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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    
















*ñabi to taste


POC     *ñabi to taste

Lou napto taste
Bugotu ñapito bite, taste
  ña-ñapito lick
Nggela na-napitaste


*ña(ŋ)ket sticky, adhesive


PMP     *ña(ŋ)ket sticky, adhesive

Kankanaey naŋketglutinous, sticky, limy, gluey
Casiguran Dumagat nikethoney (archaic)
Sasak ñaŋketsticky, adhesive


POC     *ñakot sticky, gluey

'Āre'āre nakosticky, gluey

Note:   With root *-keC ‘sticky, adhesive’.


*ñaman tasty, delicious


PMP     *ñaman tasty, delicious

Kapampangan ma-ñamandelicious
Malay ñamanhealthy feeling; sense of well-being'; (Sarawak) 'tasty, delicious
Loniu ñama-nits fat
Nali nama-nits fat
Mussau nama-namato eat, chew
'Āre'āre nama-ato lick, taste


POC     *ñaman-na tasty, sweet

Lindrou ñamma-nsweet, tasty
Bipi ñama-nsweet

Note:   Also Lindrou ñamman ‘sweet, tasty’.


*ñamit taste


PMP     *ñamit taste

Bikol námittaste, flavor
  ma-námitflavorful, palatable, savory, tasty
Masbatenyo ma-námitdelicious, tasty, appetizing
Nias (Southern) nami-namit-õsweet
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *namitaste
Wolio namitaste, feeling, mind, heart
Muna namitaste
  namis-ifeeling, opinion
Gedaged namto taste; to eat (used when speaking to small children)
Cheke Holo ñamitaste by licking with the tongue
Bugotu ñaminibble, bite, taste
Nggela namito taste
  nami-nami-luveto water, of the mouth at the sight of food
Arosi namito taste, lick
Gilbertese namsmacking of tongue, tasting; to smack lips, to taste, to suck


PPh     *mag-námit to taste, savor something

Isneg mag-námitto smack the lips
Bikol mag-námitto taste, savor
Masbatenyo mag-námitbecome delicious, make delicious

Note:   Also Buginese ñame ‘taste, feeling’, Arosi name ‘to taste, lick’. It is possible that some or all of the Oceanic forms cited here actually reflect *ñamñam through an intermediate POc *ñañam-i, with haplology motivated by the common disyllabic target of many Austronesian languages.


*ñamñam tasty, delicious (?)


PAN     *ñamñam tasty, delicious (?)

Thao mak-za-zamzamchew betel nut, chewing gum, or other substances that one does not intend to swallow
  ma-zamzamgreedy, of one who likes to eat, gluttonous
  m-zamzamlick one’s lips
Ilokano nánamtaste, flavor, savor
  pag-nanámsense of taste
  nanam-antasty, appetizing
  nanam-ento enjoy, relish (something)
Kankanaey men-nánampalatable; tasteful; savory
Pangasinan nanámto savor, taste appreciatively
Tagalog namnám ~ linamnámsavor; taste
Aklanon námnamdelicious, flavorful
Mansaka nanamtaste
Kadazan Dusun nanamtaste; good taste
Ida'an Begak nanamtaste
Melanau (Mukah) ñamtaste
Iban ñamñaminsipid, tasteless
Malay ñamñamto eat (baby talk)
Toba Batak maŋa-namnamtaste with the lips
Mentawai nanamtasty; to taste
Tontemboan nanamtaste; tasty, delicious
Chamorro ñamñamchew, sound of chewing, eat


PCEMP     *ñañam tasty, delicious

Selaru nanamsweet, tasty
Yamdena nanamtaste, savor; sweetness; tasty, sweet
Bugotu ñam-inibble, bite, taste
Sa'a nanato eat (used to children)


PPh     *ma-ñañam tasty, savory

Pangasinan ma-nanámsavory, tasty
Mansaka ma-nanamtasty

Note:   Also Aklanon ma-nanám ‘deliciously sweet, succulent, flavorful’, Cebuano nanám ‘for prepared foods to contain something that makes them unusually tasty’, Mansaka nanam ‘taste’, nanam-an ‘delicious’, Binukid, Manobo (Western Bukidnon), Yakan nanam ‘taste, flavor’, Tboli nóm ‘flavor, zest; sweet, tasty; delicious’, Tiruray nonom ‘the taste or feel of something’, ge-nonom ‘tainted, having a strange taste’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty’.


*ñamu chew


POC     *ñamu chew

Gedaged namto eat; used when speaking to small children
'Āre'āre namuchew betelnut; chew, masticate
Fijian namu-namuchew and swallow (intr.)
  namu-tachew and swallow (trans.)

Note:   Also Javanese ñamuk-ñamuk ‘chew on something with the mouth full’ appears superficially to be related, but evidently is the active verb form a base camuk, seen also in di-camuk-camuk ‘be chewed on (with a full mouth)’. Reflexes of Proto-Polynesian *namu ‘odor, flavor’ may be related, but the meanings are fairly distinct.


*ñamuk mosquito


PMP     *ñamuk mosquito     [doublet: *lamuk₂]

Ilokano namókmosquito
Agta (Dupaningan) namokmosquito
Casiguran Dumagat namókmosquito
Remontado yamúkmosquito
Bikol namókmosquito
Hanunóo namúkmosquito
Masbatenyo namókmosquito
Agutaynen namomosquito
Palawan Batak namókmosquito
Cebuano namúkmosquito; be bothered by mosquitoes
Dumpas namukmosquito
Abai Sembuak namukmosquito
Tabun namokmosquito
Kelabit namuksandfly
Sa'ban muəksandfly
Bukat ñamokmosquito
Dusun Malang ñamukmosquito
Ngaju Dayak ñamukmosquito
Iban ñamokmosquito
Malay ñamokmosquito
Simalur namogmosquito
  namog-namoga small, very unpleasant kind of fly
Karo Batak namuksmall red flying ants or gnats
Mandar namoʔmosquito
Chamorro ñamumosquito
Manggarai namokkind of small mosquito
Talur namumosquito
Tugun namumosquito
Loniu ñam-onmosquito (sandfly?)
Titan ñammosquito
Lele nammosquito
Kele nammosquito
Papitalai nammosquito
Bipi ñam-onmosquito (sandfly?)
Kaniet ñamumosquito
Nalik a-namumosquito
Sobei namumosquito
Ali ñuəmmosquito
Wogeo ñammosquito
Watut namgmosquito
Luangiua namumosquito
Bugotu ñamumosquito
Nggela na-namumosquito
Kwaio namusmall flying insect (generic); sandfly, gnat
Lau na-namumosquito
Arosi na-namumosquito
Bauro namumosquito
Sikaiana namumosquito
Proto-Micronesian *ñamʷumosquito
Marshallese ṇaṃmosquito
Marshallese (Western) nammosquito
Puluwat nóómwmosquito
Woleaian lamwmosquito; to have plenty of mosquitoes
Carolinian lóómw ~ nóómwmosquito
Sonsorol-Tobi ramumosquito
Haununu na-namumosquito
Pileni namumosquito
Motlav ne-nemmosquito
Mota nammosquito
Vatrata nammosquito
Mosina nommosquito
Lakona namumosquito
Merig nammosquito
Central Maewo namumosquito
Raga namumosquito
Atchin ni-nammosquito
Rano nommosquito
Avava a-nammosquito
Axamb nə-næmmosquito
Maxbaxo næmmosquito
Paamese a-nammosquito
Bonkovia ñamumosquito
Namakir na-na-nammosquito
Pwele namumosquito
Fijian namumosquito
Tongan namumosquito
  namu-ainfested with mosquitoes
Niue namumosquito
Futunan namumosquito
Samoan namumosquito
Tuvaluan namumosquito
Nukuoro namumosquito
Rennellese namumosquito
Anuta namumosquito
Rarotongan namumosquito
Maori namuAustrosimulium spp., sandfly
  namu katipōmosquito
  namu-namuanything causing a blister or skin irritation


PPh     *ñamuk-en be caught in a mosquito swarm, be overwhelmed by mosquitos

Ilokano namok-enbe bitten by many mosquitoes
Bikol namuk-ónget a mosquito bite
Masbatenyo namuk-ónbe mosquito-swarmed, be swarmed by mosquitos

Note:   Also Ibaloy imok ‘generic term for several small, blood-sucking flying insects, specifically the mosquito’, Kapampangan amúk ‘mosquito’, amuk-an ‘be bitten by mosquitoes’, Ma'anyan mamoʔ ‘mosquito’, Malagasy moka ‘mosquito’, Acehnese jamoʔ ‘mosquito’, Tae' katamok ~ katamuk ‘kind of small mosquito’, Motu nāmo ‘mosquito’, Rotuman tɔnɔmu ‘mosquito net’ (probably a borrowing of Fijian tau namu).


*ñamuR dew


PAN     *ñamuR dew     [doublet: *lamuR]

Saisiyat lamoLdew
Hanunóo námugdew (morning)
  ma-námugdew-laden, dewy
Maranao namogdew
Minangkabau ñamurdewdrop
Sangir namuhdew
Mongondow namugdripping dew
Ngadha namudew
Gedaged namdew, moisture (on grass, etc.)
Puluwat yamwuŕ-e-ni-pwoŋdew; to fall, of dew

Note:   Also Ibaloy amol, Cebuano yámug, Toba Batak nambur, Mailu namu ‘dew’.


*ñañuk speak indistinctly, mumble


PMP     *ñañuk speak indistinctly, mumble

Malay ñañokin one’s dotage (cross-referenced to ñañah ‘to babble; old and doting)
Samoan nanumispronounce one’s own language
Maori nanuindistinct, inarticulate
  nanu-nanuto stutter, talk unintelligibly; be uttered falteringly or imperfectly

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*ñañuy to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals


PWMP     *ñañuy to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals

Cebuano nánuysoft and sweet, melodious (as the melody of a flute)
Iban ñañisinging, especially in style other than Iban, or particular kind of song (probably < Malay)
Malay ñañisinging
  mə-ñañito sing
Tae' nanipanegyric, oration praising someone; choral song sung by participants in the la’pa’ festival (major offering feast)
  me-nanito sing in chorus at the bua’ festival (the agricultural New Year celebration, to ensure the continuing productivity of the rice crop); to sing European songs (this sense borrowed from Malay mə-ñañi)

Note:   Also Isneg mag-nánay ‘to sing’, Ba’amang ma-ñañi ‘to sing’, Dusun Deyah ma-ñañi ‘to sing’, Samihim ñañi ‘to sing’ (all < Malay), Javanese ma-ñañi ‘to sing (modern style)’, ñañi-an ‘a modern-style song’ (< Malay), Sundanese ma-ñañi ‘to sing’ (< Malay), Sasak bə-ñañi ‘to sing’, ñañi-aŋ ‘to sing a song’ (< Malay), Petapa Taje pa-ñani ‘to sing’, Tetun hananu ‘to sing, to chant’. Despite the clear evidence that Malay ñañi has been widely borrowed in western Indonesia, Tae' nani appears to be native, and if the semantically somewhat divergent Cebuano form is included it can be seen that this form ended with *-uy rather than *-i. Dempwolff (1938) included forms from Tongan, Futunan and Samoan in this comparison that seem best left out.


*ñao widow(er)


POC     *ñao widow(er)     [disjunct: *ñaRo]

Loniu hi-ñawwidow
Nali naowidow(er)
Ere naowidow(er)
Titan pi-ñawwidow
Leipon hi-ñawwidow
Kwaio naowidow, widower (also unwed mother); more generally, as a category, includes divorced persons and also unmarried person who is publicly known to have had a sexual affair
'Āre'āre naowidower
  keni naowidow
Sa'a nao ~ nao-naowidow(er)
Arosi naoa widow fasting for husband or widower fasting for wife; a widow, in modern translations of the Bible, copying Mota naro


*ñaRa brother (woman speaking)


PMP     *ñaRa brother (woman speaking)

Ngaju Dayak ñahæbrother (a woman calls her brother thus)
Katingan ñahaibrother (woman speaking), father’s brother’s son, mother’s sister’s son
Manggarai narabrother or male cousin (woman speaking)
Rembong narabrother (used by his sister); expression used by a woman to her sweetheart or husband; expression used by a man to his father-in-law
Ngadha narabrother of a woman
Ende narabrother (woman speaking), all male cousins except the father’s sister’s son
Solorese naabrother (woman speaking)
Rotinese na-(k)brother (woman speaking)
Tetun naa-nbrother, cousin (only used by women to their brothers and male cousins)
Erai nara-(n)a man’s sister, a woman’s brother
Leti naraa man’s sister, a woman’s brother
Buruese naha-tbrother (woman speaking)
Soboyo nahabrother (woman speaking)

Note:   This and *betaw ‘sister (man speaking)’ are two of the key terms in determining the history of marriage and social organization in PMP society (Blust 1993).


*ñaRo widow(er)


POC     *ñaRo widow(er)

Nauna ñawwidow(er)
Penchal pati-ñawwidow
Pak pi-nawwidow
Loniu hi-ñawwidow
Nali naowidow(er)
Ere naowidow(er)
Titan pi-ñawwidow
Leipon hi-ñawwidow
Levei napwidow(er)
Likum ña-ñawwidow(er)
Sori ñawwidow
Lindrou ñawwidow(er)
Bipi ñaw ~ ña-ñawwidow(er)
Mbula nora <Mwidow
Mota narowidow(er)


*ñatuq hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp.


PMP     *ñatuq hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp.

Yami natoa tree used to obtain wood for canoe planks: Palaquium formosanum Hayata (Chen 1988:305, fn. 1)
Itbayaten natoa tree with white flower and green edible fruit: Palaquium formosanum Hayata. The wood is used for making side walls of house and parts of boat
Casiguran Dumagat nátospecies of uncultivated tree (hunters lie in ambush near this tree to shoot pigs that come to eat its fallen fruit)
Bikol nátoʔtree producing an edible fruit and light-colored wood: Plagium [sic]
Hanunóo nátuʔa large tree, Madhuca obovatifolia [Merr.]; the bark is boiled and the resulting decoction drunk by those who pass bloody feces
Aklanon nátoʔa tree with reddish fruit, Nauclea junghuhnii
Tboli natuka kind of tree producing first class wood; its bark is used for chewing
Kenyah ñatoʔwild rubber
Kayan ñatuforest rubber, hard rubber varieties, gutta percha
Kayan (Uma Juman) ñatukind of tree with leaf similar to the breadfruit
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) ñatəuʔkind of fruit tree, probably Palaquium spp.
Ngaju Dayak ñatotree from which latex is extracted
Malagasy nátoa tree whose bark supplies a red dye
  nató-inato be dyed red with the above dye
Iban ñatohgeneric for trees yielding gutta (including gutta percha), Palaquium, Ganua and other species
Malay ñatohgeneral name for certain trees of the genera Payena and Palaquium that produce a good class of timber
Sangir natoa tree with timber highly prized for the construction of boats
Mongondow nantuʔkind of tree with hard wood: Palaquium obtusifolium
Tae' natotree with broad leaves; the wood is reddish and is valued as timber for construction
Makassarese natotree with wood that isn’t strong (planks are made from it)
Manggarai natua gutta percha tree with edible fruit and reddish timber that is used to make planks: Palaquium obovatum
Nauna ñot kɨy <Atall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Lou nottall latex-yielding tree with good timber and large edible sweet green fruit
Penchal ñɨttall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Lenkau notrtall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Loniu ñattall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Nali nattall hardwood tree yielding good lumber and a small inedible fruit
Titan ñatlatex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Leipon ñattall tree with small leaves and large sweet fruit with seeds that are white when unripe and black when ripe
Ahus nattall latex-yielding tree with edible sweet green fruit
Levei naktall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Likum naktall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Sori ñaʔtall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Lindrou ñektall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Bipi ñaktall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Seimat nattall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Wuvulu naʔutall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Mussau natutall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (seeds black on the outside, but white on the inside)
Mendak nərítall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit
Gedaged nata tree, Illipe family, Sapotaceae; two kinds of these trees have edible fruit and large leaves; a third kind has small leaves and inedible fruit (used for building up the sides of a canoe)
Takia nattall timber tree with edible fruit
Takuu natua tree in wide use for making paddles, and also stools: Madhuca obovata
  kau te natuedible fruit of this tree [natu]
Sa'a näua fruit tree, teak
Arosi naua tree often used as the sacred tree of the Ho’asia (annual harvest sacrifice); the fruit is eaten
Mota natua fruit tree

Note:   Also Thao zasu ‘kind of large forest tree with thorny branches and a small, round yellow fruit which gets sweeter as it grows’, Puyuma ɭaʈuʔ ‘mango, Mangifera indica L.’, Iban ñatuʔ ‘trees yielding gutta’, Mongondow natu ‘kind of tree’. This clearly was an important tree for at least three reasons: 1) its timber was valued as planking material for canoe siding and house walls, 2) its sap was used as an adhesive or caulking material, and 3) its fruit was eaten. Dempwolff (1938) extended this comparison to Polynesian forms such as Tongan kaunatu ‘stick rubbed hard on a log ... in making fire by friction’, but this interpretation is rejected here.


*ñawñaw rinse, wash


PAN     *ñawñaw rinse, wash

Amis mu-nanawwash (hands, feet)
Cebuano nawnáwput something in a liquid and swish it around

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’.

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    






*ñepñep drink, slurp, suck


PMP     *ñepñep drink, slurp, suck     [doublet: *sepsep, *sipsip, *supsup]

Makassarese ñoʔñoʔslurp, sip, drink as animals do
Bimanese nonodrink, swallow
Asilulu nono-esuck (Stresemann 1927:63)


POC     *ñoñop to suck

Tabar nopi (< *ñoñop-i)to suck
Wogeo ñoñofemale breast
Manam nonoto eat (only of mangoes) (Böhm 1975), to suck (Blust n.d.)
Arosi nonoput the lips to, suck, as a sweet

Note:   Mills (1975:790) assigns Makassarese ñoʔñoʔ to Proto-South Sulawesi *ñoqño(C) ‘to slobber’, citing a number of forms in other languages which appear to belong to disparate cognate sets.


*ñepuq stonefish


PMP     *ñepuq stonefish     [doublet: *nepuq]

Chamorro ñufoʔscorpionfish, stonefish


POC     *ñopuq stonefish

Sudest nyostonefish


*ñeRab yesterday


PMP     *ñeRab yesterday     [doublet: *niRab]

Kenyah (Long Anap) ñaapyesterday
Bantik ka-nehab-aʔyesterday


POC     *ñoRap yesterday

Bali (Uneapa) ŋorapayesterday
Kove nohayesterday
Kilivila lovayesterday
Halia nolahayesterday
Selau norwayesterday
Bugotu i-ñothayesterday
Nggela nolayesterday
Sa'a no-nolayesterday
Mota ana-norayesterday
Fijian e na noayesterday

Note:   Also Chamorro nigap, Palauan e-líseb (< earlier *niRab) ‘yesterday’. The retention of the final consonant in POc is confirmed by Selau norwa, while Duke of York narap ‘before, formerly’, Butmas (New Hebrides) narap ‘yesterday’ suggest a POc doublet *naRap. Bugotu i-ñotha ‘yesterday’ presumably results from sporadic palatalization. Corrects Blust (1980) *neRab, where the palatal nasal in Bugotu was attributed to sporadic assimilation. J.N. Sneddon (p.c.) informs me that Bantik ka-nehab-aʔ ‘yesterday’ reflects *niRab, not *ñeRab.

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    




*ñəñu tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia


PCEMP     *ñəñu tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia

Bimanese nonua tree of which the root’s bark gives a red dye: Morinda spp. (Ismail, Azis, Yakub, Taufik H. and Usman (1985), where this word is said to correspond in meaning to Bahasa Indonesia mengkudu)
Tetun nenu-ka tree (Morinda tinctoria) from which red dye is extracted
Leti nenua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Moa nienua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Wetan nenikind of tree (probably Morinda citrifolia); the fruits and decoction of the roots are used as a remedy against swollen tonsils; from the roots is also made paint (yellow, or when the wood has been mixed with lime, red)
Asilulu nenuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L.
  nenu maʔasi aikind of small tree, the roots of which yield soda


POC     *ñoñu tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L.

Nali nontree with inedible fruit: Morinda citrifolia L.
Leipon ñoñtree with inedible fruit; the roots yield a pink dye: Morinda citrifolia
Bipi ñoyshort roundish tree with large leaves and small inedible fruit that turns yellow when ripe: Morinda citrifolia
Wogeo ñoñtree with non-edible fruit and roots used as medicine: Morinda citrifolia
Gitua nono <Aa tree, Morinda citrifolia; bark used for red dye
Motu nonua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Gilbertese nona tree: Morinda citrifolia; the fruit of this tree
Tongan nonutree with fruit that looks somewhat like custard apples: Morinda citrifolia. Its leaves and fruit are used medicinally.
Niue nonua shrub: Morinda citrifolia
Futunan nonua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Samoan nonushrub or small tree (Morinda spp.),
  nonu fiʔa-fiʔaa tree (Eugenia sp.), the Malay apple
Tuvaluan nonushrub sp.: Morinda citrifolia; fruit of nonu
Kapingamarangi nonuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L.
Nukuoro nonuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L.
Anuta nonua tree, of which there are two subvarieties; te nonu kuru (with larger fruit), and te nonu vao
Rarotongan nono <Aa native tree: the Morinda citrifolia
Hawaiian nonithe Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia), a small tree or shrub in the coffee family with pale yellow unpleasant-tasting fruits. Formerly Hawaiians obtained dye and medicine from the many parts of the tree

Note:   Also Kapampangan líno, Tagalog níno ‘a tree: Morinda umbellata L., Morinda citrifolia L. (Madulid 2001), Bikol níno ‘shrub possessing roots from which a yellow dye may be extracted: Morinda bracteata Roxb.’, maŋ-níno ‘go to the mountains to collect these roots’, Cebuano ninú ‘small tree similar to bangkúru, but with smaller and lighter-colored leaves: Morinda sp.’, Gedaged nanom ~ nonom ‘a tree: Morinda citrifolia. Scrapings from the root are mixed with lime, which produces a red dye’, Takia nom ‘a tree: Morinda citrifoliaMilke (1968) proposed POc *nonumMorinda citrifolia’, basing the final consonant on the puzzling Gedaged form. This comparison is discussed thoroughly by Ross (2008), who notes (2008:407-408) that both Gedaged and Takia have lost POc *-VC, and that the final nasal is better interpreted as a reflex of the medial *ñ.

Ross further notes that if the Philippine forms can be compared with those in CEMP languages PMP *ñeñu can be reconstructed. However, Philippine forms point consistently to an etymon with penultimate *i and CEMP forms to an etymon with penultimate schwa. Under these circumstances the earliest form that can be securely reconstructed is PCEMP *ñəñu, although PMP clearly had either a single etymon of indeterminae shape, or doublets differing in the penultimate vowel.

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    






*ñikñik tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly


PMP     *ñikñik tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly

Kapampangan nikníka tiny insect (gnat?)
Tagalog nikníkthis term has different meanings for different localities: 1. a species of blood-sucking insect; 2. gnat; gnat, a small, two-winged insect or fly, 3. a species of fly with a painful bite, 4. horsefly
  nikniktiny blood-sucking insect
Central Tagbanwa nɨknɨkgnat
Gana ninimosquito (Wallace 1962)
Lampung ñeñikmosquito
Balinese ñiñiktiny mosquitoes that fly in swarms
Sasak ñiñiktobacco louse
Hawu ninivery small kind of midge
Rotinese ninikmosquito
Tetun ninika small mosquito with a painful sting
East Damar ninimosquito
Waropen ninimosquito


PCEMP     *ñiñik tiny biting insect

Hawu ninivery small kind of midge
Rotinese ninikmosquito
Yamdena ninikmidge, mosquito
Minyaifuin ninimosquito
Waropen ninimidge, mosquito
Seimat ninibee
'Āre'āre nini-suakind of bee
Sa'a nini-hohornet

Note:   Also Bikol núknúk ‘gnat’, Bisaya keliah niniʔ ‘sandfly’, Manam niniko ‘wasp’, Sa'a niniho ‘hornet’. Kapampangan niknik is assumed to be a Tagalog loan.


*ñikut nest, lair


POC     *ñikut nest, lair

Mukawa nigu-nanest, den, hole
Adzera nigit <Anest
Bugotu ñiku-ñabird’s nest
Nggela nikua bird’s nest; ant nest; lair of a pig, den of an animal
Mota nigiua nest of a bird or pig

Note:   Also Kilivila nigwa ‘nest’, Bugotu ñeku-ña ‘bird’s nest’. A variant of this comparison was assigned by Milke (1968:160) to POc *(n)igu(t) ‘nest’.


*ñilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour


PMP     *ñilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour     [doublet: *ŋilu]

Kapampangan liño <Msetting teeth on edge (Bergaño 1860)
Ngaju Dayak ñilopain in the joints, arthritis


PMP     *ma-ñilu painful sensation, teeth or joints

Miri ma-ñilauhrheumatic pains
Kambera yílusour (both taste and feeling of unease in body)
  ma-yílusour, tart, as a mango (also of painful feeling or discomfort in the body)
Hawu me-ñilusour

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    





*ñopñop to sip, suck on


PCEMP     *ñopñop to sip, suck on     [doublet: *sepsep, *sipsip, *supsup]

Bimanese nonoto drink
Asilulu nono-eto suck


POC     *ñoñop to suck

Manam nonoto suck mangoes
Lungga ñoñopoto suck
Roviana nonopoto suck
Arosi nonoto suck

Note:   Also Buginese ñəñoɁ ‘to sip’, Makassarese ñoɁñoɁ ‘to slobber, let food or drink run out of the mouth’. Mills (1975) reconstructed Proto-South Sulawesi ñoqño(C) ‘to slobber’, a form that is phonologically incompatible with words in CEMP languages unless *o is admitted into the PMP phoneme inventory on the basis of very tenuous evidence.


*ñoro rough, of a turbulent sea


POC     *ñoro rough, of a turbulent sea

Nauna ñoltide
Loniu ñotide, current
Leipon ñortide, current
Tolai noroto pour forth, rush, run, gush, flow quickly; rapid flow, rapid motion; torrent, jet
  no-norokeep pouring forth, rushing, running, gushing, flowing quickly
Mbula no-nortidal wave; flood, storm surge
Bugotu ñoroa wave, breaker, surf; to be rough, of sea
Puluwat wave; to be many waves, as in a strong sea
  nónnóto be big with waves

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    





*ñui growth stage of squid


POC     *ñui growth stage of squid

Nauna ñusquid without shell
Ere nuwsquid without shell
Titan ñusquid without shell
Lindrou ñuwsquid without shell
Bipi ñusquid without shell
Gedaged nuisquid; the black excretion of a squid, ink


*ñutñut suck, pull at with the lips


PWMP     *ñutñut suck, pull at with the lips

Ilokano notnótto suck (one's thumb, etc.)
Pangasinan nótnótmanner of chewing of small children or older persons without teeth
Kalamian Tagbanwa nutnutsucking without use of teeth (breast, finger, shellfish, but not sugarcane)
Aborlan Tagbanwa nutnutsuck weakly
Malay ñoñotpulling at the breast (of children); drawing at anything elastic

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)