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Updated: 5/31/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


la    le    li    lo    lu    


























































































































































































































































































*laba big, large


PMP     *laba big, large

Malagasy lavalong, tall
  mana-lávato lengthen


POC     *lapa big, large

Seimat la-lapbig, large
Nggela lavagreat (in a few compounds)
Sa'a lahabig (not in common use)
Arosi rahabig, great, large
Pohnpeian laplarge in stature; important or physically large
Puluwat lapbe large, big, old, important
Mota lavagreat, large
Rano mi-lepbig
Maori rahaopen, extended
Hawaiian lahaextended, spread out, broad; circulated, broadcast

Note:   On the basis of just the Malagasy and Sa'a forms given here Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *laba ‘big, large’. There can be little doubt about the validity of POc *lapa ‘big, large’. However, given the absence of other known forms in island Southeast Asia, the connection of the Oceanic forms to Malagasy lava may be a product of convergence.


*lababa flat-topped coral head


POC     *lababa flat-topped coral head

Tolai lalā (< *la-lapa)piece of hard, flat coral
Motu lababaflat-topped umbrella-shaped rock in the sea
Samoan lapaflat-topped coral head
Maori rapaanything broad and flat
Hawaiian poʔo lapa-lapaa square head

Note:   In addition to the other changes they underwent, I assume that the Tolai and Polynesian forms were reduced by haplology.


*lábag bundle of thread or plant fibers


PPh     *lábag bundle of thread or plant fibers

Ilokano lábagstrand; single needleful of thread; line; passage (in literature)
  saŋa-lábagone strand
  l<in>ábagthreadlike strand
  labág-ento separate strands from
Cebuano labág ~ lábaga bundle of abaca fibers consisting of thirty-two smaller bunches; any large bundle of threads or yarn; to group fibers into bunches

Note:   Surprisingly, reflexes of *lábag have not been found in any other language, including Tagalog. The likelihood that this is a loan distribution is thus virtually nil.


*labag against, contrary to custom


PPh     *labag against, contrary to custom

Casiguran Dumagat labágagainst, contrary; to break a law, rule or custom
Ayta Abellan labagdisobey; to transgress, go across a line of what is right and wrong; be against (as against one’s will)
Tagalog labágagainst; contrary to; violating
  l<um>abágto go against; to violate (as a law)


*labak wide open


PMP     *labak wide open

Cebuano lábakfor a sore or an infected wound to be opened wide
Sasak labakspacious, wide
Manggarai labakwide (of the mouth, the opening of a lamp-fly nest, etc.)

Note:   Also Cebuano labɁák ‘get to have spaces or omissions in between; cause something to do so, skip’.


*la(m)bak slam something down


PMP     *la(m)bak slam something down

Cebuano labákthrow something hard on the ground
Ngadha labadrum, to drum; strike, beat, hit, knock, batter
Buruese ef-lafaflap (wings)
Motu lapastrike, as with sword or flat weapon

Note:   With root *-bak₂ sound of a heavy smack.


*laban₁ besides, except


PWMP     *laban₁ besides, except

Hiligaynon labánbesides, except, moreover, furthermore
Iban labanbecause, owing to

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*laban₂ oppose, go against someone


PMP     *laban₂ oppose, go against someone

Ilokano lábanfight, quarrel; feud; competition
  l<um>ábanto fight; compete
Casiguran Dumagat lábanwar, battle; to fight (in a war)
Pangasinan lábancompetition; opponent; fight
  i-lábanto liberate
  on-lábanto fight
  ka-lábanenemy, foe
Kapampangan lábanoppose, compete, fight against
Tagalog lábanfight, conflict
Cebuano lábantake sides with; defend someone in a lawsuit; defend one’s honor
Mansaka labanto resist, to challenge
Kadazan Dusun havanto oppose, resist, disobey
Malay lawanopposition; an adversary
  ber-lawanin rivalry with; having a rival
  lawan-ito contend against
Sundanese lancanopponent
Old Javanese lawanmatch, opponent, adversary
Javanese lawanenemy, opponent
  ŋe-lawanto fight
Sasak lawanagainst, opposed to (in a fight); put up resistance
Tae' laato check, stop; prevent, oppose
Paulohi lahan-efriend, companion


PMP     *laban-an oppose, go against someone

Tagalog laban-ánfight, conflict; clash
Cebuano (dialectal) labán-antending to take sides with one’s child or other person in whom one is interested
Javanese lawan-anto resist, oppose


*la(m)baŋ go beyond, go over, go past


PWMP     *la(m)baŋ go beyond, go over, go past     [doublet: *labeŋ 'abundance, surplus']

Cebuano labaŋcross something, go across, bring across
Bare'e lambago past, go beyond, go through


*labas pass by, overlook something when searching; to pass by (of time)


PPh     *labas pass by, overlook something when searching; to pass by (of time)

Yami avaspass by
  ka-pi-avaspassed by
  ni-mi-avaspassed by
Itbayaten xavasidea of excess in duration, quality, quantity
  pa-xavas-ento let pass
  xavas-anto pass by
Ibatan habaswhat is passed by (as by a person who is looking for something)
  h<om>abasto pass by (object, day or time)
Ilokano lábaspassing; overlooking of something
  ag-lábasto pass by, skip, omit
  ag-labas-lábasto come and go, pass back and forth
  ag-pa-lábasto let pass; tolerate; be understanding
  i-lábasto cause (a parade) to pass; pass by with something
  ma-labás-anto be passed by
Isneg na-lábaspast
Kankanaey na-labásgone; gone away; passed; passed on
  labas-nafavorably moment; opportunity
Casiguran Dumagat lábisexcessive, more than enough (as a pole that is longer than it needs to be); excess
Ibaloy on-dabasto pass, pass by
  debas-ento make, take , etc. something too far (as house dimension beyond the specifications, bananas beyond proper ripeness)
Pangasinan a-labástoo much, more than enough
  apa-labáspast (time, etc.)
  on-labásto go beyond, pass through; surplus, excess above requirements
Ayta Abellan labahto pass by
Kapampangan labaspass by, pass through (in the process of leaving, going out)


PPh     *pa-labas-en to let something pass by

Itbayaten pa-xavas-ento overdo
Ibatan pa-habas-anlet something pass by
Ilokano pa-labs-ento let go; not mind; let pass
Isneg pa-labás-anto let pass, to leave


PPh     *l<um>ábas to pass by

Itbayaten om-xavasto pass by, to go past, to come to pass
Ilokano l<um>ábasto pass by; pass on; pass through; get through


PPh     *labas-an to pass by, overlook

Itbayaten xavas-anto pass by
Ilokano labas-anto overpass someone; pass over; overlook

Note:   Also Binukid lagbas ‘to pierce, penetrate deeply in (something); to pass through something (as a nail piercing the foot)’.


*labat fence


PPh     *labat fence

Cebuano labátfence; patches made in clothing, walls, fence
Subanun (Sindangan) dlabatfence
Subanon glabatfence
Tboli labatfence; to put a fence around something
Bilaan (Sarangani) labatfence

Note:   Possibly a Cebuano loan distribution, although the regular phonological developments in Subanen/Subanun languages and the relative remoteness of Sarangani Blaan make this appear less likely.


*labaw₁ rat


PAN     *labaw₁ rat     [doublet: *balabaw, *kalabaw]

Kavalan mə-rabawfield rat
Puyuma ku-ɭabawrat (generic term)
Paiwan ku-lavawrat, mouse
  ku-lava-lavav-enlarge number of rats (be overrun by rats?)
Lun Dayeh labomouse, rat, squirrel; nickname for growing boys
Kelabit labomeat
  labo iikrat
  labo kətərsquirrel
Kayan lavawrat, mouse
Kayan (Long Atip) lavawrat, mouse
Tetun lahoa rat (rodent)
  laho tilunan edible mushroom (lit. ‘rat’s ear’)
Talur p-lahomouse, rat
Paulohi ma-laharat, mouse

Note:   A disyllabic base *labaw has been extracted from Formosan forms that disagree in the initial syllable. It is unclear why there are so many variants of this word that differ only in the initial CV-.


*labaw₂ project above, stick up


PPh     *labaw₂ project above, stick up

Kankanaey lábewcommitting excesses; troublesome; making a great fuss
  lab-lábewbeautiful; handsome; pretty
Ibaloy dabawthe top side
Bikol labáwprotruding or extending above; exceeding the height of other things nearby
  mag-labáwto be higher than; to protrude or extend above
Hanunóo lábawquality of being higher, above, exceeding, over or longer than (something else)
Agutaynen labawfor someone or something to be greater, higher, more important than everything else
Cebuano labawjut out higher than something, stick out farther from the margin or limit; be more, over in degree, number; be ahead in a contest; prevail over
Maranao labawvery, especially, more than
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lavewhighest; great; to exceed someone

Note:   With root *-baw₁ ‘high; top’.


*labay₁ thread, yarn


PWMP     *labay₁ thread, yarn

Ilokano lábayskein, measurement of yarn
  i-lábayto reel cotton yarn
Tagalog lábaya skein, a hank (of woolen yarn or thread)
Hanunóo lábaya type of yarn or thread
Ngaju Dayak lawayyarn (for sewing or weaving)
Malay lawaynumeral classifier for thread
  sa-laway bənaŋa piece of thread
Karo Batak lawea strand of thread
Sundanese labaysaid of something from which one or another object hangs down
Old Javanese lawethread, yarn
  laway-anyarn reel
Javanese lawethread, yarn


*la(m)béj wrap or wind around something


PPh     *la(m)béj wrap or wind around something

Bontok labə́dto bind; to wrap and tie
  l<in>abəda confection prepared on the first day of the apoy ceremony (ceremonial complex that occurs after the rice planting) and during ag-agom; it is made from powdered rice with fish or meat, and is wrapped and tied in banana leaf
Tagalog habídentangling obstacle
Agutaynen i-lambedto tie or wrap a rope around something, scuh as a tree trunk
  lambedto tie or wrap a rope around something, such as a tree trunk
Cebuano lambúdwing around, get wound around
Maranao labed ~lambedentangle, wind
Tiruray lambedto wind around

Note:   Tiruray lambed ‘to wind around’ appears to be a Danaw loan, although the source language is yet to be identified. With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*lab(e)náw thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute


PPh     *lab(e)náw thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute

Ilokano na-labnáwthin (said of liquids, soups, etc.), watery
Casiguran Dumagat lábnawto rinse (as scraps of food from plates, or soap from cloth)
Ayta Abellan labnawthin in consistency, as laundry starch or blood
Tagalog labnáwthinness or diluted condition of liquids
  pa-labnaw-ínto dilute or thin out
Cebuano (dialectal) labnáwheavily diluted, having too much water; be diluted, put too much water in a mixture
Mansaka labnawdiluted; weak (as coffee); to weaken by diluting, to dilute

Note:   Posibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano.


*lab(e)nuR a small tree, the septic fig: Ficus hauili Blanco


PPh     *lab(e)nuR a tree: Ficus sp.

Yami labnoya tree: Ficus fistulosa
Itbayaten yabnoytree with greenish fruit, found at edge of forest: Ficus integrifolia Elm., Ficus hauili Blanco
Ivatan yabnoyChinese banyan: Ficus hauili
Ibatan yabnoykind of softwood fig tree with inedible fruit
Aklanon eábnoga medicinal shrub: Ficus hauili Blanco.
Cebuano lagnúb <Merect shrub or small tree with smooth, glabrous, and shiny oval leaves, used to stop bleeding: Ficus hauili
Maranao labnoga tree: Garcinia sp.

Note:   Reflexes of PAn *l in Batanic languages show complex conditioning. In most environments *l became x in Itbayaten and h in the other languages (h ~ Ø in Yami). However, adjacent to *i they remain laterals, and in the sequence *lVR after the change *R > y they assimilated to the following consonant as yVy (e.g. PAn *qaluR ‘deep channel in river’ > Itbayaten ayoy ‘canal-like depth at sea, deep spot in the sea’, PAn *laRiw ‘run, run away. > Itbayaten yayoh (-h unexplained) ‘race’, *ma-laRiw ‘run, run away’ > Itbayaten ma-yayoh, Ivatan ma-yayo ‘to run’. Finally, *y or secondary y from *R both became l in Yami, masking the earlier change *l > y in the sequence *lVR.


*labeŋ abundance, surplus


PWMP     *labeŋ abundance, surplus

Aklanon eáboŋgrow steadily, multiply, expand, be prolific
Cebuano lábuŋabundant and long, of growth; exaggerating for the sake of bragging
Maranao labeŋfill up, overcrowd
Kayan laveŋsurplus, excess (of food, etc.)


*labeR₁ wide


PMP     *labeR₁ wide

Paiwan me-lavawide
Palawan Batak ma-labegwide
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ma-labelwide
Sangir ma-lambawide
Yamdena labarwidth

Note:   Also Malay lébar ‘wide’.


*labeR₂ roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered


PAN     *labeR₂ roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered

Amis lafelto let run loose, roam (as sheep that are not penned up)


PMP     *lambeR roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered

Makassarese lámbaraʔfree, wander about freely (of water buffalos, horses)

Note:   Although this comparsion is flawless, Buginese lampaɁ ‘free, as a domesticated animal loose from its tether’ suggests that the Makassarese form reflects *lambaR. If this interpretation is adopted the present etymology will be demoted from a cognate set capable of supporting a reconstruction to a near comparison, only implying one.


*labetik to flick or snap


PWMP     *labetik to flick or snap

Ilokano labtíkbeat, throb (of the heart), pant (out of breath)
Cebuano labtíkstrike with a flicking or snapping motion; for a mechanism to flick or snap; action of flicking
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) letikto flick something with the fingers
Tausug l<um>abtikto flap (as of a spring, rubber, or the tongue)
Malay lətekto flip about, as small fish hauled out on sand; to tick

Note:   With root *-tik₁ ‘spring up; flicking motion’.


*labi₁ excess; more than; surpass


PMP     *labi₁ excess; more than; surpass     [disjunct: *labiq, *lebiq]

Ilokano lábiremnant
  labí-enbe overdue
  labi-lábitoad; obese person
Bikol lábimore than
Hanunóo lábiexcessiveness
Cebuano labímore, greater; be greater than something else; excessive
Maranao labimore than
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lavito make something more so; to put a higher value on one thing than another
Tiruray labimore than
Ngaju Dayak labihsurplus; more
Tae' laʔbimore
Wolio labimore; profit, fruits (legal term)
Manggarai labimore; excess; surpass

Note:   Also Kapampangan labíɁ ‘excess, what is left over; survivor’.


*labi₂ freshwater turtle


PWMP     *labi₂ freshwater turtle

Palawano labifreshwater turtle
Malay labi-labisoft-shelled river turtle


*labid intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope


PPh     *labid intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope     [doublet: *lúbid]

Cebuano lábidbraid, become entwined
Maranao labidhug
Tiruray labida portion of a line where extra strands are twisted together for greater strength


*labi-labi soft-shelled river turtle


PWMP     *labi-labi soft-shelled river turtle

Tagalog labí-labísmall freshwater turtle (in some areas)
Palawano labifreshwater turtle
Tombonuwo labitype of small, soft-shelled turtle
Iban labisoft-shelled or freshwater turtle: Trionynx cartilagineus Boulanger and other spp.
Malay labi-labisoft-shelled river turtle
Karo Batak labi-labia small freshwater turtle
Toba Batak labia small freshwater turtle: Trionyx

Note:   Also Lun Dayeh labi ‘a large freshwater mud turtle’. Possibly a Malay introduction in the Philippines.


*labiq excess, surplus


PAN     *labiq excess, surplus

Paiwan mu-laviqto overflow
  pa-pu-laviqto fill something to overflowing
Ilokano lábiremnant
Kapampangan labíʔexcess, what is left over; survivor
Tagalog labíʔremains; what is left; surplus; excess
Mansaka labimore; most; to be above; higher; Lord: Most High
Ngaju Dayak labihmore
  ka-labihexcess, surplus
  la(bi)-labiha little more
Sangir labisurpass, excel
Bare'e yabiremainder, surplus, what is left over, more
Wolio labiremnant; more
Muna labhimore, more than, over
Kambera lebiabundant, more than usual, royal, excessive


PWMP     *labiq-en (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano labi-ento be overdue
Ngaju Dayak labi-enmore

Note:   Also Tagalog labí ‘remains; what is left; surplus; excess’, Cebuano labí ‘more, greater; be greater than something else, or excessive’, Maranao labi ‘more than’, Tausug labi ‘extra, excess’, Malay ləbeh ‘more; in excess’, mə-ləbeh’ to surpass’, Toba Batak lobi ‘more, too much, excess’, lobi-lobi ‘excess, what is left over’, Javanese luwih ‘more than; exceeding normal bounds’. Without the Paiwan cognate this set of data would best be treated as a near comparison. Based on forms in western Indonesia and the non-conforming Tagalog form Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *lebiq ‘excess; more’.


*lábis exceed; excessive


PPh     *lábis exceed; excessive     [doublet: *labi]

Casiguran Dumagat lábisexcessive, more than enough, excess (as a pole that is longer than it needs to be)
Ayta Abellan labihmore than; excess
Hanunóo lábisan excessive amount; more,
Tiruray labisextra amount

Note:   Tiruray labis is clearly a Danaw loanword (Blust 1992), but an exact source language is yet to be determined, and its loan status does not detract from the fact that it is found near the southern extremity of the Philippines, making this etymology attested from northeast Luzon to southern Mindanao.


*labit hook with fingers


PPh     *labit hook with fingers

Itbayaten xavitidea of hand-carry
  mag-xavitto carry in hand
  xavit-ento hold or carry by the hand
Cebuano labitto stitch with a loop that holds but can be unravelled

Note:   With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*labu₁ to fool, deceive


PWMP     *labu₁ to fool, deceive

Cebuano labuto fool someone by flattery or lies
Malay labuto fool, ‘pull one’s leg’ (Echols and Shadily)


*labu₂ ashen, grayish


PMP     *labu₂ ashen, grayish     [doublet: *qabu]

Kelabit labuhgray, color of darker clouds
Buruese lafuashes


*la(m)bug₁ throw out (of a container or enclosure)


PWMP     *la(m)bug₁ throw out (of a container or enclosure)

Cebuano lábugthrow out (from a container, etc.)
Malay lambokthrow up (as dirt from a trench being dug)


*la(m)bug₂ turbid


PWMP     *la(m)bug₂ turbid

Tagalog lábogturbidity of liquid due to muddiness or colloidality
Iban lambokthe disturbed water in rapids
Paulohi ma-malato dry up, evaporate

Note:   Also Tagalog labóʔ ‘(applied to liquids) turbidity’.


*la(m)buk to pound rice


PWMP     *la(m)buk to pound rice     [disjunct: *lebuk]

Bikol mag-labókto crush or pound with a pestle; crush toasted rice
Proto-South Sulawesi *lambu(k)to pound rice

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’.


*labuŋ abundant, growing profusely


PPh     *labuŋ abundant, growing profusely

Ayta Abellan laboŋmany; to grow, increase (as the membership of a group)
Binukid ma-labúŋabundant, long, thick of growth; thick, dense; to grow thick, abundantly


*labuq₁ to fall; drop anchor


PWMP     *labuq₁ to fall; drop anchor’

Maranao laboʔdisembark; anchor
Subanun (Sindangan) mɨ-labuʔto fall
Tiruray lawuʔto drop something
Samal labuto fall
Kenyah laboʔto fall (accidentally)
  pe-laboʔto let drop
Katingan laβuʔto fall
Ma'anyan laβuʔto fall
Malagasy lávofallen (applied mostly to living things)
Dusun Witu laβuʔto fall
Iban labohfall, drop, let fall
Tsat phu⁵⁵to fall
Malay labohlowering by means of a cord, of dropping a curtain, letting down a net or deep-sea fishing line, or casting anchor; also, to execute by drowning
  ber-labohto lie at anchor
Nias lawu-lawuwaterfall
Sundanese labuh(of people) fall to the ground; dropping of an anchor
Old Javanese (m)a-labuhto cast oneself down (on or into something) and seek one’s death; to cast something into the water
  pa-labw-ananchorage, harbor
  l<um>abuhto cast oneself (into the fire, into the water, onto the rocks), to seek one’s death; to cast anchor
  labw-anrainfall (after the dry season)
Javanese labuhto drop anchor; fall, i.e. the brief season between the close of the dry season and the onset of the rains, during which leaves fall
  ŋe-labuhto fling into the sea as appeasement to the deities
Balinese labuhto fall, fall off, fall down; anchor; to beach a boat
Tae' labu-ito sink, go down
  ma-labuto sink, go down, fall to the ground
Makassarese labusunk, as a ship; driven in, as a thorn in the sole of the foot or a dagger in someone’s body
  labu batuanchorage (‘the sinking of the anchor stone’)
Wolio labuanchor; to drop anchor, land a boat
Kambera labuanchor
  watu labuanchor stone

Note:   Also Tiruray labuɁ ‘to drop anchor’. With root *-buq ‘fall’.


*labuq₂ the bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria


PWMP     *labuq₂ the bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria

Palawano labuʔsquash, pumpkin
Tiruray labuʔa general term for the common gourd: Lagenaria leucantha (Duch.) Rusby
Tboli labukthe bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria
Kadazan Dusun hobuʔcalabash, type of gourd
Tombonuwo labua type of gourd
Toba Batak labubottle gourd, used as a rice container
Nias labukind of gourd
Uma laboʔgourd, calabash

Note:   Also IDA labu ‘squash’, Malay labu ‘gourd, gourd-shaped water vessel, pumpkin; musk melon’, Sundanese labu ‘kind of gourd’, Javanese labu ‘vine-grown melon or gourd’, Toba Batak tabutabu ‘bottle gourd, used as a rice container’.

This form is widely regarded as a Sanskrit loan (Dempwolff 1938, Wilkinson 1959:635-636), but there are problems with this interpretation. First, the bottle gourd evidently has been present in Southeast Asia for millennia, making it unnecessary to borrow a foreign term for it. Second, the reconstruction proposed here ends with a uvular stop that is not present in Sanskrit alabu. While the final glottal stop in some languages could be secondary, the presence of -k as a regular reflex of *q in the Tboli word makes it far more likely that this term is directly inherited, despite its general similarity to the Sanskrit name for the same plant.


*labuR mix foods


PWMP     *labuR mix foods

Hanunóo lábugrice gruel
Cebuano labúgdish consisting of shredded broiled fish mixed with pickled fish
Dairi-Pakpak Batak raburmixing up (foods); to mix

Note:   With root *-buR₁ ‘rice gruel; to mix’.


*labus naked, undressed


PPh     *labus naked, undressed     [doublet: *lebas]

Ilokano lábusnaked (from the waist down)
Bontok labus-anto undress; to remove one’s clothes
Kankanaey men-lábusnaked, nude, bare, unclothed
Ibaloy man-debosto remove all of one’s clothes
Ayta Abellan labohnaked; to undress


*labut involvement, engagement, business


PPh     *labut involvement, engagement, business

Bikol lábotbusiness, concern, care, attention
Hanunóo lábutperpetrator, doer, especially of a nefarious deed; the one to blame
Aklanon eábotaffair, concern, business
Hiligaynon lábutbusiness, concern
Cebuano lábutconcern, connection, part of; including
Tboli labutinvolvement or part in something; to get involved, be a part of an activity, argument


*labúyuq wild chicken; rooster


PPh     *labúyuq wild chicken; rooster

Ilokano labúyowild chicken; cockfighting rooster
Tagalog labúyowild chicken; cockfighting rooster
  labúyoʔwild chicken
Hanunóo labúyuʔrooster, cock
Cebuano labúyuʔadolescent rooster; wild chicken, male or female, characterized by its smallness as compared with the domestic ones
Mansaka laboyoʔrooster


*lacak destroy


PWMP     *lacak destroy     [disjunct: *lecut]

Kapampangan lasak-anto destroy something
Iban lacakdestruction; smash, destroy


*laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.


PAN     *laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Saisiyat kæ-Lasəŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
  L<om>asəŋto sting, of bees


PMP     *lateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *zalateŋ, *zilateŋ]

Bisayan (Panay) latoŋTrema cannabina Lour. (Madulid 2001)
Bagobo latoŋa stinging plant: Urtica bullata Bl. (Madulid 2001)
Tiruray lateŋa tree: Trema orientalis Linn.
Malay lataŋstinging nettle
Gayō latoŋplant with stinging leaves, Laportea spp.
Alas lateŋstinging nettle
Karo Batak lateŋthe large stinging nettle shrub, of which several varieties are distinguished
  lateŋ manukvariety of stinging nettle
Toba Batak latoŋgeneric for herbs and trees with leaves like the stinging nettle
Nias latoa tree with stinging, pain-producing leaves
  lato manua plant like the stinging nettle
Old Javanese latəŋstinging nettle
Javanese lateŋa certain grass with itchy leaves (Horne); stinging nettle (Pigeaud)
Balinese lateŋstinging nettle
Manggarai lanteŋkind of tree with fine stinging hairs on the leaves: Laportea spp.; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched
Rembong lantoŋstinging nettle tree: Laportea; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched
Ngadha ladékind of large tree that causes severe itching when touched


POC     *latoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Gitua latobig stinging leaf, red underside
'Āre'āre ruru-raokind of nettle
Sa'a nunu-laostinging nettle tree with large leaves used to cover a chief’s body exposed for burial


PMP     *la-lateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Simalur lalateŋstinging nettle (several types are distinguished)
Old Javanese lalateŋstinging nettle
Tae' le-latiŋstinging nettle tree, the leaves of which cause severe itching: Laportea spp.
Buginese lal-lataŋstinging nettle


POC     *la-latoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Lenkau lalatrstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Wuvulu lalaʔostinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Note:   Also Buginese lallateŋ, Makassarese laʔlataŋ ‘stinging nettle’, Komodo hayu lantéŋ ‘stinging nettle: Dendrocnide sp.; jellyfish’, Nali nayat, Loniu ñalat, Leipon ñilet, Sori ñaraʔ, Seimat nalat ‘stinging nettle’, Bipi ñalak ‘kind of plant that causes itching for half a day after contact with the skin’.

I assume that PMP *la-lateŋ is a product of partial reduplication, and so classify it as an affixed form of *lateŋ rather than a doublet, as with *zalateŋ and *zilateŋ, but this remains provisional. This term, and the doublet forms that constitute a word-family with it evidently applied not only to various types of stinging nettles, but also to animals that have stinging hairs or tentacles, as various caterpillars, the Portuguese man of war and at least some jellyfish. Saisiyat appears to be unique in using the root as a verb meaning ‘to sting’.


*la(n)day gradually sloping (of terrain); soft-spoken


PWMP     *la(n)day gradually sloping (of terrain); soft-spoken

Tagalog laláygradually sloping; soft or unstressed, as in pronunciation
Iban landaygently sloping, usually of land; (of speech or voice) gentle, slow
Malay landayslight slope (of the direction in which land slopes away and water runs, i.e. of a watershed; of the sloping inner side of a horseshoe, etc.

Note:   Also Karo Batak andé-andé ‘gradual slope at the foot of a mountain’.


*ladiŋ cleaver, sword


PMP     *ladiŋ cleaver, sword

Palawano ladiŋknife, pocket knife
Cebuano lariŋkind of sword with a slight curve to the blade
Delang ladiŋknife
Malay ladiŋlong, sharp-edged cleaver of the parang type
Karo Batak ladiŋgeneric for curved knives and swords
Old Javanese ladiŋtype of cleaver or jungle knife
Wolio ladikind of knife, rount on one side, used for cutting sugar palm leaves to be used as cigarette paper
Rembong ladiŋkind of small knife

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan distribution.


*ladlád spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry


PPh     *ladlád spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry

Casiguran Dumagat ládladto roll out, to flatten (as to roll out a mat or bolt of cloth, or a long fishnet to dry in the sun)
Kapampangan ladládspread out, display
  i-ladládto spread something out
Tagalog naka-ladládunfurled; unfolded
  l<um>adládto become unfurled or unrolled
Bikol ladládto unfold or unfurl
Hanunóo ladládunrolling of sleeping mats or similar matlike objects
Cebuano ládladspread soaped white clothes under the sun to bleach them; spread for display; show, present, tell


*la(ŋ)ga to heat food


PMP     *la(ŋ)ga to heat food     [disjunct: *la(ŋ)gaq]

Maranao laŋgahot, boiling, heated
Manggarai laŋgaroast fish wrapped in leaves
Rembong laŋgato roast; anything fried


*lagak sound of gurgling water


PWMP     *lagak sound of gurgling water

Bikol lagák-lagáksound made when swallowing liquids
Yakan lagaka sound (as of waves), gurgling (as water of a flood), bubbling (of something cooking)

Note:   With root *-gak₂ ‘raucous throaty sound’.


*la(ŋ)gaq to heat food


PMP     *la(ŋ)gaq to heat food     [disjunct: *la(ŋ)ga]

Tagalog mag-lágaʔto boil; to cook by boiling
  lagaʔ-ánboiler, boiling utensil
Cebuano lágaʔto boil water or water with something in it: coffee, medicinal herbs and the like
Manggarai laŋgaroast fish wrapped in leaves


*lagecik splash, spatter


PWMP     *lagecik splash, spatter     [disjunct: *ragecik]

Cebuano lágsikfor small things to fly off, splatter
Malay ləcekblow the nose, e.g. with the fingers

Note:   With root *-cik ‘fly out, splash, spatter’.


*lagepak slap, sound of collision


PWMP     *lagepak slap, sound of collision     [disjunct: *ragepak]

Cebuano lágpakslap, strike a part of one’s body with the hand, or with something flat
Malay ləpakto fall with a thud

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*lagetub₁ make a thudding or popping sound


PWMP     *lagetub₁ make a thudding or popping sound

Cebuano lágtubgiving off a single thud
Malay lətupto go off with a pop (of the pop when a gun goes off, in contrast to the reverberation, etc.)


*lagetub₂ blister; blistered


PWMP     *lagetub₂ blister; blistered

Cebuano lágtubinflamed, blistered (like something cooked crisp)
Malay lətupblister on skin


*lagetuk popping or knocking sound


PWMP     *lagetuk popping or knocking sound

Bikol lagtókpopping sound; the sound of cracking the knuckles
  ma-lagtókhalf-cooked rice (referring to the popping sound made when eaten)
Malay lətoka knocking sound; a thud

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*lagi emphatic particle


PMP     *lagi emphatic particle

Cebuano lagiparticle used to assert emphatically that something is what it is
  kay lagibecause, after all, that is what one would expect; expressing surprise at something contrary to one's expectations
Malay lagimore; yet more; still
Old Javanese lagicontinuously, constantly, again and again, always, usually; continuing for some time already, going on, keeping on, still
Sasak lagivery, extremely (generally with a denial)
Manggarai lagiwhile, whereas

Note:   Also Tagalog lagiʔ ‘always’, possibly a loan from Malay.


*laglag to fall, of leaves from a tree


PPh     *laglag to fall, of leaves from a tree     [doublet: *dagdag]

Keley-i laglagfor leaves to fall from trees
Cebuano laglágfallen off (as leaves); destroyed, ruined; to abort, have a miscarriage or an abortion


*lagu₁ way, manner; melody


PWMP     *lagu₁ way, manner; melody

Malay lagutune
Malay (Penang) lagustyle, way
Karo Batak laguway of handling, of behaving
Old Javanese laguuse, custom; behavior, bearing
Sangir laguway, manner; melody; manner of speaking, behaving


*lagu₂ a tree: Myristica spp.


PPh     *lagu₂ a tree: Myristica spp.

Itbayaten xagoa tree: Myristica cagayanensis Merrill
Kalamian Tagbanwa lagoa tree: Myristica guatterifolia (Madulid 2001)
Bagobo lagoa tree: Myristica fatus Houtt. (Madulid 2001)


*lagúq to flourish, of plants


PPh     *lagúq to flourish, of plants

Casiguran Dumagat lagúhealthy (of crops)
Pangasinan lagóhealthy, robust individual, plant or animal
Ayta Abellan lagoyoung, not yet mature (of rice); soft, tender
Kapampangan lagúʔbeauty
Tagalog lagóʔluxuriant growth
  l<um>agóʔto develop; to flourish; to prosper; to thrive
Hanunóo láguʔa large tree


PPh     *ma-laguq luxuriant, flourishing (of plants)

Pangasinan ma-lagóhealthy, vigorous
Ayta Abellan ma-lagoyoung, of fruits (as coconuts)
Tagalog ma-lagóʔluxuriant; lush, growing thick and green


*lahar volcanic ash (?)


PWMP     *lahar volcanic ash (?)

Tagalog laharvolcanic ash
Central Tagbanwa lahara mixture of volcanic ash and water that flows when saturated
Javanese laharlava
  lahar-anlava bed

Note:   The Tagalog form in this comparison is courtesy of April Almarines.


*lahud downstream, toward the sea


PAN     *lahud downstream, toward the sea

Saisiyat Læhœrdownhill
Pazeh rahutwest; downstream, lower part of a river
  mia-rahutgo west, go downstream
  mu-rahutto flow, as water
Pazeh (Kahabu) rahuddownstream; toward the sea
Thao rausdownhill, downstream; in a downward direction from the mountains
  mana-rausgo downstream, go downhill, go toward the sea
Tsou mua-rovcuto blow downhill
  moh-rovcuto flow downstream
Kanakanabu ʔama-laúcudownhill
Saaroa tala-la-laucuto look down
Rukai (Mantauran) laududownwards
Rukai (Tona) aúDudownhill
Paiwan lauzseaward, downslope, toward lower reaches of river
  lʸe-lauzto go downhill
Itbayaten xawodidea of being in the offing by the current
Ilokano láudwest
  ag-pa-laudgo to the west
  laúd-ento the west of
Bikol lawódthe open sea
Hanunóo láwudlowlands, coastal regions; down below, as opposed to up in the mountains
Aklanon eawódocean, sea
Waray-Waray lawódmidsea, high seas
Cebuano lawúddeep open sea
  lawud-láwudbe like a sea (as a vast wet rice field)
Maranao lawdoffshore; far; body of deep water
Binukid laweddeep open sea; center area of a large clearing
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawedin the middle of a vast area, such as the ocean; to finish planting half of a field
Mansaka lawuddownstream, seaward
Mapun lūdgo downhill
  pa-lūdcause something to go downhill
  lud-lūr-anslope, downhill area of land
Tausug l<um>ūdcome down from higher ground, travel downhill
  lūr-unslope, embankment, downhill area, falling ground
Ida'an Begak laudwind
Lun Dayeh loodtoward the sea, downriver
Kelabit laʔuddownriver, toward the sea
Bintulu laudtoward the sea; outside
Ngaju Dayak lautdownstream, seaward; overseas
  olo lautpeople from across the sea
Delang lootsea
Iban lautsea; Malay, Muslim
Malay lautsea, ocean; north (in certain expressions only, as barat laut ‘northwest’, timur laut ‘northeast’)
Old Javanese lornorth
  maŋa-lorgo to the north, northward
  l<in>or-anto pass on the north side
Balinese lodsea
Sangir laudəʔocean
Bare'e laudirectional term indicating a place that lies at a lower elevation than the speaker, or at least not clearly at a higher elevation
  lauk-alow, as the sun in the sky or the level of water
Tae' lauʔsouth, downstream (southward, where the Land of the Dead is)
Buginese lauʔsea
  a-lauʔeast (in Bone)
Makassarese lauʔwest (in Goa); south (in Bantaeng)
Chamorro lagunorth (in Guam and Rota); west (in Saipan)


PCEMP     *laur toward the sea

Kambera laurasea; downstream, at a lower elevation
Hawu lousea
  dou louforeigner, stranger (lit. ‘sea person’)
  wini louof foreign origin (lit; ‘sea seed’, said of the mother if she has married in to Hawu; not of the father)
Tetun lorlow-lying ground, the tidal regions, seaside
Talur lorsea
Luang lorəsea
Wetan lorasea, used especially in contrast to land; go to the sea
  na-loraat sea, to the sea, from the sea; seaside
Dobel lawsea
Paulohi lautoward the sea
Alune lo-laudownstream, toward the sea
Asilulu lauseaward
Buli lausea-side
  la-lautoward the sea and away from the speaker
  ma-lautoward the sea and toward the speaker
  po-lauon the sea-side
Wandamen rauseaward
Waropen rau ~ ndausea; outside


POC     *laur downriver, toward the sea

Tolai lauthe open sea; horizon; the bush people apply this word to any place out of sight; distant, remote, inaccessible, invisible
Lakalai -lautoward the sea
  g-o-laugo seaward
Gedaged lauthe high seas, an open, unenclosed portion of the sea
Bugotu laubeach, seashore, seaward; south
Nggela lauseawards; to the shore, shorewards, from a speaker inland; shore; the sea, in koukomulau ‘an island in the sea’; the bank of a river; south, conventional use in translations
Lau launorth; open sea to the north
Arosi rauside, bank of stream; shore
  rau-na i asibeach
  rau-na i wairiver bank
Mota lauthe seaside as opposed to the inland, the beach as approached from the land
Fijian laueast; name of the Windward Islands


PMP     *i-lahud (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten i-xawodgo far from the shore (on water), be carried away by waves
Masbatenyo i-lawóddownstream area, seaward place; towards town place
Aklanon i-lawódthe seaward part of any town
  pa-i-lawódto go seawards
Cebuano i-láwudplace toward town and away from rural areas
Makassarese i-lauʔin the west, of the west
  i-lauk-annawestward, the west side of something


POC     *i-laur (gloss uncertain)

Manam i-laul-oseaward


PWMP     *ka-lahud (gloss uncertain)

Ngaju Dayak ka-lautfrom beyond the shores, foreign
Old Javanese ka-lorto the north of
Balinese ka-lodto the sea; north/south
Sangir ka-laudəʔat sea


PWMP     *ma-lahud (gloss uncertain)

Ngaju Dayak ma-lautleave the coast, put out to sea
Malay me-lautto put out to sea
Sangir ma-laudəʔof the sea, marine
  tau ma-laudəʔnavigator


PAN     *Si-lahud wind from the sea (?)

Thao shi-raustyphoon
Itbayaten hi-lawodnorth wind
  hi-lawr-endisease caused by north wind


PWMP     *ka-lahud-an (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano ka-lawr-anseas
Bahasa Indonesia ka-laut-anthings connected with the sea


PWMP     *lahud-an the high seas, far from land

Bahasa Indonesia laut-anvery wide sea, ocean
Sangir laur-aŋthe wide sea, the high seas


PMP     *pa-lahud go downriver, go seaward

Ilokano ag-pa-láudto go to the west (= go seaward)
Mapun pa-lūdto go downhill, to cause something to go downhill


POC     *pa-laur go to sea, make a sea voyage

Mota wala-walauto paddle all together
  walau-ato collect things for a voyage
Raga walauguide, steer, direct
Maori wharautravel, particularly by water

Note:   Also Paiwan lauḍ ‘seaward, downhill (form used in sacred songs)’, Itbayaten hi-lawod ‘north wind (risky fishing weather)’, Tagalog láot ‘mid-ocean, high seas; far out to (at) sea’, pa-láot ‘to get into the middle of things, sail far out to sea’ (semantics apparently native, but phonemic shape evidently influenced by Malay laut), Hanunóo lawúd ‘sea, mid sea, high seas’ (< Cebuano or some other Bisayan source), Kambera lauru ‘downstream’, Lau lou ‘north; open sea to the north’.

PAn *lahud was one of the key directional terms in PAn, opposed to *daya ‘upstream, toward the interior’. In many languages this term has since been reinterpreted in terms of a system of cardinal directions, probably through Western contact influence. The general semantic evolution of *lahud is quite rich. From an original narrow sense ‘toward the sea’ the marine element has been generalized to mean ‘sea’ in Central Philippine languages generally (Bikol, Aklanon, Cebuano, etc.), Binukid, the Malayic languages, Balinese, Sangir, Buginese, Kambera, Hawu, Wetan, and Tolai. Although Topping, Ogo and Dungca (1975) give only the cardinal direction meanings, Brant Songsong assures me that this word still retains its sense of ‘toward the sea’, as in the expression lagu para i tasi, said regardless of which cardinal direction the sea might be from a given location.

Moreover, in some of these languages, as those of the central Philippines, it refers specifically to the high or open seas as opposed to littoral waters. In other languages, especially those whose speakers came to reside in high inland regions, the contrastive elevation of *lahud was extended to encompass the general meaning of ‘lower, at a lower altitude’, in some cases entirely losing its marine associations. In Thao of central Taiwan, for example, raus refers to a downhill, or downward direction from the mountains, with no particular reference to the sea, in Hanunóo of the north-central Philippines láwud refers to the lowland regions, but so far as the available data indicate, not necessarily to the sea, and in Bare'e (or Pamona) of central Sulawesi lau refers to any place that lies lower than the speaker at the time of reference, evidently with no connection to the sea as a feature of orientation.

Finally, Ngaju Dayak olo laut, Hawu dou lou and no doubt similar collocations in other languages for which insufficient data is to hand suggest that once settled in a given location, AN speakers tended to conceive of anyone who arrived by sea as a foreigner, or stranger.


*lahuk mixed, as foods


PWMP     *lahuk mixed, as foods

Ilokano laókmixture
  ag-la-laókto intermingle; blend; fuse
Bontok laukto mix, particularly of things that are notof the same type, as meat with beans
Ibaloy daokto mix something into something else, a generic term
Pangasinan laókto mix, blend
  man-la-laókmixed up, scrambled
Tagalog lahókmixture; something added to a mixture; participation or entry in a contest
  pag-lahuk-ínto mix two things together
Bikol lahókreferring to that which is added to a pure substance (wax, honey, wine) to make it appear more than it really is
Tiruray lawekto mix
Malagasy laúkaany relish or meat eaten wth rice (on the coast it almost always means fish or vegetables)
Iban laukanything eaten with rice
Malay lauksolid food (fish or flesh) to be eaten with rice, in contrast to cooked vegetables (sayur), uncooked vegetables (hulam), and condiments (sambal)
Sundanese laukflesh that is eaten; fish; flesh of a slaughtered animal
Mongondow laukto mix, mingle, blend


PPh     *i-lahúk to mix two or more things

Ilokano i-laókto mix with something
Tagalog i-lahókto add, to mix


PPh     *ka-lahúk ingredient in a mixture

Ilokano ka-laókelement in a mixture
Tagalog ka-lahókparticipant in a contest; ingredient in a mixture


PPh     *l<um>ahúk to mix in, mix together

Tagalog l<um>ahókto compete; to take part in a contest
Tiruray l<em>awekto give one’s uncooked food to someone to mix and cook with his own


PPh     *lahuk-án to mix something with something else

Ilokano laok-ánto mix something
Tagalog lahuk-ánmixed; to mix something with something else

Note:   Also Toba Batak mar-laok ‘mixed together, no longer pure’ (< Malay). This word apparently referred primarily to mixing different types of food together, as seen in the glosses for Bontok and Malay.


(Formosan only)

*lahuN steam, vapor


PAN     *lahuN steam, vapor

Amis lahodsteam, vapor
Kanakanabu aúnusteam, vapor

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976: 136).


*lahús to pass through or by something, esp. after stopping


PPh     *lahús to pass through or by something, esp. after stopping

Bontok l<um>áusto pass by
Kankanaey l<um>áusto pass by; to pass
Ifugaw laúhto pass by a certain place without stopping; time span which already passed
Pangasinan laósto finish something already begun
Cebuano lahústo proceed, go on or forward, esp. after an interruption or stop
Binukid lahusto proceed, go on to (a certain point); to pierce, penetrate, pass through something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lahusto pass through; to pierce, of a projectile, weapon, or a beam of light through a translucent material


*laja to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats


PWMP     *laja to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats

Ibatan maŋ-lāgasomeone weaves something from weaving materials
Ilokano lágawoven basket; basketwork
  ag-lágato weave baskets
  i-lágato put inside a woven basket
  ma-i-lágato be interwoven with
  pag-lágamaterial used in making baskets
Isneg ag-la-láxathe period of time that follows the weeding of a rice field: the time for weaving baskets
  mag-láxato weave (basketwork)
Bontok lágato weave, of basketry
Ifugaw lágaact of weaving closely certain baskets; also bamboo mats or walls of huts
  mun-lag-lágaspecialist basket weaver
Ifugaw (Batad) lāgathe work of weaving
Casiguran Dumagat ladeto weave (as mats)
Pangasinan lagáto weave mats, hats, etc.
Tagalog lálato weave
Bikol mag-rárato weave mats, baskets, etc. from palm leaves
Aklanon eaeá (h)to weave mats
Waray-Waray larato weave; an interlacement
Agutaynen mag-larato start weaving the bottom of a basket, using strips of bori or pandanus leaves, or to start weaving the edge of a sleeping mat
Hiligaynon mag-lálato weave, to weave together
Cebuano lálaweave leaves, straw, plastic (as to make hats or a mat)
Maranao raraweave a mat or a basket
Binukid lalato weave (a mat, basket, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rarato weave a mat, basket, etc.; figuratively, of anything tangled or entwined
Mansaka larato weave (as a mat)
Tombonuwo moŋo-raroto weave
Malagasy rária plait; plaiting of mats, hats, etc.
  vua ráriplaited


PWMP     *man-laja to plait, as mats or baskets

Central Tagbanwa man-larato weave fabric or other materials
Malagasy man-drárito plait mats, etc.; fig. to arrange or set in order anything; and in the provinces to regulate one’s life; to follow order and equity


PPh     *l<in>ága woven; was woven by someone

Ilokano l<in>ágawoven
Tagalog l<in>álawoven material or textile
Subanon l<in>alawoven by (someone)


PPh     *l<um>aja to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats

Ifugaw (Batad) l<um>āgato weave a basket (flexible material such as thin strips of bamboo or rattan is used
Tagalog l<um>álato weave; to interlace
Subanon l<um>alato plait, weave by hand, as baskets


PWMP     *lalah-en be woven by someone

Kankanaey lagá-ento weave; to braid; to make basketwork
Tagalog laláh-into weave, to form strips, reeds or the like, into something; to interlace; to arrange strips so that they go over and under each other
Bikol rará-onto weave mats, baskets, etc. from palm leaves
Binukid lalah-enbe woven by (someone)
Malagasy rar-ínato be plaited

Note:   Also Kapampangan mag-lála ‘to weave’ (< Tagalog), Romblomanon pag-lāya ‘someone’s weaving of a basket, mat’, layāh-un ‘a basket or mat is woven by someone’, Toba Batak lage ‘small mat made for one person’. PMP *añam and PWMP *laja both appear to have meant ‘to plait or weave by hand, as mats or baskets’; the semantic distinction between them remains unclear.


*lajam familiar with, accustomed to


PAN     *lajam familiar with, accustomed to     [doublet: *najam]

Puyuma ɭadamfamiliar with, accustomed to
Fijian lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed, amusing
Tongan latafeel at home or at ease
Samoan latatame; used to, familiar with
Hawaiian lakatame, domesticated, gentle; to tame, domesticate


*lajaq pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food


PMP     *lajaq pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food

Tombonuwo ladaʔchili pepper
Toba Batak lagasharp (of taste, or a knife)
Balinese lalahtartness, piquancy; spicy, tart
  la-lalaha strong-tasting relish with one’s rice
Tae' ladaSpanish pepper
Muna leahurt, ache, painful
Kambera ma-larabiting, sharp (of taste)

Note:   Also Tagalog ma-laláɁ ‘serious; aggravated; acute (of an illness)’, Ida'an Begak lado ‘pepper’, Malay lada pepper; (sometimes) capsicum; black pepper; chili or small capsicum’. Based on a comparison that included Tagalog, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *laja ‘to burn (of wounds or spices)’.


*laje branching coral; coral limestone


POC     *laje branching coral; coral limestone

Nauna laccoral limestone
Baluan latcoral limestone
Lou lascoral limestone
Loniu laccoral limestone
Likum laccoral limestone
Lindrou lascoral limestone
Mendak lascoral limestone
Takia ladcoral
Motu ladekind of coral; coral reef
Nggela landeall kinds of branching coral
Lau lade-ladebranching coral
Arosi radecoral
Bauro ratecoral
Mota laslive coral of the branching kinds
Fijian lasethe common branchy coral and the lime made from it
Rennellese gasea kind of common branching coral in the sea, Hexacorallia, not ashore

Note:   Osmond, Pawley, and Ross (2003:102) suggest that Lauje (northwest Sulawesi) lais ‘coral’ is cognate with this term, and on this basis have proposed PMP *lajay ‘coral’. However, Himmelmann 2001:117) actually cites Lauje lais E, where ‘E’ represents a paragogic vowel (usually -e), and the expected reflex of a PMP *lajay would be *lae, not laise. In addition, the forms in Admiralty languages do not support *j, which merged with PMP *d as Proto-Admiralty *r (Blust 1978). In short, although this etymology is well-supported on the POc level, the available evidence does not justify a reconstruction higher than Proto-Oceanic.


*laji₁ tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria)


PMP     *laji₁ tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria)

Palauan iásmilky mangrove tree; a river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha L.)
Kambera larikind of tree generally found in the estuaries of rivers
Kwaio kwai-lasipoisonous tree (kwai = 'river, water', kwaikwai-na = 'juice, liquid, sap')
Sa'a lasia tree with juice causing sores
Mota lasa tree


*lajih dolphinfish


PMP     *lajih dolphinfish

Aklanon eáli(h)fish
Cebuano lálikind of amberjack
Samal lalidolphinfish, family Coryphaenidae
Makassarese larisea fish with five stripes, much relished because it is not oily and has few bones
Palauan iásdolphinfish


POC     *laji₂ dolphinfish

Loniu lasflattish fish similar to a mackerel
Ere lasflat fish found in river mouths
Leipon laskind of flat, silvery fish
Gedaged laswhitish-grey marine fish about five feet long
Motu ladia fish
Arosi rasifish sp.
Gilbertese narileatherback: Scomberoides sancti-petri (Johannes 1981:167)
Pohnpeian lahdfish sp., jack: Atule mate
Mokilese lahdfish sp., kind of skipjack
Samoan laia fish: Scomberoides sp.


*la(ŋ)ka far apart; rare


PWMP     *la(ŋ)ka far apart; rare

Agutaynen pa-laka-ento become thinned out; to be spaced out, as to plant seed with spaces between
Iban lakafar apart, big; too large, as an opening or space (e.g. the space between the rungs of a ladder)
Sundanese laŋkarare, exceptional, unusual; seldom or never; scarce
  laŋka-laŋkavery rare
Muna laŋkarare(ly), scarce, seldom; spaced wide apart (of teeth, plants, etc.)
  laŋka-mispace something wide apart, thin out
  ka-laŋkakind of basket with big holes; low frequency; spacing, interval


PWMP     *ma-laka far apart, rare

Agutaynen ma-lakarare, seldom; to be spaced or thinned out
Uma mo-lakararely, seldom

Note:   Also Hiligaynon ma-lakáʔ ‘scarce, rare, sometimes’, Aklanon eakáʔ ‘to put an interval, space, keep distance, make sparse’, Romblomanon lakaʔ ‘few (people, things), little (action, substance)’.


*laka₁ up, above


POC     *laka₁ up, above

Tigak lakto rise (of the sun)
Lihir lakatop surface, space above
Takia lak nahigh up (na = local postposition)
Nggela ga-lagaup; east

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2003:234).


*laka₂ basket


POC     *laka₂ basket

Mussau lakaround carrying basket placed on the head
Nalik lakabasket
Simbo (e)-lakabasket

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond and Ross (1998:78).


*lakaj to stride, take a step


PMP     *lakaj to stride, take a step     [doublet: *lakaw]

Ilokano ag-pa-lákadto go by land, walk
  lákad-lákadwalker, support for walking
Ibanag lákagto walk
Gaddang mel-lákadto walk
Casiguran Dumagat lákadto walk, to travel, to go (as the walking of a person, the moving of a boat or truck)
Ibaloy man-akad(of persons and animals) to walk
Kapampangan lákadto walk; gait, pace, course
  pa-lakar-anto send on an errand
Tagalog lákadwalk; gait; running condition of motors, machines, etc.; headway; a motion forward; march; start; a beginning to go; progress or current situation of some project, event, etc.; trend; manner of acting; mission; errand; goods for sale being carted around or peddled
  lakádbarefooted; walking, not riding; on foot
  ka-lakáda companion in taking a walk
  ma-lákadto be within walking distance; to be able to get something by negotiating or by using influence
  mag-pa-lákadto run, to make go (as a business)
  maka-lákadto be able to walk
  ma-pa-lákadto be able to get someone to walk or take a trip, to leave or to depart
  pag-lákadmanner of walking
Bikol lákadstep, stride; gait, pace
Aklanon eákadto step over (with big steps)
Cebuano lákadto step over something; go beyond, exceed; marry or wed ahead of big brothers
Maranao lakadstep, stride
Binukid lakadstep, pace, stride; take a step, step over or across (something)
  paka-lakadable to take steps (as a small child just beginning to walk)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkada stride; the measure of a person’s step; to walk a step
Mansaka lákadto wade through
Waima'a lakato walk
Sula lakato walk
Numfor go
  rā macome
Waropen rago on foot, go into the bush, walk
Ansus rato walk
Woi rato walk


POC     *lakas to stride, take a step

Gedaged lato go (away, about on foot, a horse, bicycle, vehicle, boat, etc.); to walk, depart, march (get, pack, move, start) off, take leave, get underway, set out; to continue, keep on (with any kind of action), to keep up or maintain any course or series of actions; to carry on
Gitua lago
Mota lakato kick up the heels, as in dancing; to dance
Wayan lakago, move along, proceed
  laka-tigo to or over a place
Tongan lakato go or walk (esp. for a short distance only); to step; to march; to move on or forward, to proceed, progress, develop, or advance
  laka halato step incorrectly, to be out of step
Niue lakato step; to cross over
  fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration)
  laka-aŋaa step, pace
  laka-fiastepped over, exceeded
Samoan laʔastep, march
  laʔa-siastep over, go beyond
Tuvaluan lakastep
  la-lakapress down with foot (as when firming soil)
Rennellese gakato step; to move, as to another district
Anuta rakato step over something
Maori whaka-rakawalk, step out


PPh     *i-lákaj (gloss uncertain)

Agta (Dupaningan) i-lákadrun away with, kidnap
Tagalog i-lakádto use something in walking


PPh     *maR-lákaj to step, to walk

Agta (Dupaningan) mag-lákadto walk
Tagalog mag-lákadto engage in trade or some form of business
  mag-lakádto walk; to tramp; to go on foot
  mag-lakád-lakádto pace; to walk with regular steps; to keep on walking
Bikol mag-lákadto step over; to pace off a particular area or distance
Tausug mag-lakadto step to (a place with big steps)


PPh     *l<um>ákaj to step, to walk

Agta (Dupaningan) l<um>ákadto leave, to exit
Tagalog l<um>ákadto walk, to go on foot
  l<um>ákad-lákadto pace; to walk with regular steps; to keep on walking
Tausug l<um>akadto step to (a place with big steps)


PPh     *lakáj-an to step on, walk on something (?)

Agta (Dupaningan) lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting)
Tagalog lakár-anto walk on something
  lakar-ánplace to walk on
Bikol lakád-anto pace off a particular area or distance
Tausug lakar-anto step over something


PPh     *lakaj-en to walk a certain distance (?)

Ibaloy ekar-ento walk somewhere, something (as a distance)
Tagalog lakár-into walk a certain distance or to a certain place
  lakar-ínwalk, meaning the distance to walk; to tread; to be underway or in motion
Bikol lakád-onto step over
Tausug lakar-unto step from one place to another


POC     *lakar-lakar (gloss uncertain)

Mota laka-lakato rejoice, dance; a dance, a merry-making
Futunan laka-lakawomen’s dance performed while sitting
Samoan laʔa-laʔago step by step
Tuvaluan laka-lakatake several steps
Rennellese gaka-gakato step or move on, as with long steps; to step off, as to measure
Anuta raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly

Note:   Also Amis rakat ‘movement; walk’, Hiligaynon lakát ‘trip, walk, business trip’, mag-lakat ‘to walk, to go, to leave’, Masbatenyo mag-lakát ‘to walk, go away, leave; run away from home’, Waray-Waray lakát ‘to leave, depart’, Cebuano lakát ‘walk; for something to be going on; go away, depart; spread; follow up; trend, course or direction something is taking; errand; trip, journey; procedure for doing something’, pa-lakát ‘make something walk, go away, spread news’, Balinese laŋkar ‘step, stride, overstep, pass over’, Proto-Micronesian *laa ‘go, proceed; (as directional) away’. The similarity of the CEMP forms cited here to those in the Philippines may be due to chance, as no clear cognates have been found anywhere between these extremes, and a number of formally and semantically similar but non-corresponding forms must be recognized in any case.


*lakaŋ crotch, space between thighs


PWMP     *lakaŋ crotch, space between thighs

Hanunóo lákaŋtaking a long step, as when walking over a fallen tree or a rock in a trail; a pace
  l<um>ákaŋto take such steps; to step over something in this fashion
Cebuano lákaŋstep across; a step, stride
Sasak laŋkaŋcrotch, space between thighs

Note:   Also Aklanon eákʔaŋ ‘walk with big steps, take long strides’, Masbatenyo lakʔáŋ ‘step, stride’, Cebuano lakʔáŋ ‘stand or squat with legs wide apart’ (< *laqekaŋ). With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*la(ŋ)kas spirited, energetic


PMP     *la(ŋ)kas spirited, energetic

Tagalog lakásstrength, vigor; efficacy; vehemence; healthiness
Malay laŋkasfiery (of a steed), spirited
Nggela laŋgastrong, strength; energetic
Arosi ragastrong, strengthened, invigorated

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.


*lakas quick, energetic, strong


PMP     *lakas quick, energetic, strong

Tagalog lakásstrength; vigor; force; power; might; loudness of volume; intensity of an attack of sickness or the like; brunt, the main force; vehemence; efficacy; hardiness; endurance; stamina; backbone; energy; power to work or act; fury; violence or strength, as of a storm
  ma-lakásstrong; physically strong; having much force, power, etc.; powerful; tough, hardy; hard; boisterous; violent; wild; rugged, sturdy; potent, strong; forceful, vigorous; hearty, strong and well; loud, not quiet or soft; making a great sound
  ka-lakas-ánvitality; strength; virility
  l<um>akásto become stronger, increase in strength; to recuperate; to recover from sickness, exhaustion or loss; to swell (as the voice), to grow louder
Maranao lakasrate of speed


POC     *lagas quick, energetic, strong

Nggela laŋgastrong; strength; energetic; loud
  laŋga-laŋgado energetically; do continually; strengthen

Note:   Dempwolff included Tagalog lakás under his *lekas ‘apply strength, energy’. With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.


*lakat₁ root


PWMP     *lakat₁ root     [doublet: *wakat]

Sebop lakatroot
Banggai lakatroot


*lakat₂ walk, take a step


PAN     *lakat₂ walk, take a step     [doublet: *lakaj]

Kavalan Raqata step; to take a step, to step forward
Amis (Central) l<um>akatto walk
Hiligaynon lakáttrip, walk, business trip
  mag-lakátto walk, to go, to leave
Cebuano lakátwalk; for something to be going on; go away, depart


*lakatán banana sp.


PPh     *lakatán banana sp.

Ilokano lakatánvariety of sweet thick-skinned banana
Casiguran Dumagat lakatánspecies of banana plant and its fruit: Musa sapientum
Ayta Abellan lakatana variety of banana with thick-skinned, yellow, delicious fruit; this variety is the ‘national banana’
Tagalog lakatána well-known species of banana
Hanunóo lakatána tasty variety of eating banana (Musa sapientum lacatan [Blco.] Teodoro)
Romblomanon lakatanlacatan eating banana plant or fruit, Musa sapientum var. lacatan (commonly eaten raw as a snack food)
Masbatenyo lakatánlakatan banana, Musa sapientum var. lacatan
Cebuano lakatánkind of sweet yellow banana, longer than alitundan, very much like those sold in the United States; it is eaten raw, and is more difficult to digest than the alitundan: Musa sapientum var. lacatan
Yakan lakatana small variety of banana (similar to suley badju), Musa family

Note:   Yakan lakatan a small variety of banana (similar to suley badju), Musa family is assumed to be a Greater Central Philippines loan, and the same may be true of the similar Ilokano term.


*lakaw to be in motion; go, walk


PMP     *lakaw to be in motion; go, walk

Sambal (Botolan) lakoto go
Bikol i-lakáwto take for a walk (as a dog)
  mag-lakáwto walk, to stride
  pa-lakáwmethod, procedure, process, system, way
  pa-lakaw-onto run (as a business, an organization)
  lakáw-anbum, hobo, tramp, vagabond, vagrant
  lakáw-onto walk for a certain distance or a certain amount of time
Buhid ag-laáwto walk
Hanunóo lakáwwalk, hike; walking, moving on; in vogue, current (among); circulation
Masbatenyo pag-lákawwalking
Inati lakawto walk
Aklanon eakáwto amble, go around
Cebuano lakáwto walk
Maranao lakawfootprint; killed with a weapon; go
  la-lakawwalk; trip; go; journey
  la-lakaw-anwalk over; group of travelers
Maguindanao lákawto walk
Lun Dayeh lakolarge strides
  me-lakotaking large strides
Berawan (Long Terawan) lakawto walk
Berawan (Long Teru) lakawto walk
Narum ma-lahawto walk
Miri lahawto walk
Kenyah (Long Wat) bə-lakawto walk
Penan (Long Labid) lakawto walk
Penan (Long Lamai) lakawwalk
Kayan lakawa step; a pace; to pace out
Bintulu lakawto walk
Melanau (Balingian) mə-lakawto walk
Melanau (Mukah) lakawbusiness, doings; to walk
  l<ən>akawwas walked on
Lahanan bə-lakawto walk
Toba Batak lahoto go (before a verb it means ‘to be about to, on the point of doing something)
  pa-laho-honmake something go, chase away
Proto-Minahasan *lakogo
Tombulu lakogo
Boano mo-lakoto walk
Tae' lakotowards, at
  taŋ lakonot come
  lako-iin a condition to
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *lakoto go
Kulisusu lakoto go
Proto-South Sulawesi *lakoto go
Mandar laoto, towards; until; already
Buginese laoto go; to, towards
Manggarai lakoto walk, go on a trip, go sailing; to move location; to die
Kambera lakuto walk, go, leave
Rotinese laʔoto go, depart, go away (by land or sea)
Helong lakoto walk
  lakoto walk
Atoni naoto walk, go
Tetun laʔoto walk, travel on foot, to go
Tetun (Dili) laoto walk
Vaikenu naoto go
Erai lago, travel; stay, reside; follow, go by
Wetan laato go, to become
  la-laato roam about aimlessly
Dusner rato walk
Wandamen rato walk
Numfor rawalk
Pom rawalk
Papuma rawalk


POC     *lako to go

Baluan lakto go
Lou lakto go
Loniu lato go
Likum lato go
Sori rato go
Lindrou lato go
Tigak lakgo up, enter
Amara -lago
Kove la-laoto walk
Wogeo lakoto go
Manam laʔoto go, go away
Gitua lagoto walk
Patep lato go
Motu laoto go
Saliba laogo, walk
Nehan lakogo down a short distance, from inland to the road, village or beach; to away from speaker
Petats lato go
  la-lato walk
Selau lato go
Torau ma laowalk
Cheke Holo laogo, move in one direction, begin or go ahead with
Eddystone/Mandegusu laγoto go
Proto-Micronesian *lakogo, proceed; (as directional) away
Gilbertese nakoto go, depart, go on, go away
  nako-nakoa walk, stroll, displacement, voyage, movement
Woleaian -lagodirectional suffix, away from the speaker; thither
Raga laxoto walk
Fijian lakoto go; used for motion of any kind
  lako maicome
  lako yanigo away
  lako voligo about


PWMP     *pa-lakaw (gloss uncertain)

Kanowit pə-lakawto walk
Sangir ia-pa-lakolet something go; be sent
Tae' pa-lakotake away, to place, put


PMP     *l<um>akaw to go

Sambal (Botolan) makoto go
Hanunóo l<um>akáwto walk, will walk
Bilaan (Sarangani) maguto walk
Murut (Tagol) (m)akowto walk
Melanau (Mukah) makawto walk
Toba Batak l<um>aho-lahomobile, moving about


PMP     *lakaw lakaw wander about

Bikol mag-lakáw-lakáwto go for a stroll or walk
Toba Batak l<um>aho-lahomobile, moving about
Buginese ka-lao-laoto go here and there


POC     *lako lako walking around

Kove la-laoto walk
Manam lako-lakoto go, go away
Gitua lago-lagowalking around; alive
Fijian i lako-lakoaway, going, path; also fig. manner, method, the “run” of a thing

Note:   Also Aklanon lágaw ‘to go around, travel about’, Tiruray agew ‘to go, to walk’, Kayan lakoʔ ‘a pace, a step’, Chamorro lahu‘go, walk’, Rembong lakoʔ ‘to walk’. Unlike PAn *paNaw, PMP *panaw, which clearly meant ‘to walk’, PMP *lako appears to have meant something more like ‘to be in motion’, since reflexes refer to more abstract types of ‘motion’, as in ‘to run (a business)’, ‘in vogue, current among’, ‘business, doings’, ‘on the point of doing something’, and the like, as well as travelling in ways other than walking.


*lakay grandfather


PWMP     *lakay grandfather

Yami akaygrandfather
  me-hakayman, male, boy; husband
  mi-akaygrandfather and grandson
Itbayaten xakaymale, man, mister
Ilokano lakáyold man; husband; colloquial term of address between males; old (of males)
  l<in>a-lakáysomething characteristic of old men
  l<um>akáyto grow old (said of males)
  lak-lakay-anvery old, ancient, antique
Agta (Dupaningan) lá-lakayold man; husband
Isneg lakáyold man
Itawis lá-lakayold (of male); old man
Kankanaey ma-lakéygo grow old, of age
Casiguran Dumagat lakáyold man (also used as a vocative in addressing old men); to become old, of male humans; husband
Ibaloy dakayold man
  d<al>akaycollective term for the old men, elders of the community
  me-dakayto become old
Pangasinan lákigrandfather, granduncle
Hanunóo lakígrandfather (in both nominative and vocative; grandchild of either sex; male ancestor
Melanau (Mukah) lakəyold, of people
Melanau Dalat lakəyold, of people

Note:   This reconstruction is very problematic. First, it is confined largely to the northern Philippines. Second the forms in Yami, Pangasinan, Hanunóo and Melanau are phonologically irregular. However, the irregularities in the last three languages appear to be caused by contamination with PMP *laki ‘male, masculine; man’. If Hanunóo lakí ‘grandfather’, and Mukah and Dalat Melanau lakəy ‘old, of people; are taken to reflect *lakay with contamination from *laki, there is a basis for attributing *lakay to PPh, but the evidentiary basis for this inference remains perilously slim.


*lake sore, dermal irritation, wound


POC     *lake sore, dermal irritation, wound

Loniu leke-n a yumy wound
Titan lake-n a yomy wound
Nggela lakesickness, high temperature; swellings with liquid contents
  vatu lakecoral that irritates the skin
Arosi raʔesore on the hands or lips

Note:   Although the forms within the Admiralty islands appear to be cognates, as do those of the central and Southeast Solomons, the similarity of the forms in these two sets of languages to one another may be a product of chance.


*la(ŋ)keb lie face down


PWMP     *la(ŋ)keb lie face down

Itawis lakáblie face down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkeblie face or front side down
Mansaka lakoblie face downward; place a thing face down; capsize, turn upside down
Karo Batak laŋkemlie on the stomach
Sasak laŋkeplie on the belly; lie front side down (of things)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat sakeb ‘lie face down’, Maranao lekeb ‘turn upside-down’, Javanese ruŋkeb ‘fall face down’, uŋkeb ‘lie face down’, Balinese kakeb ‘lie forward, slope forward, fall forward’, pointing to a root *-keb₂.


*lak(e)baŋ broad, wide


PWMP     *lak(e)baŋ broad, wide

Bikol lakbáŋbreadth, width
Kayan labaŋbroad
Old Javanese lambaŋthat which is stretched out horizontally

Note:   The prenasalization in Old Javanese lambaŋ is assumed to be secondary.


*la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs


PWMP     *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs     [doublet: *lekaŋ 'separate, disunite']

Cebuano lákaŋstep across
  lakʔaŋstand or squat with legs wide apart
Sasak laŋkaŋcrotch, space between the legs


*la(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous


PMP     *la(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous

Kelabit (Long Napir) laketsticky
Dairi-Pakpak Batak alket <Mviscous
Toba Batak alhot <Msap of a tree used to curdle milk
  m-alhotthick, viscous
Nggela laŋgostick, stick to, adhere
  laŋgo-laŋgopaste, gum, sticking plaster
Lau lagosticky, viscous; pasty, as badly cooked bread
Ulawa la-lakosticky, to stick owing to glutinous nature

Note:   Tagalog lagkít ‘stickiness’, Agutaynen ma-laʔket ‘sticky’. With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*lak(e)táw jump over or across


PPh     *lak(e)táw jump over or across     [doublet: *lik(e)táw]

Ilokano laktáwjump; leap; stride
  laktaw-ento leap over; skip; elude
  l<inn>aktawa girl’s jumping game
Tagalog laktáwskipping over; by-passing; omitting
  laktaw-ánto skip; to pass over; to omit
Bikol mag-laktáwto step over; to leave out, omit, overlook, skip over
  ma-laktaw-ánto get missed, overlooked; to get omitted or skipped over

Note:   Also Bikol luktáw ‘to step over; to leave out, omit, overlook, skip over’.


*laki₁ male, masculine; man


PMP     *laki₁ male, masculine; man     [doublet: *aki 'grandfather']

Ilokano lakí-enmasculine; manly (woman); tomboy; lesbian
Isneg lákimale
Bontok lákimale animal
Kankanaey lákimale; cock, he (applied only to animals)
Ifugaw lákimale quadruped; mostly applied to bigger pigs
Ifugaw (Batad) lākia male pig, domestic or wild, either castrated or uncastrated
Ibaloy dakiman, male, boy
  ma-lekiof a woman who regularly has illicit relations with men, promiscuous
  man-dekito have illicit relations with a man --- spoken of a woman
  daki-tomale plant (the plant that doesn’t bear fruit)
Pangasinan lakímale; boy
Remontado man
Hanunóo lákimasculinity, quality of being male
  lakíancestor, male ancestor; in a general sense, any direct, distant male progenitor
Aklanon eákiman, male
Cebuano lakímale animal or plant; paramour
  l<in>ákiman’s bicycle; ride astraddle like a man
  lakin-una female that acts like a male, tomboy
  lákihave exceptional ability
  ka-lákido one’s best
Maranao lakibrother to a woman
Tiruray lageya male; term of reference used by a female to refer to a male of her own generation
  fe-lagey-lagey(of men) dressed up in one’s best clothes and ornamentation
Klata laʔiman, male
Tboli logiman, boy, male; brother, a male sibling
  s-logito be a brother or a male relative to other females
Belait laimale, man
Kelabit laʔihmale
Berawan (Long Terawan) lakkehman, male
Berawan (Long Teru) lakkehmale, man
Narum lahayman, male
Miri lakayhman, male
Kenyah (Long Wat) lakəyman, male
Kenyah (Long Anap) lakiman, male
Kayan (Uma Juman) lakiʔmale
Kiput laaymale, of humans, man
Seru lakehmale
Malagasy láhimale, masculine (much used in the names of plants, etc.)
  ana-dahia woman’s brother; used also of men when women are speaking
Samihim lakiman
Iban lakimale; husband; male of a pair, e.g. of mortice and tenon joint, press-studs
  oraŋ lakia man
  manok lakicockerel
Malay lakihusband (less respectful than suami)
  ber-lakito take a husband
  laki-lakimale (usually more polite than jantan); manly; masculine
Acehnese lakòëhusband
Alas lakihusband
Simalur laihusband
  si-laimale, masculine (men and animals)
Karo Batak lakivocative for ‘grandfather’
Toba Batak lahiyoung, of fruits
  si-lalahi-ana tree that has only male blossoms, like the papaya
  lahi-lahimanly, masculine
Nias laʔimale mousedeer; man, male
Rejang lakəyman, husband
Sundanese lakiman; male, masculine (only in combination); pestle (used with mortar)
Old Javanese lakiman, male, husband
  laki-lakiman, male, husband
  maka-lakito have a husband, be married to, have sexual intercourse with (of a woman)
  aŋ-laki-lakimaking a virile appearance, plucky
  l<um>aki-lakito incite to manly action, fire the fighting spirit of
Javanese lakisexual intercourse; husband
  a-lakito marry
  ŋe-lakito mate or breed (of animals)
Balinese lakimale; man; husband
Sasak lakiman; male, masculine
  se-lakiʔhusband of
Buginese laimale (of humans or animals)
Muna lakileading bull (of a herd of cows or buffaloes)
Chamorro lahiman, male, boy; also used in direct address among friends in the same way that lai (‘friend’, ‘man’) is used
  lahe-nson of, man of
Donggo rahihusband
Ngadha ata sakiman; husband
Palu'e ata lakiman, male
Sika laʔiman; husband
Lamaholot lakehusband; male
Adonara lakehusband
Kodi laghihusband
Waiyewa laihusband
Lamboya laihusband


PWMP     *di-laki male, man

Kelabit də-laʔihmale
Malay (Kedah) de-lakimale
Karo Batak di-lakimale, masculine; boy, man; husband


PWMP     *la-laki male

Ilokano lalákiboy; man; anything masculine; male
  ka-lalákithe larger part of a pair of two things
  ma-lalákimasculine; looking strong and responsible; daring; courageous; intelligent
  maki-lalákito have an affair with a man
  napa-lalákihandy at men’s work (women)
Agta (Dupaningan) lallákiman, male (historically a plural)
Isneg lalákimale
Bontok lalákiman, male, boy
  la<l>lákimen, boys
Kankanaey lalákiman, male; cock, he (applied to men and animals)
Ifugaw lalákiman
Isinay lalákiman, boy, male
  lallákimen, boys, males
Kapampangan lalákiman, male
  la:lákimen, males
  magpaka-lalákiact like a man
Tagalog laláki, lalákeman, an adult male; male, masculine
  mag-lalákito act the role of a man (in a play or movie)
  man-lalákito take a common-law husband
  pagka-lalákimanhood; masculinity; virility; manliness
  pan-lalákimanly; suitable for a man; masculine; in grammar, of the gender of male names
Bikol lalákiboy, lad; man; male
  pagka-lalákimanliness, masculinity; virility
Hanunóo lalákiman, boy, male
Masbatenyo lalákimale, man (refers to animate beings)
Aklanon l<in>a-eakíto act like a man (said of a woman)
Waray-Waray lalákiman, male
Hiligaynon lalákimale, man, boy, male illicit lover
Palawan Batak lalakiman, human male
Cebuano lalákihuman male; turn out to be a boy; paramour
  paka-lalákiact like a man, consider, treat like a man
  tag-lakin-anthe groom’s relatives at the wedding
Malagasy laláhyman (provincial)
Iban le-lakimale
Malay le-lakimale; masculine
Sundanese la-lakimale; masculine
Mongondow lo-lakiman; male, masculine; brother (woman speaking)
Wolio lalakilord, nobleman, king (chess)
  ka-lalakinobility, greatness
  ana lalakiperson of noble birth
  lalaki-akabe lord of, rule over


PWMP     *ka-(la)laki-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano ka-laki-anthe male (of a pair of animals); masculine
Bontok ka-laláki-yanbrother or male cousin of a female Ego
Ibaloy ka-leki-anbull, stallion, mature male carabao; (of deer) buck
Tagalog ka-lalakih-angroup of men or males; manhood; men; mankind
Masbatenyo ka-lalakih-ángroup of men
Cebuano ka-lalakin-anthe menfolk as a group
Tiruray ke-lagey-anthe persons on the man’s side in a legal dispute
Toba Batak ha-lahi-anthe season when the fruits are still young
Old Javanese ka-laki-laki(n)manliness, manly courage, virility

Note:   Also Itbayaten xakay ‘male, man, mister’, Romblomanon lyāki ‘a boy or man; a male animal, fish, mollusk’, pagka-lyāki ‘someone’s manliness’, Uma Juman Kayan akiʔ, Mukah Melanau lay ‘male’, Pendau Lauje laŋkai ‘man, male’, Bare'e laŋkai ‘male, of animals, masculine; husband’. This form is known only in languages that have been classified as WMP or CMP. Its meaning appears to be identical to that of PAn *RuqaNay, and the two clearly co-existed in PMP and later proto-languages, although to date no language has been found with reflexes of both. In addition to the basic meaning ‘male’ the simple form of this base (*laki) or the collocation *anak laki replaced PMP *ñaRa ‘brother’ (woman speaking) in a number of Malayo-Polynesian languages, evidently through transfer from the meaning ‘wife giver’ (‘male group’; cf. Blust 1993).


*laki₂ old, of people


PWMP     *laki₂ old, of people     [doublet: *aki 'grandfather']

Ilokano láki-ŋendearing term of address for a grandfather
Hanunóo lakigrandfather/grandchild (recip.)
Melanau (Mukah) lakəyold, of people

Note:   Also Isneg lakáy ‘old man’, Atta (Pamplona) laka-lakáy, Palawan Batak lagi-lági ‘old’.


*laklak to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated


PWMP     *laklak to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated

Ilokano laklákto be skinned, flayed
  ma-laklak-anto be skinned, flayed
Bontok laklákdandruff
Kankanaey laklák-anto flay, to skin; to gall, to peel; to bark, to strip; to rub off the bark, to tear off the skin
Ibaloy dakdak-ento peel something off that has adhered (as adhesive tape, paint, poster from wall, chewing gum from floor, skin of animal in skinning)
Cebuano laklákfor trousers, pants, underpants to be too loose
Ida'an Begak lallakremove bark of a tree
Melanau (Mukah) lalakbald
Ngaju Dayak lalakstripped of leaves, defoliated; peeled (as a banana, sugarcane)
Karo Batak laklakrind, peeling; bark of a tree
  ŋe-laklak-ito peel; strip bark from a tree
Toba Batak laklakbark, rind
  maŋa-laklah-ipeel off the bark

Note:   Also Karo Batak me-lak ‘come loose, of the skin; shaved, skinned’. Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian lala ‘empty, unoccupied, uninhabited’ in this comparison, but the semantic connection appears far-fetched.


*lakub enclosure; to enclose


PPh     *lakub enclosure; to enclose

Ilokano lakúbenclosure; encirclement
  ma-lakúbto be surrounded
  lakub-ento surround, encircle; block
Bontok lakúbto cover completely, as a landslide covering a whole pondfield
Kalamian Tagbanwa lakubhalf coconut shell; to cover with a half coconut shell
Maranao lakobfence, enclosure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkubin roofing, to finish a section or to finish the whole house
Sangir me-lakubeʔoverhang and at the same time overshadow (as vines, forest)


*lakun to coil up


PPh     *lakun to coil up

Cebuano lakunto coil something (as a rope); a coil (of rope, wire)
Tboli lakunto coil up, as a rope, or as a snake coils up; to fold something, as abaca fiber


*lakup cover, wrapping


PAN     *lakup cover, wrapping

Paiwan lakupa covering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree)
  l<m>akupto cover over (as with roof-shaped cover); to twine around (as vine)
Waray-Waray lakóp-lakópeyelid
Tboli lakufto include, be a part of, as an area
Malay te-laŋkupturned over; capsized; bottom-upwards
Karo Batak laŋkupcover, wrapping, casing; what covers or surrounds something; a strip of gold or brass that covers the teeth
Javanese t-lakupcovering leaf of a flower or bud; ear flaps; a hat with ear flaps

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.


*lalak trochus shell


PMP     *lalak trochus shell

Tausug laaktrochus, top shell (Pallesen 1985:323)
Proto-Sama-Bajaw *lalaktrochus, top shell (Pallesen 1985:323)
Nauna laltrochus shell
Lou laltrochus shell
Pak laltrochus shell
Loniu lantrochus shell
Leipon laltrochus shell
Ahus laltrochus shell
Levei loŋtrochus shell
  pwiki loŋtrochus shell
Likum lantrochus shell
Sori laŋtrochus shell
Lindrou lantrochus shell
Bipi lantrochus shell
Seimat laltrochus shell
Wogeo lalapearl shell
Nggela lalaspecies of mollusc: Trochus niloticus
Sa'a lalaa shellfish and arm ring made of its shell
Mota lalatop shell and bracelet made of it
Raga lalaTrochus stellatus; shell armlet, ring

Note:   Most Oceanic forms cited here outside the Admiralties are from Pawley (2011:186-187), who notes that Mussau lailai, Kove lalai, Balinese lailai ‘pearlshell’ may be borrowings of Tok Pisin lalai, itself from Tolai lalaiTrochus spp.; armlet made from trochus shells’, with unexplained final –i. Trochus shell armbands were traditionally of widespread importance in Melanesia, and hence presumably in Proto-Oceanic society, but it is unclear whether this was also true of PMP speakers.


*laláŋ to create


PPh     *laláŋ to create

Casiguran Dumagat laláŋto create (the subject of this verb is always God, and refers to the creation of the world)
Tagalog laláŋcreation; creature; created
  l<in>aláŋcreature; created
  l<um>aláŋto create
  lalaŋ-ínto create
Bikol ma-laláŋcreative; ingenious
  lalaŋ-ónto create the world and its creatures (God)
Cebuano laláŋto create; power


*lalatu₁ kind of ant


PWMP     *lalatu₁ kind of ant

Simalur lalatuant
Sangir lelatusmallest kind of ant
Bare'e lelatured ant that has a painful bite

Note:   The comparison which supports this reconstruction was first recognized in print by Kähler (1961).


*lalatu₂ sparks, burning ashes in the wind


PWMP     *lalatu₂ sparks, burning ashes in the wind

Rungus Dusun lalatuashes that are flying about
Sundanese si-lalatuspark, small bit of burning matter that flies up from the fire
Old Javanese latu-latu, lalatusparks, flying parts of a burning object
Balinese latuspark, speck
  lalatuspark, speck
Tae' lalatusparks

Note:   Also Kambera latu ‘carbonized; charcoal’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) posited *latu ‘spark’, but cited little supporting evidence.


*lalaw exceed, surpass, go beyond


PWMP     *lalaw exceed, surpass, go beyond     [doublet: *lalu]

Maranao lalawsecond growth of rice (cp. lalo 'above, more, excess')
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lalewgrieve over something to the extent that one does not eat
Kayan lalawpast, gone; more than, exceed
Ngaju Dayak lalawpast (of time); exceed, too
Bare'e lalogo past, go beyond

Note:   For the comparison Tagalog laloʔ ( unexpl.), Ngaju Dayak lalao (-ao unexpl.), Malay, Malagasy lalu ‘go past, go over, go beyond’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *lalu. To account for the irregular Tagalog and Ngaju Dayak forms, Hendon (1964) suggested that this etymon be modified to *lalew. The fuller data presented here do not support Hendon's proposal, and are best explained through the reconstruction of doublets.


*lalay cicada


PAN     *lalay cicada     [doublet: *Nali]

Kavalan raraycicada
Bunun (Northern) lalaycicada

Note:   Also Saisiyat lalaiɁ ‘cicada’ (< *NaNai), Pazeh lalay ‘cicada’ (< *NaNay), Thao lalay ‘cicada’ (loanword from Northern Bunun). It is unclear why this word shows phonological irregularities in so many languages. Cp. the equally probalematic doublet PAn *Nali. Osmond (2011:397) adds Molima lele ‘a mountain insect with a very attractive cry’, and Dobuan lele ‘cicada’, proposing POc *l(ae)le ‘cicada’, but the Oceanic forms are just as problematic as those in Saisiyat, Pazeh and Thao. A non-problematic etymon for ‘cicada’ thus continues to remain elusive at all levels of reconstruction.


*lalej housefly


PMP     *lalej housefly

Bontok láləghousefly; fly
Ifugaw (Batad) lāloga common housefly (refers to most flying insects with transparent wings, including the large blowfly)
Kelabit laledsmall black housefly
Berawan (Long Terawan) dilənhousefly
Dali' lalədhousefly
Kiput laləthousefly
Malagasy lálitraa fly
  lálitra ómbia cattle fly
Maloh lalashousefly
Malay lalata fly, especially the common housefly
  lalat hijaubluebottle fly
Acehnese lalata fly
Sundanese laleurcommon housefly
Old Javanese lalera fly
  l<in>aler-anfull of flies
Javanese lalerfly (insect)
Pendau lalehousefly
Balaesang lalehousefly
Bare'e yalea fly
Tae' laliʔkind of large fly
Kulisusu lalehousefly
Wolio lalehousefly
Palauan yáyəshousefly
Chamorro laloʔhousefly
Palu'e lalea fly
Sika lalecommon housefly
Hawu larahousefly
  lara menilablowfly, botfly
Tetun lalarhousefly
Erai lalea fly
Selaru lalhousefly
Asilulu lalea fly, Diptera
Morella larifly

Note:   Also Karo Batak laneŋ ‘a fly, especially the blue meatfly’, Toba Batak lanok ‘a fly’. Dempwolff (1938) also includes Fijian lalo ‘a fly (dialectal)’, but since no other Oceanic reflex is known, and a form of this shape is not found in Capell (1968) I assume that this is an error.


*lali ankle bone (?)


PMP     *lali ankle bone (?)     [disjunct: *laliŋ]

Malay buku laliprojection of bone at ankle
Mongondow boku laliankle bone
Bare'e wuku yaliankle bone
Arosi rarishin, front bone of leg from knee to foot
Fijian lalithe thigh


*lalin move, transfer


PMP     *lalin move, transfer

Cebuano lálinemigrate, transfer one’s residence to a far place; transfer something to a new location
Manggarai laliŋto move (residence); to shift, change
Tetun lalinto change, to transfer
  lalin-anto come or go (a respectful term to superiors)


*laliŋ ankle bone (?)


PMP     *laliŋ ankle bone (?)     [disjunct: *lali]

Ngaju Dayak buko laliŋankle bone (buko = ‘bone’)
Arosi rarishin, front bone of leg from knee to foot
Fijian lalithe thigh


*lalu₁ more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness)


PMP     *lalu₁ more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness)     [doublet: *laluq]

Ilokano láloespecially; particularly
  lal-lálothe more
  ma-lálotoo much, excessive
  pa-lalú-anto do something excessively
Casiguran Dumagat lálomore, moreso, greater; to get worse (as sickness)
Ayta Abellan laloto worsen (as a swollen leg)
Bikol lálo....namore so, even more; in particular; chiefly; especially; mainly; particularly; primarily; even better
Hanunóo lálumore (intensive)
Palawano lalumore, even more so, extremely
Maranao lalorrequirement above, more, excess
Malay tər-lalusurpassingly; very
Sundanese lalugo through, continue on one’s way or with one’s work
Old Javanese laluto pass, go by, elapse, continue, proceed; thereupon, subsequently; passing the limit, going too far, too much, exceedingly, very, very much
  p<in>a-laluto ignore, pay no attention to, disregard (difficulties, etc.); accept, resign oneself to
  l<um>aluto go on regardless of the consequences
  ka-lalw-angone by, past; passed, left behind
Javanese lalu(and) then, after that
  ŋə-laluto commit suicide
Balinese laluto succeed, be successful; extremely, very
Kambera laluvery, extreme


*lalu₂ rice pestle


PWMP     *lalu₂ rice pestle     [doublet: *laq(e)lu, *qaSelu]

Palawano lalurice pestle
Karo Batak lalurice pestle

Note:   Also Palawano laalu ‘rice pestle’.


*laluŋ cock, rooster


PMP     *laluŋ cock, rooster

Isneg láloŋthe red cock that is tied securely to the tiebeam, immediately above the waldáy, before the tuŋtúŋ ceremony at a solemn sacrifice
Pangasinan lalóŋrooster, cock
Bikol láloŋrooster, cock
Agutaynen laloŋyoung cockerel with no comb yet
Penan (Long Labid) iap laluŋcock, rooster
Melanau (Mukah) laloŋmale (nonhumans) (Anonymous)
Mentawai lalukcockspur
Tae' laloŋdauntless, courageous in combat
Manggarai laloŋmale (of birds), cock
Rembong laluŋmale (of birds)
Li'o lalumale (of birds), cock
Solorese manuk laluŋcock
Rotinese manu lalu-kcock

Note:   The penultimate segment is reflected irregularly in Isneg, Melanau (Mukah), Tae'’, and Manggarai. It is possible that this form contained a rare PMP mid-vowel *o.


*laluq more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus


PWMP     *laluq more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus     [doublet: *lalu]

Tagalog láloʔmore; increasingly
Iban lalohsurplus, over and above, more than enough; enough and to spare; (of money) credit balance, excess of income over expenditure
Sasak laloʔvery bad, very serious


*lama₁ lie on a surface, of water


PMP     *lama₁ lie on a surface, of water

Bare'e lamalie sticking to or smeared over something else (example sentence: there is water on the plank; don't sit there)
Tae' lammadew, mist
Sa'a lamaspread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood)


*lama₂ old, former


PAN     *lama₂ old, former

Atayal lamaʔfirst, do first, before
Pangasinan lámato age, lose polish, etc.
Iban lamaʔold, former, ancient; long (of time), long ago, formerly
Malay lamalength (of time)
  oraŋ lamathe people of long ago, the ancients
Old Javanese lamalength of time, duration
  a-lamalong, for a long time, already a long time, old; long ago
Balinese lamalong (time)


*lama₃ type of coconut


POC     *lama₃ type of coconut

Tolai lamageneral name for coconuts, including the tree, fruit, etc.; ripe coconut
Sa'a opo lamagrowing coconut with watery inside, not normal (opo = core, center of a growing coconut)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*lamak mat


PMP     *lamak mat     [doublet: *amak]

Malagasy (Provincial) lámakamat, mattress
Old Javanese la-lamaksomething laid down to put something else on, a mat
Javanese lamakprotective pad
Sasak lamakunderlayer, mat
Yamdena lamakmat of lontar leaves (on which to dry tobacco, etc.)

Note:   Also Sundanese samak ‘pandanus mat’. Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *lamak ‘mat’ based on the comparison of Malagasy lámaka with Javanese lémék ‘lining, protective underlayer’, Sa'a lama ‘spread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood)’. However, only the Malagasy and Sa'a terms exhibit a recurrent phonological correspondence, and only the Malagasy and Javanese terms exhibit a close semantic correspondence.


*lámak to set out a lavish meal


PPh     *lámak to set out a lavish meal

Ilokano lámaklavish party
  ag-lámakto picnic
Hanunóo lámaksetting out of food for a meal

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*laman deep


PCEMP     *laman deep, of the sea; deep sea

Yamdena me-lamandeep
Fordata lamandepth
  ba-lamandeep; a depth
Kei lamandepth
Buli m-lamandeep (of bay, hole, sea)
Dusner ramensea
Numfor ramenvery deep


POC     *laman deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef

Penchal lamdeep sea beyond the reef
Loniu lama-ndeep sea just beyond the reef
Tigak lamansea
Tolai lamanadeep, of the sea; deep sea, ocean
Gitua lamandeep
Roviana lamanathe ocean; deep, of water
Eddystone/Mandegusu lamanasea, ocean; deep sea beyond the reef
Arosi rama-ramadeep water beyond the edge of the reef
Mota lamaopen sea

Note:   The only meaning that can confidently be inferred for this form in PCEMP is the generic sense ‘deep’. However, in POc it had clearly come to refer specifically to the deep sea beyond the reef.


*lamán pork, flesh of a pig


PPh     *lamán pork, flesh of a pig

Isneg lamánwild boar
Bontok lámanwild pig
Ifugaw lamánmuscle, e.g. of the limbs; hence human flesh
Casiguran Dumagat lamánwild pig; wild pig meat
Ibaloy damanflesh, meat; grain of wood
Pangasinan lamánbody, flesh, meat, muscle, substance
Kapampangan lámancontents; fleshy
Tagalog lamánmeat; flesh; the part of something that can be eaten; kernel; the inside part of a fruitstone, nut, etc.; body; substance; density; contents
  ma lamánfleshy; having much flesh
  laman-ánto fill; to put something into a container; to pack full; to stuff
Bikol lamánflesh; the bulb of plants
  ma-lamánfleshy, meaty
  mag-lamánto be fleshy, to have lots of meat

Note:   Delang babi laman ‘domesticated pig’ may be connected, but given the meaning of this word it is more likely that the second term is cognate with Iban laman ‘open space by a house’.


*lámaŋ only, just, but


PPh     *lámaŋ only, just, but     [doublet: *laŋ]

Tagalog lámaŋalone; only; just; merely
Hanunóo lámaŋonly; but
Agutaynen lamaŋonly; just; only just now; just as soon as
Cebuano lámaŋonly, just; merely, (do) nothing more than


*lamaR slippery


PWMP     *lamaR slippery     [disjunct: *lamas]

Malagasy lamasmoothed, made slippery
Mongondow lamagslippery

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun hama ‘slippery’.


*lamas slippery


PWMP     *lamas slippery     [disjunct: *lamaR]

Malagasy lamasmoothed, made slippery
Balinese lamasthin, slimy membrane; mucus on fruit or fish


*lámay a wake for the dead, night vigil


PPh     *lámay a wake for the dead, night vigil

Ilokano lámaywake for the dead; overtime work
  ag-lámayto work overtime
Tagalog lámaynight vigil for the dead; a wake
  pag-lámayovertime work at night
  lámay-ánwake in honor of the dead
  lamay-ínto keep working overtime on something or into the night without sleep
Bikol mag-lámayto sit vigil for
  pag-lámaya wake, a vigil

Note:   Also Iban lemay (Howell and Bailey 1900) ‘work in the evening’.


*lamay a tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm.


PPh     *lamay a tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm.

Ilokano lamaya tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm.
Subanon lamaya tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm.

Note:   This comparison is taken from Madulid (2001), and could not be confirmed from independent sources.


*lambanug fermented drink made from coconut juice, palm juice, etc.


PPh     *lambanug fermented drink made from coconut juice, palm juice, etc.

Ilokano lambanógwhite wine made from coconut juice
Casiguran Dumagat lambanugnipe wine (after it has been refined by being run through a still)
Tagalog lambanógwine made from coconut or palm juice
Bikol lambanógwhisky made from distilled tubáɁ (coconut sap)
Agutaynen lambanogsugarcane wine
Cebuano lambánugalcoholic drink made from the water taken from the nipa palm bud that has been fermented and distilled


*lambaq go


PWMP     *lambaq go     [doublet: *lampaq]

Maloh lambaʔwalk
Mandar lambago, walk


*lambat long, of time


PWMP     *lambat long, of time

Kapampangan ma-lambáta long time ago
Malay lambatslow, taking time; behind time
  lambat laundragging on; protracted; in course of time; at long last

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan.


*lambayuŋ plant sp.


PWMP     *lambayuŋ plant sp.     [disjunct: *rambayuŋ]

Casiguran Dumagat lambáyuŋtail (of the long feathers of a rooster’s tail)
Cebuano lambáyuŋcreeping vine of seashore with purple morning glory-like flowers: Ipomoea pescaprae
Malay lembayoŋthe water hyacinth: Eichornea crassipes

Note:   Despite its different meaning, Casiguran Dumagat lambáyuŋ probably is cognate, the semantic connection being the draping extension of colorful flowers/feathers.


*lambeg throw, cast


PMP     *lambeg throw, cast

Maranao lambegthrow, cast
Tongan lafothrow (rope, fishing line, net, etc.), or disks; disk-throwing game
Samoan lafothrow (with forearm), cast
Tuvaluan lafothrow or toss underarm (as of a quoit); game in which a segment of coconut shell is tossed onto a mat; a shell segment so used

Note:   Ambiguous for *lambeg or *lambeR; possibly a chance resemblance.


*lambid to cross over, wind around, embrace


PPh     *lambid to cross over, wind around, embrace

Agutaynen lambid-enfor two things, such as trees or pieces of wood, to be crossed over each other; to cross one’s arms on top of each other; to cross one’s legs/ankles
Cebuano lambidto be wound around in an irregular way (as tentacles of an octopus around someone’s leg)
Maranao lambidhug
Tiruray labida portion of a line where extra strands are twisted together for greater strength


*lambuk knock, pound, beat


PMP     *lambuk knock, pound, beat     [doublet: *rambuk]

Proto-South Sulawesi *lambu(k)pound rice
Nggela lambuhit, strike
Lau labustrike, hit with a blow, strike down
Arosi rabustrike, knock, hit, knock in a nail

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.


*lambuŋ robe, long garment


PPh     *lambuŋ robe, long garment

Tagalog lambóŋshroud; something that covers, conceils or veils; a veil used by one in mourning; a mourning mantle
  lambuŋ-ánto cover something with a mantle
Bikol lambóŋan ankle length tunic or robe
  mag-lambóŋto wear such a garment
Hanunóo lámbuŋwoman’s waist or blouse; a seven-piece, closed-seamed slipover, homespun cotton garment with a flare bottom
Aklanon eámboŋshirt; blouse; dress
Agutaynen lamboŋclothes, or an article of clothing; garment
  mag-lamboŋto wear clothes; to get dressed; to change clothes
Proto-East Gorontalic *lambuŋojacket

Note:   Also Tiruray lambuŋ ‘(of women) to wear Western style clothing rather than Tiruray style’. Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*lamíg cold


PPh     *lamíg cold

Casiguran Dumagat lamígcold (of an object which feels cold); to become cold
Tagalog lamígcold; coldness; iciness; low temperature
  ma-lamígcold, having a low temperature
  pa-lamig-ínto chill; to make cold; to cool
  l<um>amígto become cold


*lamlam₁ impetuous


PAN     *lamlam₁ impetuous

Paiwan lamlamprecipitate, impetuous
Old Javanese lamlamcarried away by desire (longing); being a prey to one's emotions; feeling uncertain; acting according to one's own desire (whim)


*lamlam₂ weak (in intensity); insipid


PWMP     *lamlam₂ weak (in intensity); insipid

Isneg lamlámsaltless, insipid, flat
Tagalog lamlámsoftness or weakness of light; gloominess or dimness of light; languidness of the eyes
  ma-lamlámlifeless; languid; indisposed, a little unwell
  l<um>amlámto soften, to become less glaring
Karo Batak lamlamsupple, soft (mostly of things that by their nature are hard); be softened by moisture
Toba Batak lamlaminsipid, tasteless
  si-lamlam ateategentle, meek

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Sa'a lala ‘to be soft, of taro’, but the cognation of this form remains in doubt.


*lampaŋ go


PMP     *lampaŋ go     [disjunct: *lampaq]

Tboli lafaŋwalk around
Karo Batak lapaŋtrail, path made by animals
Toba Batak lapaŋpath
Proto-Minahasan *lampaŋwalk
Mongondow lampaŋto step, step over something
Bimanese lampawalk

Note:   Also Sundanese lɨmpaŋ ‘walk’, Lauje me-lempaŋE.


*lampaq walk, go


PMP     *lampaq walk, go     [disjunct: *lampaŋ]

Javanese lampahwalk
Sasak lampaʔwalk, go
Sangir lampastride or step over
Pendau me-lampato walk
Balaesang me-lampato walk
Bimanese lampawalk
Manggarai lampaa step


*lampás to go past, go beyond, be excessive


PPh     *lampás to go past, go beyond, be excessive

Casiguran Dumagat lampásexcessive; reaching beyond; to penetrate beyond; to pass ahead of
Ayta Abellan lampahto pass by
Bikol mag-lampásto pass by; to go beyond; to exceed, surpass, transcend
  maka--lampásto unintentionally go too far beyond
Cebuano lampás ~ lápaspast, beyond a time or place considered right; go past a certain time or place, do something beyond, especially when one shouldn’t
Central Tagbanwa lampasgreater than, bigger than

Note:   Also Tiruray lamfas ‘to outrun, exceed’.


*lampid braid

Note:   With root *-pid ‘braid, wind together’.


*lampin layer of cloth or clothing


PWMP     *lampin layer of cloth or clothing

Ilokano lampína diaper
  lampin-ánto put a diaper on a baby
Casiguran Dumagat lampendiaper (also any clothing an infant is wrapped in)
Tagalog lampínbaby’s diaper; baby’s swaddling clothes
  lampin-ínto use something as a diaper
Bikol lampína diaper
  mag-lampínto diaper, to change the diapers of
Agutaynen lampincloth diapers
  mag-lampinto put diapers on a baby, have a child wear diapers
Tboli lafinlayer, as layers of clothing, sheet of paper, as a page in a book; to add another layer
  l<em>afinto apply an additional layer, one on top of the other
Malay lampinswathing band; wrapper wound round a very young child to prevent it injuring itself by rolling about
Wolio lampilining (of coat), sole (of shoe)


*lampit rattan sleeping mat


PWMP     *lampit rattan sleeping mat

Ngaju Dayak lampitrattan mat used to cover the floor of a house
Iban tikai lampitheavy mat of lengths of rattan threaded together with bark cords
Malay lampitsleeping mat (Java)
Old Javanese lampita mat of rattan
  aŋ-lampitto carry the lampit
Javanese lampitrattan seat mat
Totoli lapitmat plaited of nipah leaves
Dampelas lapitmat (from nipah leaves)


*lampuyaŋ kind of ginger


PWMP     *lampuyaŋ kind of ginger

Cebuano lampuyaŋginger: Zingiber officinale; to flavor with ginger
Ngaju Dayak lampuyaŋa plant resembling the kujang (kind of tuber)
Malay ləmpoyaŋa ginger used medicinally: Zingiber aromaticum or Zingiber zerumbet

Note:   Also Toba Batak lampiaŋ ‘plant similar to a lily’.


*lamu₁ seaweed sp.


PMP     *lamu₁ seaweed sp.     [disjunct: *lamun, *lamut]

Malay lamua seaweed for making jelly: Cuhalus coenigii
Ngadha lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss
Rotinese lamukind of seaweed


*lamu₂ body hair, feather


POC     *lamu₂ body hair, feather

Proto-Admiralty *lamu-body hair, feather
Loniu lomu-feather
Nali yomu-body hair, feather
Hula lamu-lamuhair of human body, hair of animals
Nggela lau-lamuhairs on mango
Arosi ramu-ramu-ahairy, as a ghost or a man’s legs (ghosts are hairy)
Southeast Ambrym amneedle (of plant, such as pine needle); hair

Note:   Also Bipi, Sori lami- ‘body hair, feather’. Some of these forms may reflect *Ramut ‘fibrous roots’.


*lamuj to mix


PWMP     *lamuj to mix

Saisiyat (Taai) L<om>amozto mix
Isneg lammúgmix rice pounded into powder, bran or flour with water
Palawano lamudmix, mixed
Binukid lamudto mix (two or more things or persons togetheer); to mix something with something else
Mapun lamudanything added or mixed (with something to form a blend or mixture)
  lamur-anadd it, mix it in!
Kadazan Dusun h-in-amumixture (of food)
Lun Dayeh lamuda mixture of bəriŋan [an herb], təlakaʔ [tree with blisters on the bark that cause a skin rash when touched], and likuaa [a variety of ginger], used as ingredients for brewing burak [rice wine]
  mə-lamudleavened (bread)
Kelabit lamudmixure
Toba Batak lamukmix together
Ngadha lamumix together


PWMP     *ŋa-lamuj to mix together, as ingredients in cooking

Lun Dayeh ŋə-lamudto make lamud
Kelabit ŋə-lamudto mix
Moken ŋa-lamudto mix ingredients together in cooking


PWMP     *pa-lamuj to mix together (?)

Kelabit pə-lamudmixed
Moken pa-lamudto participate; to get involved in; to take part in; to associate with; to meddle

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun hamuʔ ‘to mix, add’.


*lamuk₁ vague, unclear


PWMP     *lamuk₁ vague, unclear

Maranao lamokblur, shadow over the moon
Sundanese lamukdark, hazy, of the view
  ŋa-lamukappear vaguely in the distance
Old Javanese lamuk-lamukvaguely visible


*lamuk₂ mosquito


PMP     *lamuk₂ mosquito     [doublet: *ñamuk]

Ilokano lamókmosquito
  lamok-enbe bitten by many mosquitoes
Bontok lamúkmosquito
Tagalog lamókmosquito
Hiligaynon lamúkmosquito
Cebuano lamúkmosquito; be infested with mosquitoes
Javanese lamukmosquito
Makassarese lamuʔmosquito
Rotuman rɔmumosquito
Kapingamarangi lamuflies, mosquitoes

Note:   Also Manggarai lemok ‘small fly, fruit fly; also small mosquitoes that gather in swarms’, Manggarai lemuk ‘sandfly, small biting mosquito’.


*lamun₁ swamp grass


PMP     *lamun₁ swamp grass

Ilokano ag-lámonto weed (grasss); clear land of weeds
Itawis mal-lamunto weed
Ifugaw lámunto push weeds or straw under the water and into the mud of a rice field
Casiguran Dumagat lamongrass, weeds; to cut grass, to pull out weeds
Ibaloy damonthe weeding of a field or garden
  man-demonto weed, engage in weeding
  damon-ento remove something in the weeding
Bikol lámonreed which grows under the water in rivers
  ka-lamún-anan area containing a lot of this reed
Malay (Brunei) lamunriver weed
Sasak lamunduckweed (on the water)
Palauan yámlgrass in snapdragon family that grows in swampy areas: Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.
Manggarai lamuŋaquatic moss


*lamun₂ eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole


PPh     *lamun₂ eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole

Itbayaten xamonidea of swallowing
  maŋ-xamonto swallow
Tagalog lámonvoracious eating; devouring; gorging; gormandizing
  pa-lamun-into give someone too much to eat
Bikol mag-lámonto eat
Aklanon eámonto eat (of an animal); to eat like a pig, eat voraciously and sloppily
  pa-eámonto feed an animal (used insultingly of people)
Cebuano lámunto put large chunks of food in the mouth whole
Mansaka lamonto swallow


PPh     *lamun-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten lamon-anAdam’s apple
Tagalog lamun-ána sesssion of gormandizing


PPh     *lamun-en eat voraciously, eat like an animal

Itbayaten xamon-ento swallow in big quantity, to gulp, to swallow in one gulp
Tagalog lamún-into eat voraciously; to devour; to gobble up; to eat fast and greedily


*lamuq to salt meat or fish for storing


PPh     *lamuq to salt meat or fish for storing

Ilokano lamóto salt meat or fish for storing
  lamu-énto salt meat or fish for storing
Cebuano lámuʔtemporarily preserve tiny fish by salting lightly


*lamuR dew


PMP     *lamuR dew     [doublet: *ñamuR]    [disjunct: *dahemuR]

Saisiyat (Taai) lamoLdew
Tagalog hamógdew, moisture condensed from the air
Pokau lamudew

Note:   Dempwolff posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *lamuR ‘dew’ on the basis of Tagalog hamóg, and Javanese lamur ‘dew’. However, the latter form does not appear in any Javanese dictionary available to me.


*lamut seaweed sp.


PMP     *lamut seaweed sp.     [disjunct: *lamu, *lamun]

Chamorro lamottype of seaweed
Ngadha lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss
Rotinese lamukind of seaweed

Note:   Also Manggarai ramut ‘moss, algae’.


*lanab high water, flood


PWMP     *lanab high water, flood

Ayta Abellan lanabflood; rushing water
Aklanon eanábto flood a little bit, overflow a little
Tboli lanabhigh tide
Sangir lanabəʔhigh water, flood


*lanaŋ to flow, of water


PPh     *lanaŋ to flow, of water

Itbayaten mi-xanaŋ-anto flow continuously and abundantly
Casiguran Dumagat lanáŋpuddles of water on the ground after a rain
Mansaka lanaŋto overflow, as water from a river


PPh     *lanaŋ-an place of flowing water

Itbayaten xanaŋ-anthe place where water comes out (hillside, at the foot of hill)
Maranao lanaŋ-antoilet


*lanay₁ liquid, watery


PPh     *lanay₁ liquid, watery

Hanunóo lánayclear pitch; used as a medicament to apply to the skin of those suffering from ringworm
Maranao lanayto melt
Mansaka lanayliquid; watery (as a raw egg)
Tiruray lanayto melt tree sap
Tausug l<um>anayfor candy, butter, lard, soap, tablet, etc. to melt


*lanay₂ weak, exhausted


PPh     *lanay₂ weak, exhausted

Ilokano lánayweakness of body reflected by eyes; slowness of gait
  lanáy-ento do gently, softly, etc.
Agutaynen la-lanay dato be totally exhausted, without any more strength; to feel weak and limp


*landak porcupine


PWMP     *landak porcupine

Palawano landakporcupine
Iban landakporcupine
Malay landakporcupine
Karo Batak landakporcupine
Toba Batak si gu-landakporcupine
Sundanese landakporcupine
Old Javanese landakporcupine
Javanese landakporcupine
Balinese landakporcupine
Sasak landakporcupine

Note:   It is initially tempting to consider this an innovation in western Indonesia that spread to Palawano by Malay contact. However, there are two reasons to reject this interpretation. First, Palauan sits on the Sunda shelf along with Borneo and the other Greater Sunda islands,and so has a native porcupine (Darlington 1980:390). Second, there is no obvious reason why a Malay word would be borrowed to designate a native animal. It is most plausible to assume, then, that the porcupine was first encountered by Austronesian speakers moving south from Taiwan when they reached Palawan, and the name that was innovated for it there was preserved as they continued to expand southward. In some areas, however, the name for this animal was replaced by a reflex of *taRutuŋ ‘porcupine fish’.


*landasan anvil


PWMP     *landasan anvil

Cebuano landásananvil
Malay landassolid surface on which heavy work can be done

Note:   Also Maranao randas ‘to beat on an anvil’, randas-an ‘anvil’, Malagasy landaizana ‘an anvil’. Possibly a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) also compared Tagalog landás ‘path; beaten path’, Toba Batak landas ‘smooth, level, as the surface of a field’, and Javanese landəs ‘material used to protect a surface’ with Malay landas and proposed Uraustronesisch *landas foundation, basis’, a proposal that is probably best abandoned until further support can be found.


*lanéb lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids


PPh     *lanéb lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids

Bontok lanə́banything used as a hair dressing, as pig fat or coconut oil
Ibaloy daneblard, the rendered fat or fatty meat of pigs; grease, fat of meat
Tagalog lináb <Mgreasy or fatty scum on the surface of liquids
Bikol ma-lánab <Mgreasy, referring to the grease or fat that floats on top of a soup or stew

Note:   Tagalog and Bikol share a metathesis of the vowels in this form, a clear indication of their subgrouping relationship.


*lanés dried up, wilted (of plants)


PPh     *lanés dried up, wilted (of plants)

Itbayaten xanessugarcane waste pulp, bagasse (dried and used as kindling or torch)
Casiguran Dumagat lanə́swilted, dead, dried up (of plants and trees)
Sambal (Botolan) lanéhto wither
Bikol lanósreferring to coconuts which are old and dry
Aklanon eánosa somewhat old coconut
Agutaynen ma-lanetfor plants, leaves, crops to become dried up, withered
Maranao lanesto wilt, wither
Mansaka lanusto wither, to fade
Tausug lanuswilted, withered (generally of leaves; also of coconuts, coffee and grains of corn)
  ma-lanusto be or become a spinster or an old bachelor
  l<um>anusto wither


*lanét dried up, wilted, of plants


PPh     *lanét dried up, wilted, of plants     [disjunct: *lanes]

Ilokano i-lanétto wilt over the fire
  na-lanétwilted, withered
Agutaynen ma-lanetfor plants, leaves, crops to become dried up, withered


*lantaŋ take one's time


PWMP     *lantaŋ take one's time

Hanunóo lántaŋduration of time
  lantaŋ-ánlong time
Iban lantaŋunhurried, take one's time

Note:   Also Sasak lantan ‘long, protracted’.


*lantay bamboo matting or platform


PWMP     *lantay bamboo matting or platform

Cebuano lantáyanything with a top or bottom consisting of bamboo slats: a bed, table, tray, bench, shelf; to put or make into a lantáy
Maranao lantaybridge, floor
Binukid lantayanything with a top consisting of slats (as a bed, table, bench, etc.)
Ngaju Dayak lantaythe floor in a boat
Malay lantayflooring; the thin strips of nibong or bamboo used for a Malay seat or floor
Sundanese lantay-anbamboo poles, horizontally fastened on upright bamboo poles in the ground, and used to dry newly harvested rice
Old Javanese lantemat of rattan (distinctive of high rank)
Sasak lanterattan sitting mat (probably from Javanese)

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Sa'a lade ‘stones of the earth oven’, but this is best treated as a chance resemblance.


*lantik graceful curve (of body)


PPh     *lantik graceful curve (of body)

Sambal (Botolan) lantikto curl back, to tip back, to bend back
Kapampangan lantíkto bend, arch the body
Tagalog lantík ~ ka-lantik-ángraceful curve of eyelashes, hips, etc.
Maranao lantikbend, curve, crooked; curved roof of Maranao house
Mapun lantikbent, bowed, curved backwards
Yakan lantikcurved, bent in a light curve (as eyelashes); to stick out (like a cock’s tail, a person’s rear)


*lantiŋ tie together, of floating objects


PWMP     *lantiŋ tie together, of floating objects

Cebuano lántiŋfor boats with no anchor or floats to tie up to or together with another boat
Kayan (Uma Juman) ŋə-lantiŋto float
Iban lantiŋanything used for support in water
Malay lantiŋhouse built on a raft


*lánut abaca fiber; fiber-yielding plant; kind of tree with bark that yields a vine-like fiber


PPh     *lánut abaca fiber; fiber-yielding plant; kind of tree with bark that yields a vine-like fiber

Itbayaten xanota plant with useful fiber: Hibiscus tiliaceus L.
Ivatan hanuta plant: Hibiscus tiliaceous Linn.
Ibatan hanotkind of tree used for posts; the thick inner fibrous bark of the hanot tree that can be stripped by just pulling it off the tree (used for straps of alat baskets, making rope, or for tying something, as rice bundles)
Ilokano lánotvine
  ka-lanót-ana place abounding in vines
  lanót-ankind of tree: Bombicydendron vidalianum
Casiguran Dumagat lanotvine
Pangasinan lánotthick fiber
Aklanon eánotabaca fiber
  ka-eánot-anabaca plantation
Cebuano lánuthemp from abaca; any kind of long, tough plant fibers; make hemp from abaca
Subanon lanuthemp, abaca fiber
Binukid lanutraw abaca fiber; hemp from abaca
Mansaka lanotfiber; abaca fiber
Tboli lanutto reject strands of abaca fiber that are smaller and softer than the rest

Note:   Also Yami ganot ‘type of plant: Cuban bast’.


*lanzak step, tread on


PWMP     *lanzak step, tread on

Balinese lanjakkick backwards
Sasak lanjakto kick
Wolio landak-itread on, step on, run over
Muna landatread, step on, thresh rice by treading

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.


*laña vegetable oil


PMP     *laña vegetable oil

Ilokano lánacoconut oil; coconut butter
Bontok lánacoconut oil; to apply coconut oil to something
Pangasinan lanáfragrant coconut oil
Kapampangan lañaoil of sesame (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog lánaoil of sesame
Hanunóo lánaoil, especially coconut oil, used occasionally for the hair
Cebuano lánaoil obtained from plants
Central Tagbanwa lanavegetable or coconut oil
Maranao lanaoil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lanacoconut oil; oil from other vegetable sources
Ida'an Begak lanooil
Simalur lanaoil
Sangir lanaoil
Proto-Minahasan *lanaoil
Mongondow lanaoil
Kaidipang Ranaoil (esp. coconut oil)
Bare'e lanaoil, especially coconut oil
Chamorro lañaoil (generic)
Amblau lanaoil (van der Miesen)

Note:   Also Tiruray lanah ‘oil’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) posited *laña ‘oil’, but cited little evidence in support of his reconstruction.


*lañut tough, as meat


PWMP     *lañut tough, as meat

Cebuano lánuthemp for abaca; any kind of long, tough plant fibers
Kadazan Dusun hanuttough (of meat); thick, congeal, curdle
Proto-Minahasan *lanuttough (of meat, fibers)
Tontemboan lanuttough, as old meat

Note:   With root *-ñut ‘stretchy, elastic’.


*laŋ only, just, merely


PPh     *laŋ only, just, merely     [doublet: *lámaŋ]

Ibatan laŋonly
Ilokano laŋonly, merely (said to be a contraction of laeŋ)
Bikol laŋonly, just; merely, a mere
Hanunóo laŋonly, but (said to be derived by syncope from lámaŋ ‘only, but’)
Aklanon eaŋjust, only
Hiligaynon laŋonly, also, just
Palawano laŋonly


*laŋan absence, omission


PPh     *laŋan absence, omission

Ilokano láŋanabsence, act of skipping something
  l<um>áŋanto be absent; to play hooky; skip; miss, fail to do something; miss a meal
  laŋán-anto purposely miss a scheduled event
  l<um>aŋ-láŋanto be periodic
Bontok láŋanto be absent, as a child from school, or a person from his working group
Keley-i laŋanto abstain from work
Ibaloy man-deŋanto be absent, take sick leave
Agutaynen ipa-laŋanto intentionally skip or miss something, be absent; to habitually do something every other time or every other day
Cebuano láŋanto delay, waste time
Maranao laŋandelay; omission


*laŋaq₁ gape, open wide


PMP     *laŋaq₁ gape, open wide

Maranao laŋaʔstop sucking, as a baby does; release
Singhi Land Dayak ŋi-raŋahopen (of a fruit)
Malay laŋahopen, agape, ajar
Chamorro laŋŋaʔ (gemination unexpl.)gape, hold mouth agape
Ngadha saŋa laŋaopen the mouth

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gaping, wide open’.


*laŋaq₂ simple-minded


PWMP     *laŋaq₂ simple-minded

Cebuano laŋaʔstupid, foolish, silly, dull, simple
Sundanese laŋahcareless, inattentive


*laŋaw housefly


PAN     *laŋaw housefly     [doublet: *baŋaw, 'paddy bug', *beRŋaw 'bluebottle']

Kavalan raŋawfly (insect)
Saisiyat (Taai) Laŋawsmall fly
Pazeh raŋawa fly (big or small)
  raŋaw nuaŋhorsefly
Thao ranawhousefly, black fly common in houses
Paiwan laŋaw ~ la-laŋawa fly (insect)


PMP     *laŋaw bluebottle, blowfly, horsefly

Itbayaten xaŋawbig housefly, bluebottle
Agta (Dupaningan) láŋawhousefly
Isneg láŋawa fly
Itawis láŋawfly (insect)
Kankanaey láŋewa very small winged insect, mostly found around slops, wine, etc.
Ifugaw láŋo ~ láŋawvery small winged insects that sip rice wine (if the jar is not covered)
Ifugaw (Batad) láŋawa rice-beer fly (a small brown fruit fly that is partial to rice beer and breeds and multiplies in wine jars if not tightly covered
Casiguran Dumagat laŋöa fly; many flies
Tagalog láŋawhousefly
Bikol láŋawa fly
  ma-láŋawhaving many flies; be covered with flies
Hanunóo láŋawthe common housefly
Masbatenyo láŋawa fly
Aklanon eáŋawfly (general term for this family of insects)
Waray-Waray láŋawa fly
Hiligaynon láŋawa fly
Cebuano láŋawhousefly
Maranao laŋawgadfly, horsefly
Binukid láŋawgeneric for flies; for flies to infest an area
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋewa fly
Mansaka laŋawa fly
Mapun laŋawa fly
  ka-laŋaw-anto have a fly or flies stuck or dead in something
  laŋaw-anhaving flies
Yakan laŋewa fly, housefly
Tausug laŋawbotfly, a species of large fly
Tombonuwo laŋowfly, housefly
Ida'an Begak laŋowhousefly
Tabun laŋawhousefly
Kelabit laŋolarge bluish-green fly, horsefly
Kayan laŋawcommon housefly
  laŋaw pusahgreen paddy bug
  laŋaw toʔlarge blowfly
Lahanan laŋawhousefly
Ngaju Dayak laŋawa fly
  laŋaw hantularge gadfly (lit. ‘ghost fly’)
  ma-laŋawto catch flies
Iban laŋaubluebottle, or meat fly
Malay laŋaubiting fly of the stable-fly type (Stomoxydae)
Rejang laŋeuwa bluebottle fly
Sangir laŋoa fly
  me-laŋocome to a feast uninvited
Mongondow laŋowcommon housefly
Kaidipang Raŋohousefly
Buli laŋa fly
  laŋ ŋiŋilawbluebottle, horsefly
Numfor rankind of small fly


POC     *laŋo housefly

Penchal lallaŋ (< *laŋlaŋ)housefly
Lenkau laŋlaŋhousefly
Seimat laŋhousefly
Wuvulu laohousefly
Mussau laŋohousefly
Tigak laŋfly (insect)
Mendak ləŋhousefly
Vitu laŋohousefly
Amara o-loŋofly (insect)
Kove laŋo-laŋohousefly
Wogeo laŋohousefly
Manam laŋohousefly
Motu laoa fly
Nehan laŋhousefly, generic for flies, Diptera, family Muscoidea; fly and similar small insects
Selau loŋohousefly
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋoa fly
Nggela laŋoa fly
  laŋo ni mbolospecies of large fly (lit. ‘pig fly’, presumably because they frequent pigs)
Kwaio laŋolarge fly
  laŋo bulublowfly
Lau laŋofly, mosquito
  laŋo bulucommon fly, bluebottle
Toqabaqita laŋogeneric for large flies, bluebottles, blowflies
Sa'a laŋothe bluebottle fly
Arosi raŋoa fly
  raŋo buruthe bluebottle fly
Haununu raŋohousefly
Pileni laŋohousefly
Motlav na-laŋhousefly
Mota laŋothe bluebottle fly
Mosina laŋhousefly
Lakona laŋfly
Merig laŋhousefly
Piamatsina laŋohousefly
Malmariv lanofly (insect)
Lametin laŋhousefly
Mafea laŋohousefly
Amblong lanohousefly
Aore laŋohousefly
Araki laŋoa fly
Central Maewo laŋoa fly
Raga laŋoa fly
Apma leŋhousefly
Leviamp na-lanhousefly
Axamb nə-raŋhousefly
Southeast Ambrym fly (insect)
Lelepa laŋohousefly
Ura u-leŋhousefly
Rotuman laŋaa fly
  laŋ foraubluebottle (lit’ ‘foreign, or introduced fly’)
Wayan laŋohouseflies and other Brachycera flies
  laŋo-laŋobe fly-infested, full of flies
Fijian laŋoa fly
  laŋo kataa wasp
Tongan laŋofly (insect)
  faka-laŋo-ato attract flies, encourage flies to come about
Futunan laŋohousefly
  laŋo ʔusibluebottle (lit. ‘blue fly’)
  laŋo-afull of flies, swarming with flies
Samoan laŋoa fly
  laŋo-iabe covered with flies
Tuvaluan laŋoa fly
Nukuoro laŋofly, flying ant, wasp, or other similar flying insect
Rennellese gaŋohousefly
Anuta raŋofly (insect)
Rarotongan raŋogeneral name for flies
Maori raŋoblowfly
Hawaiian nalo <Mthe common housefly and other two-winged insects


PAN     *laŋaw-en infested with flies, covered with flies

Thao ranaw-inbe covered with flies
Tagalog laŋáw-inbe infested or covered with flies
Bikol laŋáw-onbe covered with flies
Masbatenyo laŋáw-onswarming with flies
Waray-Waray laŋáw-onfly-infested
Cebuano laŋáw-unbe infested, swarm with flies
Tausug laŋaw-unbe infested with laŋaw (botflies)

Note:   Also Ilokano ŋílaw ‘housefly’, ŋílaw ti nuaŋ ‘horsefly’. In the absence of other known evidence I take the apparent correspondence between this Ilokano form and Buli laŋ ŋiŋilaw ‘bluebottle, horsefly’ to be a product of chance convergence. PAn *laŋaw appears to have meant ‘housefly’, with qualifying words needed to designate the bluebottle or other types of flies. However, in PMP *lalej evidently replaced *laŋaw in this meaning, and *laŋaw came to refer to the bluebottle, botfly or horsefly without the need for a qualifying term. No doubt because houseflies are the most frequently encountered pests in the family Diptera reflexes of *laŋaw have shifted back to the meaning ‘housefly’ in many languages.


*laŋeg to rot, spoil, become rancid


PPh     *laŋeg to rot, spoil, become rancid

Agutaynen ma-láŋegrancid; musty smelling (of rancid food, or clothes that have been sitting in water)
Maranao laŋegbegin to rot, as in fish


*laŋen rollers for beaching a canoe


PMP     *laŋen₁ rollers for beaching a canoe

Kankanaey laŋéntwo big pieces of greenwood on which the hogs that are to be sacrificed at home are stretched out
Ifugaw laŋónsticks between which (two below and two above) pigs are strongly tied when they must be sacrificed or transported
Ibaloy daŋenpair of big logs on which a pig is laid after it has been killed (the fire is between, which burns off the hair before it is butchered)
Agutaynen laŋenstones for supporting a pot (usually three stones are used); hearth, native stove made of a firebox filled with sand, and stones or a metal rack for setting the cooking pot on
  laŋen-ento use something to support a cooking pot
Maranao laŋenroller
Yamdena n-laŋanplace rollers under, as under a canoe
  la-laŋanroller for beaching a canoe


POC     *laŋon rollers for beaching a canoe

Gedaged luŋa slip, a sloping ramp or pier, dock; the pieces of wood put on the beach over which the canoe slips when pulled up
Numbami laŋanacanoe rollers
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋonoa log on which a canoe rests when it is hauled ashore
Arosi i-raŋoroller for a canoe; place rollers for a canoe (with instrumental prefix i-)
Proto-Micronesian *laŋoprop
Woleaian laŋ(o)canoe roller, fulcrum; to be rolled, raised with supporters (as a canoe)
Fijian laŋoplace rollers under a canoe
  laŋon-aplace rollers under a canoe (trans. form)


*laŋ(e)qes stench, odor, as of fish


PWMP     *laŋ(e)qes stench, odor, as of fish     [doublet: *laŋ(e)si]

Kankanaey laŋʔéssmelling of fish
Malagasy lánia smell, a stench


*laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor


PAN     *laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) laŋsistinking, of over-cooked (burnt) rice


PMP     *laŋ(e)si fishy smell

Isneg na-laŋsíthe smell of fish, of blood, etc.
Ifugaw laŋhiodor produced by fishes
Casiguran Dumagat láŋsesmell of sea fish
Ibaloy daŋsistrong, offensive odor (as of old blood, body odor, dirty clothes)
  man-daŋsito give off such an odor
Agutaynen ma-laŋsifishy smelling
  ag-laŋsi-anto be bothered by fishy smells
Cebuano laŋsihaving fishy smell or the taste of blood
Kadazan Dusun honsifishy smell

Note:   Also Bikol ma-laŋsíɁ ‘having a fishy smell or taste’, Aklanon eáŋsa ‘fishy-smelling, having a fishy odor’, Cebuano láŋsa ‘having a fishy smell or the taste of blood’


*laŋi₁ beach


POC     *laŋi₁ beach

Loniu (pwaha) leŋbeach, shore
Nali leŋbeach, shore
Ere leŋbeach, shore
Titan bua-mata-leŋbeach, shore
Gedaged laŋbeach, shore, strand, coast

Note:   Also Waskia laŋi beach, shore, strand, coast. Waskia is a non-Austronesian language, but appears to have borrowed this word from an Austronesian source, and is currently the only language known to preserve the final vowel.


*laŋi₂ up, above


POC     *laŋi₂ up, above

Loniu pe-leŋ-anup
Ere e-leŋup
Lau laŋiup, above

Note:   Probably a reflex of PAn *laŋiC ‘sky’, but the semantic agreement between these forms is unknown elsewhere.


*laŋiC sky


PAN     *laŋiC sky

Saaroa laŋicasky
Puyuma ɭaŋiTsky


PMP     *laŋit sky

Itbayaten xañitheaven, sky
Ilokano láŋitsky, heaven
  i-láŋitto raise to the sky, lift up toward heaven
  maŋ-láŋitto daydream
Ibanag láŋiʔsky
Agta (Dupaningan) láŋetsky
Isneg láŋitheavens, sky
  i-láŋitspirits of the sky (usually favorable to reapers; when they want to possess a shaman they use a bridge or ladder to come down)
Itawis láŋitsky
Ifugaw laŋítheaven, skyworld; currently used by the Ifugaw, but borrowed from Ilokano or other languages
Ifugaw (Batad) lāŋitheaven
Gaddang láŋitsky
Casiguran Dumagat laŋetsky, heaven (thought of as a huge, round, blue dome which is cupped over the earth)
Umiray Dumaget laŋotsky
Ibaloy daŋitheaven
Sambal (Botolan) láŋitsky
Tagalog láŋitsky
  taga-láŋitheavenly; of or in heaven
Bikol láŋitsky, heavens
  ka-laŋít-anthe heavens
  laŋít-nonheavenly, celestial
Hanunóo láŋitsky, heavens
Masbatenyo láŋitsky, heaven, firmament, atmosphere
Aklanon eáŋitsky, heaven
  ka-eaŋít-anthe heavens; Heaven
Waray-Waray láŋitsky, space, heaven; eternity
Hiligaynon láŋitheaven, sky, outer space
Palawan Batak laŋítsky, heavens
Cebuano láŋitheaven, sky; joy, happiness
Maranao laŋitsky, heaven
Binukid laŋitsky, heaven
Manobo (Tigwa) laŋitsky
Mansaka laŋitheaven, sky
Mapun laŋitthe sky
Yakan laŋitsky
Molbog laŋitsky
Tboli loŋitsky, heaven
Tausug laŋitthe sky
Tombonuwo laŋitsky
Ida'an Begak laŋitsky
Lun Dayeh laŋitsky, heaven
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) laŋitsky
Kelabit laŋitsky
Kenyah (Long Anap) laŋitsky
Murik laŋitsky
Kayan laŋitsky
Bintulu laŋitsky
Melanau (Mukah) laŋitsky
Kejaman laŋitsky
Lahanan laŋitsky
Ngaju Dayak laŋitsky; vault of heaven
  la-laŋitthe ceiling of a room
Malagasy lánitrasky, heaven
Iban laŋitsky, heavens; the Heavens, as distinct from Earth; World of the Dead, and the land of the serpent deities…The hornbill, Segadu’, represents the manang (shaman), of whom the chief is Menjaya or Ini’ Manang, living in the seventh heaven
Jarai ŋitsky
Roglai (Northern) laŋiʔsky
Malay laŋitsky
Bahasa Indonesia me-laŋitto go “sky high” (of prices)
Gayō laŋitsky
Karo Batak laŋitsky
Toba Batak laŋitdome of heaven, sky
Nias laŋiatmosphere, sky
Mentawai laŋitred sky of morning and evening
Lampung laŋiʔsky
Sundanese laŋitsky, atmosphere, firmament
  laŋit tujuhthe seven heavens
  la-laŋitcanopy; palate
Old Javanese laŋitsky, firmament
Javanese laŋitsky; ceiling; facial expression
  laŋit-anceiling; canopy; palate
Balinese laŋitsky, heavens, air
Sasak laŋitsky
Tonsea daŋitsky
Tontemboan laŋitsky, atmosphere
Tonsawang laŋicsky
Petapa Taje laŋitisky
Uma laŋiʔsky
Tae' laŋiʔsky, heaven
  randan laŋiʔhorizon
Mori Atas laŋisky
Moronene laŋisky
Makassarese laŋiʔsky, firmament
Bonerate laŋisky
Muna lanisky
Popalia laŋisky
Palauan yáŋdsky; weather
Chamorro laŋetheaven, sky, outer space
Bimanese laŋisky; canopy of a stage
Waiyewa laŋitasky
Lamboya laŋtasky
Galoli lanitsky
Leti liantisky
Luang liantisky
Wetan liantisky
Yamdena laŋitsky, heaven
  laŋit sepanhorizon
Ujir laŋitsky
Bobot lakitsky
Nuaulu nant-esky
Kamarian lanitsky
Alune lanitesky
Laha lanitasky
Hitu lanitsky
Asilulu lanitsky
Amblau laniresky
Buruese laŋitsky
Kayeli laŋitsky
Soboyo laŋisky
Kowiai/Koiwai raŋgitsky
Gimán laŋitsky
Buli laŋitsky, heaven
As lanitsky
Irarutu raŋgətsky
Dusner ranetsky
Ron raneksky
Loniu laŋsky
Nali yaŋsky
Ere laŋsky
Titan laŋlight
  kole-laŋsky (‘place of light’)
Lele yaŋsky
Kele laŋisky
Tigak laŋitrain
Tabar raŋitisky
Duke of York laŋitsky, heavens
Vitu laŋisky
Arop laŋsky
Lakalai la lagisky
Wogeo laŋsky
Manam laŋsky
Patep lagsky
Motu laibreeze, wind
Nehan laŋitsky
Halia laŋitsrain
Haku i-laŋitssky
Piva nanitsisky
Uruava ranisisky
Takuu lanisky; weather
Luangiua laŋisky
Mono-Alu laitirain
Varisi ranisky
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋitesky
Talise laŋirain
Sa'a läŋiup
  haʔa-laŋia house on piles
  i-leŋisky, heaven
  läŋi-leŋi-ʔealoft, lifted up; tall and strong, of a person
Arosi raŋito rain; rain
Sikaiana lanisky
Gilbertese te naŋa cloud; fig. hindrance, annoyance, obstacle, worry
  naŋi-naŋwith a few clouds, cloudy
Kosraean lucŋsky, heaven
Marshallese lañsky; weather; heaven
Pohnpeian lahŋsky, heaven; bad weather
  laŋi-laŋi-hhonorific: to give a title, to crown; to wear a garland
Mokilese loaŋsky
Chuukese nááŋheaven, sky (early German sources report that it has several tiers or levels, of which five were named by distinct terms)
Puluwat láŋrain; sky
  láŋi-láŋrain with symbolic portent, as of a canoe coming, death, birth, bad weather; to have portent, of rain
Woleaian laŋ(i)sky; typhoon, rain-storm, wind; be struck by a typhoon; compass
Pileni laŋiday
Merlav laŋwind
Cape Cumberland laniwind
Mafea tai-laŋisky
Araki laŋiwind
Peterara laŋisky
Central Maewo tae-laŋisky
Raga laŋiwind
Lingarak ne-laŋcloud
Avava a-laŋsky
Namakir na-laŋwind
Makatea raŋisky
Nakanamanga na-laŋiwind
Rotuman lɔŋisky, heaven; wind, air, weather
  la ne lɔŋihorizon
Wayan laŋisky, atmosphere
Fijian lomā-laŋithe sky, heaven (lit. ‘inside of sky’)
  vū ni laŋias though one who comes from the horizon
  laŋi-laŋibeautiful, magnificent, glorious
Tongan laŋisky, heaven; eyes, face, mouth, ears, or head (of king or queen)
  lāŋi-laŋisplendor, glory, honor
  laŋi-laŋi havilito look as if it is going to be windy
Niue laŋisky, heaven; thunder; head, hair
Futunan laŋisky; mythical residence of persons after their death
Samoan laŋisky, heaven; funeral ceremony
  laŋi lelei(of the weather) be fine
  laŋi faʔatafasickness of a high chief
  faʔa-laŋiaddress or refer to someone by his ceremonial title
  laŋi-ābe cloudy
  laŋi-laŋi-ābe stormy
Kapingamarangi laŋisky
Nukuoro laŋirain; heaven, sky
  laŋi haanaua certain kind of rain [an omen of an impending childbirth]
Rennellese gaŋisky, heaven
  haka-gaŋito put up a flat ceiling
Anuta (vae)-raŋiheavens, sky
Rarotongan raŋimyth: the ethereal space, the not-earth region; sky, firmament (this definition was a meaning quite unknown to the ancient people); the sky sphere; supreme in authority, a crown, supremacy, the paramount high chief, highest authority or power, etc.; an emblem of arikiship worn on the head of chiefs
Maori raŋisky; heaven, upper regions, abode of supernatural beings; weather; day, period of time; chief, generally in the form of respectful address: e raŋi ‘sir’
Rapanui raŋisky
Hawaiian lanisky, heaven; heavenly, spiritual; very high chief, majesty; royal, exalted, high born, aristocratic
  hoʔo-lanito treat one as a chief; to act as a chief; to enjoy the position and prestige of a high chief


PWMP     *laŋit laŋit palate; canopy

Ilokano láŋit-láŋitcanopy
Tagalog láŋit-láŋitpallium; canopy; vault roofing
Cebuano láŋit-láŋitegg white; canopy of an altar or bed
Mapun laŋit-laŋita cloth or drapery used to decorate the ceiling of a house during a celebration
Malay laŋit-laŋitceiling cloth put up at weddings and other great festivities; canopy on posts over a grave in honor of the dead; palate
Simalur laŋiʔ-laŋiʔcanopy
Karo Batak laŋit-laŋitcanopy; palate
Toba Batak laŋit-laŋitcanopy
  laŋit-laŋit ni dilapalate
Nias laŋi-laŋimaterial for making clothing
Old Javanese laŋit-laŋitcanopy
Balinese laŋit-laŋitpalate, roof of the mouth; the ceiling or roof-ridge of a house or bale
Sasak laŋit-laŋitcanopy, as over a bed
Makassarese laŋiʔ-laŋiʔpalate
Wolio laŋi-laŋicanopy; palate

Note:   Also Puyuma ɭaŋis ‘sky (ritual term)’, Sasak le-laŋit ‘canopy, as over a bed’, Muna laŋi-laŋi ‘a white cloth wound around the top of a tombstone (sometimes draped like a tent) to ward off the disturbing influence of the spirit of the dead person’, Buruese lanit ‘sky’, Arosi daŋi ‘the light; the wind; daylight, the day, a day’, Kapingamarangi laaŋi ‘day’.

This word has a wide range of associations. In most languages it seems to have referred not only to the physical sky, but also to a mythological realm of spirits, and reflexes in at least Iban and Sundanese suggest that the concept of a celestial spirit realm embodied the notion of seven levels, a concept that was reported in a slightly different form in early sources on Chuukese. In many parts of the Pacific reflexes of this term refer to weather phenomena, such as rain or wind, either together with the meaning ‘sky’ or without it. Forms in some languages of Vanuatu, as Central Maewo tae-laŋi and Mafea tai-laŋi apparently reflect *taqe laŋi ‘cloud’ (lit. ‘feces of sky’). Finally, in both Micronesia and Polynesia reflexes of *laŋi were used to refer to high chiefs and perhaps others of aristocratic rank.


*laŋiR a tree from which a sort of shampoo is derived: Albizia spp.


PWMP     *laŋiR a tree from which a sort of shampoo is derived: Albizia spp.

Malay laŋir buayaa shrub: Mallotus griffithianus
  bər-laŋirto use cleaning materials when bathing
Acehnese laŋian aromatic salve
Mandar laŋermaterials used to wash the hair (water with ashes, etc.)
Makassarese laŋiriʔshampoo made from ashes of rice straw

Note:   Also Javanese laŋir ‘a fruit producing a soapy substance which is used as a shampoo’, Sasak laŋer ‘to oil the hair’. A form of this comparison was first proposed by Mills (1981), who posited ‘Proto-Indonesian’ *laŋi(DrR) ‘tree sp. (usually Albizzia saponaria Bl.) from which a sort of shampoo is derived’. This may be a Malay loan distribution.


*laŋkaq₁ step, stride; to omit or skip over


PMP     *laŋkaq₁ step, stride; to omit or skip over

Ngaju Dayak laŋkahto transgress (an order, law)
Iban laŋkahstep, pace, stride; overstep (as in disobeying an order or violating customary law)
Malay laŋkahstep; first step; stepping over; overstepping, passing over
  mə-laŋkah lautansea travel, going overseas
Acehnese laŋkaha step, pace, stride
Gayō laŋkaha step, pace, stride
  mu-laŋkahto step, stride
Karo Batak laŋkahconduct, behavior
  ŋe-laŋkah-istep over someone; slip between two people without asking permission
Dairi-Pakpak Batak laŋkah-laŋkaha trip
Toba Batak laŋkaa step, pace, stride
  mar-laŋkato step, stride, go
Minangkabau adat laŋkahextra fee for marrying a younger sister before the elder has been married off
Sundanese laŋkahstep, stride (longer than leŋkah)
  ŋa-laŋkahstep over something with big strides; step through or over; step across; transgress
  ŋa-la-laŋkah-anplace or exalt oneself over someone; look down on someone with an attitude of superiority
Old Javanese laŋkahstep, stride
  l<um>aŋkahto advance, proceed
  ka-laŋkah-anto have something pass over one; be trodden underfoot
Javanese laŋkaha long step, a stride; too far, beyond the objective, wide of the mark
  ka-laŋkah-anto get stepped over; to get by-passed (as a woman whose younger sister is married before her)
  ŋə-laŋkahto step over something (as sleeping people); to skip, bypass; to marry ahead of an older sibling
  pa-laŋkahgift given to an older sibling by a younger one who is marrying first
Balinese laŋkaha stride, pace; to stride; go beyond, overstep
Wayan lakato go, move along, proceed
  laka-tigo to or over a place
  laka-lakato go, keep going; route, method, procedure; conduct, behavior; style, characteristics; contributions to a feast or presentation, what one brings
Tongan lakato go or walk (especially for a short distance only), to step; to march; to move on or forward; to proceed, progress, develop; to go beyond (literally or figuratively), to go or come past, to go or come over, to pass or cross over; to surpass, to exceed or be in excess of; to omit or skip over
  laka halato step incorrectly, to be out of step
Niue lakato step; to cross over
  laka-aŋaa step, pace
  fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration
  laka-fiastepped over; exceeded
Futunan faka-lakato pass over
  laka-fiabe passed over
Samoan laʔato step, march
  la-laʔastep over; put someone above (in estimation or respect by ‘stepping over’)
  laʔa loaskip over, pass over
  laʔa-siastep over, go beyond
Tuvaluan lakastep
  laka-lakatake several steps
Nukuoro laga-lagaput down one foot after the other (as in walking or marching in place)
Rennellese gakato step; to move, as to another district
  gaka tooto step and fall, as of an infant learning to walk; to tumble; an age classification for infants
  gaka-uŋacrossing, as of a street; bridge
Anuta rakato step over something
  raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly
Maori whaka-rakato walk, step out

Note:   Also Sasak laŋkah ‘take a step in the pencaʔ (martial arts dance)’, presumably from Malay. This word is well represented in both western Indonesia and Polynesia, where it shares several of the same semantic nuances, but is unknown elsewhere. In the physical sense it clearly meant ‘step, stride’, but often with the implication that this was literally over a person’s body (a cultural taboo); more figuratively it evidently represented the idea of by-passing or ‘stepping over’ a person in favor of someone else less deserving. Dempwolff (1938) also included Malagasy laka ‘lines drawn at right angles in the game called fanorona [played on lines and spaces with pebbles, seeds, etc.]’, and Sa’a laka ‘to leap about, to play, of schools of bonito’, neither of which appears to belong here. Presumably with root *-kaq₂ ‘split’ (from the separation of the legs in taking a stride).


*laŋkaw high, tall


PMP     *laŋkaw high, tall

Tagalog laŋkáwelongated and thin (said of legs or neck)
Bikol laŋkáwtall, lofty, towering
Palawano laŋkewheight
Tiruray laŋkawtall
Ngaju Dayak laŋkawroof (of a boat)
Banggai laŋkoheight, altitude, elevation
Uma laŋkoheight, altitude
Manggarai laŋgagrow, get taller (of a person)

Note:   Mills (1975: 748) has Proto-South Sulawesi *laŋka(C) ‘high’. Miri kéw ‘tall’ suggests that this form contains a root *-kaw.


*laŋkay man, male


PWMP     *laŋkay man, male     [doublet: *laki]

Itbayaten xakaymale, man, mister
Ivatan hakayman, male
Sambal (Botolan) lákayhusband
Pendau laŋkayman, male; male animal
Dampelas laŋkayman, male
Bare'e laŋkayman, male of animals, masculine

Note:   A version of this comparison was first proposed by Mills (1981), who posited ‘Proto-Indonesian’ *la(ŋ)ka(hØ)i or *la(ŋ)kay ‘male; revered’. In so doing he combined words for ‘grandfather’ with those for ‘male’, although the two appear to be distinct since each gloss is attested in separate sets of widely separated languages.


*laŋkuas a plant: Alpinia galanga


PWMP     *laŋkuas a plant: Alpinia galanga

Ilokano laŋkuása kind of gingerlike herb, Alpinia galanga
Kadazan Dusun hoŋkuas(a type of) root, rhizome like a ginger
Ida'an Begak ləŋkuasAlpinia galanga
Ngaju Dayak laŋkuasa plant similar to ginger, but larger and milder in taste than lai, true ginger
Iban eŋkuaslarge rhizomatous herb used as a spice in cooking, Alpinia spp. (esp. the white A. galanga)
Malay leŋkuasa ginger, Alpinia galanga; varieties: l. merah (red, used medicinally); l. puteh (white, used to spice curry)

Note:   Also Tagalog laŋkáwasAlpinia pyrimidata Bl. Zingiberaceae, Zingiber zerumbet L.’ (Madulid 2001), Bikol laŋkáwas ‘plant in the ginger family possessing roots used as a seasoning, Alpinia galanga’, Aklanon eaŋkawás ‘spicy plant: Curcuma zedoaria’. Possibly a loan distribution due to borrowing from Malay.


*laŋlaŋ eat together as a group


PPh     *laŋlaŋ eat together as a group

Itbayaten xaŋxaŋidea of eating in a group (at least two persons)
  mach-xaŋxaŋto be eating with
Ibatan haŋhaŋtwo people (may) eat together, face to face
  machi-haŋhaŋsomeone eats with someone face-to-face
Ilokano laŋláŋfirst meal of the bride and groom together
  ag-la-laŋláŋto sit together at a table


PPh     *ka-laŋlaŋ eating partner; eat together

Itbayaten ka-xaŋxaŋeating partner
Ilokano ka-laŋláŋto eat together

Note:   Possibly an Ilokano loan.


*laŋu vertigo


PAN     *laŋu vertigo

Itbayaten xaŋoidea of seasickness or ride sickness
Ilokano laŋódistaste for something one is in contact with in excess
  ma-laŋóto be tired of (after frequent use)
Casiguran Dumagat laŋodrunk, intoxicated
Tagalog laŋótipsy
Hanunóo láŋudizziness; drunkenness
  laŋúdizzy; drunk
Mapun laŋódistaste for something one is in contact with in excess
Malay laŋua nasty unpleasant taste in the mouth (as due to illness)
Nias laŋupoison
Javanese laŋu(of odors, taste) strong, acrid, disagreeable, overpowering
Balinese laŋuheavy-headed, giddy
Sangir laŋu(mentally) dull, far-away (in thought)
Pendau laŋudrunk, intoxicated
Banggai laŋudrunk, intoxicated
Bare'e ma-yaŋudizzy, intoxicated
  ma-yaŋu ntasiseasick
Chamorro lá-laŋuunconscious; faint, fall in a swoon
Manggarai laŋudizzy, drunk
Rotinese laŋulangu-dizziness: term in ritual language for serious illness (Fox, J. 1993)
Tetun lanuto intoxicate, to inebriate, to be drunk; to poison
  lanu-kintoxicated, drunk
Yamdena laŋubitter, poisonous


PAN     *ma-laŋu dizzy, drunk

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-laŋusurfeit (with food)
Itbayaten ma-xaŋoseasick, ride sick
Subanon mo-laŋudrunk, intoxicated
Mapun ma-laŋóto be tired of
Mongondow mo-lo-laŋudrunk; dizzy; queasy
Banggai ma-laŋudrunk
Soboyo mba-laŋudrunk

Note:   Also Cebuano laŋuʔ ‘dizzy due to poisoning; drunk (slang)’, Maranao laŋot ‘dizzy, dizziness’. Mills (1981) posits "Proto-Indonesian" *laŋu(ho) ‘nausea, nauseating’, but cites cognates only from WMP languages. The present etymon is possibly identical with *laŋu ‘unpleasant taste’ in Blust (1970). For a semantic parallel with a different root, compare Samoan ʔona ‘poisonous’, ʔo-ʔona ‘sour, bitter; (of drink) strong’, Hawaiian ʔona ‘drunk, dizzy and unsteady, intoxicated’; note also the etymology of intoxicated.


*laŋuy to swim


PWMP     *laŋuy to swim     [doublet: *naŋuy, *taŋuy]

Ilokano laŋóyswim
  ag-laŋóyto swim
  i-laŋóyto swim something over, carry by swimming
  pag-laŋóy-anplace where one swims, swimming pool
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-laŋoyto swim
Isneg mag-laŋóyto swim
  maŋ-laŋóyto swim
Kankanaey men-laŋóyto float; to waft
Pangasinan laŋóyto swim
Tagalog laŋóyswimming
  mag-laŋóyto swim
  ma-laŋóyto be able to swim over something
  pa-laŋóyswimming party
  laŋuy-ínto swim a certain distance, or to a certain place, etc.
Bikol mag-laŋóyto swim
  laŋuy-ána place for swimming, swimming pool, swimming hole
  laŋuy-ónto swim for a particular distance or across a particular place
Buhid ag-laŋóyto swim
Hanunóo laŋúyswimming
Romblomanon laŋuysomeone swims
  pag-laŋuysomeone’s swimming
  laŋūy-ana swimming place
Masbatenyo mag-laŋóyto swim, bathe
  laŋúy-answimming pool
Inati laŋoyto swim
Aklanon eaŋóyto swim (after/the length of)
Waray-Waray laŋóyswimming
  laŋoy-áto swim across
Hiligaynon mag-laŋúyto swim
  laŋuy-únto swim
Cebuano laŋúyto swim; float as if swimming
  l<in>aŋy- ánstyle of swimming
Maranao laŋoyswim
Binukid laŋuyto bathe, take a bath; to go swimming; to bathe (someone)
Mansaka laŋoyswim
Tiruray loŋuyto swim
Mapun laŋiswim
  laŋi-unto swim
Yakan mag-laŋito swim
  pa-laŋito cause to swim, to let swim
  mag-laŋi-hanto swim (repetitive)
Tausug mag-laŋuyto swim (to a destination)
  laŋuy-unto swim out to something
Kelabit laŋuyswimming
  laŋuy-laŋuydog-paddle in the water
Malagasy lanuswimming
  man-danuto swim
  lanus-inato be swum in
Nias mo-laŋito swim
Lampung laŋuyto swim
  laŋuy-laŋuy-anto be in the habit of swimming; (several) to be swimming
Javanese laŋiact of swimming
  ŋ-laŋito swim
Balinese laŋito swim
  ŋa-laŋimake something swim
Mongondow laŋuyswim
Ponosakan (lo)laŋuyto swim
Buginese laŋeto swim
Makassarese aʔ-laŋeto swim
  laŋe-iswim toward something, swim in something


PWMP     *l<um>aŋuy to swim

Ilokano l<um>aŋóyto swim
Tagalog l<um>aŋóyto swim
Hanunóo l<um>aŋúyto swim; will swim
Romblomanon l<um>aŋuyto swim
Mansaka l<om>aŋoyto swim
Klata moŋŋoyto swim
Mapun l<um>aŋito swim; to swim to a destination; to swim to an object and bring it back
Bonggi l<əm>oŋito swim
Tausug l<um>aŋuyto swim (to a destination)
Kelabit l<um>aŋuyto swim for fun or enjoyment; float
Malagasy l<um>anuto swim
Mongondow l<um>aŋuyto swim
Koroni l<um>aŋito swim
Muna lenito swim
  leni-fiswim towards, swim to get something

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak luŋuy, gə-luŋuy ‘to swim’, Old Javanese laŋhuy ‘to swim’, laŋhuy-i ‘to swim to’. Although reflexes of PAn *Naŋuy ‘to swim’ are found in Formosan, WMP and CMP languages, reflexes of *laŋuy are restricted to WMP.


*lapa₁ fish sp.


POC     *lapa₁ fish sp.

Gedaged labagrey marine fish about three feet long
Arosi rahspecies of fish
Samoan lafaa fish (Ambassis sp.)

Note:   Possibly identical with POc *lapaq ‘various flat fishes, including sole and flounder’ in Osmond (2011:118). However, Osmond’s reconstruction cannot be justifed by the evidence she presents. First, the final consonant of her *lapaq evidently is based on Loniu lapak, but Loniu reflects POc *q as zero, not as /k/ (Blust 1978). Furthermore, all languages of the eastern Admiralties have reduced POc CVCVC to CVC by loss of the last -VC, yet she cites both Titan lapa and Loniu lapak as evidence for *lapaq, when this would be a fundamental irregularity in both languages. Since all of the other forms that she cites in support of her reconstruction show one or more irregularities her proposed POc *lapaq should be abandoned until better evidence becomes available.


*lapa₂ a skin disease: ringworm


POC     *lapa₂ a skin disease: ringworm

Arosi rahaa skin disease
Tongan lafa(to be affected with) ringworm
Samoan lafaringworm
  lafa-lafābe spotted with ringworm; (of bananas, etc.) be scarred, bruised
Tuvaluan lafaringworm
Rennellese gahaa fungus disease that kills trees; a skin disease known in the Solomons as bakua, named for the fungus
Anuta rapaa kind of skin fungus marked by severe itching, and very difficult to cure


*lapad broad and flat


PMP     *lapad broad and flat

Pangasinan láparwide
Hanunóo lápadbroadness, width, breadth, as of a field
Cebuano lapádflat, level surface (as of a face or nose); broad, having considerable width
Central Tagbanwa ma-lapadwide


POC     *lapar broad and flat

Niue lafa-lafalevel, flat-topped
  lapaa board
  faka-lapa-lapato flatten
Maori rapaanything broad and flat; sternpost of a canoe; blade of a paddle, etc.; wide, flat; spread out, extended


*lapak smack, slap, slam


PWMP     *lapak smack, slap, slam     [doublet: *lepak]

Agutaynen lampakto intentionally throw or slam something down forcefully, or smash it against something; to beat or club a person or animal forcefully with a stick or piece of bamboo
Cebuano (dialectal) lapákspank someone lightly
Minangkabau lapakto fall with a thud, of fruit dropping continuously

Note:   Also Hanunóo lagpák ‘fall, falling’, Cebuano lagpák ‘to slap, strike a part of one’s body with the hand or with something flat’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*la(m)paŋ large piece or chunk of meat, etc.


PWMP     *la(m)paŋ large piece or chunk of meat, etc.

Tagalog lapáŋa big piece or hunk of meat; a quarter piece; hunk; a big lump, or piece of anything else (besides meat); slab
Iban lampaŋlarge piece (of wood, meat, etc.)


*lapaq to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal


PAN     *lapaq to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal

Puyuma ɭapaʔloss of skin from abrasion or burn
Ilokano lapa-ento skin; flay
Ifugaw (Batad) lāpaa shoulder portion of a butchered animal, as a pig, carabao (the segment of the front leg above the foot up to and including the shoulder joint)
Tagalog l<um>ápaʔto butcher, to dress meat
  lápáʔ-anslaughterhouse; place for butchering
Bikol mag-lápaʔto quarter animals; to cut meat into pieces
Hanunóo lápaʔbutchering, chopping, splitting up (of something)
  lapáʔ-unbe cut up, be butchered
Cebuano lápaʔto cut into sizeable chunks (as in butchering a pig); to hack to pieces
Maranao lapaʔto butcher, chop into pieces, dissect
Binukid lápaʔto slaughter, butcher (an animal)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lapaʔto butcher
Mansaka lápaʔto cut up a butchered animal
Malay lapahtearing off the skin
  səmbəleh lapahslaughtering and skinning
Gayō lapahslicing off
  mu-lapahto slice off (as carabao flesh)
Simalur ma-lapacut up, slaughter (as a buffalo)
Karo Batak ŋe-lapahcut open a sacrificial animal; cut into a tumor; to operate on
  ŋe-lapah-icut a sacrificial animal into pieces
Toba Batak maŋa-lapacut open a sacrificial animal


*lapaR₁ hungry


PMP     *lapaR₁ hungry

Iban laparhungry, famished
Malay laparhunger; craving for food (less correctly of ‘hungering for water’)
  lapar mata‘eye-hungry’: helping oneself to more than one can eat
  lapar susucrying for milk (of a baby)
Karo Batak ŋe-lapar-ito make a child go hungry (as a punishment)
Toba Batak raparsuffer from hunger
  ha-rapar-ondeficiency, scarcity
Nias lofohungry
Mentawai lapahungry
Old Javanese lapāhunger (also thirst?)
Javanese lapahunger
Sasak lapahhungry
Banggai laalhunger
Tetun lahahunger
Selaru larhungry
Yamdena lafarhunger
  na-m-lafarbe hungry
Fordata lafarhunger
  na-b-lafarbe hungry, suffer hunger pangs

Note:   Also Nias lofo ‘hunger’, Sundanese lapar ‘hungry’ (< Malay), Balinese (High) lapa ‘hungry’ (< Javanese).


*lapaR₂ flash of lightning


POC     *LapaR₂ flash of lightning

Tigak lapaklightning
Sengseng pe-laplightning
Pileni lapadeep phosphorescent light, distinct from surface phosphorescence, occurring from a depth of from about 1 to 6 feet
Tokelauan lapaflash of lightning

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2003:145).


*lapas to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action


PWMP     *lapas to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action

Masbatenyo mag-lápasto trespass, transgresss, go beyong a boundary
Hiligaynon mag-lápasto violate, to disobey an order
Cebuano lápaspast, beyond a time or place considered right; vilate a law, go beyond certain rules or agreements
Binukid lapasto cross, pass through (a river or stream) to the other side
Mansaka lapasto transgress (a law); to violate; to trespass; to go beyond the limit
Kadazan Dusun hapasafter, after something is finished
Minangkabau lapasafter; subsequent to
Pendau lapasto pass; late, as in to miss a meeting


*lapat big, great, large


POC     *lapat big, great, large     [disjunct: *lapa]

Seimat la-lapbig (of things)
Varisi lavatabig
Roviana lavata-nagreat, large
Nggela lavagreat (in a few compounds)
Talise lavabig
Sa'a lahabig
  a lahaa chief
Arosi rahabig, great, large
Proto-Micronesian *lapabig, main
Chuukese napbig, large, great, principal, main
Mota lavagreat, large
Merig lavbig
Central Santo lapabig
Rennellese gabalarge
Maori rahaopen, extended
  raha-rahaspread out


*la(m)paw exceed, excess


PWMP     *la(m)paw exceed, excess

Bikol mag-lapáwto look too far beyond for something that is being pointed out; to go too far beyond
Hanunóo lápawexcessive depth (in an agricultural sense this means excessive cultivation)
  lápawexcessive depth
Aklanon eapáwsurpass, exceed, excel
Agutaynen l<om>apawfor water to rise, come up and overflow a boundary, flowing into structures or submerging bridges
Cebuano lápawgo above or beyond a certain amount
Central Tagbanwa lapawto overflow a boundary
Maranao lapawbeyond, over
Malay lampauexcess; too much


*lap(e)des to whip and leave welts


PPh     *lap(e)des to whip and leave welts

Agta (Eastern) lapdasto get marks on one’s shoulders from carrying a heavy backpack; to spank or whip s.o. with a switch or whip and raise welts
Casiguran Dumagat lapdəsto get marks on one’s shoulders from carrying a heavy backpack; to spank or whip s.o. with a switch or whip
Bikol mag-lapdosto whip, to lash
Aklanon eápdosto strike with a downward motion
Waray-Waray pag-lapdósthe act of whipping or lashing
Hiligaynon mag-lápdusto hit with a strong force
Cebuano lapdústo lash or whip; a lash


*lap(e)qut sticky, pasty


PPh     *lap(e)qut sticky, pasty

Casiguran Dumagat lapútthick, sticky, as of condensed milk, blood, rice gruel, etc. (refers only to types of food)
Tagalog lápotthickness of liquids; viscosity
  l<um>ápotto condense; to become condensed; to congeal
  lapút-anto thicken; to make thick, as a liquid
Aklanon eápotsticky, pasty
Cebuano lapʔútfor a liquid to get thick and sticky
Maranao lapotmud, silt

Note:   Possibily a Tagalog loan in Casiguran Dumagat.


*lapi to fold over


PPh     *lapi to fold over     [doublet: *lepiq]

Cebuano lápito bend or fold something over double (as a cloth to be cut); to double, increase twofold, or by extension, a few folds more
Tboli lafito fold up, turn over


*lapid to braid, intertwine strands


PPh     *lapid to braid, intertwine strands

Ibaloy dapidbraid (as of hair)
  dapida braid, as of hair
  depir-ento braid, plait something (as woman’s hair)
  depir-ento braid, plait something (as woman’s hair, or the head strap for a carrying basket
Aklanon eápidto join, unite, put together
Waray-Waray pag-lapidthe act of sticking, putting or placing something together
Maranao lampidentangle

Note:   With root *-pid ‘braid, wind together’.


(Formosan only)

*lapis flying squirrel


PAN     *lapis flying squirrel

Kavalan rapisflying squirrel
Saisiyat (Taai) Lapisflying squirrel
Paiwan la-lapita bat (animal; Western dialect)

Note:   Also Proto-Atayalic *rapit ‘flying squirrel’. It is unclear whether *lapis and *lawaR designated different types of flying squirrels, or whether there is some other explanation for the distribution of two terms, both of which require a PAn reconstruction in this meaning.


*lapis stone slab, thin layer


PMP     *lapis stone slab, thin layer

Casiguran Dumagat lápesthin, of paper or cloth, or a pigskin without fat on it
Tagalog lápisstone slab; flagstone (< Span.)
Palawano lapislayer, level
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lapisa layer of something, as a layer of skin or a layer of topsoil; to place a layer of something over something
Ngaju Dayak lapisflat
Malagasy lampigreat flat stones, slabs of marble, etc.
Malay lapisfold; stratum; layer (of things made up of several folds or strata)
Toba Batak lampislayer, stratum
Javanese lapislayer; outer layer
Manggarai lapisstacked one on top of the other


*lapit put close together


PWMP     *lapit put close together

Pangasinan lápitto put people or objects very close to each other
Masbatenyo ha-lápitnear, close, in close proximity
  ka-ha-lápitnearness, closeness, proximity
Hiligaynon lapítnear, close, intimate
Sasak lapitinsert something between two objects

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*laplap loose (as of clothing)


PAN     *laplap loose (as of clothing)

Paiwan laplaploose skin on baby after birth
Bontok laplapto peel off, as the skin of an orange; make a flap
Cebuano laplápfor clothing to be loose and flapping


*lapláp cut meat from the bone


PPh     *lapláp cut meat from the bone

Ilokano lapláp-ento cut thin (meat); cut nicely (hair); operate on
Ibaloy dapdap-ento strip off something, esp. with a bolo or large knife (as meat from the bone, sod from the earth, skin from an animal)
Ayta Abellan laplapto skin an animal; to remove meat from the bone
Tagalog laplápdecortication; excoriation; skinning
Bikol mag-laplápto slice or cut meat away from the bone; to shave the bark off wood or bamboo
Cebuano laplapslice off something from a surface
Binukid laplapto slice, trim, cut off (something) from a surface


*lapu₁ to scald food in hot water


PPh     *lapu₁ to scald food in hot water

Agutaynen mag-lapoto steam or scald food in hot water; to parboil food
Maranao lapoto scald, as a chicken


*lapu₂ to overflow


PPh     *lapu₂ to overflow

Kapampangan lapúto overflow
Mansaka lapoto overflow (as water in a vessel)

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lapey ‘to overflow’.


*lapu₃ to start out, begin


PPh     *lapu₃ to start out, begin

Yami lapobeginning, begin
  om-lapoto start from
Bontok laputo start from; to begin at some place; to lead the way, to be first in line


*lapuk decayed, rotten, moldy, mildewed (of wood)


PMP     *lapuk decayed, rotten, moldy, mildewed (of wood)

Tagalog lapókrotten or decayed (said of , wood or bamboo)
Malay lapokmouldy; decayed, esp. of the effect of damp on timber; of decay or mould in general
Toba Batak lapukmildew, mold
  lapuh-onmoldy, mildewed (also of clothes)
Arosi rahuold, worn out, as an old bag

Note:   To this comparison Dempwolff (1938), added Sa'a lähu ‘to be worn out; worn-out things’, but there is little reason to consider this anything more than a chance resemblance.


*lapuŋ mildew, mildewed, moldy


PPh     *lapuŋ mildew, mildewed, moldy     [doublet: *lapuk]

Itbayaten xapoŋto get moldy
Tiruray lafuŋmildew
  lafuŋ-encovered with mildew


*lápus go over and beyond


PPh     *lápus go over and beyond

Ilokano lápusstate of being beyond the limit
  ag-lápusto go beyond
Hanunóo lápusgoing over and beyond
Agutaynen lapotfor a person or animal to pass through a space, opening; for something to pass or drain through to the other side of something


PPh     *l<um>ápus go over and beyond

Ilokano l<um>ápusto exceed; protrude; go beyond
Agutaynen l<om>apotfor a person or animal to pass through a space, opening; for something to pass or drain through to the other side of something


*lapus untie (a knot), undress, remove clothes


PAN     *lapus untie (a knot), undress, remove clothes

Kavalan rapusto come loose (as a knot)
  t-rapusto let something slip by, to forget
Puyuma ɭapusto take off; undress; untie
  mu-ɭapusto untie, as a rope


*la(m)pus₁ gone, vanished, terminated


PWMP     *la(m)pus₁ gone, vanished, terminated     [doublet: *lapuŋ]

Kankanaey lápusgone, vanished, disappeared, out of sight
Ayta Abellan lapohto finish
Javanese lampusdead
Banggai lapusgone, lost

Note:   Also Iban lempus ‘over, finished’, Maranao pos ‘end, finish’ suggests the presence of a root *-pus₁.


*la(m)pus₂ pierce, penetrate; pass through


PWMP     *la(m)pus₂ pierce, penetrate; pass through

Ilokano lápusexceed, go beyond, pass over, pass through, move past
Agutaynen l<om>apotfor a person or animal to pass through a space, opening; for something to pass or drain through to the other side of something
Cebuano lapuspenetrate, pierce through the opposite side
Maranao laposentirely, wholly
Mansaka laposto pierce; to go through
Kadazan Dusun hapuspierce, get through
Malay lapusto shoot (sandy) rapids
Minangkabau lampusthrough and through


*laqaD dry stream bed


PWMP     *laqaD dry stream bed

Hanunóo láʔadbrook or stream which may run dry in the dry season; dry streambed; arroyo
Malay (Kelantan) laharpool, mere
Malay (Kedah) laharpool, mere
Javanese laharhot mud and lava flow


*laq(e)lu rice pestle


PWMP     *laq(e)lu rice pestle     [doublet: *qaSelu]

Kallahan (Kayapa) laʔlurice pestle
Ifugaw lalurice pestle
Ibaloy daʔdorice-pounding pestle
Palawano laʔlurice pestle
Aborlan Tagbanwa laʔlurice pestle
Karo Batak lalurice pestle


*laq(e)nab to overflow, flood, of a river


PPh     *laq(e)nab to overflow, flood, of a river

Ibaloy on-daʔnabto overflow --- of the river’s overflowing its banks during heavy rains
Ayta Abellan lanabflood; rushing water
Aklanon eanábto flood a little bit, overflow a little
  eanáb-eanábto rise (said of the river’s water level)

Note:   Also Tagalog lánap ‘extensively inundated’.


*laqia ginger


PMP     *laqia ginger

Ilokano layáginger, Zingiber officinale, used in native medicine to cure rheumatism, wounds, cough and stomach ache
Agta (Dupaningan) layáginger, Zingiber officinale
Isneg layáginger
Itawis layáginger
Bontok láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Kankanaey layáginger
Ifugaw láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe. This is extensively cultivated by the Ifugaw; the root only is eaten by them, sliced and boiled in water
Ifugaw (Batad) lāyaginger (grows chiefly in upland fields); ginger root, i.e. the rhizone (used chiefly as a food condiment, and sometimes as a side dish)
Casiguran Dumagat layáginger, Zingiber officinale (a spice used to flavor viands)
Kapampangan láyaginger
Bikol láʔyaginger
Tboli leʔiyeginger, Zingiber officinale
Kadazan Dusun hazoginger
Tombonuwo layoginger
Abai Sembuak layoginger
Ida'an Begak ləjoginger
Basap liaginger
Lun Dayeh liəhginger
Kelabit lieha small variety of ginger: with ləkoa ‘a large variety of ginger: Alpinia galanga
Berawan (Long Terawan) ləjəhginger
Narum ləjiəhginger
Miri ləjehginger
Kenyah (Long Anap) liaginger
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) ləzóginger
Murik liaʔginger
Wahau jəʔginger
Gaai aljoʔginger
Kelai jɛʔginger
Mei Lan Modang ləjao̯ʔginger
Woq Helaq Modang ləjao̯ʔginger
Long Gelat Modang ləjao̯ʔginger
Kiput ləcihginger
Bintulu ləzaginger
Iban liaʔginger, plant or rhizome of Zingiber officinale
Singhi Land Dayak roiʔiginger
Jarai rəyaginger
Malay halia <Mginger, Zingiber officinale; used as a drug and as a flavoring for curries
Sangir liaginger, used as a spice with food, and as an ingredient in most medicines, charms and spells, where it is chewed with sirih leaves and then sprayed from the mouth onto the afflicted part
Tontemboan liaSpanish pepper
  lia tanaʔginger
Tialo loíaginger
Balaesang láiaginger
Bare'e leʔiaginger
Tae' laia ~ layakind of ginger which has a somewhat musty odor when the main root is very large
  laya panaʔkind of ginger that has a sharper taste than others
Makassarese laiaginger, Zingiber officinale
  niaʔ laiana(‘he sits in ginger’) = ‘He is of noble descent’
Muna loghiaginger
  loghia ŋkaputewhite ginger
  loghia ŋkadeared ginger
Bimanese reaginger, Zingiber officinale
Manggarai liaginger, Zingiber officinale
Rembong reaginger, Zingiber officinale
Ngadha leaginger; kind of vegetable used as a remedy
Sika leakind of ginger
Lamaholot liaginger, Zingiber officinale
Kambera layiaginger
  wai layiaginger water, infusion of ginger used as a stimulant
Rotinese liaginger; spew with (chewed) ginger to make more effective, as a dog to make it bite, a cat to make it a more ferocious mouser, or a net to make it catch more fish
Erai liaginger
Leti liaginger
Wetan liaginger
Kei leiiginger, Zingiber officinale; people give pieces of ginger to the dogs to make them more spirited in hunting
Kowiai/Koiwai raʔiaginger
Lou leiginger
Penchal laiginger
Ahus liyginger
Kuruti liyginger
Drehet lipginger
Sori leiginger
Lindrou leyginger
Wuvulu laiaginger
Mussau laiaginger
Tanga laeginger, Zingiber officinale
Lakalai la lahiacultivated ginger (Zingiber sp.); by extension, a warrior
Kairiru leiginger
Gitua laeakind of edible ginger, flower like Phameria magnifica
Numbami laiginger
Wedau naiaginger
Nehan laiaplant species, family Zingiberaceae; several types
Kwaio liaginger
Toqabaqita la-laiaginger
'Āre'āre riaa ginger with perfumed roots, used as a medicine by witch doctors; there are several varieties for different diseases
  ria ni marutanaa ginger used to enlist the affections of women
Sa'a lieginger, called ‘äi ha‘angäu keni, tree given to women to eat (to enlist their affections); used in malevolent magic it causes boils when put down on a man’s path for him to pass over
Arosi riaginger, much used in charms
Fijian caŋo layaginger (caŋo = ‘turmeric’)

Note:   Also Tagalog lúya, Hiligaynon lúyʔa, Aklanon eúyʔa, Waray-Waray luyʔáʔ, Mansaka loya, Binukid luyʔa ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale’, Masbatenyo lúyʔa ‘ginger root’, Cebuano luyʔá ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) luya, ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale. The rhizomes of the ginger plant are used for flavoring stews’, Tiruray giya ‘ginger’, Tausug luuya, Ngaju Dayak lai, Tae' laa, Kove haia ‘ginger’. Reconstruction of this word raises several formal issues, and suggests cultural practices that reach beyond linguistic reconstruction.

Dyen (1947, 1953) posited PMP *leyqa ‘ginger’ in order to account for the penultimate vowel of forms such as Cebuano luyʔá, but this proposal confuses an innovative doublet *luqia in Proto-Greater Central Philippines with reflexes of *laqia. Apart from these deviant forms, a number of languages have disyllabic words that appear to reflect *lia. In some cases (Kelabit, Kenyah, Bintulu, Iban, etc.) these can be derived by regular change from *laqia through reduction of the first-syllable vowel to schwa, which then deleted along with the following glottal stop, but in Oceanic languages such as Kwaio or Sa'a this does not work, and forms such as Kwaio lia or Sa'a lie must therefore be regarded either as irregular reductions of *laqia, or as evidence for a possible doublet *lia.

The cultural role of ginger is particularly interesting. Apart from its use as a condiment in cooking, the glosses in several languages show that this plant was used for medicinal purposes from an early time. In this function it evidently was chewed and spewed with saliva onto the afflicted part, as shown in the glosses for Sangir and Rotinese lia. Similar descriptions appear in ethnographic accounts. Fortune (1963:295), for example, notes that among the Dobuans of western Melanesia sorcerors regularly chew ginger and spray it out in practicing sorcery as well as curative medicine: “It is chewed with many healing incantations, apart from the tabu exorcisms which are breathed into water for bathing the patient. With other healing spells it is spat on the seat of illness. The sight of a magician chewing ginger, spitting it onto the object charmed at intervals, and muttering his spell at the same time is a common one at Dobu … It is chewed in all the incantations to ward off a squall at sea and spat towards the lowering squall. It is chewed and bespattered over the canoe, in lashing it with incantation, making it speedy and seaworthy…”.

The puzzling Lakalai gloss, which combines ginger with prowess as a warrior is further illuminated by remarks in Codrington (1972:133) regarding cultural practices on the island of Florida in the central Solomons. A man who is about to go out on a vendetta against his private enemy “will pull up his ginger-plant, and judge from the ease with which it comes out of the earth whether he shall succeed or not; he will make his sacrifice, and with the ginger and leaves on his shield and in his belt and right armlet will go to fight.” As in Dobu, a curer (195) “will chew ginger and blow into the patient’s ears and on that part of the skull which is soft in infants, will call on the name of the tindalo, (ghost) and beg him to remove the sickness.”

Judging from the glosses in Rotinese and Kei in eastern Indonesia ginger provided a stimulant for various kinds of purposes. In particular it evidently was given to dogs to make them more vigorous in hunting. The gloss in Rotinese and the above quote from Fortune on the Dobuans suggest that it was also chewed and spat upon inanimate objects, as a fishing net or canoe to make them more efficacious. These varied uses are all perhaps united by a common thread: given its stimulating taste ginger evidently was conceived as a plant that could impart vitality to other objects, either when chewed and expectorated upon them, as in healing or improving the efficacy of tools such as nets or canoes, or when fed directly to an animal, as in improving the hunting acuity of dogs. When used to confront something negative, as a storm, its supposed supernatural powers act to counter the undesirable effects.


*laqin different; another


PWMP     *laqin different; another

Bikol láʔindifferent, differing, dissimilar; another; otherwise
Cebuano láindifferent, another
Mamanwa laʔinother, different
Mansaka lainanother
Iban laindifferent, other, another, strange; to differ, vary
Malay lainother; different
  mə-lain-kanbut; except
  ber-lain-andiffering from; apart from
Sundanese laʔindifferent, other
Old Javanese lenother, different, otherwise, and also
  wwaŋ lenunrelated people
Sasak laindifferent


*laqu thirst, hunger


PWMP     *laqu thirst, hunger     [doublet: *daqu]

Binukid laʔuthirst
Manobo (Sarangani) laʔothirst
Kelabit laʔuhhunger
Kenyah (Long Wat) laʔewfamine
Bintulu mə-laʔəwhungry


*laqús past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete


PPh     *laqús past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete

Ilokano laúsoutdated, out of style, old-fashioned
Tagalog laóssour or fermented because of being overripe; no longer productive; impotent; past the prime; obsolete
Bikol laʔósantiquated, obsolete, outdated; defunct; a has-been
Cebuano laúspast one’s peak or popularity


*laRaŋ to forbid


PAN     *laRaŋ to forbid

Amis lalaŋto forbid, refuse permission
Malagasy raránato be forbidden, to be prohibited
Malay laraŋto forbid -- of prohibition affecting a person or class of persons
Old Javanese a-laraŋinaccessible, withdrawn, keeping oneself aloof?
  l<in>araŋforbidden to others, reserved for, declared
Javanese ŋə-laraŋto prohibit, forbid

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *laraŋ ‘forbid’, but based his reconstruction entirely on western Indonesian (including Malagasy) evidence. I assume that the Malagasy, Old Javanese and Javanese forms are loanwords from Malay.


*laRiw run, run away, flee, escape


PAN     *laRiw run, run away, flee, escape

Kavalan m-RaRiwrun, run away
Amis laliwleave behind; desert, escape
Itbayaten yayo-hrace
Hanunóo lagíwrunning
Abaknon lahito run, run away; elope
Cebuano lagíwrun away, escape from a place
Maranao lagoy <Mrush, hurry
Tboli meloy (< *l-um-aRiw) <Mrun
Samal lahi-lahito run
Iban larirun away, make off, cause to run away, take away
  rari <Arun away, escape
Malay larigo at a run; escape; evasion
Old Javanese a-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee
Sasak rariʔ (with secondary final glottal stop) <Atake something and flee
Mongondow laguyflee, run away, escape
Makassarese larirun, run away, flee
Kambera laito run (only in the expression njara lai 'a racing horse')
Hawu rairun, run away, flee
Rotinese lairun away, flee
Erai lariflee, run away
  manu la-laria bird flying up
Leti larirun
Wetan larirun
Soboyo lahirun, run away, flee
Ron fararto run


PAN     *ma-laRiw run, run away, flee

Kavalan m-RaRiwrun, run away
Pazeh ma-raxiwflee, escape, run away
Yami ma-layoto run
Itbayaten ma-yayo-hto run
Ivatan ma-yayoto run
Hanunóo ma-lagíwrun, will run
Old Javanese ma-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee
Rotinese ma-lairun away, flee


PMP     *pa-laRiw run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive

Yami pa-layoto run
Aklanon pa-eagíwrun away and hide, avoid
Maranao pa-lagoyrun away, escape; flight; elope
Tiruray fe-rareyrun away, escape or flee
Malay pe-larifugitive
  pelari aŋinthe sport of the wind
  budak pelariboy who keeps playing truant
Old Javanese pa-layūrunning, running away, flight
Javanese p-layurunning pace
Sasak pe-lairun, flee
Mongondow po-laguyflight
Makassarese pa-larirunner, running, flight
Wolio pa-laiflee, run away
Chamorro fa-lagurun (imper.), move swiftly, hasten, go rapidly; elope, escape, flee
Kambera pa-lairun, run away, flee
Hawu pe-rairun, flee, run away
  dou do peraifugitive
Tetun ha-laiflee, run away
Tetun (Dili) halaito run away, flee
Leti wa-larirun
Wetan w(a)-lariflee
Numfor f-rārrun, run away, flee


PWMP     *pa-laRiw-an running, running away, flight

Malay pe-lari-anact of running fast
Old Javanese pa-layw-anrunning, running away, flight
Makassarese pa-lari-aŋrunning, running away

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-yayuh ‘to run’, Itawis pa-ladyaw ‘run’, Bontok layaw ‘flee, run away, clear out’, and Tagalog lagyóʔ ‘spirit’ (the latter included under *laRiw ‘flee’ by Dempwolff (1934-38), but excluded here). As with the parallel discrepancy in PAn *balija or *baRija ‘weavers sword’ the Formosan languages indicate *R as the initial consonant of this item, while the MP languages indicate *l. I have posited several morphologically complex forms of *laRiw, although a distinctive meaning is not always apparent for these, as with *ma-laRiw. The form *pa-laRiw requires special comment, as its reflexes have survived in some languages when a reflex of *laRiw has not. In languages such as Tiruray, Wolio and Chamorro (WMP), Tetun (CMP), and Numfor (South Halmahera-West New Guinea), the morpheme boundary that is recognized is purely historical, and is marked by = to distinguish it from the similar synchronic morpheme boundary in forms such as Malay lari, pe-lari.

It is an interesting question why the morpheme boundary should have been lost more commonly in reflexes of *pa-laRiw than in reflexes of other morphologically complex forms of *laRiw. One might argue that affixes differed in how tightly they were bound to the stem. However, this should be generally true and not specific to particular lexical items. Moreover, just what tightness of binding might mean is obscure except in terms of text frequency. Perhaps *pa-laRiw occurred with particularly high text frequency because it not only signaled the abstract notion of flight or escape, but also the actor ("fugitive; one who has eloped"). In some descendants of PMP reflexes of *pa-laRiw may have occurred with higher text frequency than reflexes of *laRiw, thus favoring the survival of the bi-morphemic word even when the stem itself passed out of use.


*lasa₁ tame, accustomed, used to


POC     *lasa₁ tame, accustomed, used to

Tolai tame, domesticated, of animals; be accustomed, be acclimatized
Fijian lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed
Tongan latato feel at home or at ease, to be comfortable or happy and contented; to be friendly or at ease with
Futunan lataused to, familiar with
Samoan latabe tame; be used to, familiar with; close to, close by
  faʔa-latadraw near (in order to get something); tame
  lata-latabe near; to approach, come close to
Tuvaluan faka-latatame
Kapingamarangi gai dala <Mtame
Nukuoro dala <Mtame; not be timid or uneasy in another’s presence
Rennellese gatato be tame, unafraid, as a pet or child
  haa-gatato tame
  he-gata-ʔakibe congenial, accustomed to one another
Maori ratatame, quiet; familiar, friendly
Hawaiian lakatame, domesticated, gentle; attracted to, fond of; to tame, domesticate, attract
  hoʔo-lakato tame, domesticate; to treat with kindness, as a child or animal, so as to familiarize with one

Note:   This form may have been *lacam, but the available reflexes do not allow the reconstruction of a final consonant or disambiguate the medial obstruent.


*lasa₂ coconut shell drinking cup


POC     *lasa₂ coconut shell drinking cup

Tolai dish, bowl, any open utensil; shell of a coconut
Numbami lasacoconut shell
Selau lasyoung drinking coconut
Proto-Micronesian *laSacoconut shell; skull
Mota lasadrinking cup
Raga lahadrinking cup made from coconut shell

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (1998:73-74).


*lasaŋ₁ bare, bald


PWMP     *lasaŋ₁ bare, bald

Tboli lasaŋmoulting fowls; dry, dead tree without leaves
Kayan (Uma Juman) lasaŋbare, of a field without grass; bald


*lasaŋ₂ split, spread apart


PWMP     *lasaŋ₂ split, spread apart

Ilokano lásaŋto disjoin; separate; disconnect; tear apart; break off
  ma-lásaŋto be torn apart, separated
Minangkabau mə-lasaŋto sit astride on anything; to handle roughly (fig.)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*lasaq beat, thrash


PWMP     *lasaq beat, thrash

Maranao lasaʔto beat, whip, manhandle
Malay lasahswitching, caning


*lasem sour


PWMP     *lasem sour     [doublet: *qasem]

Isneg lassámvinegar, sour
Casiguran Dumagat lasemsour
Maranao ma-lasemsour
Kelabit laamsour


*laseR scrotum and testicles


PMP     *laseR scrotum and testicles

Aklanon eásogtesticle
  eásg-onhaving enlarged testicles
Ida'an Begak lasogtesticles
Banggai lasopenis; young boy
Li'o ae lasetesticles
Tetun lasa-npenis, male genitals
  lasa-n fua-ntestes
Erai lasarpenis
Selaru lasapenis
Laha lasitesticle
Asilulu lasescrotum
  lase hatutesticle (lit. ‘scrotum stone’)


POC     *lasoR testicles

Mussau lasotesticles
Mota laso-itesticles; a big boar pig
Lakona laso-testicles
Merig laso-testicles
Piamatsina laso-testicles
Malmariv lasa-testicles
Mafea laso-testicles
Amblong leso-testicles
Araki laso-testicles
Marino laso-testicles
Central Maewo lasotesticles
Vao laho-testicles
Axamb rasö-testicles
Tonga na laho-ntesticles
Nakanamanga na-lasotesticles
Tongan lahoscrotum and testicles
Niue lahoscrotum
  teŋa lahotesticle (lit. ‘seed of scrotum’)
Futunan laso-fuaelephantiasis of the scrotum (lit. ‘fruit scrotum/testicles’)
Samoan lasoscrotum
  laso mimihydrocele
Tuvaluan lahotesticle; scrotum
Rennellese gasoscrotum
  kai gasoscrotum eater (a curse)
Anuta raotesticle
Rarotongan raʔotesticle; the scrotum and its contents
Maori rahotesticle; labia majora
Hawaiian lahoterm of abuse; male, as pipi laho ‘bull’, pua’a laho

Note:   Also Ilokano láteg ‘testicles with scrotum’, Sasak (Jantuk) laso ‘penis’, Avava liso-n ‘scrotum and/or testicles’. It is unclear whether this term referred to the scrotum and the testicles or just to the scrotum, since the word for testicles in some languages is ‘seed’ or ‘fruit’ of the scrotum, where the latter is a reflex of *laseR. Both this word and *buŋaw ‘scrotum, testicles’ appear to have co-existed in PPh, presumably with some difference of meaning.


*laslas abrasion of the skin


PWMP     *laslas abrasion of the skin

Isneg lálathide, skin (of cows, carabaos, etc.)
  ma-lálatto skin, to flay
Bontok ʔi-laslasto rub or scrape clean, using sand or earth as an abrasive
Casiguran Dumagat laslasto rip accidentally, of clothing
Bikol mag-laslásto slit, rip; to tear away
  ma-laslásto get slit or ripped; to get torn away (as skin from a limb after a fall or accident)
  maka-laslásto be torn or ripped from
Ngaju Dayak lalaswhat is flayed or skinned
Toba Batak ma-laslasbe trampled, of the earth or a pasture, where many people have been


*lasuq₁ hot; blistered by heat


PAN     *lasuq₁ hot; blistered by heat

Puyuma lasuʔburn (badly)
  ki-lasuʔget a burn (as from a cigarette)
Ifugaw lahuthe thin membrane which covers the skin on account of contact with hot water, or because of the very strong rays of the sun
Ifugaw (Batad) lāhuheat, of the sun, fire; for a heating agent, as a fire, the sun, a hot object or substance, as water, coffee, etc. to transfer heat to someone with or without causing the skin to blister
Tagalog lásoʔinflammation of mouth or lips (esp. among children); blister on the tongue
Bikol lasóʔ-lásoʔreferring to the actions of the hands when trying to pick up something hot and not get burned
Murut (Timugon) ma-lasuʔhot
  l<um>asuʔto heat up
Bisaya (Limbang) lasuʔhot
Lun Dayeh lauʔheat
Kelabit lauʔwarm, hot
Kayan lasuhot; heat
Kiput lasauʔhot
  ŋə-lasauʔto heat; to boil water
Melanau (Mukah) lasuʔhot

Note:   Also Maranao laso ‘scald’, Lun Dayeh leuɁ ‘heat’.


*lasuq₂ penis


PMP     *lasuq₂ penis

Manobo (Ata) lasuʔpenis
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lasuʔpenis
Sasak lasopenis
Banggai lasopenis; boy
Tae' lasopenis
  lasoʔpenis; boy
Proto-South Sulawesi *lasopenis
Mandar lasopenis of a man or male animal
Buginese lasopenis
Wolio lasupenis
Chamorro læsoʔpenis, testicle
Manggarai lasopenis of an animal
Rembong lasoʔpenis of an animal
Ngadha lasupenis
Kambera lahupenis; also used as a curse word
Lau lasu-penis

Note:   This term clearly co-existed with PAn *qutiN, PMP *qutin ‘penis’. As the Manggarai and Rembong glosses suggest, it may have meant ‘penis of an animal’ in contrast to PMP *qutin ‘penis of a human being’.


*latag spread out on ground


PPh     *latag spread out on ground

Casiguran Dumagat latágto spread open, to lay out (as to unroll a mat, or to spread out a blanket on the floor)
Tagalog látagsomething spread on the floor or ground, as a carpet, mat, rug, etc.
  mag-látagto spread, to lay
Hanunóo látagscattering, spreading out
Agutaynen mag-latagto spread something out flat on the ground, as tree branches or leaves to burn in a field, gravel before laying cement, or clothes to dry in the sun
Cebuano látagspread something out under the sun (as corn, copra, or clothes)
Tausug latagwidespread, prevalent
  mag-latagto cover an area thoroughly; for information, gossip, sickness, etc. to spread, diffuse

Note:   Also Cebuano látad ‘spread something out under the sun (as corn, copra, or clothes). Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*laták crack, crevice


PPh     *laták crack, crevice

Pangasinan latákcrack, crevice
Bikol latákcracked, split
  mag-latákto crack or split (as dry wood)


*latak₁ hit, making a loud sound


PWMP     *latak₁ hit, making a loud sound

Pangasinan látakbeat with force
Toba Batak latakmake a knocking sound
Sasak lantakclack the tongue; call dogs

Note:   With root *-tak₂ ‘sound of cracking, splitting, knocking’.


*latak₂ mud


PWMP     *latak₂ mud

Ilokano látakvery fine soil
Tagalog látakresidue; dregs; lees; sediment; deposit (of liquids)
Maranao latakconcoction used to blacken the teeth
Iban latakmud, muddy
Javanese lataksediment in indigo batik dye
Gorontalo lataʔomud
  lata-lataʔorice paddy that has already been prepared for planting

Note:   Also Old Javanese latək ‘mud, bog’, a-latək ‘muddy’. With root *-tak₁ ‘mud; earth, ground’.


*la(n)taw to float


PWMP     *la(n)taw to float     [disjunct: *le(ŋ)taw]

Itbayaten xatawidea of floating or being afloat
  ka-xatawstate of being afloat
  maŋ-xatawto float something, to launch ship or boat, to have watercraft afloat
  xataw-ana float or buoy
  xataw-ento float (something), to cause to float, to launch ship or boat
Ilokano ag-latáwto float; drift
Bikol latáwbuoyant
Bisaya lantaw-lantawbob on the surface of the water
Kayan lataua float (large or small)
Wolio lantofloat

Note:   Also Tiruray rantaw ‘float’.


*latay to lay down a walkway over muddy ground


PPh     *latay to lay down a walkway over muddy ground

Bikol mag-látayto lay leaves or sticks across an area of mud or mire to facilitate crossing
Aklanon eátayto cross a small bamboo bridge
  eatay-ánriver-crossing, small bamboo bridge
Agutaynen mag-latayto walk on a gangplank or makeshift bridge; something placed across a canal or muddy area in order to walk to the other side
Hiligaynon mag-latayto cross a narrow footbridge without support; to balance oneself on a narrow board
Cebuano látayto go over a narrow walkway; go across
  latay-án-annarrow bridge or passageway to walk over


*la(n)t(e)qas go directly, take a shortcut


PWMP     *la(n)t(e)qas go directly, take a shortcut

Aklanon eátʔastry to get to some place by a route not ordinarily taken
Cebuano latáscross or pass through
  latʔásgo straight across something; take a shortcut
Malay lantasproceeding forthwith to
Karo Batak lantascross a river


*latiŋ to spring back, bounce off


PWMP     *latiŋ to spring back, bounce off

Cebuano latíŋfor a missile to ricochet, bounce off
Minangkabau latiŋto spring back, of an elastic cord or rod


*latiq swidden farm in swampy ground


PWMP     *latiq swidden farm in swampy ground

Tagalog látiʔswamp’ to ‘marsh; swamp; soft wet land; quagmire; a muddy place
  ma-látiʔmarshy; soft and wet land
Aklanon eátiʔfield (for farming)
Maranao latiʔcut down; forest clearing
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) latiʔa swidden which is made in a secondary growth area where the trees are still small; of an old swidden, to form secondary growth
Lun Dayeh latiʔa farm, rice field
Kelabit latiʔswidden, dry rice field; to work on a swidden
Bintulu latiʔriverbank
Melanau (Mukah) latiʔmud

Note:   Also Kiput ladeiʔ ‘swampy forest’, Simalur ma-daliɁ ‘swampy’. Zorc (1985) posited “Proto-Hesperonesian” *latiq ‘swidden; wetland’, without commenting on the apparent contradiction in this gloss.


*latu last burning bit; to snuff out a spark


PMP     *latu last burning bit; to snuff out a spark

Malay latu, lə-latuspark left on a lamp-wick; portion to be snuffed out
Kambera latucharred; charcoal
  latu epicharcoal
Tetun latuto snuff out, to remove the charred part of (wick, cigarette, etc.)
Asilulu au latufragments of live embers which scatter upward when the embers are blown on
  au lutenfaggots of wood with burnt or burning ends


*la(n)tuk curved, bowed


PAN     *la(n)tuk curved, bowed

Bunun latukbow-like musical instrument
Tiruray lontuk <Aconcavely curved

Note:   With root *-tuk₁ ‘bend, curve’.


*latuk to hit, pound, rap on something


PWMP     *latuk to hit, pound, rap on something

Murut (Timugon) la-latukto hit or pound repeatedly
  latuk-onwhat has been hit or pounded
Tae' latukto hit, beat, punch


*latuq edible seaweed sp.


PMP     *latuq edible seaweed sp.

Agutaynen latoktype of edible seaweed which looks like small clusters of green grapes (it is dipped in vinegar and eaten raw)
Palawano latuʔseaweed
Cebuano látuʔbranching, semitransparent seaweed, greenish in color and edible
Malay latohedible sea-worm or seaweed, sp. unident.
Sangir latosmall seaweed sp.
Muna latuedible seaweed
Rotinese latukind of edible seaweed
Yamdena latuseaweed sp.


*lau a fish, the banded sweetlips, Plectorhinchus spp.


POC     *lau a fish, the banded sweetlips, Plectorhinchus spp.

Lou loa fish: the sweetlips
Lenkau loua fish: Plectorhinchus
Loniu lowa fish: the sweetlips or sea bream
Manam laua fish: the banded sweetlips

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Osmond (2011:80).


*laun be stretched out, of time; old (of past crops that are still not consumed)


PWMP     *laun be stretched out, of time; old (of past crops that are still not consumed)

Kapampangan laúnold, worn out; dehydrated, dessicated
Tagalog laónlong time; old, said of rice of a previous harvest, or wine of old vintage; antique
Bikol laʔónold (rice)
Aklanon eaónold (rice; maid); spinster, spinstress
Agutaynen laonold rice or cashew nuts, which have been stored for 1 to 2 years; old maid, spinster; old bachelor
Cebuano laúnaged; for something that gets better as it grows old to be mature; mellowed, aged; old stock left over from the previous harvest
Tausug mag-launto let the marriageable age pass by, become too old to get married
Iban launlate (in arriving); delay, linger
Malay laundawdling over work or spinning it out; dragging on
  lambat launprotracted; in course of time; at long last
  lambat laun harilong ago; some time ago
Sundanese launslow, soft, gentle; not sensational
  laun-launslowly; gradually
Old Javanese lonslowness
  a-lonslow, gentle, soft (of wind, gait or other movement; of sound or speech); modest, self-controlled
Tae' pare launold rice; rice that is not newly harvested


PWMP     *ma-laun old, kept for a long time (as rice)

Tagalog ma-laónto take or last a long time
Bikol ma-laʔónto become old, stale (rice)
Tae' ma-launold, kept for a long time

Note:   Also Toba Batak laon ‘long, of time (< Malay).


*lauŋ howl


PMP     *lauŋ howl     [disjunct: *rauŋ]

Malay lauŋa call or summons in loud tone
Buruese launcry out
Buli lauto howl, of dogs

Note:   Also Puyuma ɭaun ‘to bark (of a dog)’.


*lauR circular opening


PWMP     *lauR circular opening

Ilokano láogloop, eye, hole (of a noose, link, ring, etc.)
Malay laurcurve; numerical coefficient for ring-shaped objects


*lawa₁ wide


PAN     *lawa₁ wide     [doublet: *lawas₁]

Paiwan me-lawawide
Itbayaten xawayard of a house
Ilokano láwawide, spacious, extensive, broad, large, roomy, loose, ample
Isneg láwalarge, broad, wide (used in songs)
Casiguran Dumagat lawawide, loose, big
Palu'e lawalong
Fordata lawalength
Gitua ma-lawalong, tall, high, far

Note:   Also Yamdena lawas ‘length’, Kei lawar ‘breadth’.


*lawa₂ spider


PWMP     *lawa₂ spider     [doublet: *lawaq₂]

Tagalog lawa-lawáspiderweb; species of spider
Buhid láwaspider
Hanunóo láwaa generic term for spiders, very few of which are given specific names
  lawa-láwasimple string figures, or cat’s cradles, made with strings of seed beads
Mamanwa lawaspider
Kenyah kə-lawaspider
Kayan te-lawaʔspiders of various species
Kayan (Uma Juman) tə-lawaʔspider
Malay lawa-lawaspider
Rejang laweaspider

Note:   Also Malay laba-laba, labah-labah ‘spider; generic for all spiders’


*lawa₃ drop by, pay a visit


PWMP     *lawa₃ drop by, pay a visit

Tboli lawaa friendly visit
Iban lawaʔcome, go to (visit) (Scott 1956)


*lawa₄ body


PWMP     *lawa₄ body     [disjunct: *lawas]

Binukid lawabody (of a person or animal); main part (of a structure)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawabody; tree trunk; top of a garment
Kejaman lagwabody


*lawag to hunt, search for something


PPh     *lawag to hunt, search for something

Umiray Dumaget lawegto hunt
Tausug mag-lawagto find, seek, search, look for (something)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. This comparison was first proposed by Himes (2002:290).


*lawan₁ kind of long fishnet


PMP     *lawan₁ kind of long fishnet     [disjunct: *lawaq₁]

Moken lawanfish with a net (large); throw a line, angle
Kambera lawaŋuspiderweb
Loniu lawkind of long, narrow fishnet
Arosi rawasmall net
  rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net
Fijian lawathe Fijian fishing net

Note:   Proto-Ambon *lawar ‘fishing line’ is apparently distinct.


*lawan₂ exceed


PWMP     *lawan₂ exceed

Maranao lawanexceed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawanto exceed or excel over someone or something
  pe-lewan-aʔof two or more, to argue
Singhi Land Dayak rawanexceed


*lawaŋ₁ wide, spacious


PWMP     *lawaŋ₁ wide, spacious

Casiguran Dumagat lawaŋto make a wide hole in the ground
Ibaloy dawaŋto be spacious, roomy (as the inside of a house, field, shoe that is too big)
  i-dawaŋto make a wide space or passage
Cebuano láwaŋfor an area to be wide, spacious
  láwaŋ-láwaŋhave too much space for the amount of material put in; be in a place which is too spacious; make something wider
Binukid lawáŋliving room
Kayan lawaŋany vacant unused space, e.g. between house and kitchen; unsown area of land (as a vacant space where one could build a hut)
Karo Batak lawaŋroomy, spacious, wide, broad
Proto-Sangiric *loaŋwide


*lawaŋ₂ door, gate, passageway


PWMP     *lawaŋ₂ door, gate, passageway

Maranao lawaŋpass
  lawaŋ-aʔpassage, doorway, hallway
Binukid lawaŋto pass in front of someone, between two people or through a group
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawaŋto go out of something
  lewaŋ-ana room of a house which has an outside door; a part of the house near the doorway
Tiruray lawaŋto pierce through, to pass through
Mapun lawaŋdoor, gate; opportunity; chance; way
  ka-lawaŋ-anto have a chance to do something
Ida'an Begak lawaŋdoor
Iban lawaŋdoor
Malay lawaŋouter gate (of the gate of the compound in contrast to that of the house)
Sundanese lawaŋdoor opening; exit, entrance; port
Old Javanese lawaŋdoor, gate, entrance
Javanese lawaŋdoor, entrance (Pigeaud 1938)
Balinese lawaŋgate, entrance
Sasak lawaŋdoor, opening
Wolio lawa-lawagate (as of yard)

Note:   Possibly identical with PWMP *lawaŋ₁ ‘wide, spacious’.


*lawaq₁ dip net, scoop net


PMP     *lawaq₁ dip net, scoop net     [disjunct: *lawan]

Kayan lawaʔhand net made from bark twine
Kayan (Uma Juman) lawaʔdip net
Chamorro laguaʔscoop net, hand net
Lou lafishnet spread out by men working in two canoes
Loniu lawkind of long, narrow fishnet
Likum lolong fishnet made of coconut leaves
Arosi rawasmall net
  rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net
Fijian lawathe Fijian fishing net


*lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb


PAN     *lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb     [doublet: *lawa₂]

Siraya rawaspider
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) waraH <Mspiderweb


PMP     *lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb

Itbayaten ax-xaawaspider
Ilokano lawwa-lawwáspider
Bikol láwaʔspider
Romblomanon lāwaʔspider
Masbatenyo láwaʔspider
Aklanon eáwaʔspider
Waray-Waray láwaʔspider
Kalamian Tagbanwa lawakspider
Hiligaynon láwaʔspiderweb
Palawan Batak láwaʔspider
Cebuano láwaʔspider
Maranao la-lawaʔspider
Binukid la-lawaʔspider (generic)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kele-lawaʔspider
Mansaka lawaʔspider; spiderweb
Mapun lawaʔspider
Tausug lawaʔspider
Lun Dayeh (te)ke-lawaʔspider
Kayan (Uma Juman) tə-lawaʔspider
Ngaju Dayak lawasmall yellow spider that is eaten, and which tastes like a sea crab; spiderweb
Kapuas ganda-lawaʔspider
Ma'anyan lawaʔspider
Nias law̃aspider
Sundanese lancahspider
  ŋa-lancahdo as a spider does (not work, wait around expecting that the means of subsistence will arrive on their own)
  imah lancahspiderweb (lit. ‘house of the spider’)
Mongondow tonto-ḷawaʔspider
Tajio paŋga-lafaspider
Banggai loaspider
Tae' laaspider
Dobel llakʷa (< *la-lawaq)spider
Alune kʷala <Mspider
Larike lawaspider
Buli kopo-lawspider
Minyaifuin pi-lawspider
Nauna canda-lawspider
Penchal tantan-lawspider
Loniu wɨ-lawspider
  umʷe-n wɨ-lawspiderweb
Nali ŋo-yawspiderweb
Titan ñakapʷe-lawspider
Leipon we-lawspiderweb
Ahus we-lawspiderweb
Kuruti oh-lowspider
  omʷe-n oh-lowspiderweb
Lele drak-lowlarge spider
  ŋo-yawspall spider
Kele ka-lew-lewspider
Likum kaano-lewspider
Bipi wi-lawspiderweb, net
Tanga kum-lawspiderweb
Wogeo lawaspider
Wedau nawacobweb
Sudest lawespider
Talise laospider
Lau lakʷaspecies of large yellow spider and large web
Toqabaqita lakʷaspecies of spider, very large
'Āre'āre rawaa spider; cobweb
Sa'a lawaspider’s web, spider
Arosi rawaa small net; a cobweb (used in fishing with a kite); a spider
Bauro rawaspider
Haununu rawaspider
Pwele ka-laospiderweb
Lelepa laospiderweb


PMP     *ka-lawaq spider

Tiruray ke-lawaʔ-lawaʔany kind of spider that makes a web
Lun Dayeh kə-lawaʔ ~ kəkə-lawaʔspider
Berawan (Long Terawan) kə-lawaʔspider
Narum halawaʔspider
Manggarai ke-lawakind of spider that nests underground

Note:   Possibly a reduction of earlier kələ-lawaʔ (cp. Kelabit kələ-lawaʔ ~ kə-lawaʔ ‘spider’.


PWMP     *kala-lawaʔ spider

Aborlan Tagbanwa kala-láwaʔspider
Kelabit kələ-lawaʔspider

Note:   Probably with a variant of the *qalikali- prefix found on the names of many ‘creepy-crawly’ creatures that evidently were protected by a taboo against random killing (Blust 2001).


PMP     *lawaq-lawaq spider; spiderweb

Ibanag a-lawa-lawaspider
Masbatenyo lawaʔ-láwaʔcobweb, spiderweb
Aklanon eawáʔ-eawáʔcobweb, spiderweb
Cebuano láwaʔ-láwaʔspiderweb
Yakan lawaʔ-lawaʔspiderweb, cobweb
Simalur awal-awalspider
Karo Batak lawah-lawahspider, spiderweb
Nias lawa-lawaspider
Proto-South Sulawesi *lawa-lawaspider
Mandar lawa-lawaspider (Mills 1975)
Wolio lawa-lawakind of small spider
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) lowlowʔspider
Hoti lawa-lawaspider
Hitu lawa-lawaspider
Asilulu lawa-lawaspider
  lawa-lawa taispiderweb (lit. ‘spider feces’)
Fijian (tā)-lawa-lawacobweb


PWMP     *la-lawaq spiderweb

Ngaju Dayak la-lawaspider
Sangir lə-lawaspiderweb

Note:   Also Bontok kawá, Ibaloy ka-kawa ‘spider’, Simalur lawal-lawal ‘spider’, Lau lagwa ‘spider; spider web’, Mota marawa ‘spider’. In many languages this base is embedded in a larger word. In a few cases, as with Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kele-lawaʔ the first two syllables may reflect the *qalikali- prefix, but in many others the preceding phonemic material has no known meaning or function.

It is possible that *lawaq₁ ‘dip net, scoop net’ and *lawaq₂ ‘spider, spiderweb’ are the same form, in which the meaning ‘spiderweb’ has been extended to include other similar-sized weblike structures, such as the hand nets or dip nets used to catch small aquatic prey.


*lawaq₃ broad, wide


PWMP     *lawaq₃ broad, wide     [disjunct: *lawa]

Ilokano na-láwawide; loose; roomy; broad
Isneg na-láwalarge, broad, wide (used in songs)
Casiguran Dumagat lawawide, loose, big
Lun Dayeh lawaʔspace between two things; alternate, miss, skip a day or two
  me-lawaʔfar apart, having a space between
Malay lawahclear, unobstructed (of the view)
  mə-lawahto open wide the jaws (of a tiger, etc.)


*lawaqan kind of hardwood tree


PPh     *lawaqan kind of hardwood tree

Ilokano lawánspecies of tree used for lumber
Tagalog lawáʔana species of tree producing lumber of the third group
Bikol lawáʔantree species: Shorea negrosensis (red); Pentacme contorta and P. mindanensis (white)
Hanunóo lawáʔana species of tree (family Dipterocarpaceae)
Mansaka lawaankind of tall tree

Note:   Also Agutaynen lawan ‘kind of tree whose wood is used for making furniture and houses (found on mainland Palawan, but not on Agutaya)’.


(Formosan only)

*lawaR flying squirrel


PAN     *lawaR flying squirrel

Kavalan rawarflying squirrel
Amis (ka)-lawalflying squirrel
Bunun havalflying squirrel
Tsou rvorəflying squirrel
Kanakanabu láaləflying squirrel
Saaroa laarəflying squirrel
Proto-Rukai *ɭavaflying squirrel
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) RawaR <Aflying squirrel
Paiwan lavaflying squirrel

Note:   Also Thao rawaz ‘generic for flying squirrels’ (expected **rawalh).


*lawas₁ wide, broad


PAN     *lawas₁ wide, broad     [doublet: *lawa₁]

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) rawaswide, broad
Chamorro laguaslong, skinny, long and slender (refers to plants or animals)
Yamdena lawaslength
Kowiai/Koiwai ma-rawaslong
Gimán loaswide
Minyaifuin malawaslong

Note:   Also Singhi Land Dayak tawas ‘wide (spacious)’, Malay luas ‘spacious, broad’.


*lawas₂ body


PWMP     *lawas₂ body

Waray-Waray lawasbody; physique
Maranao lawasbody
Mansaka lawasbody
Tiruray lowoha body, stem or trunk
Blaan (Koronadal) lawɨhbody
Lun Dayeh lawathe trunk of a tree
Melanau (Mukah) lawaihnumeral classifier for people
Kejaman lagwabody

Note:   Zorc (1971) posits PPh *lawas ‘body’.


*lawas₃ internode of bamboo; section of something


PAN     *lawas₃ internode of bamboo; section of something

Puyuma ɭawasbamboo to carry water
Ilokano láwasinternode of bamboo; internode of arm or leg
Isneg láwatinternode
  láwat imathe forearm, upper arm
  taŋa-láwatone internode of bamboo: used for storing fish
Hanunóo láwasinternode, as a bamboo cylinder or strip, including at least one node as well as the section between two joints
Tiruray lowohan internode of bamboo
Tausug ti-lawas-ana segment or section, including one node (of bamboo, sugarcane, etc.)


*láway saliva


PPh     *láway saliva

Casiguran Dumagat láwayspit, spittle; to drool
Ayta Abellan lawaysaliva; to salivate
Tagalog láwaysaliva, spittle; spit
  mag-láwayto dribble, to drool
  lawáy-anto wet something with saliva
Bikol láwaysaliva
  mag-láwayto drool
Hanunóo láwaysaliva (while in the mouth)
Aklanon eáwayto salivate, froth at the mouth
Agutaynen lawaysaliva; spittle
Cebuano láwaysaliva; feel very desirous of something one cannot have
  lawáy-ana folk doctor who treats patients with his saliva


*laway thread, yarn


PAN     *laway thread, yarn

Paiwan alaythread
  ta-alay-ana single strand
Malay sa-laway bənaŋa piece of thread
Old Javanese lawethread, yarn
Soboyo laweyarn


PWMP     *laway-an device for making thread or yarn

Old Javanese laway-anyarn-reel
Makassarese lawe-aŋdevice consisting of two vertical bamboos that support criss-crossing laths used to make three- or five-strand threads

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan in Soboyo.


*law(e)qay offensive to decency, immodest


PPh     *law(e)qay offensive to decency, immodest

Ilokano ag-láwayto go naked
Aklanon eáwʔayto be indecent; become, get ugly
Agutaynen ma-lāwayimpolite, rude, coarse, vulgar; immodest, indecent, shameful, immoral
Hiligaynon ma-láwʔayugly, offensive, repulsive
Cebuano láwʔayoffensive to decency, revolting to the taste
Binukid láwʔayoffensive to decency, immoral; obscene, lewd

Note:   Agutaynen ma-lāway is assumed to show medial schwa syncope and cluster reduction prior to *q > k.


*lawi₁ long tail feathers of bird or rooster


PMP     *lawi₁ long tail feathers of bird or rooster

Itbayaten xawiupper caudal fin, which is quite a lot longer than the lower one; tail feather of rooster
Ilokano lawíplume, showy feathers in a cock’s tail
Isneg lawíthe sickles or sickle feathers of a fowl
Bontok lawísickle feathers of a rooster’s tail, used as a hat decoration and also as packing on the plungers of bellows
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) lawilong feather in general
Tagalog lawítail feather of roosters
Bikol lawíthe long tail feather of a fowl; quill, plume
Hanunóo lawítail feather(s); specifically, those of the wild jungle fowl; frequently bound together and used as plume decorations stuck in men’s arm bands
Cebuano láwisickle feather, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of domestic cocks
  lawí-an ~ lawí-hanname given to fish of various families that have filamentous projections, usually from the fins
Maranao lawitail
  lawi a alawground orchid: Habenaria sp.
  lawi a manokplants: Digitaria Argyrostachya A. Camus, Sporobolus diandrus Retz./Beauv.
Binukid lawisickle feathers, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of a rooster
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawithe long tail feather of a rooster
Mansaka lawitail feathers of a rooster (used to decorate hats)
Malay lawicurving feather or fin
  lawi ayamtail feather of fowl
  ikan lawi ayamsmall anchovy
  lawi parifin under a ray’s tail
Gayō lawitail feathers of a rooster
Bare'e laithe long tail feathers of birds, especially of fowls
Manggarai lawilong tail feathers of a rooster; various plants, including Justicia procumbens, Asystasia intrusa, Dicliptera sp., Peristrophe sp., Lepidagathis sp.
Rembong lawe ~ lawithe two long feathers in the tail of a rooster
Hawu (ru)laitail
Tetun manu lai-nthe long tail feathers of a rooster
Vitu la-lawitail feather
Fijian lawe-nathe larger feathers of a bird (the smaller feathers are vuti-na)
Tongan lavefeeler, antenna, as of a lobster; long tail feather, as of a rooster or a tavake (tropic bird)
  faka-la-lavetry to find out in an indirect way; to ‘put out feelers’


PWMP     *lawi-lawi something that resembles a tail feather (?)

Ilokano lawi-lawiplume, showy feathers in a cock’s tail
Isneg law-lawí, lawí anúʔa common herb whose green leaves resemble the sickle feathers of a cock
Cebuano lawi-láwisomething like a tail feather
  lawi-láwi sa kúgunthe flower of the cogon grass
Bahasa Indonesia (lawi)-lawilong curved tail feather of rooster or bird
Toba Batak lai-laithe long tail feathers of birds
  eme na paŋa-lai-lai-onriceplant that stands tall and beautiful like the tail feathers of a cock, but is empty of grain
Mentawai lei-leitail feathers of a fowl

Note:   Also Itbayaten rawi ‘tail feather’.


*lawi₂ top of a tree, tip, extremity


PWMP     *lawi₂ top of a tree, tip, extremity

Ngaju Dayak lawitip, end, top (of a tree, etc.)
Angkola-Mandailing Batak lai-laitip, extremity
Nias laipeak, crown, as of a tree

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) assigned Ngaju Dayak lawi to *lawi ‘long tail feathers of a rooster’. However, the evidence to hand suggests that *lawi₁ and *lawi₂ are distinct comparisons, and until cognates are available that allow the semantic gap between them to be bridged more convincingly the similarity between them will be treated as a case of homophony rather than polysemy.


*lawig long, of time; protracted


PPh     *lawig long, of time; protracted

Tagalog ka-lawíg-ana long duration of time
  l<um>áwigto protract; to draw out; to prolong
Bikol ma-láwiglong (duration of time); lengthy; time-consuming
Hanunóo láwiglong time
Agutaynen l<om>awigfor something, someone to become taller; to an item to increase, go up in price; for one’s blood pressure to go up


*lawit₁ hook


PMP     *lawit₁ hook     [doublet: *kawit]

Tagalog lawitsickle, hook
Chamorro laguetcatch with a hook
Buruese lawitsingle-barbed harpoon; barbed spear


*lawit₂ ritual for calling back the soul (?)


PPh     *lawit₂ ritual for calling back the soul (?)     [doublet: *pulin]

Keley-i lawitthe traditional religious term that refers to a plant that is tied and placed in the grave of the dead to protect a child or a sibling of the dead person from becoming skinny; amulet plant
Ibaloy dawitsmall ritual performed to call back a soul --- either a soul that has wandered away (as when the person was frightened), or the soul of a dead relative before the kail (second burial) ceremony, or the soul of a person who died away from home
Tboli lawitto cry in mourning and at the same time tell what the dead person is remembered for (from the time a person dies until the time of the funeral)


*layab flutter, flicker


PPh     *layab flutter, flicker

Ilokano láyabflutter, drift to and fro
Bikol layáb-layába flame
  mag-layáb-layábto dance (flames)


*layak purpose, intention


PWMP     *layak purpose, intention

Maranao layakpurpose, intention, desire
Karo Batak layakstate, condition; nature of one's mind or heart


*layaŋ₁ to fly, soar through the air


PWMP     *layaŋ₁ to fly, soar through the air

Ilokano na-láyaŋhigh above the ground
Hanunóo láyaŋflying
  l<um>áyaŋto fly, will fly
Tiruray layaŋflying
Mapun mag-layaŋ-layaŋfor something like a kite or leaf to float down in the wind with a swaying back and forth motion
Yakan mag-láyaŋto fly (like birds, airplanes, etc.)
Iban layaŋfly through the air, skim, glide; send flying
Malay layaŋbeing borne through the air (of kites, leaves, etc.; the flight of winged things is tərbaŋ)
  layaŋ-layaŋkite; swallow
Karo Batak layaŋswallow (bird); a kite
Toba Batak leaŋ-leaŋswallow (bird)
Sundanese layaŋto float in the air, as an eagle, hawk, etc.
Old Javanese paŋ-layaŋto move (float) through the air, fly
Javanese layaŋ-ana kite
  layaŋ-layaŋ-anto glide in the air
Balinese layaŋwing, pinion; what hovers
Sasak lə-layaŋkite
Mongondow layaŋto float, glide, hover in the air
Makassarese layaŋto glide through the air, as an object that has been thrown; to vaporize, as the bouquet of wine or the power of a medicine


*layaŋ₂ wide, broad, open (of land)


PWMP     *layaŋ₂ wide, broad, open (of land)

Ilokano na-layáŋopen, clear (space)
Kayan layaŋwide; broad; spacious


*layap to fly


PAN     *layap to fly

Saisiyat L<om>ayapto fly
Paiwan layapto fly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) layapbe blown by the wind
Manobo (Ilianen) layapto fly

Note:   Also Itbayaten s-um-ayap ‘to fly, soar’, Ifugaw táyap ‘flight of birds, bats, insects that can fly’, Ilokano tayáb ‘to fly’.


*layaR sail


PAN     *layaR sail

Kavalan RayaRsail of a raft or boat; cloth around a threshing machine
Paiwan la-layaa flag, banner
  pu-la-layato raise a flag, fly a banner
Casiguran Dumagat layágsail; sailboat; to sail, to travel by sailboat
Tagalog láyagsail of a boat
Bikol láyagsail
  para-láyagone who sails, a fisherman
Masbatenyo láyagsail
Aklanon eayágsail [of boat]
Waray-Waray láyagsail
Hiligaynon láyagsail (for a boat)
Cebuano láyagsail of a boat; put up the sail
Maranao layagsail
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) layagthe sail of a water craft; to sail in a sailing craft
Mansaka layagto sail, to set sail
Mapun a sail (on a boat)
Tausug layaga sail (the square sail used on small boats)
Kadazan Dusun hazagsail
Tombonuwo layagsail
  l<um>ayagto sail
Ida'an Begak layaga sail
  gə-layagto sail
Bintulu lazəhsail
Melanau (Mukah) layahsail
Malagasy laya tent; a sail
Iban layarsail
Salako layarsail
Malay layarsail
Acehnese layeuësail
  meu-layeuëgo on a trip, to sail, be under sail, at sea
Simalur laealsail
  ma-laealto sail, set out on a voyage
Toba Batak rearsail
Nias loyosail
  mo-loyoto sail, travel over the sea
Rejang layeasail
  be-layeato sail
Sundanese layarsail; to sail, make a voyage
  pa-layar-ansea voyage
Balinese layahsail of a boat; to sail in a boat
Sasak layarsail
  be-layarto sail
Mongondow leagsail
  l<um>eagto sail
Kaidipang layagosail
Totoli leagsail
  mogu-leagto sail
Lauje layagsail
  mo-layagto sail
Palauan yarssail
Chamorro layakmast; sails
Komodo lajahsail; to sail
Manggarai lajarsail; to sail
Rembong lazarsail (of a boat)
Lamaholot lajasail
Kambera lírusail; banner
Rotinese lathe sail of a boat
Tetun laa-nsails (of boat)
  ro laa-nsail a boat
Tugun larsail
Leti larasail
Wetan larasail; to sail
Dobel ʔa-larto sail
Nuaulu nān-esail
Paulohi laal-e