanthick
Katingan ba-kapalthick
Karo Batak kapalthick, of planks, etc.
  kapal-kapalan oily plant with thick, leathery leaves
Toba Batak hapalthick, of things
  mar-hapal taŋana callused hand
Old Javanese kapa-kapal-əncallused, to develop calluses?
Javanese kapalcallus; callused skin


PWMP     *ma-kapal thick, as a plank

Pangasinan ma-kapálthick
Kapampangan ma-kapálthick, wide
Bintulu mə-kapanthick
Ma'anyan ma-kapanthick

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Taai) karpaL ‘thick (as paper)’.


*kapaq-kapaq to grope, fumble about


PPh     *kapaq-kapaq to grope, fumble about

Casiguran Dumagat kapa-kapáto grope about (unable to see); to feel about (in the dark)
Tagalog kapáʔgroping
  ma-ŋapáʔto grope around
  pa-ŋa-ŋapáʔact of fishing by groping with the bare hands
  k<um>apáʔto search; to explore thoroughly in order to find something concealed
Bikol mag-kapáʔ-kápaʔto flounder; to move clumsily and without proper balance
  kapáʔ-kapáʔ-onto fumble, to muff


*kapas kapas a marine fish, probably the silver bream


PWMP     *kapas kapas a marine fish, probably the silver bream

Ilokano kapas kapaskind of fish with bony meat
Malay kapas kapasa fish, silver bream: Gerres sp.


*kápaw come to the surface


PPh     *kápaw come to the surface

Bontok kápəwto find something in water, as to fish out lumps of meat from broth
Kankanaey kápewdrawing out of the water?
  kapéw-ento draw out of the water
Cebuano kápawcome to the surface (as a shark fin breaking the surface of the water); rise up into something; for an emotion to show


*kapay flutter the wings


PMP     *kapay flutter the wings

Pangasinan kapáymake a stroke in swimming
Tagalog k<al>apáyfin of a fish
Bikol k<al>ápayto row without making a sound
Aklanon kápaypropeller (on ship); to propel, paddle (boat)
Cebuano kapáypectoral fins on a fish; anything analogous that propels: wing, flipper; to swim, fly with flapping motions
  kapay-kápayflap something repeatedly
Maranao kapaybeckon with hand or fingers
Binukid kapayto beckon, summon by a wave of the hand
  kapay-kapayto wave something back and forth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kapeyto beckon for someone to come
Mansaka kapayto signal to by waving hand; to move hands back and forth
Tausug kapaya propeller (of a boat or ship)
  kapay-anto provide a propeller (for a boat or ship)
Malay kapayfumbling with the hands, whether fondling, the movements of a drowning man, or the arm movements of a baby lying on its back; flutter, fluttering (of bird, butterfly; Echols and Shadily 1963)


POC     *kape₁ flutter the wings

Arosi kapeto flutter the wings
Nokuku kave-wing

Note:   Also Arosi kapi ‘to flutter, flap wings’.


*kape₂ crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae)


POC     *kape₂ crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae)

Sengseng kahecrab
Mengen (Poeng) kapecrab
Nggela gavea species of mottled crab on the reef
Toqabaqita ʔafecrab sp., the Flat crab: Percnon planissimum (?)
Mota gaveseveral species of crab
Raga gavegeneric for marine and land crabs
Rotuman ʔæhekind of reef crab, reddish with very flat back

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (2011:175).


*kapét hold onto, cling to


PPh     *kapét hold onto, cling to

Ilokano kapétto hold, cling to, stick, adhere
  kapt-anto attach something to
  ka-kapt-ana rail of stairs
Tagalog kápithold, grasp; hand-hold
  k<um>ápitto hold on; to cling to
  kapit-ánholder; handle; railing
Bikol mag-kápotto be stuck together; to be tightly wound around one another
Masbatenyo mag-kapótcontrol, take charge
  maka-kapótable to hang onto something
Waray-Waray kapótthe act of holding; to hold; handle; grasp; grip
Hiligaynon mag-kapútto hold onto, to grasp, to clutch
Cebuano káput ~ k<ul>áputtwine around something (as a squash plant that is entwining a papaya tree; cling to something (as a monkey clinging to a branch)
Maranao kapethold; handle; keep; leech
  kapet-aʔhand rail
Tiruray kafetto cling, to attach oneself to something
Proto-Minahasan *kampetgrip, clutch for support (e.g. railing)


PPh     *kapét-en cling to

Ilokano kapt-ento cling to; to transfer; infect (disease)
Maranao kapet-enleech-infested

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat kápit ‘to hold, to grasp, to hook onto, to join on (as in tying one’s boat to another, or as in nailing a board to something; to influence; to adhere to; to take root’ (< Tagalog?). The close similarity of this form to PMP *kaput ‘tie or clasp together; to button’ sometimes makes it difficult to be sure whether a phonologically ambiguous form should be assigned to one reconstruction or the other. This applies mainly to Central Philippine languages, all of which appear to reflect *kapet rather than *kaput (note the stress contrast in Bikol mag-kapót ‘to hold in the hand’ < *kaput ‘tie or clasp together; to button’, next to mag-kápot ‘to be stuck together; to be tightly wound around one another’.


*ka(m)pet plugged, stopped, blocked


PMP     *ka(m)pet plugged, stopped, blocked

Palauan kauddam; end of menstruation
Arosi ʔapojam tight, be fixed firm, as cork in bottle, arm in cleft
  ʔapoh-iclose tight, block up

Note:   With root *-pet ‘plugged or stopped up’.


*kapika the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense


POC     *kapika the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense     [doublet: *kapiku]

Lou keiklarge variety of Malay apple: Syzygium gomata
Seimat ahilong type of Malay apple, red on the outside and white inside
Tami kapigrose apple, Syzygium malaccense
Nggela gavigathe Malay apple
Mota gavigathe Malay apple, Eugenia malaccensis
Wayan kavikatree taxon: Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Malay apple; stout tree common in garden areas, large drooping rounded leaves, red bushy flowers on clusters on branchlets and trunk, fist-sized white to red fruit with crisp insipid flesh; fruit of this tree
Fijian kavikatree and fruit of the Malay apple, Syzygium malaccense, Myrtaceae (red and white varieties)
Tongan fekika <Mthe Malay apple: Eugenia malaccensis, Myrtaceae; its bark is used medicinally
Niue kafikaa tree: Eugenia inophylloides; also a name given to the stocks (an introduced method of punishment abandoned many years ago), because made of kafika timber
Rarotongan kaɁikathe Malay apple: Eugenia malaccensis, an indigenous fruit tree which bears a beautiful purplish colored fruit, when fully ripe, which is very juicy and pleasant to eat

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Milke (1968); much fuller documentation is given in Ross (2008).


*kapiku the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense


POC     *kapiku the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense     [doublet: *kapika]

Lou kahewlong white Malay apple
Drehet kehipround, red Malay apple
Sori apʷiwkind of Malay apple that is round and white
Lindrou kahewkind of Malay apple with fruit shaped like a sheep bell
Mussau kaviuthe Malay apple, Syzygium samarangense


*kapin extra, surplus, in addition to


PWMP     *kapin extra, surplus, in addition to

Aklanon kapínmore so, all the more, especially
Hiligaynon kapínmore than, moreover, in addition
Cebuano kapínbe in excess or extra; profit
Tausug kapínremainder, balance, leavings, remnant, ruins, leftovers (as food or clothes)
Makassarese kampiŋextra work, second job, to "moonlight"

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. This comparison was first proposed by Mills (1981:67).


*kapis kind of shell


PWMP     *kapis kind of shell

Tagalog kapísshells obtained from certain mollusks (Placuna placenta) used for small window panes
Bikol kápistranslucent shell from a species of oyster used in the making of shutter-like windows
Hanunóo kapísspecies of clam averaging the size of one's hand
Malay kapisscallop-shell, Pecten sp.


*kapit fasten together by sewing or tying


PAN     *kapit fasten together by sewing or tying

Kavalan kapitsew together accidentally, as the two legs of one’s pants
Pazeh ka-kapita button
  mu-kapitto button


PMP     *kapit pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house

Ilokano kapit-ento fold; to stack up
Kapampangan kápittogether; type of banana that grows with the fruit bunched together
  kapít-anbe close to someone, especially to one in power
Tagalog kápithold; grasp; hand-hold
  ma-ŋápitto hug; to cling firmly or fondly to
  pa-kapít-into get someone to hold onto someone else or to something
  k<um>ápitto hold on, cling to; to hand on, hold tight
  kapit-ánholder; handle; handlebar; railing
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) kafitsticking on (especially on a wall)
  kafit-kafitsomeone holding onto another
Malay (Trengganu) kapitfasten with slats, as woven grass matting to a frame
Toba Batak maŋ-hapitpinch, press, squeeze
  tar-hapitpressed tightly
  hapit-hapitsnap trap for mice and birds; warp beam (in weaving)
Buruese kapi-hpinch, squeeze, clamp; bind in a clamping manner (as thatch)
Seimat api-tito pinch
Motu kahifix sticks to keep thatch or walls down; tighten by a wedge
Nggela kapinarrow, enclosed; to hold something tight, between arm and side; to clench; to catch in a trap
Arosi ʔahiput a broken limb into splints; splints
Tongan kapi-kapito drive a wedge into; loincloth with flowers, etc. stuck into it for ornamentation; wedge
Niue kapit-ito pick up something with tongs
Rennellese kapit-iato be caught, stuck, enmeshed, as a snake in a tight place; to be pressed close, as in a crowd

Note:   The same as Dempwolff's (1934-38) *ka(m)pit ‘fasten together’, but note the more specific gloss suggested for the PMP form by this comparison. With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*kapkap feel in the dark, grope


PAN     *kapkap feel in the dark, grope

Kavalan k<m>apkapto touch at random (as a cat’s belly, a woman’s breast); to grope for something in a bag, pocket
Amis kapkapreach out and feel with the hands for something you cannot see, grope
Ilokano ag-kapkápto grope in the dark
  kapkap-ánto frisk
Casiguran Dumagat kapkápto grope with the hands (as in the dark, or for snails in a muddy river)
Ibaloy kapkapto grope, feel for something with the hands without light and without seeing (as in a dark room, in one’s pockets for money, in walking along in the dark; this word has decided sexual connotations without proper context, since the word is used of intimate caressing; method of fishing and gathering shrimp and crabs , i.e. use of the bare hands
  man-kapkapto grope for words
Pangasinan kapkápto feel, touch with the palm of the hand
Tagalog kapkápfeeling or frisking (the pockets)
Bikol kapkápgrope for in the dark, feel for in the dark, fumble
Cebuano kapkápgrope for something; search a body for something; struggle to obtain something; sneak into a house with the intention of having intercourse with a girl
Tausug ma-ŋapkapgrope for a woman in the dark (for illicit sexual intercourse)
Kenyah ŋagapgrope in the dark
Penan (Long Labid) lakaw kakapgrope, feel one’s way along in walking
Kayan kakapgroping about, feeling about with the hands
Kiput kakaapto grope, feel blindly
Malay gagapgroping, feeling one's way
Tae' kakaʔto touch, feel, finger; also to have sexual relations with a woman

Note:   Also Toba Batak man-dadap ‘to grop (as a blind person feeling his way by touch)’. With root *-kap ‘feel, grope’.


(Formosan only)

*kapua silk cotton, kapok


PAN     *kapua silk cotton, kapok

Kavalan kpuacotton
Pazeh kapuablanket, coverlet, quilt; sleeping mattress; cotton

Note:   The glosses for both of these languages state that the material in question is ‘cotton’, but it is clear from the ethnobotany of Taiwan that *kapua refers to the fibers of the silk-cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra, a native species on the island. Although Chen (1988) does not touch on it, other sources state that kapok was traditionally used as a lining in woven materials to keep out the cold.


*kapuk kapok; silk-cotton tree


PWMP     *kapuk kapok; silk-cotton tree

Itbayaten kapoka tree
Tagalog kápokkapok; the silky fibers from the seeds of the cotton tree used to fill pillows, mattresses, etc. (said to be from English)
Maranao kapokkapok tree: Ceiba pentandra L.
Mansaka kapokcotton tree (said to be from Tagalog)
Tiruray kafuka silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaerlin
Mapun kapuka cotton tree; cotton from the cotton tree
Tausug kapukCeiba pentandra Tree cotton, kapok
Ngaju Dayak kapoktree cotton, the coarser sort used to stuff pillows, etc., the finer sort which is used in spinning: kapas
Iban kapoksilk cotton or kapok tree, Bombax sp., Ceiba pentandra
Malay kapoktree-cotton
  pohon kapokcotton tree: Eriodendron anfractuosum
Old Javanese kapukkapok
  a-ŋapuklike kapok
Javanese kapukkapok
Balinese kapukthe fibers of the seeds of the kutuh, called by us ‘kapok’
  kapuk-inbe stuffed with kapok
Sasak kapukkapok

Note:   The status of this reconstruction is open to question. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kapuk ‘fibrous plant material, kapok’. However, most varieties of the silk-cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra) are said to be native to Mexico, Central America, northern South America, and parts of west Africa, rendering this reconstruction unlikely. Other sources state that the red silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba) is indigenous to insular Southeast Asia, and since no source language has been identified for this morpheme it is assumed tentatively to be a native form. This is supported by Verheijen (1984:48), who states that “The kapok tree is an old cultigen, native of tropical Asia.”


*kapuru soot


POC     *kapuru soot

Roviana kavurudust
Nggela ko-kovuruvery black, as from smoke; soot, as on a tin or saucepan
Fijian kavurucrumbled, pounded, powdered; of a yam, very soft, because well-cooked

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance, as --- despite including it as a dictionary entry ---Capell (1968) gives Fijian kavuru as the passive of vuru-ka ‘to crush, crumble in the hands, pulverize’.


*kapuR lime, calcium carbonate


PMP     *kapuR lime, calcium carbonate     [disjunct: *qapuR]

Bukat kapulime (calcium carbonate)
Iban kapurlime (burned shell or soft limestone), whitewash
Malay kapurcamphor; chalk; lime; lime eaten with sireh-leaf
Seit ʔaullime (for betel)
Nauna kəhlime for betel chew
Lou koplime for betel chew
Penchal kɨplime for betel chew
Lenkau koplime for betel chew
Takia kaulime for betel chew
Mbula koulime powder made by heating up pieces of coral; it is chewed together with betel nut and betel pepper fruits or leaves

Note:   All of the Oceanic forms cited here appear to be ambiguous for *qapuR or *kapuR.


*kapus to run out of supplies, lack something needed


PPh     *kapus to run out of supplies, lack something needed

Ibaloy kaposthat remaining to be completed of a piece of work (as harvesting rice, building a wall)
Ayta Abellan kapohend (as of time, or supplies)
Hanunóo kapúsend, last (in time)
  kapús-anyoungest child
Kalamian Tagbanwa kapuslast child
Palawano kapusin need, short of money, insufficient
Cebuano kapúsfor something which cannot be replaced to be practically running out
Tboli kafusto lack, be deficient, needing; to run out of something before everyone has received some

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.


*kaput tie or clasp together; to button


PMP     *kaput₁ tie or clasp together; to button

Ifugaw káputstring, rope, liana, thong to tie, fasten, bind one thing to another in order to keep either of the two or both in their right place. Thus the two posts of a ladder are said to be nikáput, if liana thongs running from one post to another under each of the rungs, prevent dislocation
Pangasinan kapótto close
Bikol mag-kapótto hold in the hand
Kayan kaputa tie; to tie up, to bind on
Sundanese kaputsewing
  tukaŋ ŋaputtailor; seamstress
  pa-ŋaput-ansewing basket
Balinese kaputfastened shut, of a chest; buttoned, of a jacket; closed, of the mouth, eyes
Makassarese kapuʔfastened shut, of a chest; buttoned, of a jacket; closed, of the mouth, eyes
Rembong (Wue) kaputto tie
Motu ahuclosed (used in composition with verbs)


PWMP     *ma-ŋaput to clasp, tie together

Bikol ma-ŋapótto clasp, clutch, grasp, grip, cling to, latch onto, get ahold of
Sundanese ŋaputto sew
Balinese ŋaputwind round, wrap round
Uma meŋ-kapuʔtie securely


PWMP     *kaput-an a clasp or button, fastening or closing device

Masbatenyo kaput-ánhold onto something firmly
Ngaju Dayak kaput-anclasp or button with which one fastens a necklace, belt, etc.
Sundanese kaput-anseam, suture
Balinese kaput-ansomething wrapped up; parcel, package

Note:   Mills (1981:73) proposes PAn *kaput ‘to close, cover’, but cites no Philippine cognates, and appears to confound at least two distinct cognate sets.


*kapút to touch or hold


PPh     *kapút to touch or hold

Casiguran Dumagat kapótto touch, to feel, to handle with both hands (as in putting one’s hand on a person’s forehead to feel his fever)
Bikol mag-kapótto hold in the hand


*kápuy weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform


PPh     *kápuy weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform

Ilokano kápuyweakness
  na-kápuyweak, fragile, slow
  k<um>ápuyto become weak
Isneg a-ŋápuya common creeping herb used in black magic to make or keep a person weak
  na-kápuyweak, feeble, frail
Itawis káfiweakness
Ifugaw kápuyweakness, debility (applied to persons)
  k<um>ápuyto become weak
Casiguran Dumagat kapúyto be weak, to be exhausted (due to extreme hunger); to be famished
Ibaloy e-kapoyweak, unable to do a certain job (as bulldozer to remove a boulder, man to do work, medicine to relieve pain)
  k<im>apoybecame weak
Pangasinan kápoyweakness, debility
Ayta Abellan kapeyweak; slow
Bikol maka-kápoyto be wearying, tiring
Masbatenyo kápoytired
  pa-ŋápoytiredness, weariness, fatigue
  kapúy-onbecome tired, become worn out, become wearied, become exhausted, become fatigued
Agutaynen kapoy-onto be overcome, as by sleep or tiredness; become out of breath when doing something
Hiligaynon kápuytiredness, exhaustion
  kapúy-unto be tired, to be exhausted
Cebuano kápuytired, weary, exhausted through exertion; something that is too much trouble, one who is too lazy to do
Mansaka kapoyto fail to do (as in failing to meet a commitment)


PPh     *ma-kápuy weak, feeble, unable to perform

Pangasinan ma-kápoyweak, ineffectual, inferior, in poor condition
Bikol ma-kápoyto feel weak, weary, tired


*kapwa belly


POC     *kapwa belly

Gitua apwa-belly; pregnant
Sa'a apwa-belly

Note:   Also Sa'a opwa- ‘belly, bowels, stomach’. It is unclear how this form differed in meaning from POc *tian ‘belly’.


*kaq(e)pi brace, splint


PMP     *kaq(e)pi brace, splint     [disjunct: *kapit]

Chamorro haʔfebrace, put on splint
Arosi ʔahiput a broken limb into splints; splint


*kaqiŋ kind of large openwork basket


PPh     *kaqiŋ kind of large openwork basket

Ilokano káiŋlarge openwork basket
  i-káiŋto place in the káiŋ basket
Tagalog kaíŋbasket of woven bamboo with wide mouth and two opposite handles, generally used for fruit
Bikol kaʔíŋbushel basket, made of woven bamboo and having a large mouth with handles located on either side
Cebuano kaíŋlarge, cylindrical, rattan basket loosely woven in a hexagonal design, 3’ tall by 2’ across; make into a kaiŋ

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*kaqis scratch up the ground, as chickens


PWMP     *kaqis scratch up the ground, as chickens

Bontok káisto scrape off the rough outer surface of bamboo
Kankanaey káisto clean; to remove, to clear away dirt from (a ditch, etc.)
Malay kaisto draw the claws towards the body, esp. of the ways fowls scratch up their food; also of a crow scratching up sesame seed, and of fights with claws
Toba Batak maŋ-haisscratch up the ground, of fowls; to scratch, of dogs
Proto-Minahasan *kaɁisscrape off, scratch away; make streaks
Mongondow kaɁitsweep with a sago palm leaf; scratch up the ground, of fowls


PWMP     *kais-an to scratch up the ground, as chickens

Kankanaey kaís-anto clean; to remove, to clear away dirt from (a ditch, etc.)
Malay kais-an ayamdescriptive of the way fowls scratch up their food


*kaqit to hold or pull with a hook


PMP     *kaqit to hold or pull with a hook

Romblomanon kahita fish-trap hook
Iban kaithook
Malay kaitto hook on to; crook-shaped; crook; of putting bait on a hook; a man caught on thorns in the jungle; a lamb in a tiger’s talons; the little finger bent hook-wise
Mongondow kaitto knit; to hook
Tolai kaitto catch, as one’s self or clothes on a thorn or hook; to prick; barb, thorn
  kait-eto catch, as thorns in clothes, etc.

Note:   Also Tetun kaɁit ‘to hold or pull with a hook’. Apparently distinct from *kawit ‘hook’.


*kara tortoise shell (?)


PPh     *kara tortoise shell (?)

Casiguran Dumagat káraa species of sea turtle (the eggs are gathered for food, but the meat is not edible)
Bikol káratortoise shell


*karagwam seaweed, seagrass


POC     *karagwam seaweed, seagrass

Patpatar karaguoseaweed
Motu alagaseaweed-like grass, Fucus sp.
Molima kalagomaa seaweed
Lau ʔalagaseaweed
Toqabaqita ʔalagaspecies of seaweed
Arosi ʔaragaa seaweed; it appears when the yams are planted and grows with them, coming to maturity when they do

Note:   Also Tawala yalegwama ‘seaweed type, brown’. A somewhat longer version of this comparison with several phonologically non-corresponding forms was proposed by Ross (2008d:131), who noted that the reconstruction of POc *gw is problematic.


*karak₁ strong southeast trade wind


POC     *karak₁ strong southeast trade wind

Lukep (Pono) karak-asoutheast trade
Takia karag-araga light southeast wind which appears as part of the initial development of the southeast trade in April
Longgu araa cool, pleasant wind from the southeast
Kwaio alasoutheast wind
Lau ārasoutheast trades, violent wind
Toqabaqita araa fairly strong wind, comes from April to September

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2003:133-134).


*karak₂ ringworm


POC     *karak₂ ringworm

Sursurunga kar-karringworm
Lakalai la-kara-kobetinea, ringworm; fish scales
Hote kalakringworm
Tami gala-galringworm
Wayan karadisease, possibly a type of ringworm, in which pale spots appear on the skin (attributed by some to bathing in dirty water)
Fijian karaa kind of ringworm, tinea circinata

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was proposed by Osmond (2016:347-348).


*kara-karawa blue-green


POC     *kara-karawa blue-green

Seimat axaxaw-anblue
Puluwat yaŕawaŕawvarious shades of light green (as grass or the wura parrot fish) or of light blue (as European eyes or the sky)
Sonsorol-Tobi xalawalawablue
Fijian karakarawablue, green, of color
  sa karawa na sē-ni-cōevening shades after sunset

Note:   Also Lau maragwa ~ marakwa ‘light green or blue’, Arosi marawa ‘green, blue (if bright)’, ARE marawa ‘green, unripe’, POc *ta-dawa ‘green’ (Grace 1969). Although all of these forms are clearly related, a specific reconstruction is hard to pin down. The common element is *rawa, but this rarely occurs alone or in combinations that would allow it to be extracted as a morpheme. Rather the reconstruction appears to have been a reduplicated form of *karawa, but whether the reduplication was leftward, as in Fijian kara-karawa, or rightward, as in Sonsorol-Tobi xalawa-lawa, varies from one witness to the next. To further complicate matters Admiralty and Papuan Tip languages support what appears to be a doublet *karawina, since no known morphological process would allow us to derive this form from *karawa.


*karamea tongue


POC     *karamea tongue

Lou karme-tongue
Nali kalame-tongue
Tolai karameatongue
Vaghua kalameatongue
Mota garamea-tongue
Canala kurumɛtongue

Note:   Also Tigak kalama ‘tongue’. Many languages in the Solomons and Vanuatu reflect only the last two syllables of this form, as with Roviana, Toqabaqita, Bauro mea-, Raga mea-, Maskelynes na mea-, Uripiv ne-me- ‘tongue’. It is unclear whether reflexes of the shorter form are products of historically independent shortening of *karamea, or reflect PCEMP *maya ‘tongue’.


*karani near


POC     *karani near     [doublet: *karaŋi]

Bugotu garaninear, near to
Proto-Micronesian *karaninear, close
Gilbertese kaannear, not far from, close to (in time or space)
Pohnpeian kɛrɛnnear, close
Wailengi ŋga-ŋgaraninear


*karanzaŋ rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc.


PWMP     *karanzaŋ rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc.

Ngaju Dayak karanjaŋa quarangular basket woven of rattan and used to transport fruit
Malay kəranjaŋbasket, hamper or crate of coarse wickerwork, used for packing and storing provisions, carrying fish to market, etc.
Toba Batak haranjaŋwoven basket used to carry tobacco leaves
Tontemboan karajabasket with wide opening woven of rattan and used to wash coffee and transport leafy vegetables and corn
Bare'e karandaround carrying basket made of rattan
Tae' karandaŋcarrying basket made of bamboo, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, used to transport bundles of rice
  pe-karandaŋput in a carrying basket


*karaŋ coral, limestone


PMP     *karaŋ coral, limestone

Malagasy háranaa rock, a rocky prominence, hill or mountain; also used for shells, coral, coral reefs, etc.
Malay karaŋcoral reef, in contrast to ridge of rocks; edible shellfish picked up on reefs when the tide is out; also used descriptively of fish that haunt coral reefs
  batu karaŋcoral rock
  buŋa karaŋsponge
Toba Batak haraŋcoral; volcanic tuff; cliff; reef
  tar-haraŋrun aground on a reef
Nias karastone, coral
Old Javanese karaŋcoral, coral rock, coral reef; probably also more general: any rock (in the sea or on the sea shore)
  watu karaŋcoral, coral stone, rock
  ma-karaŋwith coral; with rocks
Javanese karaŋcoral; coral reef
Proto-South Sulawesi *karaŋcoral
Makassarese karaŋcoral
  batu karaŋcoral rock
Sika karaŋcoral, from which the people make black armbands

Note:   Some of the forms cited here may be loanwords from Malay, but this seems unlikely in every case, since many of the speakers of these languages are in contact with the sea, and would have no reason to borrow a word for a feature of the physical environment with which they are intimately familiar. This is particularly true of Sika karaŋ, since the material reportedly was used to make armbands that were part of the traditional culture.

This word is in competition with the more widely-distributed PMP *sakaRu ‘coral reef’, and it remains unclear what difference of meaning might have distinguished them. One possibility is that *sakaRu referred to the structure and *karaŋ to the material, since reflexes of *batu karaŋ ‘coral stone’ are found in several languages, but a reflex of *batu with *sakaRu is unknown. Dempwolff included Tongan fatu-kala ‘stone, a variety of makahunu (a hard black stone used in native ovens and in grinding kava)’, and Samoan Ɂalā ‘kind of heavy, smooth volcanic stone (lightly pitted)’, but there is little reason to believe that these are anything more than chance resemblances.


*karaŋi near


POC     *karaŋi near     [doublet: *karani]

Mussau kala-kalaŋi-nanear
Nggela garaŋinear, be near
Talise garaŋinear

Note:   A somewhat longer form of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2003c:200-201).


*karasi to scrape off, peel off


POC     *karasi to scrape off, peel off

Mussau kalasito peel, as yams
'Āre'āre ʔarasi-ato scrape, polish, of wooden articles such as combs, bows; to sharpen, point a stick; grate coconuts
Arosi karasito scrape, bruise, take off skin

Note:   Also Tolai kalat ‘to peel, esp. fruit’.


*karat₁ rust


PWMP     *karat₁ rust

Agutaynen kalat-enfor something to rust, become rusty
Palawan Batak karatrusty
Malay karatrust; (fig.) corruption; deterioration
  karat gigitartar (on teeth)
Karo Batak karat-karat-ento rust; rusty
Balinese karatrust (refined speech)

Note:   For a careful discussion of this and other terms related to iron cf. Blust (2013).


*karat₂ a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta


POC     *karat₂ a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta

Tolai karastinging nettle species: Dendrocnide sessiflora, Laportea interrupta
Kove galaa stinging plant related to latoDendrocnide latifolia)
Tape nə-xārətstinging nettle
V'ënen Taut n-harətstinging nettle
Namakir karnettle tree
Nakanamanga na-karanettle tree

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Chowning (2001:83), and again by Ross (2008e:233). The reconstruction of the final consonant in this form is critically dependent on witnesses for which the historical phonology is still very poorly known.


*karawina blue-green


POC     *karawina blue-green     [doublet: *kara-karawa]

Lou arawinblue-green
Titan karowinblue-green
Dobuan kara-karawinablue

Note:   Also Ahus aroan ‘blue-green’, Likum ñarawin ‘blue-green’, Lindrou ñarawin ‘blue’, ñorowon ‘green’.


*karáy plastron, turtle shell


PPh     *karáy plastron, turtle shell

Ilokano karáyplastron, turtle shell
Bikol karáybreastplate made of bone


*karis to scratch, scrape


PMP     *karis₁ scratch, scrape

Casiguran Dumagat kahesbark of the sugarcane stalk; to shave the bark off a stalk of sugarcane with a bolo
Bikol mag-káristo shave hair with a razor or knife; to shave the head or face
Kayan karihearth or other substances disturbed by scratching (as by chickens)
  pe-karihto scratch about in earth (as chickens scratching for food)
Malay garisscratch, abrasion; of scratches on the skin; also of striking a match
Proto-Minahasan *karisstripe, streak, scratch
Manggarai karisscratch mark


POC     *kari to scratch, scrape

Tolai karto scratch
Kove kari-sito scrape, scratch
Nggela karito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut
  kari-karito scratch on the path, as a brush turkey
  kari-sito peel off skin or stem of a plant, or stick; to circumcize
Wayan karibe scraped, scratched with a scraper
Fijian karito scrape, chiefly of coconut

Note:   With root *-ris₂ ‘scratch a line’.


*karkar scratch up the earth, as a fowl


PAN     *karkar scratch up the earth, as a fowl

Amis karkardig in the soil
Tagalog kalkálscratching or scraping off with the fingernails; scraped or scratched off
Maranao karkardig into earth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) karkarto dig or remove earth with a scratching motion of the hands
Proto-Minahasan *karkarscratch, dig out (as a fowl scratching up the ground)
Gedaged kakazi ~ kekazibreak the earth with a stick, delve, dig up


POC     *kakar-i to scratch up the earth, as a fowl

Tolai karto scratch
Nggela kakar-ito eat away land, of waves
  kar-ito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut; to scrape out white of coconut; to scale a fish
Fijian kar-ito scrape, chiefly of coconut

Note:   Also Paiwan kakar-an ‘harrow’, Kayan (Uma Juman) kar ‘to scratch up (as a chicken scratching up the ground in search of food’, Ujir kar ‘scratching up, as a chicken scratching up the soil’.


*karus to scratch, scrape


PAN     *karus to scratch, scrape     [doublet: *kerus]

Paiwan karutrake
Ilokano kárusscraper
  i-kárusto scrape; (fig.) to insist
  karús-anto card (maguey fibers)
  karús-ento scrape, level with a strickle
Kankanaey kalús-anto scrape
Bikol mag-károsto grate or scrape
Maranao karosto scratch
  mia-karosbe scratched (as by a cat)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) karusto scratch someone with the fingernails or claws
Wolio karuscratching or scraping sound
  karu-sito scratch, scrape, scratch out, rake out, scrape clean


*karut₁ scrape, rasp


PAN     *karut₁ scrape, rasp

Amis karotrake the muddy fields with a buffalo; rake rubbish
Isneg kárutsharpen the edge of a tool by means of another blade
Ifugaw (Batad) kalutfor someone to dig or scrape something from something else with the hands, paws, or suitable instrument, as to scrape food remains from a container; for a dog to dig a hole
Cebuano kalútscratch an itch
Malay karutrasp
Proto-Minahasan *karutscrape out, scratch out


POC     *kadrut to scratch an itch

Seimat axut-ito scratch
Sesake karut-ito scratch
Fijian kadruto scratch
  kadru-tato scratch something


*karut₂ coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut


POC     *karut₂ coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut

Hula kaluhalf-ripened coconut
Motu karua young coconut; unformed, unripe
Petats ka-karutcoconut containing liquid before flesh appears
Longgu ʔarua coconut ready to drink and eat
Toqabaqita qaru[gloss]
'Āre'āre arua green coconut, good for drinking

Note:   Also 'Āre'āre aro ‘a green coconut, good for drinking’. A slightly longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross and Evans (2008:363), who also list 'Āre'āre aru ‘green drinking coconut’, although Geerts (1970) actually gives the phonologically incompatible aro ‘a green coconut, good for drinking’.


*kaRa member of the parrot family


PEMP     *kaRa member of the parrot family

Ansus karacockatoo
Ambai karacockatoo


POC     *kaRa male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus

Lusi karaparrot
Kove kahaparrot
Halia kala-kalaEclectus Parrot
Roviana karathe general name for parrots
Kwaio a-ʔalamale of king parrot (Larius roratus), female is ɁufoɁufo (sexual dimorphism is extreme in this species)
'Āre'āre aralarge green parrot, red under the wings
Arosi karaparrot
Wayan ka-kā(obsolescent) a bird, possibly the Collared Lory, Phygis solitarius, which informants say was present on Waya a generation ago but is no longer there
Fijian parrot
  ka-kāseveral species of parrot: Prospeia splendens
Tongan ka-kāparrot

Note:   Also Proto-Admiralty *kareŋV ‘red parrot’. The Oceanic part of this comparison was first presented in print by Clark (2011:321-322).


*kaRaC to bite


PAN     *kaRaC to bite

Kavalan qaRatto bite
Amis mi-kalatto bite; to be burned, as by the sun; to have an allergic reaction
Proto-Rukai *kaʔacəto bite
Puyuma karaTto nibble, bite (insect)
Paiwan katsbite


PMP     *kaRat to bite

Ifugaw kalátto bite; mostly applied to dogs, seldom to human persons, e.g. when someone bites in a fruit
Casiguran Dumagat məg-kagetto bite
Tagalog kagáta bite; sting, a prick or wound by a bee
  kagat-ánto bite a piece off something
Bikol kagáta bite
  ma-kagátto get bitten
  mag-kagátto bite
  ma-ŋagátto go around biting (as a mad dog)
Masbatenyo kagátto bite, sting, pinch (also refers to the pinch of a crab)
Inati kadatto bite
Aklanon kagátclaw, pincher (of crab)
Waray-Waray kagátthe act of biting
Hiligaynon mag-kagátto bite, to snap, to catch between the teeth
Cebuano kagátbite to inflict injury; grab or hold something; catch, snag so as to hold firmly
  k<um>agátready to bite at the least provocation
  kagt-ánadult freshwater shrimp with well-developed pincers
Maranao kagatitch; scratch
Binukid kagatto bite (something or someone)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaγatof any toothed creature, to bite
Mansaka kagatto bite, to sting
Malay ber-karatfighting with tooth and claw
Karo Batak (Kembaren) ŋ-karatto bite
  ŋ-harat-ito bite on something
Toba Batak maŋ-haratto bite
  maŋ-harat-ito bite to pieces
Ponosakan kahatto bite
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *kaRato bite
Moronene moŋ-keato bite
Muna siabite into (as in biting into a banana)
  siat-ito bite many items/many times
Popalia kahato bite
Rotinese kato bite, to chew with the teeth
Yamdena n-karatto bite
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) karato bite
Bobot kasatto bite
Masiwang katto bite
Kowiai/Koiwai na-ʔaratto bite, nibble
Tigak kagatto bite
Nalik kərətto bite
Tabar arat-iato bite
Tolai karatto bite
Lakalai alato bite a thing or animal; by extension, to catch a pig, of a dog or a man hunting with dogs
Pokau ara-rato bite
Piva kanatato bite
Mono-Alu ʔa-ʔatato bite
Lungga γaratato bite
Roviana garatato bite
Sa'a alato bite, sting, be sharp-edged
Santa Ana γarato bite


PWMP     *ma-ŋaRat to bite

Ifugaw ma-ŋalátto bite
Karo Batak ŋ-karatto bite
Toba Batak maŋ-haratto bite
Mongondow mo-ŋaratto bite, to gnaw, of mice, worms, etc.


PPh     *kaRat-en to be bitten

Isneg kaxat-ánto bite
Tagalog kagat-ínto bite; to seize, cut into or cut off with the teeth
Bikol kagat-ónto bite
Hanunóo kagt-únbe bitten


PAN     *kaRaC-i bite (imperative)

Kavalan qaRat-ibite (imper.)


POC     *kaRati to bite

Vitu haratito bite
Wampar arto bite
Gabadi arasibite
Saliba kalas-ito bite
Sudest gharȉ-gharȉto bite
Uruava karasito bite
Torau karat-iato bite
Mono-Alu ʔa-ʔatito bite
Roviana garat-iato bite (trans.)
Nggela galatito bite; to hold between the teeth
Talise γalat-iato bite
'Āre'āre ara-iato bite
Nokuku keti-ato bite
Lingarak -xasto bite
Fijian katito bite
  kati-ato bite (trans.)
Samoan ʔatito bite; to get into, attack (said of pests, as termites attacking a tree)
Nukuoro gadibite
Rarotongan katito bite; to hold or engage, as something that has been fastened to another thing and it does not slip loose; to seize or tear with the teeth
Maori katibite, nip; trap for rats; nip, squeeze
  ka-katisting, bite; eat, gnaw; be clenched, as the teeth; intense; keen, acrid, sour
Hawaiian ʔakito take a nip and let go; to nibble, as fish; to bite off the bark of sugarcane; to heal, as a wound; to scar over; sharp recurring pain, as in head or stomach


PAN     *ma-kaRaC to be bitten

Paiwan ma-katsbe(come) bitten


PMP     *ma-kaRat to be bitten

Tagalog má-kagátto be bitten, to be stung


PAN     *k<um>aRaC to bite

Kavalan q<m>aRatto bite; to hold between the teeth; acrid, itchy taste of taro
Saisiyat k<om>aLasto bite
Atayal k<m>atto bite
Sakizaya mu-kalat <Mto bite
Bunun kalatto bite (as an animal biting a person)
Tsou borcəto bite
Saaroa um-a-aracəto bite
Puyuma k<əm>araTto bite (as in a dog biting a person)
Paiwan k<m>atsto bite


PMP     *k<um>aRat to bite

Agta (Dupaningan) k<um>agetto bite
Isneg k<um>axātto bite
Ifugaw k<um>alátwill bite
Casiguran Dumagat k<um>agetbig enough to bite (subject must be non-human)
Tagalog k<um>agátto bite; to seize, cut into or cut off with the teeth


PAN     *k<in>aRaC-an the bite of an animal

Kavalan q<n>aRat-anthe bite (of a dog, etc.)
Atayal k<n>at-ana bite (dog, snake, etc.)


*kaRadkad sound of grinding or grating


PPh     *kaRadkad sound of grinding or grating

Ilokano karadákadsound of walking over gravel
Mansaka kagadkadto make a grating sound (as a cart )


*kaRaka to crawl


POC     *kaRaka to crawl

Mussau kalaato crawl
Bola karakato crawl
Takia karakto creep, crawl
Tamambo harahato crawl (of child)
Efate (North) karakawalk bent over, hands supporting body (indicates child will soon walk properly)

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2016:396-397).


*kaRakap crab sp.


PMP     *kaRakap crab sp.

Sangir kahakaʔcrab
Palauan kəsákoland crab
Chamorro hagahafrock crab: Crapsus tenuicrustatus Herbst
Gedaged kazaga crab
Wayan ka-kakakind of land crab
Fijian (Eastern) ŋgakamangrove crab

Note:   This comparison (less the Sangir cognate) was first noted in print by Geraghty (n.d.) who, however, supplies only a POc reconstruction.


*kaRaskas rustling sound


PPh     *kaRaskas rustling sound

Ilokano karasákasrustling sound; shuffling sound of feet on floor; crumpling sound
  ag-karasákasto make a rustling sound
Bontok kalasákasto produce a rushing, rustling or rattling noise, as the sound of water rushing down a cliff, stones rattling down a slide, the sound made when pushing against the leaves of plants or through tall grass
  kalaskasto push one’s way through bushes, to find one’s way through brush
Cebuano kagaskásrustling sound; to rustle (as dry leaves in the wind)
Mansaka kagaskasto make a rustling sound

Note:   The occasional insertion of a vowel between the consonants of a reduplicated monosyllable, and even the stressing of that inserted vowel has parallels in other forms, as in Ilokano dapádap < PWMP *dapdap₂ ‘to grope’. Note that Bontok has both variants.


*kaRaw₁ to scratch an itch


PAN     *kaRaw₁ to scratch an itch

Kavalan qaRawto scratch (with fingernails)
Pazeh ka-kaxawto scratch
Bunun (Takituduh) ma-kalavto scratch an itch
Bikol kágawto scratch a part of the body (as to relieve an itch)
Kelabit karothe act of scratching (an itch)
  ŋaroto scratch an itch
Cham (Eastern) karawscratch an itch
Sangir me-kahoto scratch an itch
Balaesang ka-kaoscratch (an itch, the body)
Bonerate kahoto scratch
Popalia kahoto scratch
Bimanese kaoto scratch (as when itchy)
Komodo haoto scratch
Sika garoto scratch
Kédang karoto scratch
Helong kaloto scratch


POC     *kaRo to scratch

Mussau kalo-kalo-ato scratch
Tolai karto scratch
Kove kahoto scratch
Motu γa-γaro-ato scratch
Selau karoto scratch
Kokota γaroto scratch
Lungga γaroto scratch
Arosi ʔaroto itch; to scratch
Santa Ana γa-γaroto scratch
Ngwatua karo-ato scratch
Vartavo kar-karoto scratch
Rotuman ʔaoto scratch, scrape; to scrape or rake together (ashes, rubbish, etc.); to scrape off, scrape or scratch up, etc.


PAN     *k<um>aRaw to scratch an itch

Kavalan q<m>aRawto scratch (with fingernails)
Saisiyat (Tungho) k<om>a:-kaawto scratch (with fingernails)
Pazeh mu-kaxawto scratch (oneself)

Note:   Also Thao kulhaw ‘to scratch, as an itchy place’, ka-kulhaw ‘rake or harrow used in agriculture; back-scratcher’, Ilokano kágaw ‘germ; itch mite’, Toba Batak hao ‘scratch (an itch) with one’s hand’.


*kaRaw₂ chicken flea, itch mite


PWMP     *kaRaw₂ chicken flea, itch mite

Itbayaten kayawchicken flea
Ilokano kágawgerm; itch mite
Isneg káxawthe itch mite
Bontok kagəwchicken louse
Kankanaey kágewitch mite
Tagalog kágawa mite or very small insect that causes itch
Bikol mag-kágawto scratch a part of the body (as to relieve an itch)
Masbatenyo kágawgerm, microbe, bug, bacteria, virus
Waray-Waray kágawmicrobe, germ
Hiligaynon kágawgerm, microbe
Cebuano kágawgerms; be contaminated with germs
Maranao kagawgerms
Binukid kagawgerms
Mansaka kagawgerms
Tausug kagawsmall vermin found in sores, germs, microbes
Rungus Dusun kahawchicken lice
Minokok kaawchicken lice

Note:   Apparently distinct from PAn *kaRaw₁ ‘to scratch’. For reasons that remain unclear Ilokano, Bontok and Kankanaey all show what Conant (1911) called ‘the stereotyped g’ as a reflex of *R.


*kaRem capsize, of a boat; sink


PWMP     *kaRem capsize, of a boat; sink

Maranao kagemimmerse; capsize; waterlogged, as a boat that has capsized
Ida'an Begak kagomsink
Lun Dayeh karemcapsizing
Kelabit karemcapsize, of a boat
Kenyah (Long Anap) kaamcapsize, of a canoe
Kayan kahemfoundered, of a boat, capsized; collapsed, of house or structure
Kayan (Busang) kahammeet with an accident, go aground, sink; specifically: suffer a shipwreck
Kayan (Uma Juman) kahəmcollapse, as an old house or fieldhut; capsize, as a boat
Ngaju Dayak kahemsink, be demolished, be spoiled or destroyed
Iban karamawash, capsized, wrecked, foundered (strictly, karam applies to boats or anything that floats, and means full of, or covered with water so as to be unmanageable)
Malay karamto founder, be engulfed, of ships being wrecked; (fig.) of disaster generally
Acehnese karamsuffer an accident, sink, shipwreck
Gayō karamcapsize, sink; ruin, spoil; chaotic
  mu-karamcapsize, sink
Simalur karəmannihilate, destroy
Toba Batak haromcapsize, of boats, go down, sink; symbolically used for terrible misfortune
Madurese karemfounder, be engulfed, of ships
Sasak karemto sink


PWMP     *ma-ŋaRem to sink something; to destroy

Lun Dayeh ŋaremcause a boat to capsize
Ngaju Dayak ma-ŋahemto sink or capsize something; to despoil; destroy, demolish
Simalur ma-ŋarəmannihilate, destroy
  ma-ŋarəm-kəndestroy something
Toba Batak maŋ-harom-honannihilate, destroy

Note:   Also Karo Batak karam ‘meet with an accident; to perish, of a ship’, Sundanese kalem ‘sink, disappear under water’, Old Javanese karem ‘submerge, sink, drown’, Javanese kèlem ~ kèrem ‘sink, become submerged, of a ship’, Balinese keleb ‘sink, go under (in water)’ ~ kelem ‘sink, go under, drown’.


*kaReteŋ marine fish: sea perch


PWMP     *kaReteŋ marine fish: sea perch

Ilokano kagtéŋkind of striped marine fish larger than the birút (kind of freshwater fish, Eleotris melanosoma)
Malay kərtaŋa fish, the perch: Epinephelus pantherinus

Note:   Also Bikol kugtóŋ ‘kind of large saltwater fish’.


*kaRi₁ word, speech, language


PAN     *kaRi₁ word, speech, language

Saisiyat kaLiɁlanguage
Seediq (Truku) kariword, speech, language, voice
Kanakanabu kaárilanguage
Saaroa karilanguage
Paiwan kailanguage, speech, words
  ma-tja-kaito take one’s turn speaking
  ru-kai-kaito chatter, be a chatterbox
Ilokano karípromise, vow
Isneg kaxíspeech, talk, language
  pag-kag-kaxímeans of saying, of telling, of talking
  kaxi-yánto say, to tell
Itawis ma-kahíto be able to tell
  mak-kahíto say
  kay-ánto tell
Bontok kalíspeech; word; the local dialect, the language of one’s home town or village, particularly the Bontok language; the call of an animal or bird; the sound that something makes
Kankanaey ma-kalíto babble, to prattle; to jabber; to gossip
  men-kalíto speak; to talk; to emit a sound
  kali-énto call
Ifugaw kalíspeech, language, word; to speak, to say, tell something
  pa-ŋalí-nait is his way of speaking
Casiguran Dumagat kágitalk, speech, language; to say, to speak; to decide; to think
  kágitalk, speech, language; to say, to speak, to decide, to think
Remontado káyispeech, language
Binukid kagiword; speech
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kaǥito say; to speak; to talk
Klata kolito say


*kaRi₂ bivalve species used as a scraper


POC     *kaRi₂ bivalve species used as a scraper

Nggela galispecies of mollusc, Asaphis deflorata; eaten
Toqabaqita ʔalispecies of bivalve shellfish: its shell is used as a scraper to clean taros, breadfruit, etc. that have been roasted in the fire, to scrape out the flesh of a coconut, and as a spoon
Sa'a alia cockle
Mota gara cockle shell, used to cut yam vines, and to scrape out meat of coconut
Raga garicockle shell; used as a scraper
Fijian kaigeneric name of bivalve shellfish: Lamellibranchiata

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Pawley (2011:191).


*kaRiŋ dry


PWMP     *kaRiŋ dry     [doublet: *kaRaŋ]

Ilokano káriŋdried fish
Kalamian Tagbanwa kagiŋthoroughly dry
Cebuano kagiŋstiff (as jerked meat which has been left out too long)
Mansaka kagiŋto be dried (as smoked fish or sun-dried meat)
Ma'anyan kariŋdry


*kaRiqit sound of scratching


PMP     *kaRiqit sound of scratching

Cebuano kagíʔitmake a creaking sound
Malay keritsound of scratching, grating or gnawing; to gnaw
Manggarai keritscratch (with hand, comb); scream, shriek


*kaRiskis scrape, scratch


PPh     *kaRiskis scrape, scratch     [doublet: *kaRitkit]

Ilokano kariskis-ento scrape tree bark; to scrape the outside of a pot
Cebuano kagiskisa shrill, scraping, scratching sound; make a shrill scraping sound


*kaRitkit sound of grating, rain pounding, etc.


PPh     *kaRitkit sound of grating, rain pounding, etc.

Ilokano karitíkitsound of a running mouse or a shuffling hen; sound of rain; sound of jingling
Cebuano kagitkítgrinding, grating sound; make a grinding, grating sound


*kaRkaR to dry something in the sun


PWMP     *kaRkaR to dry something in the sun     [disjunct: *kagkag]

Casiguran Dumagat kágkagto dry in the sun (of rice, meat, clothes, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kagkagto dry something in the sun
  peni-ŋagkagto warm oneself in the sun
Lun Dayeh kakarspreading of grains such as paddy or corn on a mat to dry in the sun


*kaRu₁ to swim


POC     *kaRu₁ to swim

Kwara'ae aruto swim
Sikaiana kauto swim
Mota garuto advance by motion of legs and arms, so to wade and swim, of men
Fortsenal karuto swim
Peterara xa-xaruto swim
Northeast Ambae karuto swim
Raga ga-garuto swim; to float by moving arms and legs; to take a bath
Kwamera aruto swim
Tongan ka-kauto swim, of men and ducks, etc., but not fish
Niue ka-kauto swim
Samoan ʔaʔauto swim
Tuvaluan ka-kauto swim
  kau-kauto bathe, take a bath or shower
Rennellese ka-kauto swim
Rarotongan kauto swim, to float, to paddle, as in the water
  aka-kauto make or cause to swim or float
  kau-kauto swim or float about or around, to bathe or take a bath; swimming, bathing
Maori kau-hoeto swim (hoe = ‘push away with the hand; paddle’)
Rapanui kauto swim
Hawaiian ʔauto swim, travel by sea
  hō-ʔauto teach to swim, learn to swim; to swim with a drowning person

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2016:405-406), who included Titan kaw from the languages of the Admiralties, a form that is unlike any that I elicited for the meaning ‘swim’ when conducting a linguistic survey of the Admiralties in 1975.


*kaRu₂ say, tell; speak


POC     *kaRu₂ say, tell; speak

Gedaged azuword; speech, talk, sermon, address; language, dialect
Proto-Trukic *kaúto say, tell (Jackson 1983:184)


*kaRud scrape, grate, rasp


PMP     *kaRud scrape, grate, rasp

Bontok kagúdto remove rice grain from the stalk by scraping or trampling, preparatory to planting
Tagalog kagódgrating sound, as that of a coconut against the coconut grater
Cebuano kagúdgrind something to shreds by rubbing or scraping it; abrade, wear off
Binukid kagudto scrape something out of something else (as meat out of a coconut)
Mansaka kagodto grate
Tausug mag-kagudto scrape, remove something by scraping
Malay karutrasp
Arosi karuto scratch


*kaRuki sand crab


PMP     *kaRuki sand crab

Chamorro haguhisand crab
Kosraean kuluk <Asand crab
Marshallese karukwhite sand crab
Puluwat yár'iksmall edible crab

Note:   Also Kove karoko ‘crab’, Fijian kauke( -e for expected -i) ‘small whitish land crab found in sandy beaches’.


*kaRuŋkuŋ gullet, throat


PWMP     *kaRuŋkuŋ throat

Ibaloy KaloŋKoŋgeneral term for both trachea and esophagus – the anatomical part both in humans and animals
Malay keroŋkoŋgullet, uvula

Note:   Also KALL galuŋguŋ ‘throat’, Isinay galuŋguŋ ‘throat’, Malay keleŋkoŋ ‘uvula’, kereŋkoŋ ‘roof of the mouth; gullet; uvula’, roŋkoŋ ‘larynx; gullet’, Toba Batak ruŋkuŋ ‘neck’. Possibly *ka-Ruŋkuŋ.


*kaRus scrape


PAN     *kaRus scrape     [doublet: *garus 'scratch']

Bunun ma-kalusto scratch hard (as a cat)
Paiwan karutrake
Ilokano kárusscraper; anything that can be used to scrape out the meat of coconuts, or to scrape pawpaws or papayas into shreds for salad; for instance, a potsherd, piece of coconut shell, etc.
Cebuano kágusscrape something that is hard and coarse
Ngaju Dayak karusrustling sound, as in dry leaves
Nggela garu, garus-ito scratch
Arosi karuto scratch

Note:   Tsuchida's (1976:174) proto-Southern-Formosan *kaRus ‘scoop out’ may be related.


*kaRuskus dull rustling sound


PPh     *kaRuskus dull rustling sound

Pangasinan kaluskusrustling noise