Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    





















































pala pala₁

pala pala₂





























































































































paraq paraq
































































































*pa₁ still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else)


PAN     *pa₁ still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else)

Kavalan pawill (future)
Kanakanabu pastill
Yami pafirst (before doing something else)
Itbayaten paparticle: also, too, yet, still, more
Agta (Eastern) payet, still
Casiguran Dumagat paparticle: first, still
Kapampangan pastill, yet
Tagalog pamore; still; even; yet; up to now, up to a certain time; further; else
Remontado pastill, more, yet
Bikol pastill, yet; more, anymore; than
Romblomanon pasomeone does something first, before something else is done; someone still does something, has something; something is also done; a situation also exists
Masbatenyo paparticle: yet, still; in addition, as well, also, too
Aklanon pasustaining particle with the sense of English “yet” or “still”
Waray-Waray pamore; yet, still
Agutaynen payet; still; additionally; what’s more; moreover
Hiligaynon paparticle: still, yet
Cebuano pastill, yet: up to now, up to a specific point in the past; else, in addition
Central Tagbanwa pastill, yet
Binukid pastill, yet: up to now, up to a specific point in time
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) payet; still
Mansaka pamodifying particle: still; yet
Tausug pasignals the continuance of an event already occurring or of a state already existing; still, more, yet
Kadazan Dusun pogrammatical particle: yet
Kelabit pəhso far, til now; so that, in order to
Malagasy fafor, but, therefore, because, that
Ponosakan pastill, more, yet (before doing something else)
Bare'e pastill, yet
Tae' -pastill, yet
Mandar -paonly; later; still; not yet
Mamuju pastill
Makassarese -pastill, yet

Note:   The PAn status of this reconstruction was first established by Wolff (2010, 2:919). I am indebted to Daniel Kaufman for drawing my attention to this fact.


*pa-₁ numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral)


PMP     *pa-₁ numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral)

Toba Batak pa- (numeral)let (the thing mentioned by you) be made into (numeral) (van der Tuuk 1971)
Old Javanese pa-ro, pa-rwawavering, in two minds
Kambera pa- (numeral)divide into (numeral)
Motu ha-ruatwice
Molima va-luado in pairs
Eddystone/Mandegusu va-luathe second man in a six-man canoe (cf. *duSa 'two')


*pa-₂ causative prefix


PAN     *pa-₂ causative prefix

Kavalan pa-causative prefix
Saisiyat pa-causative prefix
Atayal p-causative prefix
Pazeh pa-causative prefix
Amis pa-causative prefix
Thao pa-causative of dynamic verbs
Rukai pa-causative prefix
Puyuma pa-causative prefix
Paiwan pa-causative prefix
Itbayaten pa-causative prefix
Ibatan pa-causative prefix
Ilokano pa-causative prefix
Agta (Central Cagayan) pa-causative prefix
Bontok pa-causative prefix
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-causative prefix
Pangasinan pa-causative prefix
Kapampangan pa-causative prefix
Tagalog pa-causative prefix
Bikol pa-causative prefix
Romblomanon pa-causative prefix
Masbatenyo pa-causative prefix
Aklanon pa-causative prefix
Hiligaynon pa-causative prefix
Palawano pa-causative prefix
Cebuano pa-causative prefix
Maranao pa-ka-causative prefix
  pa-ki-causative prefix
Binukid pa-causative prefix
Mansaka pa-causative prefix
Mapun pa-instransitive causative motion within oneself, transition, or change of state becoming
Tboli h- ~ he-causative prefix
Kadazan Dusun po- ~ popo-causative prefix
Ida'an Begak pə-dependent causative
Kenyah pa-causative prefix
Toba Batak pa-causative prefix
Toratán pa-causative prefix
Banggai a-causative prefix
Makassarese pa-causative prefix
Wolio pa-causative prefix
Muna fo-causative prefix for dynamic verbs
Kambera pa-causative prefix
Tetun ha-causative prefix (said to be a contraction of halo ‘do, make’, but his may be a historically secondary rationalization)
  ha-causative prefix
Taba ha-causative prefix
Buli fa-causative prefix
Lusi pa-causative prefix
Zabana va-causative


PWMP     *p<in>a- caused (something to happen)

Ibatan p<in>a-causative (perfective)
Ida'an Begak (pə)nə- -i-causative (completive)
Bintulu p<in>a-causative (perfective)


PAN     *pa-ka- causative of stative verbs

Pazeh paka-causative prefix
Amis paka-causative prefix
Paiwan paka-causative prefix
Ilokano paka-nominalizing instrumental affix for potentive maka- verbs (maka-surat ‘able to write’ : paka-surat ‘something with which one is able to write’)
Cebuano paka-derivational verb-forming prefix; with durative active affixes, verbs with paka- mean ‘pretend to be, act like so-and-so’, and with the direct passive affixes they mean ‘consider as so-and-so’, or ‘treat like so-and-so’
Maranao paka-causative of object voice (McKaughan 1958:27)
Yakan paka-causative affix in transitive or antipassive clauses
Kayan pək-causative prefix
Malagasy faha-causative/multiplicative prefix with numeral bases
Toratán pa-ka-‘exhaustive’ causative of stative verbs
Makassarese paka-prefix for adjectives or stative verbs
Muna feka-causative prefix with stative verbs
Chamorro faha-causative/multiplicative prefix with numeral bases
Tetun hak-causative prefix to verbs (also forms verbal nouns and adjectives)


POC     *paka- causative prefix

Lau faka-causative prefix, rarely found
  fā-causative prefix which also makes transitive verbs from intransitive verbs, adjectives and nouns (roŋo ‘to hear’ : fā-roŋo ‘to tell’; mamagu ‘fear’ : fā-mamagu ‘loathsome’; ŋū ‘to sing’ : fā-ŋū ‘teach to sing’)
Toqabaqita faɁa-usually derives causative verbs (mae ‘die; dead’ : faɁa-mae-a ‘administer anaesthetic to, put to sleep with anaesthetic’)
Fijian vaka-prefix; added to verbs it usually makes causatives; added to nouns it makes adjectives or adverbs (tamata ‘man’, vaka-tamata ‘human; like a human being); added to adjectives it makes adverbs (vinaka ‘good’, vaka-vinaka ‘well’); added to nouns it may indicate possession (vale ‘house’ vaka-vale ‘having a house’); added to some intransitive verbs it makes intensives, frequentatives or continuatives
Tongan faka-prefix denoting likeness, causation (causing or allowing to), supplying, having, etc. (mate ‘die; dead’ : faka-mate ‘causing death; deadly, poison, fatal’, taŋi ‘to cry’ : faka-taŋi ‘having a doleful sound, sounding like a lament; to appeal to someone after one’s request has been rejected by someone else’)
Niue faka-a very common prefix, usually causative, but with other meanings
Samoan faɁa-multifunctional prefix indicating, among other things, causation; faɁa-sāmoa ‘do things in the Samoan way’
Tuvaluan faka-causative prefix with a range of meanings: 1. cause an action to occur or a state to result (ako ‘learn’ : faka-ako ‘teach’, moe ‘sleep’ : faka-moe ‘put to sleep’), 2. to act a role (maatua ‘mother’ : fakamaatua ‘parent’s sister’, paalaŋi ‘European’ faka-paalaŋi ‘act like a European’), cause to be like (fonu ‘turtle’ : faka-fonu ‘heap up food in the shape of a turtle’), 4. before statives to form transitive verbs (huki ‘pierce’ : ma-huki ‘pierced’, faka-ma-huki ‘pierce a nut for drinking’)
Kapingamarangi haga-causative prefix: cause to; cause to have; provide a; allow to; teach how to; install as (made ‘to die’ : haga-made ‘to kill’, daŋi ‘to cry’ : haga-daŋi ‘to make someone cry’
Nukuoro haga-causative prefix, cause to be, become, have, know (made ‘dead’ : haga-made ‘do as hard or fast as possible’, daŋi ‘to cry’ : haga-daŋi ‘to play a musical instrument’)
Rennellese haka-causative prefix (meanings are usually causative or transitive, but sometimes similitude)
Anuta paka-causative prefix (mate ‘die’ : paka-mate ‘commit suicide’, taŋi ‘to cry, to moan’ : paka-taŋi ‘to blow a conch shell or other type of whistle, horn, etc.’)
Rarotongan aka-a causative prefix; to make to, to cause something to be done; by the addition of the prefix aka- many nouns, adjectives and neuter verbs become active verbs
Maori whaka-causative prefix; combined with an intransitive verb, an adjective or participle to form an intransitive verb, it signifies a beginning of, or approach to, the action or condition indicated; combined with a noun to form an intransitive verb, it signifies the assumption of the character or form expressed by the noun; as a strict causative it may combine with a verb, adjective, participle, or noun to form a transitive verb
Hawaiian hoɁo-a very active former of causative/simulative derivatives, including 1. causation and transitivization (pono ‘correct’ hoɁo-pono-pono ‘to correct’), 2. pretense (kuli ‘deaf’ : hoɁo-kuli ‘to feign deafness’), 3. simillarity (kamaliɁi- ‘children’ : hoɁo-kamaliɁi ‘childish’), 4. no meaning (kāholoholo ‘to hurry’, hoɁo-kāholoholo ‘to hurry’), 5. unpredictable (maikaɁi ‘good’ : hoɁo-maikaɁi ‘to congratulate’)

Note:   Also Yakan peke-, peki- ‘causative affix in transitive or antipassive clauses’.


*pa₂ get, take, bring


POC     *pa₂ get, take, bring

Kaulong vaget, take, bring
Nyelâyu phatake


POC     *pa-i get, bring, take

Amara peiget
Tawala wa-icarry, get, select, take
Kwaio fee-atake, convey; take in marriage

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2016:427), who reconstructed *pa, *pa-i ‘get, take, bring’ with no indication of the function of *-i.


*pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel


PAN     *pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel     [doublet: *pasek]

Amis patseknail
Puyuma paseknail; hammer in a nail
  mi-pasekhave a nail in
Itbayaten paseknail
  i-pask-endowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree
Kankanaey pasekwedge
Bikol pásokwooden peg
  mag-pásokput something together with such pegs
Maranao pasekpost, pillar
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pasekput a post or stick in the ground
Bintulu pasəkenter
Ngaju Dayak pasakwooden nail, dowel; what is fastened together with dowels
Malay pacaksplitting, transfixing
Nias fasastake, nail; to pound in a stake or nail
Old Javanese pacekspike, pin
Balinese pacekpeg, nail; stick into, make a hole; plant (seedlings, etc.)
Sangir ma-masiʔdrive in a stake, implant
  pa-pasiʔstake, post (as a fencepost)
Tontemboan pasəka pole driven firmly into the ground to which a horse can be tethered
  ma-pasəkto drive (a stake or pole) into the ground
Uma pasoʔto nail, drive in a nail
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *pasoQpeg, nail
Makassarese am-masaʔdrive a wedge into wood in order to split it open
Wolio pasonail, pin, spike, spur
Muna pasonail
  ka-pasowooden pen, nail or peg
  pasok-ito nail something firmly
Manggarai pacekpile, stake; drive in a pile or stake

Note:   With root *-cek ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’. [cf root *-sek₂ insert, stick into a soft surface] Blust (1970:134) reconstructs *pacek ‘place upright in the earth’, but cites only WMP cognates. Makassarese pasoʔ ‘nail, pin, peg’ is assumed to reflect *pasuk.


*paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal


PAN     *paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal

Paiwan patsaknewly born calf or deer
Cebuano patʔak (ʔ unexplained)splotch, spatter all over something
Iban pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head


*pada same, equal, like


PWMP     *pada same, equal, like

Ilokano pádasame, equal; peer
  ag-pádato be the same, equal; to match
  ka-pádaa peer, equal, match
  p<um>ádato be unequalled; supreme; unsurpassed
  pada-ento equal, match; copy or imitate
  páda-padá-ento treat equally; to share alike
Isneg pádaequal, alike
  saŋa-pádaall alike
Ifugaw pádawhat is the same, the equal in measure, quantity, number, or degree, commonly used with suffix -na
  páda-naits equal
Pangasinan páralike, the same; be the same
  ka-páraone who is alike, the same
Tagalog páraas though; as if; only; same as; like; similar; just like; such as one would expect
Malay padasufficiency (but no more)
Old Javanese paḍaequal; the equal of; equally; an indication of the plural
Balinese paḍalike, similar, all-in-all, all, together (often used with no more meaning than to indicate plurality)
Sasak padaequal, equal to
Tae' padathe same in size, quantity, quality, shape, etc.
  pa-padato make equal
Makassarese paraall, both (in combinations); same, equal (mostly in combinations)


PPh     *i-pada to compare

Ilokano i-pádato compare; make something thesame or similar to something else
Tagalog i-paráto compare; to liken to


PWMP     *pada pada equally, without distinction

Ilokano páda-pádasame, equal; everyone without exception or favoritism
Pangasinan pára-páramatching
Malay ber-pada-padain reasonable (but not excessive) amounts
Old Javanese paḍa-paḍaequal; the equal of
Balinese paḍa-paḍaas much; equally (long, high, etc.)
Sasak pada-padaequal; even
Pendau pada-padaeach, together; same
Tae' pada-padaapproximately so; the same, all without distinction


*padaŋ uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica)


PWMP     *padaŋ uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica)

Casiguran Dumagat paraŋmeadow, open field, usually covered with cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica)
Tagalog páraŋmeadow, prairie; a large piece of level or rolling land with grass but not trees; field; uncultivated land
Hanunóo pádaŋa short, small-leaved cogon grass (Imperata sp.)
Tausug paraŋgrass
  ka-paraŋ-anground covered with grass, pastureland
Kadazan Dusun padaŋfield, playing ground, meadow
Ida'an Begak padaŋcoarse grass
Kelabit padaŋfield
Ngaju Dayak padaŋa large treeless plain overgrown with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica)
Iban padaŋlarge space covered with one kind of vegetation; freshwater swamp, usually flooded and supporting few plants; field, meadow, green, sports-ground
Acehnese padaŋfield, plain
Simalur padaŋgrassland, meadow
Karo Batak padaŋkind of grass: Pogonatherum panicum Hack.
Toba Batak padaŋgrass; grassland, plain
Javanese paḍaŋto lay open (of ground)
Balinese padaŋgrass, plant, herb
  padaŋ silathe name of a rock-field (sila = ‘stone’)
Mongondow padaŋcane grass: Imperata cylindricaImperata arundinacea
Bare'e padaplain, field; also used for the plants that grow there
Ampana padahigh grass, cane grass
Tae' padaŋearth, ground; field; kind of grass with sharp, needle-like leaves; when young it creeps along the ground with long tendrils
Mandar padaŋvegetation that resembles the stem of the rice plants, sword grass, very hard to eradicate except by digging up the roots; sword grass: Imperata cylindrica
  padaŋspecies of tall grass: Imperata cylindrica
Makassarese paraŋfield, treeless plain
Wolio padatall grass-like weed, Imperata sp.; citronella grass: Andropogon nardus

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *pa(n)daŋGrasfläche, Steppe, Ebene’ (grassy plain, steppe, level ground’. However this characterization misrepresents the nature of tropical grasslands, which in most cases are secondary products of human deforestation for swidden agriculture. PWMP *padaŋ appears to contrast with PAn *CaluN ‘fallow land, secondary forest’. While *CaluN referred to land that has been cultivated and is being held for further use, *padaŋ evidently referred to open areas of deforested land that had lost its value for cultivation as a result of the irreversible incursion of Imperata cylindrica. In a number of languages the name for a previously cultivated area that had gone over to sword grass was transferred to the invasive grass itself (cp. PAn *eRiq, *Riaq, *Remeja, all of which mean ‘sword grass: Imperata cylindrica’, and never refer to fields or represent any other meaning.


*padaw kind of sailboat


PWMP     *padaw kind of sailboat     [doublet: *parahu]

Pangasinan párawtraditional type of sailboat
Tagalog paráwlarge passenger and cargo sailboat
Aklanon paráwsailboat
Agutaynen parawa boat similar to a lansa (cargo boat), but with outriggers, used for fishing (it pulls smaller outriggers out to deeper water where they can fish); the entire entourage is called a paraw
Cebuano paráwschooner, galleon
Maranao padawsailboat
Kadazan Dusun padauboat, canoe, rowing boat, sailing boat
Tarakan padauboat
Murut (Tagol) parawboat, canoe
Bintulu paɗawsailing
Malay layar padaustorm sail

Note:   Bintulu a before an implosive stop indicates a loanword. Wilkinson (1959) sub perahu ‘undecked native ship’ adds "Etym. the padao or parao of the Malabar coast, in contr. to the decked kapal." I have been unable to determine a Dravidian source for this word, but if it is a loan in Austronesian languages it is remarkable that it has spread as far as central Luzon.


*padek rice husk


PWMP     *padek rice husk

Palawan Batak padɨkhusk of rice
Aborlan Tagbanwa padɨkhusk of rice
Lun Dayeh padekhusk of rice grain after separation by pounding (cf. lipaŋ 'husk of rice grain before separation by pounding')
Kiput padəkfragment of broken rice grain

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun paok ‘chaff, husks’.


*pa(n)dek specklike object


PWMP     *pa(n)dek specklike object

Ilongot pandɨkstar
Miri fatakstar
Mongondow pandokspot, speck, fleck


*padem to extinguish, douse a fire


PWMP     *padem to extinguish, douse a fire     [doublet: *padeŋ, *pideŋ]

Mapun pawomto be shut off (as a light); to go out (as a fire); to be erased
Yakan palemfor something to go out, be extinguished (fire or light), turned off, shut off (water, electricity, engine), dried up (stream, well)
  mag-palemto put out, extinguish (a fire or light); turn or shut off (water, engine)
  pandemfor something to go out, be extinguished (fire or light), turned off, shut off (water, electricity, engine), dried up (stream, well)
Kayan paremextinguished; fire or light gone out
Malay padamextinguished, put out, of any flame
Rejang padeumextinguished, put out (a light or fire)

Note:   Based on Tagalog páram ‘to disappear, vanish’, Toba Batak pidom ‘destroyed’, Javanese parem ‘a mixture of dried ground herbs and water, used as a liniment’ (pain destroyer), and Malay padam, Dempwolff (1938) posited *padem ‘to extinguish’, a form which is far better supported by the data given here .


*padeŋ to extinguish, douse a fire


PAN     *padeŋ to extinguish, douse a fire     [doublet: *padem, *pideŋ]

Amis padeŋto put out, literally to extinguish a fire; to turn off
Aklanon páeoŋto put out (fire), turn off (light); to die out (fire), to go out (light)
Hiligaynon páluŋto put out, to extinguish, to blow out
Maranao padeŋput out, as a fire, turn off a light
Muna peoextinguished, out (light or fire)
  foko-peon-ito extinguish, put out

Note:   Also Binukid pedeŋ ‘to extinguish, put out (a fire); to turn off (a light), Tausug pūŋ ‘put off, extinguished, shut off (as fire, radio, flow of electricity, a water tap, an engine)’, mag-pūŋ ‘to put off, shut off, extinguish (something)’, Melanau (Mukah) pajəm ‘closed, of the eyes; extinguished, of a fire’, Manggarai (Tjibal) pegem ‘to extinguish, as a fire’.


*pa(n)det compact, compressed, packed in tightly


PWMP     *pa(n)det compact, compressed, packed in tightly

Tagalog pandátcrammed, packed, squeezed in
Kayan padetclosed up, blocked up, as of a hole; dammed up, of a stream
Iban padatclose up, crowd together, cram, pack tight
Malay padatcrushed into the least possible space; well-packed; compact
  padak-kanto stuff into or press down
Old Javanese paḍetcompact, compressed, having become a solid mass

Note:   Tagalog pandát is assumed to show assimilation of the last-syllable vowel to the vowel of the penult. Although the Kayan form is almost certainly native, the extension of this comparsion behind western Indoneisa may be due to borrowing from Malay.


*padpád be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift


PPh     *padpád be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift

Ilokano mai-padpádto land, reach the shore after having been gone awhile; set foot on; drift; reach a destination
Casiguran Dumagat pádpadfor a boat to be driven by a storm
Pangasinan pádparrun aground because of adverse wind or current; shipwreck
Sambal (Botolan) padpádto be carried by the wind (as leaves, paper, feathers), to be carried by current of water (used of people, limbs, rubbish, etc.)
Tagalog i-padpádto be driven by current or wind
  ná-padpádcarried by the tide (said of persons or things from a shipwreck); cast adrift
  k<in>á-padpar-ánplace where the tide carried shipwrecked persons or things
Bikol i-padpádto be driven by the wind (a boat); to be blown away by the wind
  mag-padpádto drag anchor (a boat driven by the wind)
  maka-padpádto blow a boat, causing it to drag anchor (the wind); to be blown away by the wind
Cebuano padpádfor wind or water to carry something in the current; bring someone somewhere; remove something from whatever it was mixed with or stuck to


*pa(n)duŋ raised flooring


PWMP     *pa(n)duŋ raised flooring

Maranao pandoŋtemporary building; stage, raised flooring
Kayan paruŋattic space above inner room; upper storey
Iban padoŋraised sleeping platform or bunk near or in outer wall of house; (formerly) sleeping place for girls
Minangkabau pandoŋhut in rice fields


*paen bait


PAN     *paen bait

Kavalan pannbait (for fishing, or in a trap)
Paiwan panbait (for fishhook or trap)
  pu-panto bait a hook or trap
Itbayaten aʔpanbait
Ilokano appánbait
Agta (Dupaningan) appánbait for fishing
Isneg appānbait
  i-pānto ensnare
  i-pānto ensnare
Bontok pá-panbait, as used in fishing or trapping birds
Kankanaey pá-panbait
Ifugaw pá-panbait, to lure birds to the place where they can be ensnared, or eels into a cage trap called udál, or rats into a kind of deadfall called ipít
Sambal (Botolan) páʔenbait
Tagalog páʔinbait for catching fish, rats, etc.
  mag-páʔinto bait, to set a bait for; to lure or attract with bait
Bikol páʔonbait; decoy or lure
  mag-páʔonto bait or set a trap; to place bait on a hook; to decoy or lure
Hanunóo páʔunbait
Romblomanon paʔunbait used for catching fish, mollusks, octopuses
Masbatenyo paónbait, lure, enticement; something used to entice the victim in fishing or trapping
Aklanon paónbait (for fishing); to put on bait
Waray-Waray paónbait
Hiligaynon paʔúnbait, decoy
Cebuano paʔúnbait; to bait something; to make or use as bait; use someone else as a means to deflect danger from oneself
Maranao paʔanbait
Binukid paenbait
Klata paʔabait
Kayan pana bait left on river bottom to attract fish for subsequent netting
Karo Batak empanbait
Toba Batak ompanbait for fishhook
  maŋ-ompan-ito entice with bait, lure
Sundanese ɨ-panbait (both literal and figurative)
Balinese empanbait; to bait, feed
  empan-inbe fed, be baited
Mongondow paanbait
Gorontalo paalobait
Uma apabait
Bare'e opabait (for hook, trap, etc.)
Tae' aʔpanto lure, entice
Palauan uáolbait
  o-máolto attract, lure with bait (< *pa-maen)
Manggarai épaŋbait
Fordata faanfish bait
Kei fānbait
  en-fānto feed; to bait a hook


PPh     *i-paen to use as bait

Ilokano y-appánto use as bait
Masbatenyo i-paʔónuse something for bait; to sacrifice (oneself)


PPh     *paen-an to bait a trap, set the bait for

Ilokano appan-anto set bait
Tagalog páʔin-anto bait, to set a bait for; to lure or attract with bait
Bikol paʔon-anto bait or set a trap; to place bait on a hook; to decoy or lure

Note:   It is very likely that this form is related to *kaen ‘eat’, but no clear morphological relationship can be established


*pagal neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences


PMP     *pagal neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences

Ilokano paŋgála stick or bamboo transversely tied to the head or neck of an animal, or a collar consisting of a kind of triangle made of three pieces of wood or bamboo, to keep the wearer from passing through bamboo fences
Manggarai pagalhobble; heavy block hung from buffalo's neck to impede his movements

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance (since it is so weakly attested). The perfect phonological correspondences and highly distinctive semantics, however, suggest a historical connection.


*pagas hoarse, husky (of the voice)


PPh     *pagas hoarse, husky (of the voice)

Pangasinan pagáshoarse; to speak hoarsely
Tausug pagasvoiceless (as from a cold); hoarse
  mag-ka-pagasto develop a hoarse voice


*pagel tired, exhausted


PWMP     *pagel tired, exhausted

Gaddang na-pákeltired (McFarland 1977)
Kapampangan pagal, ma-pagaltired
Tagalog pagálfatigue; assumed work or trouble or hardship for s.o. else
Bikol pagálexhausted, fatigued, jaded, tired, worn out
  ma-pagalget tired
Sasak paŋgeltired; bored

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pagél ‘tired, exhausted’, Makassarese paʔgalaʔ ‘slow, languid; stiff from exhaustion’.


*pageq firm, steady, strong


PWMP     *pageq firm, steady, strong

Karo Batak paguhfirm, steady, solid, of a post; strong, big, robust, of men, trees, and houses
Sundanese pageuhfirm, steady, fast; stand, sit or hold fast; believe firmly in, inwardly convinced
Old Javanese pagehfirmness, stability, constancy, stabilization, repair
Balinese pagehstrong, firm, steady, reliable, sure, unchanging, faithful

Note:   Karo Batak paguh shows u for expected e. I assume that it has been reshaped under the influence of the semantically similar teguh ‘firm, strong; tough, of someone's constitution’.


*pag(e)qúŋ land turtle


PPh     *pag(e)qúŋ land turtle

Ilokano pagʔóŋtortoise, a land and fresh-water turtle
Isneg pagʔóŋkind of turtle with long neck and a more or less elongated body
Bontok pagʔúŋturtle
Tagalog pagóŋturtle
Bikol pagóŋturtle


*pager enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field


PMP     *pager enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field

Ilokano pagérpalisade
Berawan (Batu Belah) paginfence
Miri fagérfence
Kiput pakinfence
Ngaju Dayak pagar, pagerfence, hedge
Iban pagarfence, railing
  pagar ruyonstockaded fort
Jarai pegafence, palisade
Malay pagarfence; palisade, e.g. of bamboo (pagar buloh), or wattle (pagar sasak) or palm-trunk (pagar ruyon)
Acehnese pageuëfence, hedge
Sundanese pagerfence (of bamboo, stone, etc.); hedge
Old Javanese pagerhedge, fence, enclosure
Javanese pagerfence, outside wall
Balinese (High) pagerfence, wall, hadge, fortification
Balinese (Low) pagehbe fenced
  pageh-ana hedge, fence, wall, fortification
Sasak pagerwall of wicker-work, fence, enclosure
Proto-Minahasan *pagərfence, enclosure
Tae' pagaʔbamboo fence built, for example, around the base of a tree in order to heap up fertilizer around it
Buginese pageʔfence, wall (as a stone wall around a planted field)
Makassarese pagaraʔfence
Rotinese paʔato fence, a fence
Yamdena fakarfencing-in, as a planted tree; fencing with stakes for the defense of the village
Buruese pagerfence

Note:   Also Maloh pakar ‘fence’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak pagar ‘village stockade; fence of wood or bamboo’, Erai papa ‘enclosure’, Buruese pagar ‘fence’. Reflexes of *pager in Sarawak generally appear to be borrowed from Malay.This word evidently referred to a constructed enclosure that was intended to keep something out as opposed to one that was intended to keep something in (cp. *bala₂, *bara, or *baRa ‘pen, enclosure for domesticated animals’). The recurrent references to palisades suggests that PMP villages were stockaded.


*pagi later, tomorrow, in the future


PWMP     *pagi later, tomorrow, in the future

Iban pagimorning, early morning
Proto-Chamic *pagitomorrow
Malay pagimorning; early
Acehnese pagiDay of Judgement
Karo Batak pagifuture, future time
  pa-pagi, pe-pagimorning
  er-pagi-pagiin the morning
  si pagi-nathe future
Toba Batak pagi-anlater
  pagi-pagi-anfuture, in the course of one's life
Lampung pagimorning

Note:   This item is not simply a widely distributed Malay loan, since the Chamic languages and the Batak languages agree in indicating an original meaning that is not attested in the Malay reflex. Its antiquity depends crucially on the subgrouping relationship of the Batak languages to the Malayo-Chamic languages, a subject that required further investigation.


*pagpág brush or shake off dust or dirt


PPh     *pagpág brush or shake off dust or dirt

Casiguran Dumagat págpagto brush dust or trash off cloth or a mat; to dust off by shaking
Sambal (Botolan) pagpag-énto shake dust off clothes, papers, etc.; this can be done by tapping against a hard surface
Cebuano pagpágagitate to remove dust, shake the dust off things


PPh     *i-pagpág to brush or shake off dust or dirt

Ibaloy i-pagpagto brush something off with hard blows (as dust from a coat)
Bikol i-pagpágshake out, as rug

Note:   Also Pangasinan i-wagwág ‘shake out a sack, empty a container’. Possibly a Bikol loanword in Casiguran Dumagat.


*pagpag to slap something hard


PWMP     *pagpag to slap something hard

Ibaloy i-pagpagto hit, slap, strike something hard against something else (as one’s hand against a wall)
Lun Dayeh fafaga clap, a slap
Kelabit pəpaga slap
  məpagto slap
  pə-məpagthing used for slapping

Note:   Possibly identical with *pagpág


*pagu loft, attic


PWMP     *pagu loft, attic

Iban pagushelf, esp. over hearth
Malay paguceiling; ceiling-loft, attic
Acehnese paguattic, loft, ceiling
Minangkabau paguthe upper and more solid shelf over the kitchen fire (the lower light rack being salaian)
Gorontalo pahuspace between attic and roof

Note:   It is unclear precisely how PWMP *pagu and *paRa ‘storage shelf; attic (?)’ differed in meaning. The former may have referred to a loft or attic near the roof and the latter exclusively to a shelf or system of shelves over the hearth, but reflexes of *paRa so often include the meaning ‘loft, attic, ceiling’ that the semantic distinction between the two has been considerably blurred.


*pagut snap at with the mouth


PWMP     *pagut snap at with the mouth

Aklanon págotgrind one's teeth
Hiligaynon págutrave, be furious, gnash the teeth while asleep
Malay pagutpeck (of birds), bite (of snakes), nibble (of fish). Not used of the bite of a mammal
Toba Batak pagut, pargutbeak of a bird, mouth of a snake; peck up (birds), bite (snakes)

Note:   Sundanese pagut ‘knock against’, Javanese pagut ‘strike together’ may also be connected. The semantics of this comparison leave something to be desired. Nonetheless Hiligaynon págut, Aklanon págot appear to contain a reflex of the root *-gut ‘gnaw’ (q.v.), and the range of meanings found in other reflexes of this root includes biting, snapping, and nibbling at. Alternatively, *pagut may contain the root *-gut₂ ‘pull with a jerk’.


*paheku bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum


PAN     *paheku bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum

Amis pahkotype of fern that is edible


PWMP     *paku fern

Ilokano pakóan edible fern: Athurium Esculentum (sic!)
  pak-pakóferns resembling the pakó
Agta (Eastern) pakófern
Isneg pakóAthyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel: an edible fern; eating it cures influenza
Itawis pakúfern
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-paʔuan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum
Casiguran Dumagat pakóan edible wild fern, sometimes called “wild asparagus”: Athyrium esculentum
Pangasinan pakóedible fern
Aklanon pakú(h)a fern: Athyrium esculentum
Cebuano pakúkind of fern, the young leaves of which are eaten as a salad: Athyrium esculentum
Maranao pakoa fern: Athyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel
Binukid pakokind of fern (the young fronds of which are edible)
Mansaka pakokind of edible fern that grows by rivers
Tiruray fagewan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum Copel
Tombonuwo pakuedible fern
Kelabit paʔuhfern that grows by the riverbank
Berawan (Long Terawan) pakkohfern
Kenyah pakufern
Murik pakuʔfern
Kayan pakoʔferns (many kinds)
Kayan (Busang) pakoʔfern, the young tips of which are eaten as a vegetable
Salako pakuʔfern
Singhi Land Dayak pokuxferns (edible)
Malay pakufern; generic for Filices (many types)
Acehnese pakufern
Simalur pakufern
  paku gajahordinary tree fern (lit. ‘elephant fern’)
Karo Batak pakuedible fern
Toba Batak pahularge fern
Sundanese pakufern
Old Javanese pakufern
Balinese pakufern, bracken
Sasak pakufern (various types)
Proto-Sangiric *pakuedible fern
Proto-Minahasan *pakutype of edible fern
Tontemboan pakufern
Bare'e pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Tae' pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *pakuferns
Makassarese pakufern, of which certain types are eaten as vegetables
Wolio pakufern
Bimanese fakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Manggarai pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable: Athyrium esculentum
Ngadha pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Kambera rí pakufern

Note:   Also Tagalog pakóʔ ‘fern; river fern’, Bikol pakóʔ, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pakuʔ, Tboli hokuʔ ‘edible fern found growing along streams: Athyrium esculentum’, Iban pakuʔ ‘fern’, daun pakuʔ ‘fern frond, edible fern tips’.


*pahid wipe off


PWMP     *pahid wipe off     [doublet: *paRhid]

Tagalog páhidwiping off; a light wiping; smearing on, anointing
  i-páhidto spread; to put on in a thin layer
  pa-máhidointment; medicine used on the skin to heal or to make soft and white
  pahír-anto coat; to cover something with a layer
  pahír-into rub off; to remove by rubbing; to brush; to wipe away
Palawan Batak páʔidto wipe
Cebuano páhidrub on, apply by wiping; wipe
  pahír-andoormat; rags to wipe the hands
Kelabit paʔidduster, mop, anything used to wipe; accidental wiping
  maʔidto wipe


*pahpah flower (?)


PAN     *pahpah flower (?)

Atayal (Mayrinax) pahpahflower
Sakizaya papahleaf

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Li (1994:252)


*pahuq₁ mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima


PMP     *pahuq₁ mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima

Ilokano páovariety of small mango
Isneg apáw ~ paw-páwkind of wild mango
Kankanaey paómango, mango tree
Pangasinan paóIndian mango (rounded and somewhat smaller than native varieties)
Tagalog páhoʔa small, sour species of mango
Bikol páhoʔtree in the mango family producing a small, sour fruit which may be salted
Aklanon páhoʔsmall mango: Mangifera altissima Blanco
Cebuano páhuʔkind of small, fibrous mango: Mangifera altissima
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pahuʔa tree reaching 35 meters in height: Mangifera altissima; it bears small mangos, and is not cultivated
Murut (Timugon) pauʔhorse mango: Mangifera foetida
Iban pauha tree bearing inedible mango-like fruit: Parkia speciosa Hassk.
Malay pauha tree name: Mangifera spp.
Old Javanese pohthe mango (tree and fruit), Mangifera
Sasak paoʔmango: Mangifera indica
Bare'e paokind of small mango found on the coast
Tae' paomango
Makassarese paomango
Muna foomango
Komodo paumango: Mangifera indica
Manggarai paumango: Mangifera indica
Rembong pauʔmango: Mangifera indica
Kambera paumango: Mangifera indica
Manipa aumango

Note:   Also Maranao pahoɁ ‘mango --- giant’. Most forms in Sulawesi appear to be Malay loans, but this cannot easily be argued for reflexes in Philippine languages.


*pahuq₂ kind of marine fish


PWMP     *pahuq₂ kind of marine fish

Ilokano páokind of large marine fish
Malay pari pauhhornless devilfish: Dicerobatis spp.


*pai₁ where?


PMP     *pai₁ where?

Wolio paiwhere?
Nggela veiwhere, which, usually i vei
Kwaio faiwhere
  i faiwhere?
Lau i-fai(= 'at where?') 'where?'
Arosi haiwhere, what place, which?
Fijian veiinterrogative noun, asking place where?

Note:   Pawley (1972) reconstructs PEOc *pai ‘where?, locative interrogative’. This item probably was preceded by a generic marker of location *i.


*pai₂ to weave, plait (as a basket, door, fence)


POC     *pai₂ to weave, plait (as a basket, door, fence)

Label haito plait (as basket)
Vitu vai-ato weave
Kove waimake a basket, plait a door
Gitua va-vaito weave (a basket)
Numbami wa-waito weave (mats, baskets)
Misima veito plait
Paamese haito weave, make a fence

Note:   A slightly longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond and Ross (1998:82).


*paid fan


PAN     *paid fan

Kavalan paiza fan
  p<m>aizto fan
Paiwan si-paiz-ana fan
  ki-paizto fan oneself, to have oneself fanned
  p<n>aizto fan something
Itbayaten payididea of fanning
  pa-payida fan
Ilokano paída fan (usually made of woven bamboo)
  ag-paídto fan oneself
  i-paídto fan with
  paid-anto fan someone
Agta (Dupaningan) ped-peda fan
  i-ped-pedto fan
Itawis pé-peda fan
  map-pé-pedto fan


*pajale walk about, take a walk


POC     *pajale walk about, take a walk

Lavongai pasalto walk
Tigak pasalto go, walk; come to
Manam alale <Ato walk
Takia -padalgo astray, disappear
Marshallese yetalto go
Pulo Annian θatareto walk around

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2016a:395).


*pajay rice in the field; rice plant


PAN     *pajay rice in the field; rice plant

Basai panayriceplant, rice in the field
Kavalan panayrice plant in a dry field (unhusked); said to be a loan from Amis
Saisiyat pazayrice plant
Atayal pagayunhulled rice, rice in the husk
Seediq payayrice plant
Pazeh pazayglutinous rice
Amis panayrice; the harvested grain
Thao pazayrice with husk adhering; rice in the field; riceplant
Bunun paaðrice plant, rice in the field
Hoanya padzarice plant
Tsou pairice plant, unhusked rice
Kanakanabu paláyglutinous rice
Rukai (Budai) pagayrice plant, unhusked rice
Paiwan padayrice (plant, grain): Oryza sativa
Itbayaten parayunhusked rice; husked rice; rice plant
Ilokano págayrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa
  i-pagay-anhire a worker for rice wages
  pagay-anplace where rice is grown; to plant with rice
Bontok págəyunthreshed rice; the rice plant, Oryza sativa L.
Kankanaey págeyrice on the stalk, unhusked rice
Ifugaw págerice growing in the fields, or bundles of rice ears
Ibaloy pageyrice --- esp. of rice standing in the field, but also of harvested rice that is still on the stalk unthreshed, and of unhusked rice off the stalk
  man-pageyto realize a certain yield from a field
Pangasinan pagéyrice plant; unhusked rice
Ayta Maganchi palirice
Kapampangan pálerice (growing in the field)
  palay-anrice field
Tagalog pálayrice plant
  palay-anrice paddy, rice field
Hanunóo páraypalay, or unhusked rice (Oryza sativa Linn.), especially that standing in the fields, still unharvested
Aklanon páeayrice (growing in the fields), Oryza sativa; rice seeds (freshly harvested, unmilled)
Hiligaynon pálayrice plant
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pareythe rice plant, Oryza sativa, and the grain before it is milled or pounded
Tiruray fareya general term for rice, Oryza sativa Linn.
Mapun pawoyunhusked rice
Yakan paleyrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa
Tboli halayOryza sativa. Rice, unhusked, a staple food of the Philippines
Kadazan Dusun paaipaddy
Minokok parayrice in the field
Ida'an Begak paraypaddy
Supan parayriceplant, rice in the field
Lun Dayeh fadeyrice, paddy
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) paderice in the field
Kelabit paderice plant, rice in the field
Dali' padayriceplant, rice in the field
Kenyah padaypaddy, rice in the field
Kayan parerice plant, rice in the field
Kiput padəyrice plant, rice in the field
Melanau (Mukah) padayrice plant, rice in the field
Bukat pareyriceplant, rice in the field
Kejaman parayriceplant, rice in the field
Iban padirice, Oryza spp. as plants or grain in husk, paddy
Salako padiriceplant
Jarai pədayrice plant, rice in the field
Rhade mədierice plant, rice in the field
Moken paipaddy
Malay padirice as a plant, in the ear, and as an unhusked grain
Karo Batak pagerice plant, rice in the field, unhusked rice
Nias faxerice (in general as a plant, and in its cooked state)
Sundanese parerice in general, but particularly rice in the field and in the husk
Old Javanese paririce (in the field or still in the straw), paddy
Javanese paririce plant (growing, or harvested, but still unhulled)
Balinese padirice, corn, grain; a grain (weight); rice in the husk
Sasak pade ~ parerice in the field, unhusked rice
Mongondow payoyunhusked rice, rice plant
Bare'e paerice in the field, unhusked rice
Tae' parerice in the field
Mori Atas paericeplant, rice in the field
Mandar parerice in the field
Makassarese parerice in the field
Muna paerice (on the stalk)
Chamorro faʔitype of plant - Oryza sativa. rice --- when growing
Bimanese farerice plant, rice in the field
Li'o parericeplant, rice in the field
Kambera paririce plant
Rotinese haderice plant, unhusked rice grain
Atoni anericeplant, rice in the field
Tetun harerice (plant and unhusked grain)
Yamdena faserice
Teluti falarice
Nuaulu anarice
Kamarian halarice (in general)
Saparua halalrice
Manipa laerice
Boano₂ alarice
Batu Merah allayrice
Amblau falarice
Buruese palarice (in general)
Tifu palarice
Kayeli halarice (in general)
Kowiai/Koiwai fasacooked rice, husked rice
Misool (Coast) fāsrice
Mayá ꞌfa¹²srice
Irarutu fasrice
Dusner pasrice (in general)
Wandamen fasrice (in general)
Ron fasrice
Numfor fasrice (in general)
Serui-Laut farice (in general)


PAN     *ka-pajay-an (gloss uncertain)

Amis ka-panay-anthe time of harvest
Ilokano ka-pagay-anrice field

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) pāguy ‘rice plant, Oryza sativa before or after harvesting, i.e. a rice panicle and stalk’, Bikol pároy ‘rice still growing in the fields; rice before milling’, pag-paroy-an ‘to pay a portion of one’s debts with rice’, Toba Batak palge ‘large, select rice grains’, Buginese ase (expected **pase) ‘rice in the field’.


(Formosan only)

*pajiS enemy


PAN     *pajiS enemy

Atayal parisenemy
Seediq paisenemy, adversary
Favorlang/Babuza mazjiesenmity
Thao pazishenemy; one of the names for the Atayal and Seediq
Bunun paisenemy

Note:   Also Favorlang/Babuza azjies ‘enemy.’


*paju eyebrow


POC     *paju eyebrow

Arosi hasu-hasu-(na)eyebrow
Gilbertese arieyebrow
Marshallese āteyebrow
Mokilese padeyebrow
Puluwat faateyebrow
Sonsorol-Tobi fätieyebrow
Wayan vacueyebrow
Fijian vacueyebrow

Note:   Possibly connected with PAn *pasu ‘cheekbone’, although this seems semantically strained.


*pak sound of a clap or smack


PMP     *pak sound of a clap or smack

Itbayaten pakcrash, bang, sound word for the sound of striking
Bikol pakthe sound of a smack, splat, whack
Cebuano pakword used in writing to represent the sound of a slap, or explosion of firecrackers
Malay pak(onom.) thwack; whack; smack
Toba Batak pakthe sound of beating or slapping
Mentawai pakto hit, beat
Old Javanese pakonomatopoetic particle, blow
Manggarai pakto box on the ear, smack
Rembong pakslap, pat

Note:   A free-standing instance of the monosyllabic root *-pak₁ 'slap, clap'.


*pakal to caulk, fill a hole


PWMP     *pakal to caulk, fill a hole

Cebuano pákalstuff a hole (as by putting rocks into a rat-hole)
Iban pakalcaulking material
  makalto caulk (a boat)
Malay pakalcaulking, rendering watertight
  sabut p<əm>akaloakum


*pakan the weft thread in weaving


PMP     *pakan the weft thread in weaving

Bontok pakánwoof; the crosswise threats of woven material
Ibaloy pakanfill material
  pekan-anto fill in the space between two sides (as in piling rocks and earth into the space between two sides of a wide stone wall, backfilling a wall)
Maranao pakanwoof
Malagasy fáhan-ténunathe weft in weaving
Malay pakanwoof; weaving
Karo Batak pakanthe weft thread in weaving (as against the sawen)
Sundanese pakanthe weft threads in weaving
  sa-pakana weft thread
  makan-andrive weft threads through the warp
Old Javanese halaŋ pakana particular kind of cloth (?)
Balinese pakanthe warp (in weaving)
Sasak pakanthe weft in weaving
Makassarese pakaŋcross threads in weaving
  pakaŋŋ-iweave a weft thread through the warp
Manggarai pahaŋcross threads in weaving

Note:   PWMP *pakan clearly referred to the cross threads at right angles to the sitting weaver’s body that are woven into the already established warp threads on a loom. Since this can be seen metaphorically as ‘feeding’ the warp, it is possible that this word reflects *pa-kaen ‘to feed’ in a specialized sense that ultimately acquired a lexical existence independent of that from which it sprang.


*pakaw handle of an implement


PWMP     *pakaw handle of an implement

Isneg pákawthe two handles of a scoop net
Bontok pákəwhandle; any rigid protuberance which can be used for a handle, as a stem of a squash or the stalks of a bundle of rice
Casiguran Dumagat pákawhandle (of a pail, pot, bucket); to put a wire handle onto a tin can
Tagalog pákawnose ring (for cattle); clasp for earrings
Hanunóo pákawhandle, as of a frying pan or other utensil
Cebuano pákawhandle stuck into a frying pan with a rounded bottom; buoy or float made of a long bamboo node one and a half to two feet in length, used principally as a marker for fishing equipment
Maranao pakawhandle
Ida'an Begak pakkowhandle of a cup


*pakáw bow-legged


PPh     *pakáw bow-legged

Ilokano pakáwbow-legged; term used for Japanese soldiers during occupation
Cebuano pakáwbow-legged, pigeon-toed; have an inarticulated elbow, such that one cannot straighten his arm


*pakpak₁ to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping


PAN     *pakpak₁ to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping

Kavalan p<m>aqpaqto flap wings
Amis pakpakto clap hands, to hit with the hand
Thao pakpakclap
  k<m>ay pa-pakpakclap the hands; flap the wings
Puyuma pakpakwing; flap wings
  mi-pakpakto have wings
  pa-pakpakto make wings flap (as when frightening a chicken)
Itbayaten ma-makpakto clap hands
  pakpakento strike with open palm, slap
  p<al>akpaka bamboo toy for making a clapping sound
Ilokano pakpákbamboo rattle
  pakpak-enslap with the open hand; spank; clap; hammer
Bontok pakpákbeat with a short stick using a rhythmic motion, as in beating chickens to death, or the beating of shields during omen hunting trips
Kankanaey pakpák-ento slap in the face, to box the ears of
Casiguran Dumagat pakpákwing (of birds, airplanes, angels, etc.)
Ibaloy pakpák-ento hit something with a resulting thump, thud (as head by police baton, volleyball on palm)
Pangasinan pakpákto beat cotton or cloth with a rod
Kapampangan pakpakwings
  pa-pakpakclap the hands, flap the wings
  pa-pakpak-anclap for someone
Tagalog pakpákwing
Bikol pakpákwing (as of a bird)
  mag-pakpákto place wings on
Buhid fakfákwing
Hanunóo pakpákwing
  p<al>akpákflapping of wings
Masbatenyo pákpakwing
  i-pakpákto clap, applaud; be beaten, be thrashed
  pag-pakpákclapping, applause
Aklanon pákpakwing; to spank, slap (children)
  p<ae>ákpakto clap for, applaud
Waray-Waray pakpákwooden club or mallet for pounding laundry
Hiligaynon pákpakfeather, wing
  mag-pákpakto beat off, as to brush off dust or ants from a dress
  p<al>ákpakclapping of the hands
Cebuano pakpákapplause
Maranao papakwing; break, chip off
  papak-anflying fish
Binukid pakpakwing (of a fowl)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pakpakwing; wing feather; clap the hands
Mansaka pakpakclap the hands
Tiruray fafaka wing
  fafak-ana large saltwater fish
Mapun pakpakfor a rooster to flap its wings before crowing
Ida'an Begak pakpakdrop something small
Ngaju Dayak papaka slap
Malay papakclapper for frightening birds
Sasak pakpakbamboo clatterer put in the fields to frighten birds


POC     *papak-i to slap

Tikopia papakito slap


PWMP     *ma-makpak to slap, flap the wings

Ngaju Dayak ma-makpakto slap
Toba Batak ma-makpakto beat, pound; address with crude language


PPh     *p<al>akpak clap

Ilokano palakpákspringless cart; the sound of a cart without springs
Bontok palakpákclap one's hands, applaud
Casiguran Dumagat palákpakclap the hands
Pangasinan palakpákapplause
Tagalog palakpákapplause, sound of applause
Hanunóo palákpakflapping of wings
Cebuano palakpákapplause; clap

Note:   Also Maranao parapak ‘flap wings’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*pakpak₂ bark of a tree; peel off bark


PWMP     *pakpak₂ bark of a tree; peel off bark     [doublet: *bakbak₁]

Cebuano pakpákhusk, bark of trees; to peel off, shell
Tae' paʔpakbark of tree, strip off bark
  paʔpakk-iremove the bark of a tree


*pakul a fish: triggerfish sp.(?)


PMP     *pakul a fish: triggerfish sp.(?)

Cebuano pakulname given to good-sized triggerfishes with a relatively large mouth


POC     *bakul₂ a fish: triggerfish sp.(?)

Tolai pakulspecies of fish

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*pakum Pandanus dubius


POC     *pakum Pandanus dubius

Lou pwokkind of broad-leaved pandanus of no practical use
Kara (East) paumPandanius dubius
Tolai vaumPandanius dubius
Manam akupandanus with big leaves used to make grass skirt
Takia wakpandanus
Kwaio faʔupandanus (generic); pandanus umbrella
Namakir na-vakPandanius dubius
Nakanamanga na-vakupandanus sp.
Efate (South) n-vakPandanius dubius

Note:   This comparison was first identified by Peekel (1984), and considerably expanded by Ross (2008:331). The Lou form is cited from my own fieldnotes (Ross has pɔk ‘pandanus’, but this does not correspond to any of the pandanus terms I collected).


*pakut to bind together


PMP     *pakut to bind together

Hanunóo pákutcord, string, used to sling a bush knife from the waist
Aklanon pakótbutton
Cebuano pákutto bind something tightly; bond
Maranao pakotsword band
Tolai pakutto make a bundle

Note:   Possibly a product of chance.


*pala platform


POC     *pala₁ platform     [disjunct: *paRa 'firewood shelf above the hearth']

Gedaged falaceiling, the covering of a room; sometimes only part of the room has a ceiling, and this serves as a platform
Lau falaa fishing stage, or platform for drying nuts


*pala pala₁ scaffolding, support


PWMP     *pala pala₁ scaffolding, support     [doublet: *paraq paraq]

Ilokano pala-pálascaffold, scaffolding. For supporting workmen, etc.; a framework for ornamental arches, etc.
Tagalog pala-pálagangplank
Bikol pála-pálaframework; scaffolding; trellis, lattice
Bare'e pala-palabench for resting or sleeping

Note:   Also Bontok bala-bála ‘arch’. Dempwolff (1934-38) conflated several distinct cognate sets under an apparently nonexistent form *para ‘rack, stand, frame’. Tagalog pala-pala was compared (1) with Toba Batak, Malay para-para, Ngaju Dayak pahe, and Malagasy fara-fara, all of which evidently reflect PMP *paRa ‘storage shelf’; (2) with Sa'a para, which reflects PMP *bara ‘pen, enclosure for domesticated animals’; and (3) with Fijian vara ‘scaffolding, platform, stage’, which does not appear to be related to either of the foregoing. Rotuman hara ‘frame, framework, stand’ may be cognate with the WMP forms cited here, but if so has lost its original reduplicative character.


*pala pala₂ temporary shed


PPh     *pala pala₂ temporary shed

Pangasinan pála-pálatemporary shed prepared for a special occasion, esp. a wedding reception
Cebuano pala-palatemporary shed without walls, with a flat roof

Note:   Also Cebuano palaʔ-palaʔ ‘temporary shed without walls, with a flat roof’.


*palaj₁ palm of hand, sole of foot


PMP     *palaj₁ palm of hand, sole of foot

Ilokano páladline in the palm of the hand, the fingers, the sole of the foot
Isneg pálādlines, marks, etc. in the palm of the hand; fate, luck, chance, good luck
Itawis páladpalm of hand
Bontok páladpalm of the hand
Ifugaw páladpalm of a human hand (scrutinized for signs of one's fortune)
Casiguran Dumagat paládpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
  ma-paladlucky, fortunate
Umiray Dumaget paladpalm of the hand
Pangasinan pálarlines on palm of hand; luck, fortune; be affected by fortune
Kapampangan páladpalm (of hand)
  ka-palar-andestiny, fate
Tagalog páladpalm of the hand; fate, fortune, luck
Bikol paladpalm of the hand
  ma-paladlucky, fortunate
Hanunóo ka-palad-unluck, fortune, fate, destiny
Inati paladhand
Cebuano páladpalm of the hand; one's fate
Maranao paladpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paladpalm of the hand; shake hands
Tboli hololpalm of the hand
Blaan (Koronadal) falɨlpalm of the hand
Kadazan Dusun pahadpalm, handpalm
Murut (Paluan) palarpalm of the hand
Abai Sembuak paladpalm of hand
Kelabit palad, *p-en-aladpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Kayan palanlines on palms of hands; segments in a fruit
Wahau maʔ-plælpalm of the hand
Gaai plalpalm of the hand
Kelai mi-plælpalm of the hand
Mei Lan Modang pəleə̯npalm of the hand
Woq Helaq Modang pəleə̯npalm of the hand
Long Gelat Modang pəliə̯npalm of the hand
Malagasy fala-palm of hand, sole of foot
Acehnese paleuëtpalm of the hand
Dairi-Pakpak Batak palaŋpalm of the hand
Toba Batak palakpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Gorontalo paladupalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Bare'e palehand, forepaw, arm
Tae' palaʔpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Mandar paleʔpalm of the hand
Ngadha palapalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Motu pala-palapalm of hand, sole of foot

Note:   Also Bikol párad ‘palm of the hand, sole of the foot’, Sangir palédeʔ ‘palm of hand, sole of foot’. In PPh, *palaj evidently referred not only to the palm of the hand and sole of the foot, but also to one's fate or destiny as inferred from the reading of the lines in one's palm.


*palaj₂ luck, fortune


PWMP     *palaj₂ luck, fortune

Isneg pálādfate, luck, chance; good luck
Pangasinan pálarluck, fortune
Cebuano páladone's fate
Old Javanese palarin the hope that, in view of, in order to, expecting, perhaps

Note:   Probably identical to *palaj ‘palm of the hand, lines in the palm’. Malay palar ‘counting on, expecting’ is assumed to be a loan from Javanese.


*palaja rabbitfish: Siganus sp.


POC     *palaja rabbitfish: Siganus sp.

Penchal pacal <Mrabbitfish
Lau falatarabbitfish: Siganus sp.
Arosi haratakind of fish
Pohnpeian pala-palgold-spotted spinefoot: Siganus punctatus

Note:   Also Wayan volaca ‘spinefoot: Siganus vermiculatus lineatus. A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:109-110).


*palak shout in anger


PMP     *palak shout in anger

Ifugaw pálakcry loudly out of anger, making a sobbing sound (applied to children)
Minangkabau palakfeel hot; palak hati dan I am annoyed
Manggarai palakangry; scold, reprove
Rotinese palaspeak in irritation or anger, snarl at


*palala bald; a bald person


POC     *palala bald; a bald person

Tanga palalbald; baldness; a bald-headed man
Manam palalabald head
Bugotu palalato be bald
Puluwat palto be bald

Note:   Puluwat pal is assumed to show syllable reduction by haplology. A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond and Ross (2016a:95), who proposed POc *pwalala ‘bald’, with the initial labiovelar presumably based on Mussau vāla ‘bald’. However, the latter form contains several problems, and is perhaps best treated with caution.


*palantik curved


PWMP     *palantik curved

Tagalog palantík-aneaves
Cebuano palátikoutrigger boom to which the float (katig) is attached
Malay pelantékspring-set trap

Note:   With root *-tik ‘curved’.


*palaŋ₁ thwart, crosspiece


PMP     *palaŋ₁ thwart, crosspiece

Kelabit palaŋa cross
Ngaju Dayak ta-palaŋcrosspiece, as on a mast
Iban palaŋcrosspiece
Malay palaŋcross-bar or crosspiece of any sort
Acehnese palaŋanything used as a barrier: crossbeam, bolt, etc.
Javanese palaŋobstacle; object placed crosswise to something
Balinese palaŋ, pa-palaŋcross-beam
Sasak palaŋlie across the path; born feet first
Makassarese palaŋlowest crosspiece of a ladder on the ground
  palaŋ-palaŋwooden support on the weather side of the mast on which the sail is laid when struck in bad weather
Mota palaŋset one thing obliquely across another; to wattle sticks

Note:   Also Rembong paleŋ ‘lie athwart’, Ngadha pale ‘crossbeam, crossbar, girder’, Molima bala-bala ‘put crosswise’ (see *bara₂), Eddystone/Mandegusu pala-pala ‘horizontal supports of a roof’.


*palaŋ₂ spotted


PWMP     *palaŋ₂ spotted

Maranao palaŋspotted, dappled
Bisaya (Limbang) palaŋhaving patches of black and white (of dogs or cats)

Note:   With root *laŋ₂ ‘striped’.


*palapaq spices, condiments


PWMP     *palapaq spices, condiments

Maranao palapaʔspices, flavor
Tiruray falaʔfa <Mgeneral term for spice or condiments; to add all the necessary spices and condiments to a dish
Old Javanese palapahcondiments, flavorings
Javanese plapahspices, condiments

Note:   Tiruray falaʔfa may show metathesis of the final glottal stop. However, this word clearly is a loan, and could preserve a preconsonantal glottal stop that was regularly lost in the other languages. If so, this reconstruction should be *palaqpaq.


*palaq vagina, vulva


PWMP     *palaq vagina, vulva

Malagasy falavulva (Prov.)
Maloh palaʔvagina

Note:   Also Kambera para ‘female genitalia’. Maloh (and the other Malayic languages) may share an immediate common ancestor with Malagasy (and the other Barito languages). If so the form reconstructed here is properly assigned to that lower-level proto-language rather than to PWMP. On the other hand, if the similarity of Kambera para (which does not show recurrent phonological correspondences with the Maloh and Malagasy forms) is ultimately due to genetic relationship this form must have existed in PMP.


*palaqpaq midrib of coconut leaf


PMP     *palaqpaq midrib of coconut leaf     [doublet: *paqpaq₂]

Isneg palápaʔleaf of the coco palm; petiole of the taro
Casiguran Dumagat palápaupper part of a palm tree (where the leaves are); palm leaf
Pangasinan palápamidrib of coconut leaf
Kapampangan palápaʔfiber stripped from banana stalk
Tagalog palápaʔpulpy leaf of plants like the banana
Bikol palaʔpáʔthe full branch of the coconut or other palm trees; frond; the full leaf of the banana plant
Maranao palapaʔ-anrib, midrib of a leaf
Ngaju Dayak palapahpalm frond, banana leaf, taro leaf
Malagasy falafamidrib of the banana leaf, taro leaf
Sundanese palapahpalm frond
Sasak pelapaʔleaf nerve (of palm and banana leaves); leafstalk (of papayas)
Proto-Minahasan *palaʔpaʔpalm branch
Tae' palapamidrib of palm leaves
Makassarese palapamidrib of palm fronds and banana leaves; leafstalk of papayas and some other trees


POC     *balapaq mid-rib of coconut leaf

Rotuman parafamid-rib of coconut leaf

Note:   Also Iban pelepah ‘stalk or rib of palm leaf’, Malay pelepah ‘frond, palm leaf’, Tongan palalafa ‘stalk (or stalk and midrib) of a coconut leaf’. This item may have been morphologically complex (*p-al-aqpaq), and in PWMP may have referred both to the midrib of palm and banana leaves and to the leaves themselves.


*palata fish sp.


PMP     *palata fish sp.

Cebuano palatafish found around rocks in shallow waters; not particularly good eating
Maranao palatawhite fish about 2" long: Puntius palata Herre
Malay ikan pelataa mackerel: Scomber microlepidotus
Marovo palatadolphinfish: Coryphaena hippurus


*palaw small river fish


PWMP     *palaw small river fish

Kenyah palausmall fish
Kayan palausmall pinkish fish with small scales; found in small streams
Iban palaukind of river fish
Rejang paleuwa river fish

Note:   Also Hanunóo paláwun (< *palaw + suffix?) ‘freshwater fish with reddish sides’.


*palawan a tree: Tristania spp.


PWMP     *palawan a tree: Tristania spp.

Bikol palawana tree: Tristaniopsis decorticata (Merr.)
Malay pəlawana lofty tree with greyish bark which yields a durable timber used in house-building, generic for Tristania spp.

Note:   The Bikol form in this comparison is from Madulid (2001).


*paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting


PAN     *paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) palTukto explode
Kapampangan paltukconk someone on the head, raise a lump
Bikol paltoktoy gun made from a bamboo branch and using wet paper or leaves as ammunition; pound, beat, or strike someone, particularly on the head
Malay peletok-ansmall pea-shooter
Gorontalo peletuʔasound of finger joints cracking

Note:   Also Itbayaten paltug ‘gun, revolver, pistol’, Pangasinan paltóg ‘sound of or like gunfire; to shoot’, Malay pelatok ‘trigger of a firearm’, Javanese platuk platuk ‘trigger, hammer for cocking a gun’. Possibly with root *-Cuk ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*paletik spring-spear, spring-gun


PWMP     *paletik spring-spear, spring-gun

Casiguran Dumagat paltíkpoles running out from a boat onto which outriggers are tied
Pangasinan paltík(usually homemade) gun
Tagalog paltíkhomemade gun
Bikol paltíksupports for an outrigger; homemade gun
Hanunóo paltíkswift, jerky blow
Aklanon paltikhomemade gun--for only one bullet
Cebuano paltikhomemade firearms
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peletikof an object which is flicked or knocked, to tumble over and over as it flies away
Malay pelantek (Met. of *a and *e)spring-spear, spring-gun

Note:   With root *-tik₁ ‘spring up, flicking motion’. The Casiguran Dumagat and Bikol terms for outrigger connecting beams may be related through reference to a common curving shape, or may be convergent developments which contain the root *-tik ‘curved’.


*pale(n)tik spring-set spear trap


PWMP     *pale(n)tik spring-set spear trap     [doublet: *pilantik]

Ilokano ag-pallatíkswing, sway
Pangasinan paltík(usually homemade) gun
Tagalog paltíkhomemade gun
Bikol paltíkhomemade gun
Hanunóo paltíkswift, jerky blow
Aklanon páltikhomemade gun -- for only one bullet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peletikof an object which is flicked or knocked, to tumble over and over as it flies away
Malay pelanték (with metathesis of *a and *e)spring-spear, spring-gun


*pali side, half


PCEMP     *pali₁ side, half     [disjunct: *baliw]

Rembong paliside (as of the head)
Ngadha paliboth sides, reciprocal, mutual
Kwaio balipart, side
Lau balipart, side, portion, half; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided
Woleaian paliyside, flank
Tahitian pariside

Note:   In Blust (1981b) the Oceanic members of this comparison, along with certain other forms, were assigned to *baliw.


*paliaRua a vine: Merremia peltata


POC     *paliaRua a vine: Merremia peltata

Patpatar haliaraa vine: Merremia peltata
Tolai valearua vine: Merremia peltata
Lakalai valialaa vine: Ipomoea sp.
Wayan veliawaa vine: Merremia peltata

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was first presented by Ross (2008:234). Although all the forms cited here appear to be related, they do not permit a straightforward reconstruction, and better evidence for this form is desirable.


*palij blown away by the wind


PWMP     *palij blown away by the wind     [doublet: *palis₁]

Ilokano páligbe carried off, swept away by the wind
Bikol pálidbe blown away or carried away by the wind
Aklanon palidget blown away by the wind
  pa-palidto winnow, separate the grain from the chaff in the wind
Cebuano palidfor the wind to blow something away; be blown off course; winnow, throw grains in the air
Maranao palidseparate chaff from grain, blown away
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palidblow the chaff away
Kelabit palidblown away, as papers in the wind
Kenyah palitto blow, of wind; blown around
Sangir palideʔget lost, be driven off course by storm or wind

Note:   Also Agutaynen palied ‘for something to be blown away, carried away by the wind’. This word may indicate that the proto-form was *palied, although I reserve judgement on this issue until independent evidence is found for reconstructing a trisyllable.


*paliŋ turn (as the prow of a boat)


PMP     *paliŋ turn (as the prow of a boat)

Ilokano páliŋpintle (of a rudder)
Pangasinan palíŋto turn
Tagalog páliŋslope, inclination
  palíŋinclined sideward, tilted; person with the head physically turned sideward
Bikol palíŋturn the prow of a boat
Cebuano palíŋfor something not rooted or fixed at the base to fall over to its side
Malay paliŋto turn away (of looking aside by the movement of the head, and not by a mere movement of the eyes; of turning round; turning a horse to the left; turning a boat's bows to port or starboard
Acehnese paleŋturn, swerve, avert
Karo Batak paliŋturn something in another direction
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paliŋlean to the side, list
Sika paliŋturn the prow (of a boat)
Kamarian hari-turn around, turn back, invert
Soboyo paliŋturn back, return


*paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas


PAN     *paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas

Kanakanabu páalibile, gall bladder
Saaroa paliibile, gall bladder
Ilokano pálipancreas
Bontok pálispleen of a water buffalo
Pangasinan pálispleen
Tagalog palíʔspleen
Bikol páliʔpancreas, spleen

Note:   Also Malay peléh, pelih ‘liver’.


*paliq₂ wound


PWMP     *paliq₂ wound

Agutaynen paliscar
  pali-ento be scarred
Cebuano páliʔlarge scar
Maranao paliʔwound, cut
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paliʔwound; to wound
Tiruray faliʔa wound
Bintulu paliʔwound
Melanau (Mukah) paliʔa wound or cut
Gorontalo palia wound

Note:   Also Aklanon pálʔit ‘scar, bald spot (on head)’.


*palis₁ blown away by the wind


PWMP     *palis₁ blown away by the wind     [doublet: *palij]

Cebuano pálisfor the wind to blow something away
Karo Batak palisblown away by the wind (word used in magical formulas)
  palis-palisdrizzling rain, misty rain


*palis₂ bad luck


PWMP     *palis₂ bad luck

Ngaju Dayak palissign of bad luck to come
Acehnese paléhunlucky
Simalur palisbad luck

Note:   Also Mentawai (southern dialect) palit ‘bad luck’.


*palis₃ animal sacrifice


PPh     *palis₃ animal sacrifice

Bontok pálisa sequence of pig and dog sacrifices held at a person's house ... because of sickness, or because he has killed an enemy
Kankanaey páliskind of sacrifice which takes place in the evening and in which a dog is killed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palisto purify (ceremonially) with blood; ward off evil or sickness; remove sickness caused by offending a supernatural
  p-em-alissacrificial animal given to someone as a propititation or appeasement


*paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite


PAN     *paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) parisito pray
Paiwan palisirite, ceremony; tabu; "superstition"
Aklanon pálhiinhabited with evil spirits, enchanted
Palawano lihiprohibition, taboo
Cebuano pálhifor a place to be inhabited by supernatural beings that can get easily angered and inflict diseases on the object of their ire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lihiy-ana taboo, personal or general
  p-em-elihia happening which breaks a taboo or is extraordinary, highly unusual or contrary to accepted behavior
Kelabit aliha taboo
  m-alihbe taboo
Melanau (Mukah) paleya taboo
Ngaju Dayak palinot allowed, forbidden
Malagasy fadyabstinence, fasting, prohibition; unlawfulness, incest; anything tabooed
Rhade mleitaboo
Malay p-em-alitaboo
Old Javanese pali-pali, pa-palithe various ritual requisites (with purifying and strengthening power), used in ceremonial blessings (wedding, return after a battle, festive reception, etc.)
Bare'e palisubject oneself to taboos by refraining from the use of or contact with things, the pronunciation of words or the visiting of places


POC     *pali₂ taboo

Pohnpeian pelbe in a taboo relationship with someone or something
Chuukese fáánChristian worship, divine service (general term)
  fenengage in worship; be tabu, prohibited, sacred
Puluwat fáálto worship
Woleaian falibe restricted, stay away from impure things, keep away from eating certain foods


PAN     *paliSi-en be tabooed (?)

Kavalan prisi-ntaboo
Bikol palih-onancient rites, superstitions or prohibitions


PAN     *paliSi-an taboo

Thao parshi-antaboo
Tsou prisi-ataboo
Saaroa palisi-ataboo
Paiwan palisi-anprivate parts of the human body

Note:   Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lihiy-an , Kelabit alih both suggest that *paliSi is morphologically complex, but they point to different stems *liSi and *aliSi respectively). Both forms probably represent secondary developments through analogical backformation. Among PCMP languages Kambera palili ‘forbidden, taboo’ (with partial rightward reduplication?) may be cognate, but Bimanese pamali ‘taboo’ probably is a loan from Malay.


*palit exchange


PPh     *palit exchange

Yami palitto exchange
Casiguran Dumagat palítchange, exchange, switch
Pangasinan palítbuy new clothes, have new clothes
Tagalog palítchange, exchange, substitute
Cebuano palítbuy

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included the Tagalog form, together with Toba Batak palit (ma-malit boru) ‘accept a virgin as payment for a debt because the creditor wishes to make her a daughter-in-law’ and Malagasy faditra ‘any offering to avert evil, a piaculum’ under an etymon *palit ‘return gift’. However, the description of Toba Batak palit in Warneck (1977 [1906]), the similar description of Dairi-Pakpak Batak alit in Manik (1977), and the gloss of Malagasy faditra suggest that neither of these items is related to Philippine reflexes of *palit. Moreover, within the Philippines both the Casiguran Dumagat and the Pangasinan forms could be loans from Tagalog.


*palo₁ steer a boat


POC     *palo₁ steer a boat

Mussau aloto steer
  ai aloalorudder of a boat
Motu halo-asteer off the wind so that the sail may catch the wind better


*palo₂ wither, wilt


POC     *palo₂ wither, wilt

Sa'a halowither
Maori paro (NG)shrunk, wilted


*palpal₂ flat, even, level


PWMP     *palpal₂ flat, even, level     [disjunct: *parpar]

Cebuano palpáfor the feet to get flat; flat, of feet
  palpal-únsomewhat flat-footed
Iban papalpare, clip off, cut even (at the edges)


*palpál₁ hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill


PPh     *palpál₁ hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill

Itbayaten pa-paxpaxclub for striking
  paxpax-ento club, strike someone with a club
Bontok ʔi-palpálto beat in order to cause injury or death, as in sacrificing a chicken or beating someone with a heavy stick
Ibaloy palpalto beat something, strike many blows to something, esp. to the head
  me-malpalthe traditional way to kill a chicken for ceremonies by striking it with a stick or knife handle around its body, head, neck, wings --- softly, but the head blows kill; the blows cause swelling and improve taste
Cebuano palpálhit someone on the open palm; knock something with the flat palm


*palpál₂ tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground


PPh     *palpál₂ tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground

Casiguran Dumagat palpálto drive a stake into something
Ibaloy palpalstake to which an animal is tethered (as in pasture)
Pangasinan pálpalto drive a wooden stake into the ground
Bikol mag-palpálto drive in (as a post into the ground)
Agutaynen palpalstakes used for tethering an animal or securing a tent
  palpal-anto stake an animal out to graze
Binukid palpalto pound, drive (something into the ground)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palpalstake; to drive a stake into the ground


*palpal₁ short, cropped, trimmed


PWMP     *palpal₁ trimmed short, as grass; bare (of a field)

Malay papalshort; cropped; trimmed
Karo Batak palpalbare, of a large area; short, of grass
Toba Batak palpalbald, of the head; also bare, of a field or mountain

Note:   Also Old Javanese papal ‘breaking in two, snapping’, Javanese di-papal ‘be cut or hacked off ‘. Based on the Toba Batak and Javanese forms given here Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *palpal ‘remove the hair; be bald’.


*palú kind of fish or eel


PPh     *palú kind of fish or eel

Ilokano palóconger eel
Aklanon paeófish sp.


*palu₁ sago flour


PMP     *palu₁ sago flour

Kelabit paluhflour obtained from the pith of a thorny palm, acquired in trade from the Penan
Manggarai palusago flour


*palu₂ adze


PWMP     *palu₂ adze

Kenyah palua rasp (used for sago)
Kayan paloʔa tool for adzing or rasping sago logs
Sangir palukind of adze used to smooth out the inner surface of a dugout canoe hull

Note:   Possibly connected with *palu₁ if the principal use of this adze was the working of sago trunks.


*palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit


PAN     *palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit

Amis paloto hit with something large or flat-surfaced, or with the hand
Amis (Kiwit) mi-paluto fight with fists
Thao paruto hammer, to beat someone up
  paru sa nipintraditional ceremony of tooth extraction, performed at puberty to ensure the health and vigor of young adults (consists of knocking out the top incisors with a hammer-like instrument)
  paru-anbe hammered; be beaten up by someone


PMP     *palu to hammer, to hit with a hard implement

Ifugaw pallú (-ll- unexpl.)heavy stick to beat somebody with (e.g. a recalcitrant slave or servant), or an animal
Casiguran Dumagat páloto beat with a stick
Kapampangan palu-paluʔbeater (used in washing clothes)
Tagalog páloʔstroke with the hand or a stick, usually in castigation
Cebuano páluʔhit, slap in punishment
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paluheel; to kick with the heel
Kayan paloʔbutting, as goats
Iban paluʔhit, beat, strike (with stick or mallet)
Malay paluhitting hard with a rigid weapon (of clubbing or hammering or drumming or striking off a printed copy; not of blows with a switch)
  me-malubeat a drum or a gong
Acehnese paluhit with a stick or other object (as in striking a gong)
Karo Batak per-palua hammer
  maluto strike with a stick
Toba Batak ma-maluhit, strike; play a percussion instrument; fire off a weapon
Rejang paleuwa hammer
Sundanese paluhammer (of metal)
  maluto hit with a hammer
Old Javanese paluhammer, mallet
Javanese paluhammer, mallet
  maluto hammer
Balinese paluhammer, mallet, knocker; to knock, hammer, cut
Sasak paluhammer (said to be from Malay)
Sangir paluan adze with short, curved handle and blade like a gouge; to work with such an instrument
Tontemboan ma-palupound sago of the Arenga saccharifera
Gorontalo paluhammer
Uma paluhammer
Bare'e paluhammer, in particular the smith’s hammer
  mom-paluto hammer, forge, pound iron
Tae' paluhammer; beat with a hammer; also a very common term of abuse for coitus
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paluhammer (tool)
Proto-South Sulawesi *paluhammer
Mandar palu-paluto beat
Buginese palua hammer
Makassarese palu-paluhammer
Wolio palukind of large mallet; to hammer, batter, rap
Muna palua hammer; to hammer
Ngadha paluflat wood club
Palu'e paluto hit, strike
Sika palostrike with something heavy, as a hammer or a club
  ai palowooden club used to mash up pig fodder
Lamaholot paluto hit, beat
Waiyewa paluto hit
Lamboya paluto hit
Anakalangu paluto hit
Kambera paluto beat, strike; anything used to hit or strike
  palu ahustick used to cudgel a dog
Rotinese paluto strike dead, slaughter, used especially of chickens and dogs
Yamdena n-faluto nail, to hammer
Fordata n-faluhammer on, pound on
Dobel fa-faluhammer
Kamarian palutouch lightly
Wuvulu falu-iato hammer something, as a nail; a hammer (James Hafford, p.c.)


PAN     *palu-palu hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering

Thao paru-parua hammer; to hammer; the action of ceremonially striking out the teeth
Karo Batak palu-palustick, pole; cudgel; beater for a musical instrument
Toba Batak palu-palubeater (for drum or gong)
Old Javanese palu-palumace, war-club (or battle hammer?)
Tontemboan pa-paluthe instrument used to pound sago
Tae' palu-palu-ibeat on with a hammer
Mandar palu-paluhammer (tool)
Makassarese palu-paluhammer; cudgel, club; tool for beating
Wolio palu-palua hammer
Yamdena fa-falua stake that has been pounded into the ground
Fordata fal-falutime of general sago-pounding; beater for sago-pounding
Dobel fa-falua hammer
Wuvulu falu-falukeep hammering, hammer on and on (James Hafford, p.c.)

Note:   Also Ifugaw pallú ‘heavy stick to beat somebody with, as a recalcitrant slave or servant, or an animal (e.g. a water buffalo, a pig, a cow for causing damage in one’s plantation or field)’, Tagalog páloʔ ‘beating or striking with a stick or the hand, usually by way of punishment; swipe, a hard blow; batting, hitting a ball with a bat’, Cebuano páluʔ ‘hit, slap in punishment’, Tausug páluʔ ‘to hit, strike (something) with a stick’, Sasak palu ‘hammer’ (< Malay), Kédang paluq ‘beat, hit, strike’.

Some writers, as English (1986) treat this as a borrowing of Spanish palo ‘stick, cudgel’, but cognates outside the Philippines, and the occasional use of this word as a verb meaning ‘hit with the fists’ suggest that the similarity between Spanish palo and forms in Philippine languages is due to chance. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian valu ‘to make war on, be at war with’, but the connection of this form to the others cited here is more doubtful. The other question that arises in connection with this comparison is why Iban and several Central Philippine languages reflect a final glottal stop. Initially this appears to support the proposal of Zorc (1996) that PAn and various of its descendant proto-languages had a glottal stop distinct from *q. However, it is clear that word-final glottal stop is often historically secondary in Iban, and it therefore seems best to treat Iban paluʔ as equivalent to palu.


*palu₄ to make war on, fight with


POC     *palu₄ to make war on, fight with

Sa'a i-pelu ~ i-pai-paluto make war, to fight
Wayan valube at war, fight a war
  valu-timake war on something, fight against something
Fijian valuto make war on, be at war with

Note:   Possibly identical to PAn *palu₃ ‘to hammer, pound, hit’.


*páluŋ cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb


PPh     *páluŋ cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb

Casiguran Dumagat páluŋchicken’s comb; to cut off the comb of a fighting cock (so it can see better)
Pangasinan palóŋthe comb of a rooster
Sambal (Botolan) páloŋthe comb of a chicken
Kapampangan páluŋcock’s comb
Tagalog páloŋa rooster’s comb; cockscomb
Bikol paloŋ-óna cock’s comb
  mag-palóŋto cut a cock’s comb; to cut or notch the ear of a person or animal
Hanunóo páluŋcock’s comb
Cebuano palúŋcut the cockscomb
Mansaka paroŋto cut off (as the comb of a rooster)


*paluŋ₁ feeding trough


PWMP     *paluŋ₁ feeding trough

Malay paloŋhollow with stagnant water; trough of wood for watering cattle
Acehnese paloŋtrough
Karo Batak paluŋgutter, drain, funnel
Balinese paluŋtrough, oblong basin, cooler
Sasak paluŋwooden vessel into which coconut meat is grated; wooden feeding trough for horses and dogs
Proto-South Sulawesi *paluŋtrough


PWMP     *paluŋ-an feeding trough

Maranao paloŋ-antrough
Subanen/Subanun paloŋ-antrough
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peluŋ-antrough made of a hollowed log used as a water container for tempering steel in the blacksmith shop and as a hog trough
Old Javanese paluŋ-antrough, vat, tub, container for drinks?
Balinese paluŋ-antrough, oblong basin, cooler
Sa'dan Toraja paluŋ-anfeeding trough (usually for pigs)
Tae' paluŋ-anfeeding trough for pigs and other animals


PWMP     *paluŋ-en feeding trough

Karo Batak paluŋ-engutter, drain, funnel
Buginese paluŋ-eŋrice mortar


*paluŋ₂ wave at sea, sea swell


PPh     *paluŋ₂ wave at sea, sea swell

Itbayaten paxoŋsea waves
Ilokano palóŋwave, not a breaker, which is dalluyon
  ag-palóŋto create waves, undulate
Isneg palóŋwave, billow

Note:   Isneg palóŋ is a likely Ilokano loanword, but this seems highly unlikely for Itbayaten.


*palus scratch, scrape


POC     *palus scratch, scrape

Kapampangan haluplane, scrape
Arosi haru, harus-ito scratch
Niue haluscrape, peel, sharpen
Tuvaluan haluscrape; rub hand over face
Rennellese pagu (NG)to scrape, as with a shell away from oneself; to scratch


*pampám prostitute


PPh     *pampám prostitute

Ilokano pampámprostitute, whore, easy girl
Bikol pampámprostitute, whore, harlot
Cebuano pampámprostitute (slang), become a prostitute
  pa-mampámpatronize a prostitute
Maranao pampanharlot, prostitute

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution, but if so the source is unclear.


*pana go, move


POC     *pana go, move

Label hango, go away; come
Tolai wanago, move; come
Sudest vanago (Capell 1943:105)
Kapingamarangi hanago
Rarotongan anathe word used by itself means movement, and is used only in reference to mankind': the exact meaning if fixed by the word following: ana mai 'come (or move) here (towards the speaker)', anáatu 'go (or move) away (away from the speaker); go ahead, pass on, etc.
Maori whanatravel, come, go

Note:   In many languages reflexes of this form are indistinguishable from reflexes of the far more common PAn *paNaw, POc *pano ‘go away, depart, leave on a journey’. Label han is assumed to reflect POc *pana rather than *pano since its closest relatives which have preserved the final vowel point to *-a.


*panahik climb


PMP     *panahik climb

Tagalog panhíkgo up the stairs
Maranao panikascend, climb stairs or ladder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) p-em-enahikclimb something, as a tree or ladder
Old Javanese panék, penékclimb, climb on, get on or in, mount, ascend
Javanese pènèkclimb habitually; act or way of climbing; climb a fruit tree and get the fruits for someone
Balinese penékgo up, rise, ascend
Mongondow ponikclimb a ladder or tree, ascend
Balantak penekto climb
Bare'e poneclimb (not up mountains), climb a ladder into a house, a coconut tree, etc.
Soboyo hanaʔascend, climb; flood (of the sea)


POC     *panek climb

Molima vaneclimb
Kwaio faneclimb, go up
  fane-fiaclimb up on, of a mating animal
Lau fanerise up in sky, of sun, moon, or cloud; high, as a hill; tall, of a tree or house; rise, swell, or ferment, as of bread or a pudding, or a boil
'Āre'āre haneclimb, ascend, rise (of sun and moon); rise, ferment
Sa'a haneclimb trees in native fashion with a rope round the feet, ascending by alternate jumps of hands and feet
Arosi haneclimb (not a hill) a rope, tree, cliff, using hands

Note:   Also Samoan fānaʔe ‘(of moon and tide) rise’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *nahik ‘climb, ascend’, but the evidence for his reconstruction is far less persuasive than the evidence for *panahik. Apart from the Javanese form cited here, Dempwolff compared Ngaju Dayak naik ‘rise, climb (as the price of something), increase’, Malay naik ‘motion up. Of mounting or rising, either literally or figuratively’, and Toba Batak naek, naik ‘ascend, climb, rise in esteem’. The Malay form could be a back-formation from **memenaik-i (reduced to attested menaik-i by haplology, then interpreted as deriving from a prefixed base naik).

Both the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak words, as well as Bimanese neʔe ‘climb’ appear to be Malay loans, and so do not constitute independent evidence for the disyllable. More serious as evidence for *nahik are Isneg uneʔ ‘enter a house, mount the ladder, climb a tree’, Casiguran Dumagat unek ‘climb up a tree’. However, these and similar forms in other languages of northern Luzon contain an unexplained initial syllable that would have to reflect *u-. Mongondow onik ‘go upward!’, mo-onik ‘high’, monik ‘upwards; sometimes: northwards’ points to *anahik rather than *unahik, while Bare'e nae ‘rise slightly (as a trail)’, ma-nai ‘rise, esp. of water in larger rivers (Poso, Puna) and the sea’ probably is a chance resemblance (cf. Bare'e pone for the true cognate). Finally, if Dempwolff's *nahik is accepted it is difficult on both formal and semantic grounds to establish a regular morphological relationship between it and *panahik.


*panapa needlefish sp.


POC     *panapa needlefish sp.

Lou panapsmall blue fish with long needle-like mouth
Loniu panahbarred garfish: Hemirhamphus commersoni Cuv.
Leipon pinahsmall blue and white fish with needle-nose
Likum panahsmall blue and green marine fish with projecting lower jaw
Lindrou banapsmall dotted fish with needle nose
Gilbertese anaa fish (small, slender species), needlefish, garfish, halfbeak (Sabatier 1971)
  anaalong-billed needlefish (Johannes 1981:160)
Chuukese fana (fanaa)small needlefish
Woleaian fela (felaa)kind of needlefish

Note:   Also Palauan uláɁ ‘needlefish’.


*panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow


PAN     *panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow

Kavalan panibow (for shooting)
Pazeh pa-panashoot with a bow; throw at (with a stone)
Amis panaʔbow for shooting arrows
Thao panaqthrow something at an object to hit it, as in throwing a stone at a target; shoot with a weapon
  ma-panaqfight with each other
  malhim-panaqfight in war; throw something at a target
Bunun (Takituduh) panaqshoot with a bow and arrow
Tsou ponoshoot with a bow
Proto-Rukai *panashoot (with arrows)
Puyuma panaʔarrow; shoot an arrow
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) panaHshoot with a bow
Paiwan panaqarrow
Itbayaten panaarrow; bow
Ilokano pánaarrow
Isneg pánaarrow
Ifugaw pánabow and arrow. Practically, it is only used by boys … it is hardly longer than one meter; its cord is mostly a string of rattan; its arrow is merely a straight, thin stick.
Casiguran Dumagat panáarrow (of which there are several types); shoot an arrow
Pangasinan ma-manáshoot an arrow
Kapampangan panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog pánaʔarrow
Bikol pánaʔbow and arrow; archery
Buhid ag-fánato shoot
Aklanon panáʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Agutaynen panakan arrow (this can refer to both the bow and the arrow)
Hiligaynon panáʔarrow, bow
Cebuano pánaʔarrow, spear projected; shoot an arrow, to spear
Maranao panaʔbow; shoot with arrow
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) panaʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Maguindanao pánato shoot
Tiruray fanaʔshoot an arrow with a bow
Tboli hanakarrow with small metal point
Kadazan Dusun ma-manashoot with a bow
Malay panaharchery; bow; arrow
  ibu panahbow (lit. ‘mother of shooting’)
  anak panaharrow (lit. ‘child of shooting’)
Karo Batak panahbow (no longer used in warfare)
Nias fanabow, weapon
Sundanese panaharrow and bow; manah shoot with bow and arrow
Old Javanese panaharrow; bow; bowman
Balinese panaharrow
  panah-panah-ana children’s game with bows and arrows
Sasak panaʔarrow; bow
Bare'e panabow, formerly a weapon of the Toraja people and in more recent times still hung up in the blacksmith’s workshop as an example of the weapons and tools made there
  mata mpanaarrow
  mo-panause a bow
Tae' panabow
Makassarese panabow and arrow
  ammanashoot with bow and arrow
  pa-panashoot with (something)
Wolio panabow (weapon)
  ana-na panaarrow (lit. ‘child of bow’)
Muna panabow (not used on Muna)
Popalia panato shoot
Manggarai panabow (not used by Manggarai)
Rembong panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Kambera panabow; shoot with bow and arrow
Tetun hanato fire or shoot an arrow
Kei fanshoot with bow and arrow
Kola -fanto shoot
Watubela fana-fanakarrow
Mayá ꞌfa¹²nshoot with bow and arrow
Biga fanto shoot
Minyaifuin -fanto shoot
Waropen anashoot an arrow
Sobei -fanto shoot
Tarpia -panto shoot
Sio a-paneto shoot
Nehan wan(a)shoot
Halia hanato shoot
Petats hanato shoot an arrow
Selau wanashoot with bow and arrow
Mono-Alu fanaaim at with bow; fa-fana go to kill birds or fish with bow and arrow
Ririo vanto shoot, throw
Nggela vanashoot with bow and arrow; shoot with a gun (modern)
  vana-hishoot with bow and arrow
Kwaio fanahunt; shoot at with bow and arrow
Lau fanashoot with bow and arrow; fana-si shoot at
Sa'a hanashoot with a bow, shoot with a gun
Arosi hanashoot
Gilbertese banaa sling; (kare)-bana hurl with sling and stone, pelt with stones
Lonwolwol fεnshoot with bow and arrow
Rotuman fanashoot with bow or gun
Fijian vanashoot with an arrow or a gun; to pierce
Tongan fanashoot (e.g. birds); to dynamite (fish)
Niue fanabow; gun; arrow
Samoan fanashoot; gun, rifle
Rennellese hanashoot, as arrow, spear gun, gun, rocket, slingshot
Anuta panaany implement which discharges projectiles
Hawaiian panato shoot, as marbles, arrows, bow; bow and arrows...
  pana ʻioleto shoot rats or mice with bow and arrow, an ancient sport; bow and arrow


PAN     *p<in>anaq shoot with a bow

Thao p<in>anaqwas thrown at, was hit by something thrown
Paiwan p<n>anaqto shoot, using bow and arrow


PAN     *p<um>anaq shoot with a bow

Kavalan p-m-anishoot with an arrow
Pazeh mu-panathrow at, to hit (as when throwing a stone at a dog to drive it away)
Bunun manaqshoot with bow and arrow
Kanakanabu mu-a-panaʔəshoot with a bow


PWMP     *ma-manaq shoot an arrow

Itbayaten ma-manacatch fish with spear gun
Ngaju Dayak ma-manahshoot with a bow
Malay me-manahshoot an arrow
Nias ma-manashoot an arrow
Sasak (me)-manaʔshoot with bow and arrow

Note:   Also Palauan báləɁ ‘slingshot; any material used as a slingshot; arrow; action of shooting with a slingshot’. Despite widespread reflexes in this meaning, PAn *panaq almost certainly did not mean ‘bow’, since this can be reconstructed confidently as *busuR. Instead, *panaq was a verb meaning something like ‘shoot at a target, try to hit with a projectile.’ In many daughter languages it became a noun, enough so that languages such as Malay and Kambera use the terms ‘mother of shooting’ for ‘bow’ and ‘child of shooting’ for ‘arrow’. Whether these complex expressions already existed in PMP, or are products of convergence remains unclear. The actor voice of this verb was formed with *-um- in PAn, but apparently this construction was replaced in PMP by prefixation with *maŋ-.


*panas₁ warm, hot


PMP     *panas₁ warm, hot     [doublet: *panes]

Basap panashot
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) panasweat
Kenyah panahot
Kayan panahwarm; feel warm; to warm up food
Wahau mnæswarm, hot
Gaai pnaswarm, hot
Kelai pnæswarm, hot
Woq Helaq Modang pəneə̯hwarm, hot
Long Gelat Modang pənihwarm, hot
Melanau (Mukah) panasfeeling of anger
Lahanan panawarm
Malagasy fanaheat
  voa-fanawarmed (applied to food or medicine cooked and warmed the second time)
Iban panasheat; hot, esp. of weather
Malay panasheat, esp. (or specifically) solar heat
Karo Batak panassweat panas-en'to sweat'
Sundanese panashot; warmth, heat; fig. hot-tempered, irate, embittered, jealous, envious
Old Javanese panasheat
Javanese panashot; have a fever; angry; having a curse on it; bringing misfortune
Balinese panasheat; hot
Sasak panaswarm (of things); hot, sharp tasting (spices)
Mongondow panatwarm, feverish
Banggai ko-onaswarmth
  maŋ-anasmake something warm
Tae' panaʔheat of the sun; sharp, pungent, of Spanish pepper; Spanish pepper
Muna fanah-awarm, hot (of air, atmosphere, food)
Manggarai panashot (as sun); smarting, stinging, hot-tasting
Rembong panashot; fever; peevish; jealous
Ngadha banawarm, hot (of fire, sun, fever, water); to warm up, heat up; fill with magical power
Kédang panawarm
Kambera mbanahot, warm; hot-tempered
  mbanahuwarm (as land)
  panato heat (as coffee)
  panahuwarm up; insist on, coerce
Hawu panawarm, warmth
Dhao/Ndao panawarm
Rotinese hanawarm, hot, of water and of anything that can be heated, as well as of the body; warmth; fig.: taboo (Jonker 1908); heat; hot, warm (in a physical and ritual sense); become hot, become ritually charged (Fox, J. 1993)
  hana-hanasomewhat warm
Tetun hanasto warm or heat (as water)
Erai panaswarm, hot; sharp; fever
Talur panashot
Tugun pʰanahot
Leti pansawarm season; warm (as bread); sick, painful; sickness
Luang pahənə <Mwarm
Selaru anashot, warm; to heat liquids
Yamdena fanasheat; warmth
  dalam me-fanashot-tempered
  na-fanassick, feverish; warm up food
Proto-Ambon *bana, *panahot
Buli fànaswarm, hot
Kove wana-wanahot
Sobei me-fnawarm
Niue faka-fanato warm up, as food; to repeat oneself
Samoan faʔa-fanarebake, warm up
Rennellese haka-hanarecook or warm over


PMP     *panas-i to heat up, warm up

Muna fana-hito boil (water), warm up (cooked food), to heat
Niue fana-hiapply a hot poultice


PMP     *ma-panas warm, hot

Mongondow mo-panatwarm, feverish
Tae' ma-panaʔhot, of the sun
Tetun manashot, warm, burning; pungent, caustic, hot to the taste
Tetun (Dili) manashot
Vaikenu manassun
Galoli banaswarm
Roma ma-hanahot (Jonker)
Yamdena me-fanashot
Gah mo-fanashot
Buli m-fànaswarm, hot, burning; sentiment
Misool (Coast) benishot
Mayá ꞌbini³shot
Pileni mahanawarm
Tongan ma-fanawarm (of food, water, or drink); warm (to the touch)
  mā-fanawarm (inwardly, subjectively)
Samoan mā-fanabe intimate, in close relationship; be married
Nukuoro ma-hanahot
Rarotongan ma-ʔanaheat, warmth; warm
Maori ma-hanawarm; day
Hawaiian ma-hanawarmth; warm


PCEMP     *panas-panas somewhat warm very warm (?)

Rotinese hana-hanasomewhat warm
Hawaiian hana-hanahot, warm; vehement


POC     *ma-panas-panas warm, hot

Bauro ma-hana-hanahot
Tongan ma-fana-fanabe fairly warm
Samoan ma-fana-fanabe warm (as water); (of weather) be mild, clement
Nukuoro ma-hana-hanawarm
Rarotongan ma-ʔana-ʔanawarmness, warmth; a heating


PCEMP     *pa-panas to heat

Tetun ha-hanasto heat
Mussau a-anasawarm, hot; to heat (as water)
Hawaiian ha-hanawarm, hot (physical, and of strong emotion, as sorrow, love, fear)

Note:   Despite its wide distribution reflexes of this item are unknown in Taiwan, the Philippines, northern Borneo, and much of Melanesia. PMP *panas clearly was a stative verb (marked by *ma-. It evidently referred to the heat of the sun, the heat of fever, and to the heating of food, drink, and other material objects. Judging from the wide distribution of figurative senses, it apparently also referred to the emotions, particularly anger, and possibly to ‘pungent, hot-tasting’. Karo Batak panas-en ‘to sweat’, Balinese panes-in (cf. *panes) be ‘worried, made hot’ support a suffixed form *panas-en in PWMP or a descendant language. (4) *panas-panas may be a product of convergence.


*panas₂ type of ginger


PMP     *panas₂ type of ginger

Tae' panaʔginger: Zingiber officinale
Makassarese panasaʔa plant: Amomum acre. The pith of the large stems and fruits is minced and put in vinegar; the taste is pungent; the plant is also used as a medicine
Rembong panastuberous plant; fam. Zingiberaceae

Note:   Also Malay panas-en ‘a tree: Homalium longifolium W.’. Probably the same morpheme as *panas₁ ‘hot’. Not to be confused with the Sanskrit loanword panasa ‘jackfruit’ in such languages as Old Javanese and Buginese.


*panaw fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis


PMP     *panaw₁ fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis

Casiguran Dumagat panáwhave white patches on the skin
Bikol pánawTinea flave (fungal skin disease characterized by de-pigmented patches of skin)
Maranao panawwhite itchy spot on skin which is caused by fungus
Iban panaulight patches on skin, leucoderma, caused by diet deficiency or (mild) tinea
Malay panaulight painless spots or marks on the human skin, regarded as beauty spots or otherwise (due usually to Pityriasis versicolor or Tinea flava)
Acehnese panèëspots on human skin
Karo Batak panowhite spots on the skin
Toba Batak pano-panofreckles
Tae' panoskin disease in which the skin shows light-colored spots: Pityriasis flava
Mandar panoskin disease: tinea, ringworm
Makassarese panospots on the skin (sometimes regarded as a sign of beauty)
Manggarai panoskin disease, tinea; patchy color, as of someone with tinea
Rembong panoskin disease, tinea
Ngadha panohaving white or light spots on the skin
Kambera panukind of skin disease coupled with spots on the skin
Rotinese hanospots of a lighter color on the skin
Sawai fɔnskin disease
Nauna panwhite patches on skin due to fungal infection
'Āre'āre hanoa skin disease, white spots without scales
Sa'a hanoa skin disease, small white spots on the skin, but no scales


PWMP     *panaw-en be affected by tinea

Bikol panáw-onto have Tinea flava
Maranao panaw-nbe covered by ringworm
Karo Batak pano-onsuffer from white spots on the skin
Makassarese pano-aŋcovered with skin spots

Note:   Also Palauan báləɁ ‘slingshot; any material used as a slingshot; arrow; action of shooting with a slingshot’, Old Javanese panu ‘a white spot (of powder?) on the skin (made deliberately as a mark?)’, Javanese panu ‘skin disease causing light-colored blemishes’. I assume that Rejang panau ‘tinea’ is a loan from Malay.


*panay dish, bowl (of clay or wood)


PMP     *panay dish, bowl (of clay or wood)

Itbayaten panáyplate, dish
Isneg panáykind of jar
Cebuano panáyearthenware vessel, usually hemispherical but shallow, used to hold liquids
Ngaju Dayak panaia crude earthenware bowl
Old Javanese panay, paneearthen vessel, pot
Javanese panetrough, bowl, basin (earthenware or wood)
Balinese panelarge vessel of earthenware or wood
Sasak paneearthen vessel
Ngadha panedish, basin, bowl
Sika panekind of earthen pot made in the Lio district
Tetun hane-kwooden plate
  ai hane-ka tree from which plates are made, and whose bark is used as an antifebrile: Alstonia scholaris
Yamdena faneearthen dish of native manufacture

Note:   Also Makassarese panne ‘porcelain plate’, Buruese pane ‘saucepan’. Gonda (1973 [1952]:80) attributes the Old Javanese and Sasak forms to borrowing from South Dravidian languages (cf. Tamil pānai ‘a big jar’, pānĕ ‘an earthen or metal jar’). Despite the initial plausibility of his proposal reflexes of *panay have a wide and scattered distribution, and exhibit several regular sound changes that would not be expected in loans. Tentatively I take this to be a native Austronesian form, and attribute the similarity of it and the South Dravidian items to chance.


*pandak short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person


PMP     *pandak short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person

Ilokano pandákdwarf: dwarfish
Itawis pándakshort (of persons)
Casiguran Dumagat pándakshort-legged (of animate objects)
Kapampangan pandakshort of stature
Tagalog pandákshort (referring to stature)
Cebuano pandákshort and stout; be short and stout
Mansaka pandakextremely short; dwarfed
Ngaju Dayak pandakshort in height, as a person
Iban pandakshort (as a stick, stature, brevity): shorten
Malay pandakshort, especially as a familiar name for the fourth or fifth child in the family (if a boy)
Tae' pandakvery short, very small
  tau pandaka very short person
Kambera pandakushort, squat and compact in stature

Note:   Also Ilokano pandáka ‘dwarf; dwarfish’, Malay andak ‘short, but limited to a few expressions, like andak-kan layar ‘to shorten sail, to reef’; also a familiar name for a fourth or fifth child in a family if a girl; andak-andak ‘at times’; péndék ‘short’, Tae' pandaɁ ‘very short, very small’, Komodo panda ‘low, short’.


*panduŋ head covering


PPh     *panduŋ head covering

Ilokano pandóŋmantilla, woman’s scarf
  ag-pandóŋto wear a mantilla
Tagalog pandóŋanything, such as paper, cloth, banana or palm leaf, used as head covering for protection against the sun or rain
  panduŋ-ánto put a head covering on someone
  panduŋ-ínto use something (e.g. a banana leaf or newspaper) as a head covering
Bikol pandóŋa hood; a canopy; parasol
  mag-pandóŋto shelter the head with a hood, canopy or parasol
Hanunóo pánduŋa protective rain cover, a combination rain cape and umbrella, made commonly from a leaf sheaf of the of the fan palm

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution. With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’


*panes warm, hot


PWMP     *panes warm, hot     [doublet: *panas₁]

Rejang paneushot, warm, feverish
  ateui paneushot-tempered
Balinese paneshot, troubled; heat
Bare'e panewarm drink: coffee or tea
  Mapanename of a river that has warm water in its lower course


*pani₁ give


POC     *pani₁ give

Seimat hanigive
Wuvulu fanigive fani-a 'give it!'
Wogeo vanigive
Manam anigive
Gedaged panigive (him); hand over, bestow, grant, confer, impart, accord, yield
Gitua vangive
Motu heni-a <Agive to, hand to
Eddystone/Mandegusu vani-agive
Zabana vanigive

Note:   In transitive constructions this verb stem required the object suffix *-a.


*pani₂ apply oil or paint to the body


POC     *pani₂ apply oil or paint to the body

Lakalai valito apply paint, feathers, etc. to the head or body
Sengseng panpaint designs on bark cloth
Fijian vanito put oil through the hair with one’s fingers
Tongan panito smear, besmear, daub or stain; to rub the head with oil
Rennellese panito anoint, as the head with turmeric
Maori panito paint, besmear; to smear, spread anything upon something else

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Chowning (1991:47), and expanded by Osmond and Ross (1998:101).


*paniki fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.


PMP     *paniki fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.

Itbayaten panichibig bat: Pteropus sp.
Ilokano panníkifruit bat, flying fox
Isneg paníkifruit bat
Itawis paníkifruit bat
Bontok paníkikind of fruit eating bat
Kankanaey panníkilarge bat
Ifugaw panníkigreatest species among the bats; fruit bat, flying fox
Ifugaw (Batad) panniʔa bat: Pteropus Leucopterus
Pangasinan panikía bat
Bikol paníkifruit bat, flying fox
Maranao panikibaby bat
Malagasy fanihya bat, probably a species of Pteropus
Sangir panikiflying fox
Mongondow ponikibat, flying fox
Tae' panikilarge bat, flying fox
Mori Atas ponikibat
Wawonii ponikibat
Mandar panikiflying fox
Makassarese pañiki <Aflying fox
Palauan olíkfruit bat
Chamorro fanihibat (mammal), fruit bat
Bimanese panihibat
Manggarai nikikind of small flying fox
Ngadha nikiflying fox
Li'o nikibat
Waiyewa panikiflying fox
Kambera paniʔflying fox
Hawu niʔibat
Tetun nikithe generic term for bats
East Damar niʔifruit bat, flying fox
West Damar nisofruit bat, flying fox
Watubela fanik balana bat
Proto-Ambon *panikiflying fox
Taba pnikbat
Gimán fnikflying fox
Buli fniflying fox

Note:   Also Kapampangan paníkiʔ ‘a bat, the largest variety’, Tagalog pánikiʔ ‘large herbivorous bat’, Bare'e paneki, Manggarai néki ‘flying fox’, Sika nii ‘bat’. Mills (1975:796) considers the nasal ambiguous, but Kapampangan, Bare'e, and Chamorro all point to *n, Makassarese pañiki evidently showing a sporadic palatalization. The consonant gemination in several of the Cordilleran languages of northern Luzon remains unexplained.

This widely distributed term was replaced by *mpekʷa in POc, and by a variety of terms in Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Lombok. In some languages of the Lesser Sundas, reflexes of *paniki refer both to the large tree-roosting fruit bat (Pteropus sp.) and to the smaller insectivorous cave bats. These two are lexically distinguished in so many languages that an original distinction seems likely, but no good reconstruction is yet available for the latter. It is possible that the greater diachronic stability of *paniki is due to its economic importance, since the flying fox is regarded as a delicacy among many Austronesian-speaking peoples.


*paniŋ bait


PCEMP     *paniŋ bait; fodder; to feed animals

Bimanese panibait
Manggarai paniŋbait; to bait; to feed chickens
Rembong paniŋbait; to bait
Ngadha panifodder (as for pigs)
Kambera pànifeed chickens or pigs
  pàniŋubait for fishing
Rotinese hanitrough for feeding pigs; domestic animal, a cared-for animal (Fox, J. 1993)
  hani-kbait for fishing (Jonker 1908)
Selaru anifeeding trough
Kei fānbait
  en-fānto feed; bait a hook


POC     *baniŋ bait

Tolai bānbait
Gitua banibait
Numbami banifish bait
Mailu banifood of animal or bird; bait
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka banifishhook; fishing
Molima bani, bani-banito fish with hook and line
Kosraean pabait
Pohnpeian pahnbait, lure
Mokilese pehnbait

Note:   Also Yamdena fane ‘feed, give food to’; fa-fane ‘bait’, Cheke Holo bai-na ‘bait, primarily for fishing’.


*panit to skin, flay


PWMP     *panit to skin, flay     [doublet: *baNiC]

Ilokano pánitto skin, to flay (fowls or men's head)
Pangasinan pánitto skin (e.g. a frog)
Tagalog panítexcoriated, skinned
Aklanon pánitskin, flesh; to peel off, to skin
Hiligaynon pánitskin, leather, bark; to skin, to peel something off
Cebuano pánitskin, peelings, bark, leather; shell of a shrimp, egg; to skin, peel something; beat someone in gambling; be trounced in a fight
Maranao panitleather, hide, skin
Subanen/Subanun panitskin
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) panitleather
Kenyah panitto scratch; scratched
Kayan panitto manhandle a person, handle roughly; be torn by animals; clothes torn by rough handling


*pantad sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach


PWMP     *pantad sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach

Manobo (Ata) pantadshore
Binukid pantadshore
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pantadsand; beach of a river; sandbar
Tiruray fantadthe ground, earth, land; patched with mud; hike along a beach
Blaan (Koronadal) fantadshore
Totoli pandadshore, beach
Dondo pantadEshore, beach
Boano pantadsandbank


*pantaR coarse sand, gravel


PPh     *pantaR coarse sand, gravel

Keley-i pantalsand; gravel
Manobo (Ilianen) pantagsand

Note:   This comparison was first proposed schematically by Zorc (1986:164).


*pantay flat, level (of ground)


PWMP     *pantay flat, level (of ground)     [doublet: *pa(n)tar₁]

Tagalog pantáyof the same height or level
Bikol mag-pantáyto level off (something)
Maranao pantayfield, meadow
Tiruray fantaylevel
Iban pantaiearth, soil, mud, (at sea) mud bottom
Malay pantaibeach, coast


*pantek spotted, dappled


PWMP     *pantek spotted, dappled     [disjunct: *paCak]

Kankanaey pantékspotted, speckled; marked with spots; stained
Kadazan Dusun pantoka spot in the eye
  na-pantak-anto have a spot in the eye
Iban pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head

Note:   With root PAn *-Cek, PMP *-tek ‘mottled pattern’.


*pantuk peak, summit


PPh     *pantuk peak, summit

Ilokano pantóktop, summit, peak; ridge; tip of long nose
  patok-pátoksummit, top, crest
Pangasinan pantóksummit, top
Tagalog pantóksummit, top

Note:   With root *-tuk₄ ‘top, summit, crown’.


*panúqus stench, sour smell


PPh     *panuqus stench, sour smell

Ilokano panóosstench of smoke and smoky substances
Hanunóo panússtench of urine
Cebuano panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell
Maranao panossour

Note:   Also Tagalog panís ‘stale and spoiled (said of cooked left-over or neglected foods). Casiguran Dumagat panís ‘spoiled (of cooked food, rice, fish, meat, etc.) is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog.


*paNaw go, walk away; depart


PAN     *paNaw go, walk away, depart

Thao pazawto go, walk
  shum-pazawto depart, walk away


PMP     *panaw₂ go, walk away, depart

Ilokano pánawto leave, go away, set out; die
  ag-pánawto leave for good, evacuate
  pa-panaw-ento drive away, send away
Isneg pánawgo away, depart, withdraw
Itawis pánawdeparture
Tagalog pánawdeparture; disappearance; death
Aklanon pánawgo on foot, walk; leave, depart, go
Palawan Batak panáwwalk
Cebuano pánawtravel, journey; regularly scheduled trip; make a travel or journey
Maranao panawjourney; roam
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-panewwalk, go on a journey, go someplace
Kadazan Dusun panauwalk, march
Kayan panauwalk; walking; go by foot
Kayan (Long Atip) panawto walk
Singhi Land Dayak ponugo, walk
Nias fanõgo away, depart; go
Rejang paneuwgo, walk
Ngadha banogo, walk
Palu'e panago
Li'o mbanago, walk
Sika banogo, walk
Lamaholot panago
Adonara panato walk
Kola -banto walk
Ujir bana-banato walk
Taba hanto go
Gimán hanto walk
Sawai n-fanto go
Buli fāndepart; go, walk
Irarutu fanto go


POC     *pano go

Bugotu vanogo, come; used in comparisons: beyond, more
Nggela vanoaway, further off; to go
Arosi hanomake a journey, set out; go
Proto-Micronesian *fanogo
Mota van(o)go, come
Merig vanto go
Sakao yanto go
Amblong vanto go
Apma vanto go
Rano -wanto go
Leviamp -v̋ato go
Axamb vænto go
Lonwolwol vango, pass (and so also of time); to continue (to do ...); often; adverbially: away
Southeast Ambrym haengoing, departure
Efate (South) panto go
Anejom a-pan ~ hango
Niue fanogo (sg.)
Samoan fano(of time) be gone, past; perish
Tuvaluan fanogo (sg.)
Nukuoro hanogo (sg.)
Rennellese hanogo (sg.); depending on, according to; on and on; little by little; one by one
Maori whanogo, proceed; lead, of a road; verge towards; be on the point of; act, behave

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *pa(n)aw ‘go, walk’. However, a number of Philippine languages, Nias of Western Indonesia, Buli of Eastern Indonesia and such Oceanic languages as Arosi of the Southeast Solomons justify the reconstruction of a meaning more like ‘depart (on foot), leave on a journey’. This interpretation appears to be supported by the probably independent development of the metaphorical sense ‘die; death’ in Ilokano, Tagalog, and Samoan. The generalization of this meaning to ‘go, walk’ (or its similar misconstrual by the compilers of some dictionaries) is readily comprehensible.

PWMP *panaw may have taken the infix *-um-, but the available evidence is indeterminate: Isneg p-um-ánaw ‘go away, depart, withdraw’, Ilokano p-um-ánaw ‘go away, leave, quit, depart’, Bisaya (Limbang) manaw ‘go, walk’ (from *p-um-anaw with loss of the first syllable, or from *panaw with homorganic nasal substitution?). Similarly, POc may have had both *pano ‘depart’ and *pano-ŋa ‘journey’: Mota vano-ŋa ‘journey; coming, going’, Niue fano-ŋa ‘journey; company of travellers’, possibly Bugotu vano-ña ‘a journey, a going’ (if Ivens’ vano-gna is a typographical error for vano-ŋa). The agreement of reduplication in Rejang paneuw-paneuw ‘go for a walk’ and such OC forms as Tuvaluan fano-fano ‘until’, Rennellese hano-hano ‘genealogy’, on the other hand, is almost certainly due to chance. For a thorough discussion of the extended meanings of *panaw in Oceanic languages cf. Lichtenberk (1991).


*paNid wing


PAN     *paNid wing

Saisiyat palirwing
Proto-Atayalic *palidwing
Pazeh pa-palitwing
Siraya pa-paliswing


PMP     *panid wing     [doublet: *panij]

Itbayaten panidpectoral fin, wing (in general)
Ivatan pañidwing
Mansaka panidwing
Sangir panidəʔwing
Bare'e paniwing of a bird, bat, or insect
  mo-panito have wings
Mori Bawah paniwing
Proto-South Sulawesi *pani(C)wing
Selaru aniwing
Soboyo paniwing
Kaniet pani-wing
Sio baaniwing
Magori vanewing
Gabadi vaniwing
Merig mbaniwing
Merlav mbaniwing
Wailengi mbanwing

Note:   Also Thao pali ‘wing’. This form either underwent an irregular change of PAn *-d to PMP *-j, or a doublet *panij ‘wing’ arose in PMP next to inherited *panid.


*paNij wing


PAN     *paNij wing     [doublet: *paNid]

Bunun (Takituduh) paniwing
Itbayaten panidwing
Mansaka panidwing
Sangir panideʔwing
Uma paniʔwing
Bare'e paniwing
Tae' paniʔwing
Mandar paniʔwing
Selaru aniwing
Kei fani-nwing, fin
Buruese pani-nwing
Soboyo paniwing


POC     *banic wing

Nauna pɨnwing
Mondropolon pani-nwing
Lindrou bani-nwing
Arop baniwing
Gedaged bani-nwings of birds
Mapos mbaniswing
Motu hani (OG)wing of a bird
Lakona panewing
Merlav mbaniwing

Note:   Also Buginese panniʔ ‘wing’.


(Formosan only)

*paNiŋ door


PAN     *paNiŋ door

Pazeh paliŋwall
Tsou phi-phiŋidoor
Paiwan palʸiŋdoor


*pañaRu give birth


PMP     *pañaRu give birth

Chamorro fañagubear (offspring), give birth
Proto-Polynesian *faanau (length unexpl.)give birth, be born


*paŋ bang! loud popping sound


PMP     *paŋ bang! loud popping sound

Ngaju Dayak paŋpopping, to pop (as when one pulls a cork from a bottle); sound of fingers snapping, tongue clacking
Malay paŋbanging sound
Karo Batak paŋsoung of a bang
Makassarese paŋbanging sould (as a gun firing, inner tube bursting)
Gedaged paŋ-paŋsnap! noise made when snapping a dry coconut with one's finger
Gitua baŋbang! noise of stone exploding fire


*paŋ- nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action


PWMP     *paŋ- nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action

Ilokano paŋ-nominalizing instrumental prefix used for maŋ- verbs
Tagalog paŋ-prefix forming nouns or adjectives denoting instruments, special usages or the like
Bikol paŋ-prefix used to form deverbal nouns
Bahasa Indonesia peŋ-nominal prefix often forming words that denote agents, or less commonly products of an action
Karo Batak peŋ-deverbal prefix forming agents (with animate nouns) or instruments (with inanimate nouns)
Toba Batak paŋ-deverbal prefix forming instrumental nouns
Balinese paŋ-nominal prefix often forming words that denote agents
Toratán paŋ-verbal noun referring to the action of doing what the base specifies


*paŋa₁ fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation


PAN     *paŋa₁ fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation

Pazeh paŋabranch
Thao panafork of a branch; bifurcation; branch
Bunun (Takituduh) pa-paŋabifurcation; fork of a branch
Itbayaten paŋatwins
Isneg paŋábranch (of a tree)
Itawis paŋábranch (of tree, river, etc.)
Bontok paŋábranch of a tree from which leaves are growing; hooks on the top of a pinaŋpaŋa earring
Kankanaey paŋábranch, bough, twig
Kapampangan paŋájaw
Tagalog paŋájaw, jawbone
Bikol paŋájaw, jawbone; jowl
Aklanon paŋáhook (for getting fruits)
Cebuano paŋáforked stick; forked handle of a slingshot
Maranao paŋahorn
Tboli haŋabranch of a tree; antlers
Kadazan Dusun paŋotributary or side road; branch off (river, road)
Malay paŋaforked supports for carrying poles, etc. in a cargo boat
Banggai paŋabranch
Uma paŋaforked branch
Bare'e paŋabifurcation; forked branch, fork in a road
Popalia paŋabranch
Manggarai paŋabranch; be forked
Rembong paŋabranch, fork of a branch; forked
Ngadha paŋaopen the eyes and mouth, be amazed
Yamdena faŋespan of the hand
Fordata faŋahandspan
Kei faŋa-thandspan
Soboyo paŋa-ñbranch
Tolai paŋopen the mouth, esp. of a basket or container
Cheke Holo paŋafish spear with several prongs
Roviana paŋafish spear with several prongs
Sa'a paŋato wonder, stagger at a matter
Mota waŋaopen the mouth, gape, gasp

Note:   Also Iban paŋaʔ ‘angle; forked, branching’, Bahasa Indonesia paŋah ‘gaping, wide open (mouth, beak)’. With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared the Tagalog form with Ngaju Dayak paŋa ‘wooden restraining block in which the feet of criminals are placed’, Fijian vaŋa ‘the leech of a canoe sail’ and various reflexes of PPn *faŋa ‘bay’, all of which are excluded here. The semantic unity of the forms included in the present comparison is confirmed by the recurrent association of such variable meanings with the root *-ŋa(q) in other morphemes (cf. Roots).


*paŋa₂ gape, be open


POC     *paŋa₃ gape, be open

Tolai paŋa-ŋato open one’s mouth, be open, yawn, gape
Lau a-faŋato open wide, gape, uncover, open up
Mota waŋato open the mouth, gape, gasp
Samoan faŋabay
Maori whaŋabay, bight, nook
Hawaiian hanabay, valley (only in place-names)

Note:   Possibly identical to PAn *paŋa₁ ‘fork of a branch’. A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond, Pawley and Ross (2003:46).


*paŋah jaw, jawbone


PPh     *paŋah jaw, jawbone

Ilokano paŋájawbone
Ayta Abellan paŋahjaw and jawbone
Kapampangan paŋájaw
Tagalog paŋájaw; the lower part of the face; jawbone
Bikol paŋájaw, jawbone; jowl
  ma-paŋáto get hit on the jaw
Agutaynen paŋajaw
Maranao paŋahorn


*paŋan food; to feed


PMP     *paŋan food; to feed

Ilokano maŋánto eat
Kankanaey paŋánviand, food; all that is edible and is eaten with rice
Kalamian Tagbanwa paŋanto eat
Agutaynen ma-maŋanto eat a meal, to eat something
Old Javanese paŋanfood; eating
Balinese maŋanto eat
Sasak paŋansticky rice cakes
  maŋanto eat
Tae' paŋanbetel chew
Numfor paŋantouch, taste, feel
Baluan paŋto feed
Bipi hakto feed
Nggela vaŋafood, properly vegetable food; to eat, have a meal
Kwaio faŋafood; eat
Lau faŋato eat, have a meal; a meal, food; to bite, nibble, of fish
  fā-faŋato feed


PMP     *p<in>aŋan food; to feed, nourish

Old Javanese p<in>aŋanto eat, swallow, devour
Lakalai la vilaŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers
  v-il-aŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers
'Āre'āre hinanataro pudding
  hinaŋataro pudding
Sa'a hinaŋaa yam pudding eaten at sacrifices
  hinaŋayam pudding
Arosi hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seed yams for planting; vegetable food
  hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seeds yams for planting; vegetable food


PWMP     *paŋan-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano paŋán-andining room
Malay pəŋan-ancake; sweetmeat
Balinese paŋan-anfood, things to eat


PWMP     *maŋan food, to feed


POC     *paŋan-i pet animal, animal that is tamed by humans feeding it

Nauna haŋɨn-ito feed
Bali (Uneapa) vaŋan-ito feed
Arosi haŋanipet animal, adopted animal
Fijian vaŋanipet animal; petted


*paŋánay first-born child, eldest child


PPh     *paŋánay first-born child, eldest child

Casiguran Dumagat paŋánayfirst born child in a family
Tagalog paŋánayfirst-born child
  maŋánayto deliver one’s first child
Hanunóo paŋánayoldest child
Aklanon paŋánayfirst born, first to do
Maranao paŋanayfirstborn
Mansaka paŋanayeldest; firstborn

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*paŋaŋap gape, open the mouth wide


POC     *paŋaŋap gape, open the mouth wide

Patpatar paŋaŋaopen the mouth in wonder; yawn
Mengen (Poeng) paŋaopen the mouth
Nehan paŋaŋaopen the mouth

Note:   A somewhat longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross and Osmond (2016c:300), who reconstructed PMP *paŋaŋap ‘gape, open the mouth wide’ without citing any non-Oceanic evidence other than the claim that *paŋ- ‘actor voice’ could combine with *qaŋa(p,b) ‘gape’. However, *paŋ- was a formative for instrumental nouns (Blust 2013, Table 6.5), not a marker of actor voice, and without actual data this higher-level proposal remains speculative.


*paŋaq forked, pronged


PAN     *paŋaq forked, pronged     [disjunct: *paŋa₁ 'bifurcation']

Saisiyat paŋaʔbranch
Malay paŋahopenmouthed
Manggarai paŋabifurcation; forked, pronged
Yamdena faŋehandspan, step
Fordata faŋaa span
  n-faŋa-tto measure by handspans

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*paŋasih rice wine


PWMP     *paŋasih rice wine

Bikol paŋásirice wine
  pa-paŋasíh-anthe container in which the rice wine is made
Kenyah peŋasirice wine specially prepared in jar

Note:   Judging from the ethnographic record *paŋasih probably was prepared and stored in a large earthenware jar. On social or ceremonial occasions it was communally consumed by sipping through long flexible tubes.


*paŋat to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce


PWMP     *paŋat to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce

Ilokano i-paŋátto cook fish with sour tamarind seasoning
Pangasinan paŋátto cook fish in vinegar with garlic
Sambal paŋátto cook fish, shrimp, etc. with salt and small amount of water; onions, tomatoes, ginger, etc. may be added
Tagalog paŋát ~ p<in>aŋátfish cooked in water with vinegar and salt added
Bikol paŋátto cook
  p<in>aŋátdish consisting of mince meat, shrimp or fish, chopped coconut and spices, wrapped in a taro leaf and cooked in coconut milk
Tiruray faŋatto preserve fish for several hours by partially boiling it with salt
Minangkabau paŋatstuffing fish or flesh and stewing it in a rich spicy sauce

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan distribution.


*paŋel stupid, unthinking


PPh     *paŋel stupid, unthinking     [disjunct: *paŋeR]

Bikol paŋólstupid, dull
Agutaynen paŋelstupid; asinine; idiot


*paŋeR stupid, unthinking


PPh     *paŋeR stupid, unthinking     [disjunct: *paŋel]

Agutaynen paŋelstupid; asinine; idiot
Cebuano paŋugstupid, tending to do the wrong thing unthinkingly

Note:   Also Cebuano paŋu ‘stupid, tending to do the wrong thing unthinkingly’.


*paŋgaga a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica


PWMP     *paŋgaga a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica

Malay daun pegagaa creeping herb with an edible leaf: Hydrocotyle asiatica
  peŋgagaa creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica
Old Javanese paŋgagakind of creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica
Tae' paŋgagaa creeping plant with small, round leaves that are used as a vegetable and boiled for pig fodder: Hydrocotyle asiatica

Note:   Also Makassarese paʔgagaʔ ‘kind of stemless vegetable that grows in damp places (cooked as a vegetable): Centella asiatica’.


*paŋgaŋ roast over a fire, toast


PWMP     *paŋgaŋ roast over a fire, toast

Ifugaw págaŋroast soomething edible
Tagalog paŋgáŋbroiled or toasted to crispiness
Bikol paŋgáŋto dry-fry in a kawaliʔ producing a result similar to toasting, rather than frying
Ngaju Dayak paŋgaŋanything roasted on a gridiron; to roast on a gridiron
Iban paŋgaŋroast, bake, cure by smoking
Malay paŋgaŋbroiling; roasting before the fire; toasting. Esp. toasting or roasting on a spit, skewer, or fork
Acehnese paŋgaŋroast (meat or fish) on a spit
Karo Batak paŋgaŋroast something over a fire; roasted
Nias fagaroast (in the flames)
Old Javanese paŋgaŋto roast (on spit, fork, etc.), toast
Javanese paŋgaŋbroiled food, food cooked over an open fire or charcoal; to toast at an open fire
Balinese paŋgaŋroast over a fire
Sasak paŋgaŋto roast
Makassarese paŋgaŋroasting of chicken (or a piece of chicken)


*paŋgaw sleeping platform


PWMP     *paŋgaw sleeping platform

Maranao paŋgawelevate, raise up; bed
Iban paŋgawwooden platform, bench or bedstead in longhouse gallery


*paŋguŋ heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out


PWMP     *paŋguŋ heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out

Iban paŋgoŋpile, stack
Malay paŋgoŋraised flooring, platform of a stage (paŋgoŋ wayaŋ), a scaffolding for spectators, a look-out house
Toba Batak paŋguŋheap, pile, knoll
Sundanese paŋguŋdome, look-out, tower
Old Javanese paŋguŋscaffolding, raised platform, stand for spectators, "tower" in the cremation ceremony, stage for play (wayaŋ)
Javanese paŋguŋattic; platform built on piles above flood level; open-air pavilion for spectators
Balinese paŋguŋtower, cupola, dome
  bale paŋguŋa high platform
Sasak paŋgooŋlay something on top of something else
  paŋguŋan elevated structure with a ladder, used as a look-out


PWMP     *paŋguŋ-an elevated place

Toba Batak paŋguŋ-anhearth
Balinese paŋguŋ-ana high place for seeing from, a look-out

Note:   Also Iban paŋgoŋ ‘theatre, theatrical stage’, Makassarese paŋgoŋ ‘raised theatre stage’, forms which are clearly borrowed from Malay.


*paŋi a tree: Pangium edule


PWMP     *paŋi a tree: Pangium edule

Maranao paŋipoisonous squash: Pangium edule Reinw.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paŋia tree, probably Parartocarpus woodii, which bear large edible fruit the seeds of which are a source of edible oil
Kadazan Dusun paŋikind of fruit the seeds of which are added to salted fish
Ngaju Dayak paŋikind of mango tree and its fruit, which has an exceptionally thick skin
Acehnese paŋèwild tree from the seeds of which a good cooking oil is prepared
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paŋiflattish seed which is eaten after being cooked; if eaten uncooked it can cause intoxication
Old Javanese paŋitree with edible fruits: Pangium edule
Balinese paŋitree sp.
Sangir paŋitree with edible fruits and leaves
Mongondow paŋia tree, Pangium edule. Its shredded leaves are mixed with bacon and blood and cooked in a bamboo to make a favorite dish. The seeds of the fruit are also eaten, but are poisonous and must first be roasted
Bare'e paŋia tree with seeds and leaves that are edible after proper preparation: Pangium edule
Tae' paŋia tree with large round fruits, Pangium edule. The pith of the seeds is dried, pounded, and cooked, and becomes black as a result; it is then used as a vegetable
Makassarese paŋitree with large fruits each of which contains two or three seeds: Pangium edule; after the seeds are cooked, one obtains a black mucilaginous substance from them which is used in the preparation of certain dishes


*paŋil ankle


PWMP     *paŋil ankle

Palawan Batak paŋi-paŋilankle (Reid 1971)
Kadazan Dusun tam-paŋiankle
Murut (Timugon) am-paŋilankle

Note:   Also Atta (Pamplona) biŋil, Ilokano piŋíl ‘ankle’, Hanunóo bíŋul ‘heel’, Aborlan Tagbanwa bɨŋɨlbɨŋɨl, Lun Dayeh, Kelabit beŋil ‘ankle’. Warren (1959) gives Palawan Batak paŋi-páŋil ‘foot’.


*paŋkal visible tree roots above the ground


PWMP     *paŋkal visible tree roots above the ground

Tagalog paŋkálprotruding or visible above the ground (said of surface roots of trees)
Malagasy fakaa root
Malay paŋkalfirst portion; beginning
  paŋkal ñiurvisible root of coconut palm
  paŋkal pokoklower part of tree trunk
  paŋkal təliŋajunction of ear with head
Toba Batak paŋkalstem, basal part of a tree or shrub; capital with which one works

Note:   The semantics of this form are very similar to those of PMP *puqun ‘base of a tree; cause, source, origin; beginning.’ It is unclear how they differed in meaning.


*paŋkaq strike against


PWMP     *paŋkaq strike against

Cebuano páŋkaʔbump against something
Iban paŋkaʔstrike, dash (down, against), hurl
Malay paŋkahto peg a top


*paŋku carry in front of one; hold in the lap


PWMP     *paŋku carry in front of one; hold in the lap

Tagalog paŋkóarmful; as much as one or both arms can hold; carried in the arms
  p<um>aŋkóto carry in one’s arms; to cuddle; to hold close and lovingly in one’s arms or on one’s lap
Ngaju Dayak paŋkuput into one’s lap
Iban paŋkuʔtake or hold on the lap
Malay paŋkuholding to the breast; taking on the lap
  mə-maŋkuto nurse; to look after; to serve as deputy for
Karo Batak maŋkucarry in the arms
Sundanese maŋkulift up with the hands (a child, a mirror, etc.); hold in the hands; to take or carry in the arms; hold in the lap
Old Javanese a-maŋkuto hold or receive on the lap; to carry in both hands or arms in front of the chest
  p<in>aŋkuto hold or receive on the lap
Javanese paŋkuto sit on someone’s lap
  maŋkuto hold someone on the lap; to have something close in front of one
  paŋku-na lap
Balinese maŋkuhold on the lap, sit on the lap

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan distribution, since a cognate is yet to be found in any Philippine language other than Tagalog.


*paŋoda hunt for shellfish on the reef


POC     *paŋoda hunt for shellfish on the reef

Motu haodato fish
Bugotu vaŋodahunt for shellfish on the reef
Nggela vaŋondato collect food on the reef
Nakanamanga pa-vaŋodalook for shellfish
Anejom a-haŋečforage on the reef

Note:   Also Bugotu vagoda ‘to hunt for shellfish on the reef’. A longer version of this comparison was first pointed out by Osmond, Pawley, and Ross (2003:106).


*paŋpaŋ steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain)


PWMP     *paŋpaŋ steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain)

Ilokano paŋpáŋfurrow, ridge (thrown up by a plow)
Ibaloy paŋpaŋbank of a river
Pangasinan paŋpáŋriver bank, riverside, seaside
Kapampangan paŋpaŋriver bank
Tagalog pampáŋriver bank
Bikol paŋpáŋriver bank; bluff
  pam-aŋpaŋ-ona high, steep river bank difficult to ascend
Hanunóo pampáŋbank of a river; edge of a field
Aklanon páŋpaŋbank (of river); shoreline
Agutaynen paŋpaŋcliff; steep dropoff into the ocean
Hiligaynon páŋpaŋbrink, edge, coast, area close to a river or sea
Cebuano paŋpáŋcliff
  paŋpaŋ-anuncliff dwellers
  paŋpaŋ-uncharacterized by having cliffs
Maranao pampaŋcliff; steep, as in contour of earth
Binukid paŋpaŋcliff; steep bank
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paŋpaŋa cliff
Kadazan Dusun pampaŋrock, big stone
Ida'an Begak pappaŋbeach; river side
Malagasy fampanaa precipice, an abyss
Mongondow pompaŋsteep slope of a mountain, but one along which one can still descend
Ampibabo-Lauje pampaŋland; plain


PWMP     *paŋpaŋ-an embankment, cliff

Kapampangan paŋpaŋ-an, pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks')
Wolio pampaŋ-asteep; rather deep part of the sea where the bottom is still visible


PPh     *ka-paŋpaŋ-an riverbank

Kapampangan ka-pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks')
Cebuano ka-paŋpaŋ-ancliffs; the province Pampanga; its people and its language

Note:   Also Muna pimpi ‘cliff, steep slope (as seen from below)’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included the Tagalog and Malagasy forms together with Ngaju Dayak pampaŋ ‘the ends of the antlers of deer; the tips of anything similar’, Malay pampaŋ (not in Wilkinson 1959) ‘broad surface’ under a reconstruction *paŋpaŋ ‘stand apart’.


*paŋudaN pandanus


PAN     *paŋudaN pandanus

Kavalan paŋzanpandanus
Rukai (Tona) paŋuDaɭpineapple
Paiwan paŋudalʸpandanus; pineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus var. sinensis


PMP     *paŋedan pandanus

Ilokano paŋdánthe screw pine, Pandanus tectorius Sol. Its leaves are used in the manufacture of hats and mats
Isneg pandānkind of screw pine. Its fragrant inflorescences are added to the headband on festive occasions
Kankanaey paŋdánananas, pineapple
Tagalog pandánPandanus odoratissimus
Bikol pandán, paŋdánpandanus (used in weaving of mats and other articles)
Hanunóo páŋdanpandanus palm (Pandanus sp.)
Aklanon páŋdana tree and its fruit: Pandanus tectorius
Cebuano páŋdanany of the plants of the genus Pandanus, esp. tectorius
Maranao pandanhemp
  pandan-anmaguey plantation, ramie plantation
Malagasy fandranashrubs, from the stems of which gutters for carrying water ... are made, hence an aqueduct. Two or three species are known by this name, from which a kind of potash is obtained. The leaves are used for thatching. Pandanus sp.
Iban pandanScrew pine (Pandanus spp.)
Malay pandanSmaller screwpine. Generic for all such Pandanaceae as are used for fine matwork or plaitwork
Simalur pandanpandanus palm: Pandanus odoratissimus
Karo Batak pandanpandanus variety the leaves of which are used in plaiting
Toba Batak pandanpandanus, screwpine
Mentawai padatPandanus odoratissimus L.
Sundanese pandankind of plant (some types are used to weave mats while the redolent leaves of others are minced and used with flowers and fragrant oil by women)
Old Javanese paṇḍankind of tree: Pandanus
Javanese paṇḍanpandanus tree
  pandan waŋifragrant pandanus leaf as a cooking ingredient
  pandan eripandanus thorn, used for hats, mats
Madurese pandhanpandanus
Balinese paṇḍanpandanus
Sasak pandanname of various types of pandanus: Pandanaceae
Tae' pandanfragrant type of pandanus with thorny leaves
Buginese panreŋpandanus
Makassarese pandaŋname of various types of pandanus
Palauan oŋórPandanus aimiriikensis Mart.
Manggarai pandaŋpineapple: Ananas comosus
Kowiai/Koiwai fodanpandanus


POC     *padran pandanus

Lou parkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Loniu pakind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Leipon padrkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Ahus pahpandanus tree and fruit
Kele patpandanus
Papitalai parbroad-leaved pandanus sp.
Wuvulu paxakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets
Aua parakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets
Mussau aranalittoral pandanus the leaves of which are used in plaiting mats and baskets
Tanga faapandanus
Gedaged padthe pandanus tree
Mbula paandapandanus tree
Gitua padapandanus
Gilbertese araprefix to names of different species of pandanus
Puluwat faarpandanus, used for mats and thatch
Woleaian fash(a)pandanus, pineapple
Iaai watra plant: Pandanus
Rotuman hatakind of pandanus bearing fruit in compact, rouhly spherical masses
Fijian vadrathe pandanus tree: Pandanus odoratissimus
Tongan kind of pandanus which sends down shoots from the branches to the ground
Samoan falaname given to a number of tree-like plants of the genus Pandanus; mat
Rennellese hagapandanus, of great value for thatch and mats
Rarotongan arapineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus
Maori wharaa plant; ? Astelia sp., but possibly applied to any plant with ensiform leaves, such as Astelia, Phormium, Typha, etc.
Hawaiian halathe pandanus, or screw pine: Pandanus odoratissimus

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Tungho) maːpaŋraŋ ‘pandanus’, Sangir pondaŋ ‘Pandanus latifolius’, Tontemboan, Mongondow pondaŋ ‘pandanus’, Bare'e pondani ‘Pandanus fasicularis (a littoral pandanus the leaves of which serve as plaiting material)’, Tae' pondan ‘pineapple (the fibers of the leaves are used as thread in weaving clothes and these fibers are also called pondan)’, Mandar pandeŋ ‘pineapple’, Rembong pandaŋ ‘sisal: Agave sisalana’, Sika pedaŋ ‘cactus’, pedaŋ eaŋ ‘pineapple’, Kambera pàndaŋu ‘pandanus tree (the leaves are used in the plaiting of baskets and mats)’, Rotinese henak ‘pandanus; pineapple’, Tetun hedan ‘a plant )of the pineapple or Bromeliaceous family) used for making baskets and other artifacts’, Leti edna ‘pineapple’, Moa edna ‘pandanus’, edna melaj-e ‘pineapple’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *panDan, but Formosan witnesses attest directly and Philippine witnesses indirectly (through the cluster -ŋd-) to an original tri-syllable.

The sporadic loss of the medial vowel everywhere outside Taiwan can be taken as one small piece of evidence for the MP subgroup. Irregular reflexes are so common throughout Sulawesi that they can be taken to support a variant *pondan (with borrowing into some languages). Similarly, reflexes with first-syllable shwa are pervasive in the Lesser Sundas, and suggest a PCMP variant *pendan. Although the P. odoratissimus and P. tectorius are the species most commonly noted in dictionary glosses, the term *paŋudaN evidently referred to all Pandanaceae. Varieties of this economically important plant were widely used in the plaiting of mats and baskets. As noted by Mills (1975:793), the frequent lexical equation between the native pandanus and the introduced (South American) pineapple may be due to similarities in the thorny leaves (cf. also Sika pedaŋ ‘cactus’). As a basis for this equation one could, however, point equally to the clustered (and edible) pandanus fruits, which collectively resemble the shape and external texture of the pineapple.


*paŋusi blow the nose


POC     *paŋusi blow the nose

Lou aŋusblow the nose
Mengen (Poeng) paŋusiblow the nose
Chuukese foŋoti <Ablow one’s nose

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross and Osmond (2016c:304), who reconstruct POc *paŋus, *paŋus-i. Howver, their derivation of Lou aŋus from *paŋus is impossible, since Lou lost POc *-V(C). It is conceivable that the Lou word reflects *paŋus-i, but the evidence for suffixation in this form is weak to begin with, and I prefer to treat it as an original trisyllable.


*pa(m)pa a tree: Vitex pubescens


PMP     *pa(m)pa a tree: Vitex pubescens

Ngaju Dayak kala-papatree with durable wood used for knife handles, rudders, etc.; the long-burning coals are used in the smelting of gold and copper, and the young leaves as a simple in the treatment of eye inflammations
Makassarese gulim-papatree with strong wood
Muna fafakind of tree, the wood of which is light and durable, used for boat and house building
Bimanese pampatree with useful wood: Vitex pubescens
Manggarai pampatree which is good for making house posts: Vitex pubescens

Note:   Also Numfor baf (anticipated **faf) ‘good timber tree: Vitex cofassus’. This comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1984), who has identified its referent as the Vitex pubescens in several WMP languages for which my sources provide insufficient botanical information.


*papa father


PMP     *papa₂ father

Itbayaten papafather (address term); fond name for father, dad, daddy
Bare'e papafather, father’s brother, mother’s brother
Samoan papa(children’s language) Dad, Daddy

Note:   Presumably an affectionate term in child language for *ama.


*papaba slipper lobster; crayfish


POC     *papaba slipper lobster; crayfish

Tolai papabacrayfish sp.
Mota vavapakind of crawfish

Note:   A much longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Pawley (2011:167).


*papag bamboo platform, shelf


PPh     *papag bamboo platform, shelf

Itbayaten papaglow table, usually of bamboo
Ilokano pápagbamboo bench; bamboo or wood bed (with no mattress)
Casiguran Dumagat pápagshelf, high table (in a house for keeping things on); high table (outside, for drying meat on, or for the offering of the atang sacrifice)
Kapampangan pápagbamboo-slat platform used for sleeping, eating, and just sitting around talking
Tagalog pápaga low bamboo bed
Bikol pápagbamboo cot or bed
Hanunóo pápaga bamboo slat-tray or shelf, used for support of bone bundles in a family burial cave
Agutaynen papagstretcher made of bamboo

Note:   Part of this comparison may be due to borrowing from Tagalog.


*papak to break, chip off


PMP     *papak to break, chip off

Maranao papakto break, chip off


POC     *babak to break, chip off

Nggela papato chip
  papa ni gaiwood chips
Arosi babato break one thing on another, chip a stone

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*papan plank, board; floor boards of house


PMP     *papan plank, board; floor boards of house

Waray-Waray papán ŋa batóstone tablet
Cebuano papánstone slab
Maranao papanlumber, board; arrange checkers or chess (pieces) on board
Tiruray fafana sawed board, lumber; to make lumber or boards by hand
Mapun papanboard; plank (usually and inch and a half or less thick)
Yakan papana plank, board (as for making a wall)
Ngaju Dayak papanboard, plank
  papan batua thin flat stone or a thin, flat piece of iron
  ma-mapanbuild a boat or ship; like a board, i.e. flat, even
Malagasy fáfanaa piece of board for writing on, a lesson-board, a blackboard
Iban papanlong flat surface or thing
  papan kayuʔplank, board
Proto-Chamic *papa:nboard; plank
Moken papanplank
Malay papanplank; board; strake; flooring; numeral coefficient for games played on boards, such as chess and draughts
  papan sandarbackrest
Acehnese papeuënplank (as in a coffin or grave)
Gayō papanplank, board
Karo Batak papanplank, the plank floor; a chessboard
Toba Batak papanboard, plank; floor boards
Rejang papeunwooden board, plank
Sundanese papanplank, board; in a wider sense, any flat object; plank (of wood, stone, etc.)
  papan batustone plate
Old Javanese papanboard; (round wooden) shield
  a-papanusing a shield, bearing a shield
Javanese papanboard
Balinese papanboard, plank
  papan caturchessboard
Sasak papanplank; slate; school board
Mongondow papanstick or lath used to tap down the weft thread (in weaving)
Tae' papanplank
Makassarese papaŋplank, board
Wolio papaboard, plank
  batu papawriting slate
Palauan wlawlfloor (< *panpan)
Manggarai papaŋplank, board
Hawu papaplank
Wetan papnaboard, plank
Yamdena n-papanstack on top on one another, of flat objects like boards
Buruese papanboard
Kayeli hahaneboard
Buli fafanplank


POC     *baban board, plank, side of canoe

Manam babaflat; palm of the hand
Tawala baba-base, underneath, bottom
Dobuan kaiwa ba-baba-naboard
Molima babalower plank on canoe side; to put planks on canoe
Bugotu pavaplank
Lau babaflat; a board; lower part of back; a wooden door
  ba-babaa board, flat object
  baba-nalong side board of canoe
'Āre'āre hapatimber; a canoe seat
Sa'a hapaa canoe seat, removable
Arosi hapaa board; flat; mid-seats of a canoe
Proto-Micronesian *papaboard, plank
Gilbertese babaa board, plank, used for diverse purposes; a wash board, surf board, etc.
Kosraean pæprib, side, raised sides of a canoe between front and rear gunwales
Mokilese pɔpthin board or sheet of lumber
Chuukese paapboard, plank; board floor
Puluwat paapboard, lumber, timber; canoe planks
  pápá-n limwhouse board
Woleaian paap(a)plank, strake, the planking (of a canoe); to be provided with plank
Pileni papaboard
Rotuman papafloor, or deck, if made of boards
Wayan bababoard, plank, or other flat, wide piece of wood
  vaka-babahave boards on, be boarded or planked
Fijian bavawashstrake or upper planks of canoe
Tongan papasawn timber, plank(s), board(s); flat hard sandstone forming a layer or bed at the coast in certain places; flat and smooth and hard (as a well-trodden track)
Niue papaflat
  faka-papato stack neatly in layers (as banana cases)
Futunan papaboard, plank
Samoan papaboard, plank; rock; make level, flatten
Kapingamarangi babalevel, stretcher; board on which women plait mats
  baba halefloor of a house
Nukuoro babalevel (not bumpy); any sort of flat base (esp. the board on which mats are plaited), the consolidated reef under water or sand; the back of a human; the shell of a turtle, crab, etc
Rennellese papasounding board, beater of the papa, dancer to the papa; to be flat, flattened; to flatten
Anuta papaboard, plank; any hard flat surface, as the top of a plank, a flat rock
Maori papaanything broad, flat, and hard; flat rock, slab, board; earth floor or site of a native house; bed of a lake
Hawaiian papaflat surface, stratum, layer, level, foundation; story of a building; class, rank, order; table; sheet, plate, shelf; flat, level
  hoʔo-papato place in rank or file; to put in order, to put in layers, overlay, as shingles; to make a shelf; to pack neatly

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak pepan ‘planks’, Sasak banban ‘thick plank; plank above the corpse in a grave’, Rembong papan ‘writing board’ (< Malay), Rotinese papa ‘plank, board’ (probably < Malay), Eddystone/Mandegusu papene ‘board, plank of a canoe’, Toqabaqita aba ‘board, plank, strip, lath of something’. Although this term referred specifically to hewn planks used in the construction of houses or canoes, it also appears to have had the more general sense of ‘flat, hard surface’ or just ‘flat, of a surface’, as shown by the reflexes in Waray-Waray, Cebuano, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, Iban, Sundanese, Manam, Lau, Arosi, Samoan, Anuta, Maori, and Hawaiian. The shape of the POc reconstruction is unclear. Bugotu and Fijian agree in reflecting POc *bapan, and Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi hapa appear to be metathesized products of the same form. On the other hand, Palauan wlawl and hapa ‘plank’ in the Southeast Solomons could be used to support a PMP variant *panpan, in which case the expected POc continuation would be *paban. However, most Oceanic languages show identical reflexes of both consonants, and suggest POc *baba. Tentatively I adopt the reconstruction given here, and assume that the pan-Austronesian avoidance of dissimilar labials as the onsets of successive syllables caused most Oceanic languages to level the distinction between the first two consonants in this base.


*papaq frond of a palm


PMP     *papaq₁ frond of a palm

Maranao papaʔshoots of vegetables
Malay (Jakarta) papahcoconut frond
Old Javanese papahthe long stalk of a palm- or banana-leaf
Javanese papahmidrib of a palm frond
Arosi haha-nafrond of a palm
Marshallese pāpcoconut frond; midrib of a coconut frond

Note:   Also Amis papah ‘leaf’. Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *papaq, but cross-referenced it to *p-al-apaq and cited supporting evidence only for the latter reconstruction.


*papaR cheek


PCEMP     *papaR cheek

Buruese papa-ncheek


POC     *babaR side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe

Molima babalower plank on canoe side
Roviana papara (OG)side of face, cheek
Kwaio babaside, cheek
Lau babalong side board of canoe; the side
Arosi babacheek, temples; side of a stream, etc.
Fijian babathe side of a thing, the cheek bone; also, the side of a canoe

Note:   Also Soboyo popa ‘cheek’. Stresemann (1927:52) gives SUBM *papa- ‘cheek’, but supports his reconstruction with a single reflex (Wolu fafa-). It is possible that the Molima, Lau, and Fijian words that refer to the sideboards of a canoe actually reflect PMP *papan ‘plank, board’.


*pa(m)pet stopped up


PWMP     *pa(m)pet stopped up

Singhi Land Dayak paputstopped up (choked up)
Javanese pampetstop flowing (as blood)

Note:   With root *pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.


*papi cook in an earth oven


POC     *papi cook in an earth oven

Kwaio faficook in leaf oven; sacrifice a pig
Lau fafiput leaves on oven in cooking
Sa'a hahicook in an oven with leaves and hot stones
Arosi hahicook in a native oven; food cooked so
Fijian vavibake food in a native oven


*papo coral reef


POC     *papo₃ coral reef

Gedaged bab (NG)kind of coral, limestone
Sa'a hahothe shore reef
Arosi hahoencircling reef
Rotuman hahocoral reef


*paqa₁ thigh


PAN     *paqa₁ thigh

Puyuma paʔathigh
Itbayaten paathigh
Umiray Dumaget pathigh
Sambal (Botolan) páʔathigh
Tagalog páʔa ~ paʔáfoot, leg; hoof, paw
  paʔa-hánhaving large feet
Bikol páʔathigh; lap, haunches, hip
  paʔá-ondescribing someone with large thighs
Masbatenyo páʔathigh, upper leg
Aklanon páʔathigh, upper leg
Waray-Waray páʔathigh; lap
Agutaynen pakathigh; leg
Hiligaynon páʔathigh
Cebuano páʔathigh, legs from the knees up
  páʔa-hanthe upper leg of a pair of pants
Binukid paafoot, leg; leg (of a table or other furniture)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔathe foot and/or leg
Mansaka paathigh
Klata paʔothigh
Mapun paathigh
Yakan paʔathigh
Tboli hahathigh of person or animal; lap of a person
Tausug paathigh
Tatana poothigh
Tombonuwo paathigh, upper leg
Abai Sembuak faafoot
Kujau pəəthigh
Minokok pəəʔthigh
Murut (Tagol) paathigh
Kelabit paʔehthigh
Berawan (Long Teru) paʔahthigh
Dali' faʔafoot
Kenyah (Long Ikang) paʔəythigh
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) paʔaleg
Lahanan tə-paʔathigh
Seru pohthigh
Paku poʔoleg
Delang pahothigh
Cham phaleg
Roglai (Northern) phathigh
Moken pakaupper leg, thigh
Malay pahathigh; quarter; ham (of animal)
  paha belalaŋupper leg of grasshopper; fig. for safety pin; curve of a perfect thigh
Sundanese pahathigh, upper leg
Balinese pahathigh
Sasak pathigh
Mongondow paathigh; hip; buttock
Totoli paathigh
Boano paʔathigh
Bare'e paʔathigh, upper leg
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paqathigh
Wolio paathigh; quarter (of a carcass)
  paa-na ŋkaborograsshopper’s thighs (said of a very thin person)
Muna faghathigh
Manggarai paʔathigh
Rembong paʔathigh
Ngadha paaupper leg, thigh
Fordata faa-ncalf of the leg
Lakalai la vaha-leg, foot
Watut faga-leg, foot

Note:   Also Tiruray foʔoʔ, Iban pah, Balinese pehe ‘thigh’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian yava- ‘the leg below the knee, including the foot’, but it is not at all clear that this form reflects PAn *paqa.


*paqa₂ stalk or stem of a plant


PMP     *paqa₂ stalk or stem of a plant

Muna faghastalk of certain trees (coconut, areca) from which grow branches
Ngadha paashoot, sprig, sprout
Buruese paa-nstem, base of trunk; stem, especially of a taro plant
Numfor fasheath of a palm blossom
Kara pakaleaf
Tongan faʔalower portion of leaf stalk
Niue stalk of a plant
Samoan stalk, stem of taro, banana, and certain other plants
Rennellese haʔastalk, as of taro, banana, papaya; stem, as of flowers
Hawaiian stalk that supports the leaf and aro or sugarcane; layers in a banana stump

Note:   Possibly the same morpheme as PMP *paqa ‘thigh’. Dempwolff (1938) united both meanings under a single form, but presented very little evidence for *paqa in the meaning ‘stalk, stem’.


*paqaRok snatch, seize, rob


POC     *paqaRok snatch, seize, rob

Tabar paroto hold
Nggela valoto rob openly, take and keep, refuse to return
Pohnpeian parok (< *paqaRok-i)to catch something animate; to arrest
Tongan faʔaoto seize and take by force; to confiscate
Samoan faosnatch, grab; rob
Rennellese haʔaoto take, capture, snatch, rob
Hawaiian haoto scoop or pick up; to grasp, pillage, plunder; robber

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2016a:467).


(Formosan only)

*paqeju gall, gall bladder


PAN     *paqeju gall, gall bladder

Saisiyat pæʔzoʔgall, gall bladder
Bunun paqavgall, gall bladder
Tsou paugall, gall bladder
Proto-Rukai *pagogall, gall bladder

Note:   This variant is confined to Formosan languages, but these belong to several geographically separated primary branches of the family, so its antiquity is guaranteed. It appears likely that PAn had both *paqeju and *qapeju, and that only the latter survived in PMP. This comparison was first noted in print by Tsuchida (1976:224).


*paq(e)liŋ visible defect of the eyes


PPh     *paq(e)liŋ visible defect of the eyes

Isneg palʔíŋ <Mstrabismus
Maranao paliŋone-eyed person, one who has impaired vision
Tiruray faliŋblinded in one eye because of wounds from fighting (refers to animals only)

Note:   With root *-liŋ₂ ‘cross-eyed’.


*paqet wood-working tool: chisel


PMP     *paqet wood-working tool: chisel

Itbayaten paethole-boring tool which was used a long time ago
Ilokano paét -an, i-, mai-chisel
Isneg apāta chisel made of iron throughout, without a wooden handle
Bontok paə́tchisel (said to < Ilokano)
Ifugaw paót mum-, -in-, <in> -anwood carving; chisels used for carving
Kapampangan patchisel (for woodworking)
Tagalog paʔítchisel (in carpentry)
Mapun paat -an, -unchisel
Kelabit paʔetchisel
Iban pattapping knife, gouge, chisel
  pat getahtapping knife for rubber latex
Jarai phaʔchisel (for carpentry)
Rhade phatto chisel
Malay pahatchisel; gouge; punch
Gayō pātchisel
Simalur paeʔchisel
  mam-paeʔto chisel something
Karo Batak pahatchisel
  mahatto chisel, work with a chisel
Nias fahõchisel
  mamahõto chisel, work with a chisel
Balinese pahetchisel
  mahet -ang, -incut with a chisel, hew
Sasak pata chisel
  ŋe-patto chisel
Tontemboan pa-paʔata chisel
  maʔat ~ ma-paʔatto chisel
Bare'e paʔat-ia chisel
  nda-paʔat-ichiseled, chiseled out
Tae' paʔa chisel
  paʔ-ichisel out, gouge a hole with a chisel; carving done with a chisel
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paqoQchisel
Makassarese paʔa chisel


POC     *paqot wood-working tool: chisel

Rennellese haʔochisel; to chisel; holes for lashings in a canoe

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pait ‘chisel (carpenter’s tool); to chisel’ (< Tagalog), Ifugaw (Batad) paʔut ‘wood chisel’, Tombulu paat ‘chisel’ (< Malay), Lun Dayeh faat ‘a knife for tapping rubber’ (< Malay), Dairi-Pakpak Batak pahat ‘chisel’, me-mahat ‘to chisel’ (< Malay), Old Javanese a-mahat ‘tap palm sap by notching’, pahat-an ‘areca palm’, pahat ‘sculpture’, p<in>ahat ‘shape by cutting or sculpturing (gold, stone)’ (probably < Malay), Manggarai paʔak ‘chisel; to chisel’, Rotinese paʔa-bela ‘flat or level chisel’ (< Malay).


*paqiC hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness


PAN     *paqiC hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness

Saisiyat pæʔishot (taste)
Kanakanabu ma-páʔicisour
  páʔicimillet or rice beer
  raa-paʔi-paʔícaacid fluid which comes up from the stomach


PMP     *paqit₂ bitter(ness)

Itbayaten payitidea of saltiness
Ivatan (Isamorong) payitsalty
Ilokano paítbile, used in cooking; bitterness, bitter taste
Isneg na-pétbitter
Itawis pethotness, pungency, spiciness
  na-péthot, pungent, spicy
Kankanaey men-paítbitter
Ifugaw paítsourness; mostly applied to fruits that are not yet ripe
Ifugaw (Batad) pāitthe austere taste of old wine, ginger, salt, onion, garlic, red pepper, lemon, tobacco; of the stinging sensation of smoke
Ibaloy paitsourness (as of unripe orange); bitter taste, saltiness; also describes the taste of good coffee or rice wine
  em-paitsour, bitter, salt
Ilongot paʔitbitter
Pangasinan paítbitter tasting
Kapampangan paʔítbitter
Tagalog paʔítbitterness; bitter taste; bitterness in the moral sense; harshness, disagreeableness
Bikol mag-paʔítto become bitter
Hanunóo paʔítbitterness
Aklanon paʔítbitterness
Kalamian Tagbanwa pakitbitter
Agutaynen pakitbitter taste; bitterness
Hiligaynon paʔítbitterness
Cebuano paʔítbitter in taste, bitter in situation
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔitbitter; produce a bitter taste in someone’s mouth
Mansaka paitbitter (of food, medicine)
Mapun paitbitter
Yakan paʔitbitter, over salted, too salty
Tboli héétbitter, salty
Bilaan (Sarangani) feʔetbitter
Tausug paitbitterness
Bisaya (Lotud) o-poʔitbitter
Tombonuwo o-paitbitter
Murut (Paluan) a-paitbitter
Abai Sembuak faitbitter
Murut (Tagol) a-paitbitter
Tingalan (West) a-paitbitter
Basap paitbitter
Kelabit paʔitbitter
Kenyah faʔijbitter
Bintulu paʔitbitter
Malagasy faitrabitterness, as the taste of quinine
Iban paitbitter
  daun paitwild leaf used as flavoring in cooking
Jarai phiʔbitter (in taste)
Rhade phiʔbitter
Roglai (Northern) phi:ʔbitter
Moken pakètbitter
Malay pahitbitter, bitterness, a bitter drink
Toba Batak paitbitter
Sundanese paʔitbitter
Old Javanese pahitbitter, (of sea water) salt
Javanese pahit ~ paitbitter
Balinese pahitkind of tree with small round fruit used as medicine
Sasak paitbitter
Boano paʔitbitter
Balaesang peitbitter
Makassarese paiʔgall; bitter; difficult
Muna paghibitter (as papaya leaves)
Chamorro faʔetsalty
Bimanese paʔibitter (as taste); difficult (as one’s life)
Komodo paiʔbitter
Manggarai paʔitbitter (of taste), difficult (of situations)
Lamaholot paitbitter
Kédang peiʔbitter
Kambera paitabitter
  mbàru paitabitter salty, too salty, of food


PAN     *ma-paqiC bitter

Bunun (Isbukun) ma-paisbitter
Kanakanabu ma-paʔícisour


PMP     *ma-paqit bitter

Agta (Central Cagayan) mapetbitter
Umiray Dumaget ma-pitbitter
Kapampangan ma-paʔítbitter
Tagalog ma-paʔítbitter
Bikol ma-paʔítbitter, acrid
Hanunóo ma-paʔítbitter, referring to taste
Aklanon ma-paʔítbitter
Agutaynen ma-pakitbitter
Hiligaynon ma-paʔítbitter
Palawan Batak mapáʔitbitter
Mamanwa mapaʔitbitter
Maranao ma-paʔitbitter; hard, difficult
Binukid ma-paitbitter (in taste); bitter, hard to accept (situation, happening, etc.)
Kalagan ma-paitbitter
Tausug ma-paitbitter (as medicine)
Malagasy ma-faitrabitter, brackish, disagreeable
Old Javanese a-pahitbitter
Sangir ma-paiʔbitter; sour
Mongondow mo-paʔitbitter
Uma mo-paiʔbitter
Bare'e ma-paʔibitter
Tae' ma-paiʔbitter (as palm wine, certain fish, etc.)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mo-paqiQbitter
Mori Bawah mo-paʔibitter
Wolio ma-paʔibitter
Gilbertese maisourness, acidity


PPh     *paqit-an a plant: Lunasia amara

Ilokano paít-anLunasia amara plant
Tagalog paʔit-ánto make bitter
Bikol paʔit-ándevelop a bitter taste
Maranao paʔit-ankind of bitter banana
Mansaka pait-ana plant: Lunasia amara Blco. (Madulid 2001)

Note:   Also Pazeh pazit ‘bitter’, Bunun (Takituduh) ma-paʔic ‘bitter’, Tsou paʔici ‘bitter cucumber’, Saaroa paʔis ‘spicy’, Balantak páket, Kayan (Uma Juman) paʔi, Toba Batak paet, Cham ma-laʔ et ‘bitter, caustic’. Despite Dyen’s (Dyen 1965) attempt to present a unified comparison, the Formosan evidence is unhelpful, as it points to several distinct forms, with only Kanakanabu agreeing in shape (but not in meaning) with Malayo-Polynesian comparata. Pazeh pazit can reflect *pasis or *pasit, Bunun forms reflect an etymon with medial glottal stop rather than *q, and as noted by Tsuchida (1976:259), the vocalism of the Tsou form is unexpected, suggesting possible borrowing from Bunun.

Although reflexes of PMP *paqit are most commonly glossed ‘bitter’, various glosses suggest that the meaning of this term did not correspond precisely to any English word, as seen in the recurrent references to the taste of fermented drinks (Kanakanabu, Ifugaw (Batad), Ibaloy, Tae'), to the acrid sensation of smoke entering the nostrils (Ifugaw (Batad)), and various references to the taste of salt or saltwater (Ifugaw (Batad), Ibaloy, Tboli, Yakan, Malagasy, Old Javanese, Kambera). Taken as a whole this range of meanings suggests that PMP *paqit referred to a strong, somewhat objectionable taste in food. Given the semantic agreement of Saisiyat pæʔis ‘hot (taste)’ with Itawis pet ‘hotness, pungency, spiciness’ a similar meaning appears to be supported for PAn, but the various phonologically irregular forms in Formosan languages suggest that ‘bitterness’ should not be excluded from the gloss.


*paqid wiping off


PWMP     *paqid wiping off

Kelabit paʔidduster, mop, anything used to wipe; accidental wiping
Totoli paidto wipe
Boano paʔidto wipe


PWMP     *ma-maʔid to wipe, wipe off

Kelabit maʔidto wipe
Mongondow mo-maʔidbrush or scrape dirt or mud off the feet or hands


*paqis cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves


PWMP     *paqis cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves

Casiguran Dumagat páisto cook (a method of cooking small fish or shrimp, wrapping them in a banana leaf and cooking them in water, or laying them directly on the coals)
Tagalog páʔisfish or meat roasted or broiled and wrapped in leaves; steamed or boiled fish, usually small, wrapped in leaves, esp. banana leaves
Maranao paʔiswrap in green leaf and roast
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔisthe process of preparing sweet potato by grating it, wrapping it in leaves, and roasting it in a hole with a fire on top
Iban paisfood, esp. fish, cooked in green leaves or bamboo
  pais ikanfish so cooked
Malay paisspiced fish cooked in banana leaf
Old Javanese pes-an ~ pe(s)pes-anfood cooked and broiled in leaves (esp. fish)
Javanese pè-pès-anbanana-leaf-wrapped food roasted over hot coals
  mè-pèsto prepare food in this way


PWMP     *p<in>aqis fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals

Tagalog p<in>áʔisfish or meat roasted or broiled and wrapped in leaves; steamed or boiled fish, usually small, wrapped in leaves, esp. banana leaves
Old Javanese p<in>esto cook as pespesan


*paqit kind of freshwater fish


PWMP     *paqit₁ kind of freshwater fish

Hanunóo paʔítsmall white freshwater fish with a bitter taste; hence its name (< paʔít 'bitterness')
Maranao paʔitfish of Cyprinid family (from bitter taste)
Binukid paítkind of small fish
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔita small fish
Mansaka paitkind of freshwater fish
Tiruray faʔitthe various barbs (Cyprinidae) spp.
Tboli haitminnow, a certain freshwater fish
Dumpas paitfish
Tombonuwo paitfish
Ida'an Begak paitfish
Kelabit paʔitkind of small fish
Kayan paʔitspecies of tebaring fish found near small river rapids
Iban paitfreshwater fish: Puntius sp.
Toba Batak si-paet-anfish sp.
Sasak pait ~ pepaitsmall, silvery river fish
Chamorro fa-faʔeta snapper: Lutjanus gibbus

Note:   Undoubtedly = *paqit ‘bitter’, but the semantic extension to various fish apparently is old.


*paqo a plant: Heliconia spp.


POC     *paqo a plant: Heliconia spp.

Nduke vaɣoa large perennial herb with banana-like leaves: Heliconia salomonensis
Marovo vaɣotree sp. with large banana-like leaves: Heliconia
Nggela vaowild banana
  vao-vaospecies of shrub with large leaves
Mota vaoa heliconium
Wayan vā-vātree taxon, probably Heliconis sp.; tall banana-like herb
Fijian vaoa plant: Bleekeria elliptica

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first noted by Ross (2008:421).


*paqpaq₁ chew


PAN     *paqpaq₁ chew

Amis paʔpaʔchew; the action of the jaws and teeth in chewing


PMP     *paqpaq₁ premasticate food for infant

Aklanon paʔpáʔto chew thoroughly
Cebuano páʔpaʔbite something or grab it with the teeth without tearing or wounding
Maranao papaʔbite, chew
Mapun mapaʔto chew
  papaʔ-unto chew
  ka-papaʔ-anfor one’s teeth to be able to chew
Kadazan Dusun papaʔto feed a child mouth to mouth
Sasak papaʔpremasticate rice for newborn child

Note:   Also Lun Dayeh fafaaɁ ‘chewing; ask someone to chew’.


*paqpaq₂ midrib of coconut frond


PMP     *paqpaq₂ midrib of coconut frond     [doublet: *palaqpaq]

Old Javanese papahthe long stalk of a palm or banana leaf
Javanese papahcenter stalk of palm, banana, etc.
Balinese papahthe young or green leaf of a coconut or palm tree; the sheath of a leaf
Arosi haha-nafrond of a palm, branch of a plant or tree that is not an ‘ai, as sago palm, coconut, cycad, screw palm

Note:   Also Marshallese pāp ‘coconut frond; midrib of coconut frond’.


*paqud pull inward or towards oneself


PWMP     *paqud pull inward or towards oneself

Ilokano paúdstrings that attach the warp to the weaver, when weaving without a loom
Tagalog paʔódyoke (for oxen, carabao, etc.)
Cebuano paúdput something against or over something hard to steady it; press something against something hard with one’s weight; presss part of the body against something
Iban pautpull towards oneself, take a share of, tug at, draw paddle towards boat; include
Malay pahut ~ pautdrag inward; carching on to anything and pulling; clinging and pulling, as a boatman using a boathook, a canoeist digging his canoe perpendicularly into water and turning the canoe with a pull, a man clinging to a plank, a wrestler tugging at his opponent, dragging a third party into a discussion to make it still livelier


*paqus₂ to tie, bind


PCEMP     *paqus₂ to tie, bind

Ngadha paʔuto tie, bind
Lukep pauto tie
Sobei fauto tie
Raga vau-hito tie, bind
Fijian vau-cato tie, bind
Tongan faʔuto bind (the head); headband or turban
Rennellese haʔuto tie, lash, as sennit

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was proposed by Ross (2008:292).


*para coconut embryo


PMP     *para coconut embryo

Ilokano párathe sprouting embryo of the coconut, before the cotyledon appears
Pangasinan pálacoconut pith
Makassarese paragerm of the coconut that remains in the nut and later sprouts
Wolio paracoconut embryo
Wuvulu faxacoconut pith; brain
Label hara-isprouting tissue of a coconut
Sinaugoro farabrain; inner part of coconut
Nggela varaa fallen coconut beginning to grow and showing leaf
Pohnpeian pahrspongy center of a sprouting coconut; par to sprout, of coconuts
Woleaian faracopra sponge, copra meat
Mota varathe shoot, plumule, of the cocoanut, as it forms first within the nut, afterwards when it shoots outside, and finally as growing up from the radicle
Lonwolwol vaːspongy kernel of a mature coconut (which is rich in oil, and nourishing)
North Ambrym varspongy kernel of a mature coconut
Southeast Ambrym halcenter of coconut
Rotuman harato sprout (coconut)
Fijian varaspongy flesh in the kernel of a coconut before it shoots; a coconut in this stage or just shooting


*para-₁ prefix of repeated action


PWMP     *para- prefix of repeated action

Bikol pára-verbal affix, repetitive action series, infinitive-command form, used in combination with the intensive series affix pag- and verbs taking mag-, -on, i-, and -an in the regular series; magpara-bisíta repeatedly visit
Muna para-verbal prefix on verbal bases; a-class, amenable to -um-, intransitive. Meaning: iterativity in combination with habituality. In some cases the emphasis is on the variety of the implied objects; no-para-toŋka vomit repeatedly

Note:   Also Aklanon pagá- future verb prefix referring to a continuing or repeated action in the future or to an action which will be in process at a given time in the future, in the object or oblique focuses, occurring in the forms paga---on (OF#1) and paga---an (OF#3).


*paraq paraq trellis for plants to grow up


PWMP     *paraq paraq trellis for plants to grow up     [doublet: *pala pala₁]

Cebuano palaʔ-palaʔhorizontal trellis for plants to grow on
Makassarese para-paratrellis for tendrils to creep up

Note:   Also Acehnese para ‘trellis’.


*paraqu boat


PMP     *paraqu boat

Ilokano paráwa sailing vessel much larger than the biráy
Casiguran Dumagat parawlarge sailing vessel
Iban perauʔboat (without close or full deck, as opp. to kapal)
Malay perahuundecked native ship. Etymologically the padao or parao of the Malabar coast, in contr. to the decked kapal
Toba Batak parauboat, ship
Sundanese parahusloop, boat
Old Javanese parahuboat
Ngadha barauboat, sail boat
Rotinese pauboat, ship
Tolai parauboat, ship; foreign, European, brought from overseas in a ship
Nehan parauboat

Note:   Wilkinson (1959) apparently regards Malay perahu as a Dravidian loan. There are, however, two problems with this interpretation. First, if Malay perahu is a borrowing of padao or parao there is no explanation for its medial -h-, nor for the corresponding segment in the Sundanese and Old Javanese cognates. Rather, these glottal fricatives agree in pointing to *q. Second, apparent cognates of Malay perahu are found not only in island Southeast Asia, but also in western Melanesia, a situation that is virtually unknown for established loan distributions. Finally, because it is also necessary to reconstruct *padaw ‘kind of sailboat’ (q.v.), many Philippine forms are difficult to classify. Tagalog paráw ‘large passenger and cargo sailboat’ must reflect *padaw, and Ilokano paráw (if not a Tagalog loan) must reflect *paraqu, but similar forms in other languages, as Bikol paráw ‘boat’ or Maranao parao ‘dhow’ are ambiguous for *paraqu or *padaw. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to include Polynesian forms such as Tongan folau ‘to voyage, travel, or journey by sea’ in the present comparison conflicts with the evidence for reconstruction of *-q-, and is best abandoned.


*parara thunder


POC     *parara thunder

Nauna paralthunderclap
Nali palanthunder
Leipon pererthunderclap
Wuvulu paxaxathunderclap
Tanga thunder
Label pararthunder
Mokilese palarthunder, thunder and lightning; to thunder
Hawaiian palala (length unexpl.)a low or rumbling sound

Note:   The final l in Nauna and the medial l in Mokilese are assumed to be products of lexically specific dissimilation. This item may have meant ‘thunderclap’ in contrast to other types of thundering sound.


*paras₁ shaved off, made smooth


PWMP     *paras₁ shaved off, made smooth

Itbayaten ma-marasto cut hay, leaves, or other plants for feeding animals
  p<in>arashay or food cut out or obtained by cutting (as of sweet potato vine, banana tree); hay to be given to cows, etc.; leaves of papaya or sweet potato to be given to pigs
Tagalog paláslopped off; levelled
Ngaju Dayak parassmooth, even, level
Malagasy farascraped, scratched, smoothed
Iban parastrim, cut even or smooth
Malay parastrimming off asperities
  me-marasto smooth
Karo Batak parascastrate
Sundanese parasshave off
Old Javanese parasthat which is trimmed by shaving (hair, eyebrow); razor; to shave (trim) the eyebrows
Sasak parasshave off the eyebrows

Note:   Tagalog palás may be a Malay loan. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Malagasy farana ‘made even, as the edges of anything’ rather than the form cited here. Sa'a hara ‘to rub; rubbed, used of ceremonial purification’, which he also included in the present comparison, is best treated as a chance resemblance.


*paras₂ face, looks, appearance


PWMP     *paras₂ face, looks, appearance

Maranao parasface, looks, appearance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) parasthe appearance or countenance of a person
Tiruray falascolor, form, appearance; a face
Tboli halasappearance
Iban parasshape of the face, features
Malay parasgood looks; appearance; handsomeness

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan in Maranao that was then spread locally into other languages of Mindanao.


*parásan rattan sp.


PPh     *parásan rattan sp.

Casiguran Dumagat palásanspecies of rattan used for tying fences because it lasts longer than other types of rattan exposed to wind and dampness
Tagalog palásanthick rattan used in making canes and furniture
Hanunóo parásana tall, mature type of rattan
Mansaka parasana kind of rattan (the largest type)


*parawan kind of tree


PWMP     *parawan kind of tree

Tagalog paláwanlarge plant with stout trunk, found in ravines along streams, but also cultivated for its edible corms or as ornamental plant; has big, hastate leaves, large, stout petioles, and large rootstocks which are edible: Cyrtosperma merkush Schott.
Iban perawangeneric for ‘red meranti’ hardwood trees (Shorea spp.), as well as softwoods
Malay pərawana tree: Hopea spp.


*parek murky, as water or other liquid


PPh     *parek murky, as water or other liquid

Yami parekmurky, as water
Itbayaten parekwine, liquor, sugarcane wine
Ilokano párekdregs of liquors
Bikol parókresidue, silt; sediment brought up in turbulent water; dregs left at the bottom of casks or other containers of wine or other liquor


PPh     *ma-parek murky, full of sediment

Yami ma-parekvery murky, as water
Bikol ma-parókhaving a sediment, residue


*parelak garden, orchard


PWMP     *parelak garden, orchard

Dairi-Pakpak Batak perlakenclosed garden, orchard; fruit orchard
Old Javanese parlakdry rice field
Tae' paʔlakcultivated field, garden
Buginese pallaʔenclosed garden, orchard
Makassarese parallakk-eŋfarmyard, compound

Note:   Mills (1981) compares the SSul forms with Old Malay, Old Balinese parlak, Angkola-Mandailing Batak porlak under a reconstruction "PInd" ‘garden’. This item evidently referred to an enclosed or clearly demarcated area of cultivation, perhaps primarily of fruit groves. Cense (1979) suggests that Makassarese parallakken derives from a stem allaʔ, but this almost certainly is an error.


*pari₁ scrape, grate


POC     *pari₁ scrape, grate

Roviana variwood rasp
Nggela palirub one thing against another
Fijian vari-ascale a fish; scratch

Note:   Also Toqabaqita fai ‘scrape the ground with hands, feet, paws (as a crab burrowing in)’.


*pari₂ to divide, share out (as an inheritance?)


POC     *pari₂ to divide, share out (as an inheritance?)

Motu hari-ato divide, give away
Bugotu variheir, heritage; to inherit
Nggela varian heir


*paria bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.


PWMP     *paria bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.     [doublet: *pariaq]

Ilokano pariáMomordica charantia L. A vine with yellow flowers. Its young shoots and leaves and its fruits are edible
Isneg pariyávine with yellow flowers and oblong, cylindric, ribbed rugose fruits, pointed at both ends: Momordica charantia L.
Kankanaey paliáMomordica balsamina L. A slender vine with yellow flowers and rough, elongated, bitter edible fruits
Pangasinan palyábitter melon
Cebuano paliyá, palíyawidely cultivated vine producing an elongated fruit with wart-like skin, eaten unripe as a vegetable, having a bitter taste, Momordica charantia
Iban periaʔbitter gourd Momordica charantia L., a yellow-white pointed cucumber with lumpy skin, eaten raw or cooked
Malay periaa gourd proverbial for its bitter taste: Momordica charantia
Tae' pariaclimbing plant with bitter cucumber-like fruit used as a vegetable

Note:   Also Itbayaten pariak ‘balsam apple (Momordica balsamina L.)’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *-pareya ‘(bitter melon) Momordica charantia L.’.


*pariama a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades


PWMP     *pariama a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades

Tausug paliyamaa good or abundant harvest
Ngaju Dayak pariamataboo word for "star"
Karo Batak bintaŋ pariamathe Seven Sisters, Pleiades
Toba Batak pariamaPleiades
Sangir pahiama, pohiamaa constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades
Mongondow pariamathe Seven Sisters (constellation)
Kaidipang puhiamaseason for planting rice or other crops, as shown by the position of the stars
Tae' pariamaname of a constellation

Note:   Also Soboyo pariama ‘the Seven Sisters, Pleiades’. Fortgens (1921) marks this as a Ternate loan, but the Ternate form in turn must have been borrowed from a language of Sulawesi or the southern Philippines. Although it is no longer analyzable, I assume that this term (a quadrisyllable) was originally polymorphemic.


*pariaq the bitter melon: Momordica charantia


PWMP     *pariaq the bitter melon: Momordica charantia     [doublet: *pariaʔ]

Maranao pariaʔsucculent vegetable with quinine bitter taste: Momordica charantia L.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) periaʔa plant the leaves and fruit of which are eaten as a vegetable. The fruit is very bitter, but relished: Momordica charantia
Tiruray feriyaʔa vine, Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Grey, Momordica charantia L.
Uma pariaʔvine with bitter fruit eaten as a vegetable: Momordica charantia

Note:   Also Itbayaten pariak ‘an edible plant: Momordica charantia’. Zorc (1971) reconstructs PPh *-pareya ‘(bitter melon) Momordica charantia L.’.


*parij ditch, canal


PWMP     *parij ditch, canal     [disjunct: *parik]

Iban paritditch, drain
Maloh parék (é unexpl.)ditch, canal
Malay paritgroove, cutting, drain; ditch or open moat
Karo Batak parikditch, furrow, canal
Toba Batak parikembankment, earthen wall
Nias fariexcavated conduit; embankment
Javanese palirfurrow, gully, channel

Note:   Tolai baret ‘gutter’, paret ‘trench’ appears to be a Malay loanword. Although Malay loans are almost unheard of in Oceanic languages, this item may have been introduced during the colonial period.


*parik ditch, canal


PWMP     *parik ditch, canal     [disjunct: *parij]

Iban paritditch, drain
Maloh parék (é unexpl.)ditch, canal
Malay paritgroove, cutting, drain; ditch or open moat
Karo Batak parikditch, furrow, canal
Toba Batak parikembankment, earthen wall
Nias fariexcavated conduit; embankment
Javanese palirfurrow, gully, channel

Note:   The Maloh and Toba Batak forms could regularly reflect *parij, but Karo Batak parik could not -- hence the disjunct.


*pariuk earthenware cooking pot


PAN     *pariuk earthenware cooking pot

Paiwan pariukwok, large, round-bottomed metal pan for cooking
Ilokano pariókan iron pan with a round bottom and a short iron handle in the shape of a socket
Kankanaey paliókiron pan with rounded bottom and short round handle
Ifugaw palyúkbroad iron pot
Tagalog palayók, palyókearthen pot for cooking
Iban periokcooking pot, saucepan
Malay periokpot (usually of earthenware) for boiling rice
Sundanese pariukearthen pot or pan for cooking
Buruese pariu-tcooking pot

Note:   The reference to "metal" cooking pots in Paiwan and the languages of northern Luzon suggests borrowing. However, a source is unknown, and the glosses for Tagalog and Malay suggest an earthenware pot which may have given its name to metal cooking utensils that were subsequently introduced. Lambrecht (1978:405) states that Ifugaw palyúk ‘broad iron pot’ is an imitation of Spanish parioc ‘frying pan’, but I have been unable to confirm this claim.


*paro to scrape


POC     *paro to scrape

Lau faroscraper for grating yams
Fijian varoto file, saw, or rasp
Maori wharo, wha-wharo, wharo-wharoto scrape

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Fijian varo to *parut ‘rasp’, but was forced by this decision to accept an irregular change. Cebuano palut ‘peel skin off (as from an apple); for the skin to get chafed; shave the head bald’ may be related through a PMP etymon *palet.


*parpar flat, even, level


PWMP     *parpar flat, even, level     [disjunct: *palpal]

Cebuano palpálfor the feet to get flat; flat, of feet
  palpal-únsomewhat flat-footed
Iban paparcut smooth (with adze, etc.)


*parud rasp, file


PMP     *parud rasp, file

Ida'an Begak parudscrape
Ngaju Dayak ma-marutto rub (body parts, as to relieve pain)
Iban parutgrater, rasp; to grate
Malay parutcoconut grater, rasp; a piece of hard wood with a rough surface
  mə-marutto rasp coconuts
Sundanese paruda rasp
  marudto rasp or grate
Javanese parudgrater
  marudto grate
  parud-anhaving been grated
Balinese paruda rasp, file
  parud-anfilings, what has been rasped or filed
Sasak paruta rasp, file
  mə-marutto rasp, grate
Tae' paruʔto rasp, grate
  pə-paruʔa rasp, grater
Rembong parutto grate (as coconuts)
Rotinese paluto grate (coconuts)

Note:   Also Kayan (Uma Juman) ) parut ‘grater’ (< Malay). Dempwolff (1938) compared the Ngaju Dayak and Malay terms cited here with Javanese parut ‘rasp, grater’, and Fijian i varo ‘a saw’, varo-ta ‘to file, saw, or rasp’, and posited Uraustronesisch *parut ‘rasp, grater’. However, both Pigeaud (1938) and Horne (1974) give Javanese parud rather than parut, and the Fijian form is better assigned to POc *paro ‘to scrape’.


*paR-₁ derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns


PWMP     *paR- derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns

Tagalog pag-prefix forming verbal nouns: act of. 1. Followed by the simple root word if derived from an um verb, as um-alis 'to depart': pag-alis 'departure'. 2. Followed by the root word with the first syllable reduplicated, if derived from a mag- verb, as mag-alis 'to remove', pag-a-alis 'removal, act of removing'
Bikol pag-nominal affix: abot 'arrive', pag-abot 'arrival'
Kadazan Dusun pog-nominal affix: mog-odu 'to rebuke', pog-odu 'a rebuke'
Bahasa Indonesia per-The prefix per- replaces the prefix ber- of verbs and adjectives, and so forms a noun indicating the person or instrument performing the action referred to by that verb, or possessing the quality referred to by that adjective (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:99)
Toba Batak par-Substantives with the prefix par- do occur without there being a corresponding verb with the prefix mar-. These substantives are derived from substantives that have a preposition before them, or from those that, with a preposition, function as adverbs ... These substantives rather represent a person and, therefore, can also be formed from intransitive verbs (van der Tuuk 1971:186)


PWMP     *paR- ... -an derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location

Murut (Timugon) pag- ... -anoccurs with verbs which are inflected with mag-₁, mag-₂, and man- in the subject focus (Prentice 1971:140)
Bahasa Indonesia per- ... -anin a few cases per- replaces ber- in verbs and combines with the suffix -an to form nouns referring to the process of the action referred to by the verb; occasionally the noun refers to the place where the action is performed (Soenjono and Macdonald 1967:100)
Toba Batak par- + N + -anmakes nouns of place (Nababan 1981:95)

Note:   Wolff (1981) considers the form and meaning of *paR- within the context of a larger comparison of the morphology of Tagalog and Bahasa Indonesia. He concludes (p. 87, fn. 14): "The meanings of pag- and per- are elusive and range widely. We doubt that they can be profitably compared." It is quite possible that *paR- had multiple functions in PWMP, and that the meaning reconstructed here is only one of several glosses that may eventually be associated with this etymon.


*paR-₂ numeral prefix: do x times


PAN     *paR-₂ divide into x (x = numeral)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR- X -(en)do X times (X = numeral)
Bikol pag- X -(on)divide into X; send X at a time (X = numeral)
Malay per-duahalf
  sa per-tiga-anone third (i.e. one part of something divided into three equal parts)
Karo Batak per-duadivide into two

Note:   Probably identical to *paR-₁.


*paRa₂ collective particle


PMP     *paRa₂ collective particle

Malay paracollective prefix implying a certain parity (used before nouns to indicate collectivities of persons sharing some vocational or other feature
Acehnese parahorde, troop
Old Javanese paraa personal demonstrative particle for a number of persons belonging to the same category
Makassarese paraall, both (in composite expressions)
Buli fa-plural or collective prefix on verbs

Note:   This item almost certainly was a particle rather than a prefix, since prefixal vowels, like other vowels in prepenultimate syllables, would merge as e in Malay.


*paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft


PAN     *paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft

Atayal pagathe stand used for the heads taken in headhunting
Yami palashelf above the oven that is used to dry wood
Itbayaten payaplace above the stove where firewood is kept dry
Isneg páxathe central shelf of the three that are fixed over the hearth (used for storing bundles of rice that have to be dried before pounding)
Ifugaw paláattic of an Ifugaw house in which rice bundles (and some other things) are stored
Pangasinan pálaplace for storing pillows and mats
Tagalog págastorage loft made of bamboo attached to ceiling
Bikol págastorage loft made from bamboo, attached to the ceiling just above the stove, usually used for storing firewood
Hanunóo págashelf
Cebuano págashelf put above the stove; platform built close to the roof forming a loft, but not extending the entire length of the house
Maranao pagaattic
Mansaka pagaplace where kitchen utensils are kept
Tboli halasuspended platform above the firetable, used to dry wood, corn, tobacco, etc.
Berawan (Long Terawan) pakkihstorage shelf above the hearth
Kenyah (Long Anap) paastorage rack for firewood above the hearth
Kayan pahaʔrack above the hearth for storing firewood
Wahau pəhaʔdrying rack above the hearth
Kelai phaʔdrying rack above the hearth
Mei Lan Modang pəhaʔdrying rack above the hearth
Woq Helaq Modang pəhaʔdrying rack above the hearth
Ngaju Dayak paheshelf over the hearth where firewood is placed to dry
Iban paraframe or rack over a hearth for drying or preserving things laid on it; platform for felling large trees; hide or machan for hunter in tree
Malay parashelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptable for cooking pots; any shelf-like upper apartment in a Malay house, serving as an attic or home for a young girl during her seclusion
Acehnese paraattic, loft (under the ceiling)
Karo Batak paraname for various racks above the fireplace (where husked rice is kept dry, cooking pots are stored, firewood is kept, etc.)
Sundanese paraattic, loft (used for storage)
Sasak parashelf over the hearth
Sangir paharack used in drying copra, or in the kitchen above the hearth on which fish is smoked, etc.
Tae' parathe slanting upper portion of the front and rear facades of a house
Makassarese (Bantaeng) paraattic, loft
Wolio paaattic, bay at the side of a house, on higher level than the floor
  paa ombusmoking rack over kitchen fire
Rembong parauppermost floor of a house
Buruese pahabamboo rack
Waropen arastorage rack above the hearth; loft


POC     *paRa, baRa storage shelf above the hearth

Nauna payshelf above the hearth for storing food, betel, etc., but not firewood
Loniu paysmoking rack for fish and storage rack above the hearth
Nali payshelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc.
Kele paypay
Levei pwashelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc.
Mailu waratable for smoking fish
Motu haraplatform of sticks on which meat is grilled; a gridiron
Cheke Holo farabamboo or wooden storage shelf, often located above a stone oven
Kwaio balaracks in house for drying wood, etc.
'Āre'āre parasmall platform, mostly above the fireplace, used as a depository


PMP     *paRa paRa storage shelf; attic, loft

Maranao paga-pagaattic-like garret
Malagasy fara-farabedstead; stone shelves in native tombs on which corpses are laid
Malay para-parashelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptacle for cooking-pots
Toba Batak para-parawooden rack that in a Batak house runs from the door around the entire house
Tae' para-pararack in a house where eating utensils are put
Makassarese para-paragrill on which a cooking pot is set
Wolio paa-paasmall bay at the side of a house, used for storage
Rembong (Waru-Kia) para-parauppermost floor of a house

Note:   Also Rejang palai ‘a ceiling’. Lister-Turner and Clark (1930) list Motu hara as a Koitabu (non-Austronesian) loan, but the evidence cited here makes the reverse direction of borrowing far more likely (also cf. the clear loan in Mailu wara ‘table for smoking fish’). The glosses for several widely separated reflexes suggest that the *paRa typically was made of bamboo, and was used principally for the storage of firewood. Virtually all reflexes agree that it was built above the hearth, where smoke from the cooking fire served to dry and preserve objects placed on it. It is possible that the PMP house had more than one storage shelf above the hearth, but terminological distinctions are unknown. In addition it appears that PMP *paRa referred too a shelf-like platform which formed an attic or loft near the roof of the house.


*paRa-₂ reciprocal prefix


PCEMP     *paRa- reciprocal prefix

Rembong paramutual, reciprocal
Tolai warareciprocal prefix used with verbs, e.g. kul 'to pay', wara-kul 'to pay each other'; this word often becomes wari- before r, e.g. wari-rap

Note:   Also Kayan pala- ‘prefix of mutual or reciprocal action’. The relationship of this item to the much better-attested Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian *paRi- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is unclear, though Lanyon-Orgill's (1962) gloss for Tolai suggests that the two may have been allomorphs of a single morpheme.


*paRada handle of an axe or adze


PMP     *paRada handle of an axe or adze

Bontok pagádathe handle of the wásay axe
Kankanaey pagádahandle (of an ax)


POC     *paRara handle of an axe or adze

Duke of York wararahandle of a stone club or adze
Gedaged pazazhandle (of a broom, hammer, but not of cups, etc.)
Motu pararahandle (given only in the English index)
Roviana vararawooden handle, as of an axe, etc.
Nggela valalahandle; cross handle of an adze
Sa'a halalato helve an axe
Puluwat paar, pera-nhandle, as of knife or saw
Woleaian pash, pashathat part of a utensil or tool which is to be held with the hand
Lonwolwol verɛ-handle of -

Note:   The second and third consonants of this form are disambiguated by Bontok and Kankanaey of northern Luzon, and by Puluwat and Woleaian of western Micronesia. The latter forms reflect POc *b, together with loss of *R and haplology Puluwat paar < *bara, Woleaian pash < *bada)."

Nggela valala (expected **valara) and Sa'a halala (expected **halara) show assimilation of POc *r to *R. Since all other witnesses have merged PMP *R and *r, it is possible that the POc form itself contained this assimilation (hence POc *paRaRa). This is, indeed what Milke (1968) reconstructed, though on the basis of no diagnostic evidence for distinguishing POc *R from *r. Palauan ordóm-el ‘handle’, merédem ‘put a handle on (knife, spear, etc.)’ may point to a variant *paRedem.


*paRaek hoarse


PMP     *paRaek hoarse

Kankanaey pagáekhoarse
Tagalog pagákhoarse and broken (said of the voice)
Buginese paraʔhoarse


POC     *paRak hoarse

Tongan hoarse, of the voice
Samoan hoarse, husky
Rarotongan ʔāhoarse, husky
Hawaiian hoarse, hoarseness

Note:   Also Pangasinan pagás ‘hoarse; speak hoarsely’.


*paRaq to swell, boil


POC     *paRaq₁ to swell, boil     [doublet: *mpaRoq]

Arosi harato swell, of the body; become hard and round, of a swelling
Bauro haraa boil
Tongan blister
Samoan mata-fāboils on the face (Pratt 1984)

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Samoan mata-fā to PAn *baReq, but could not easily reconcile either the oral grade reflex of POc *p or the irregular development of the last vowel with the development in Fijian (bo). The final consonant in this form is posited only to satisfy the Regularity Hypothesis, on the assumption that *paRaq is a doublet of POc *mpaRoq which differs in no feature other than the consonant grade of *p and the quality of the last vowel.


*paRas to step, tread on something


POC     *paRas to step, tread on something

Takia -parstep, pace, tread on
Nehan parahaput foot against something, place foot firmly
Nggela pala-palaa ladder, steps into a house
Chuukese fǣt-ito kick (something)
Mota varato tread, stamp, walk; to measure by feet
  varasto stamp for something; to trample on; to trample to death, as intruders in a gamal (men’s house)
Raga varastep
  varah-istep heavily, stamp (in dance, etc.); tread on, step in, straddle
Naman veresstep on
Fijian to tread softly
  vā-cato tread softly on something

Note:   A longer version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross (2016b:473-474).


*paRatpat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.


PWMP     *paRatpat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.     [doublet: *paRepat]

Casiguran Dumagat pagátpatuncultivated tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia acida (wood used for house posts)
Tagalog pagátpattree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris (Merrill 1954)
Bikol pagatpáttree producing a wood suitable for house posts: Sonneratia alba
Aklanon pagátpata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.)
Cebuano pagátpattree of mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris and acida
Makassarese parappaʔa tree with a fruit shaped like an apple: Sonneratia oborata

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Tagalog pagátpat with Toba Batak parapat ‘kind of bamboo’, Malay perepat ‘rhizophore’ under an etymon *p-aR-atpat ‘name of a plant’. However, the Batak word appears to be unrelated and the Malay word appears to reflect a doublet *paRepat (q.v.).


*paRaw hoarse


PAN     *paRaw hoarse

Kavalan parawhoarse
Itbayaten ma-payawhoarse
Ilokano párawhoarse
Isneg págawhoarse
Itawis páhawhoarseness
Ayta Abellan payohoarse
Tagalog págawhoarseness of voice
Hanunóo pagáwhoarseness
Cebuano pagáwhoarse, become hoarse
Maranao pagawhoarse voice
Kayan pahauhoarse, of voice
Iban parauhoarse
Malay parauhoarseness due to overmuch talking or shouting or to a cold (not of voice naturally harsh)
Acehnese parohoarse
Simalur halohoarse
Chamorro a-fagaohoarse

Note:   Also Pazeh puhaw ‘hoarse’, Nias faru, Makassarese parro ‘hoarse’. + Malay (Ambon) paru léhér


*paR(e)bu one of the four principal rafters


PPh     *paR(e)bu one of the four principal rafters

Ilokano parbóthe four rafters that meet the solókan (hip rafters) at their upper end, near the ridge of the roof
Hanunóo pagbúone of the four principal rafters, frequently of bamboo, used in the Hanuno'o construction of a house roof
Aklanon págbobeam, girder (supporting roof)


*paRepat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.


PWMP     *paRepat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.     [doublet: *paRatpat]

Iban perepata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (L.)
Malay perepata sea-shore tree: Sonneratia griffithii and S. acida
Proto-Sangiric *paRəpatmangrove
Sangir pahepaʔa shore tree, the mangrove: Rhizophora conjugata
Mongondow pogopatkind of ironwood tree: Metrosideros vera


*paRi cut or lop off branches


POC     *paRi₃ cut or lop off branches

Lakalai valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree
'Āre'āre harilop off branches, cut off a bunch of bananas, betelnuts
Sa'a halilop off branches
Arosi haritear, tear off, pull off a cluster of fruit
Rotuman faicut or chop down (a tree or branch)

Note:   Also Lakalai vale ‘to cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree’.


*paRi- prefix of reciprocal or collective action


PEMP     *paRi- prefix of reciprocal or collective action

Buli fa-prefix used for the reciprocal form of a verb
  fa-, fai-prefix which indicates that the action concerns a plural subject; with nouns it also forms collectives (e.g. rama 'sister', fa-rama-u 'sisters')
Mussau ai-reciprocal or collective action (possibly fossilized in ai-obi 'fight', ai-ora 'copulate')
Label war-reciprocal prefix
Cheke Holo fari-reciprocal prefix; simultaneously, mutually (e.g. fari-gamu 'eat together')
Bugotu vari-prefix denoting reciprocity
Arosi hari-reciprocal prefix generally having the force of united action, rather than mutual action
Gilbertese ai-prefix to some words having the meaning of reciprocity; ex., hit one another, look at each other, follow one another, etc.
Woleaian fe-reciprocal prefix, attached to ŋal 'to' and taŋ 'away from'
Mota var-prefix, 1. of reciprocity, 2. of plurality (e.g. children crying all together)
Rotuman hai-prefix forming reciprocal verbs
Fijian vei-a prefix. Added to nouns it forms a collective plural (vale 'house', vei-vale 'a group of houses'). Added to verbs it makes reciprocals. It may also be added to names of relationships to produce a reciprocal sense: vei-taci-ni 'brother and sister', the taci relationship
Tongan fe-the so-called reciprocal prefix... It may be: (a) actional, (b) habituative, (c) invigorative, (d) accelerative, (e) communal, indicating united or simultaneous action, (f) collaborative, (g) reciprocal, (h) competitive, (i) reciprocative, meaning hither and thither, or in (or to or from) various directions
Samoan fe-prefix to word-bases, used either alone or in combination with a suffix...(a) when fe- is used without a suffix it may denote the plural...(b) when used in combination with a suffix...fe- may denote (i) the plural, (ii) a reciprocal process, (iii) an action or process carried out here and there, up and down, hither and thither, all around, quickly, etc.
Rennellese he-...ʔakicommon affix indicating reciprocal or plural action

Note:   Also Kelabit pere- ‘reflexive prefix’. Although this affix is commonly glossed ‘reciprocal prefix’, such a description clearly oversimplifies the facts. Dempwolff (1920) posited PAn *baRi- ‘Sozialprafix’. His supporting evidence from non-Oceanic languages consisted of the Malay prefix ber- and putative fossilized affixes in Toba Batak (bor-), Sundanese(bar-), Ngaju Dayak(/bar-/), and Makassarese(/ba-/). Malay ber-, however, evidently derives from *maR- (Teeuw 1965), and the reality of the "fossilized affixes" in the other languages is open to question. Despite these problems a number of Oceanic languages clearly reflect *paRi-, and Buli fa-, fai- evidently is cognate with these forms, thus indicating Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian *paRi-.

The following additional observations are noteworthy:

(1) the data in Pawley (1972:45) show that *R has irregularly disappeared in a number of reflexes in the Solomons. Some languages have doublets with and without the regular reflex of *R, which may differ in meaning: Bugotu vari- ‘prefix denoting reciprocity’, vei- ‘prefix denoting reciprocity; the suffix gi is generally added to the compound word (which may be used as a noun)’; Arosi hai- ‘reciprocal, showing mutual action; hai- differs from hari- in that the former usually shows mutual assisting or conflicting action and hari- merely combined action, but there are exceptions in both cases’. Together with Motu he- ‘prefix, with verbs indicating the reflexive, reciprocal, and state or condition’ these forms raise the possibility that POc distinguished *pai- and *paRi-. As argued in Blust (1977), however, grammatical morphemes tend to undergo sporadic compressions. The probability that this is the correct explanation in the present case is strengthened by the fact that attention to sound correspondences alone would require the reconstruction of three POc variants: *paRi-, *pai-, and *pe-. Sporadic contraction offers a more economical explanation of the correspondences, since both the loss of *R and the contraction of derived *-ai can be seen as realizations of a single tendency.

(2) It appears from the agreement of Bugotu with Fijian and various Polynesian languages that *paRi- co-occurred with *-qaki under circumstances still to be determined.

(3) Ujir (Kayan) pe- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is superficially comparable to reflexes of *paRi-, since this is the shape that a reflex of *paRi- would have before consonant-initial stems. However, before vowel-initial stems we would expect Ujir peh-, not the attested pe-; for the present this resemblance is treated as a product of convergence.

(4) Finally, it is clear that reciprocal action was only a part of the meaning of *paRi-, which more generally appears to have marked actions performed by multiple experiencers. If the somewhat tenuous reconstruction POc *paRa- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is valid, it suggests that *paRa- and *paRi- divided up the semantic space involving multiple experiencers in ways yet to be precisely determined.


*paRigi artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch


PWMP     *paRigi artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch

Malay perigiwell, spring
Sundanese parigiexcavated ditch or canal
Old Javanese parigilow encircling wall of stones (of yard, trees), paved (terraced?) bank or slope (of pond)
Sasak perigistone rim (edge, wall); rim of road, pond or well
Proto-Sangiric *paRigiwell
Sangir pahighipit, well
Wolio parigiditch, moat

Note:   Also Tiruray faligiʔ ‘a well for water’, Mongondow parigiʔ ‘well for water’, Buruese parigi ‘well’, all of which appear to be Malay loans, and Balinese parigi ‘stone steps, stairway’, which may be a loan from Old Javanese. The essence of this comparison was first noted in print by Sneddon (1984). Zoetmulder (1982) suggests that Old Javanese parigi may be a Tamil loan, but the wider distribution documented here makes this unlikely.


*paRiS stingray


PAN     *paRiS stingray

Siraya pagigstingray


PMP     *paRih skate, stingray (generic); a constellation

Ilokano págikind of ray whose meat is esteemed
Itawis págistingray
Casiguran Dumagat pagísting ray, genus Dasyatis
Tagalog págiray fish
Bikol págistingray
Hanunóo págisting ray, devil ray, rayfish
Abaknon pahistingray
Aklanon págiray, ray fish
Cebuano págigeneral term for rays
Maranao pagistingray
Bintulu paistingray
Melanau (Mukah) paistingray
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) paystingray
Ngaju Dayak pahistingray (skin used as a rasp or grater, and in polishing rough surfaces)
Malagasy faikind of fish with a rough skin; rough
Iban pariʔskate; ray. Generic for sting-rays (Trygonidae), electric rays (Torpedinae), and eagle-rays (Myliobatidae)
  bintaŋ pariSouthern Cross (constellation)
  kikir pariskate-skin grater
Malay bintaŋ paria constellation, the Southern Cross
Acehnese paròëstingray
  bintaŋ paròëa constellation, the Southern Cross
Simalur halistingray
  bintun halia constellation, the Southern Cross
Karo Batak paristingray
Javanese pestingray
Balinese pahia species of shark
Sasak pai, paristingray
Proto-Minahasan *pahiray fish
Mongondow pagistingray; also a constellation: the Stingray
Gorontalo pahikind of marine fish with skin like sandpaper
Kaidipang pagistingray
Buginese paristingray


PCEMP     *paRi stingray

Bimanese faistingray
Ngadha parisawfish
Sika parifish a fathom long
Kambera paristingray
Rotinese haistingray
Selaru arstingray
Yamdena farikind of ray fish; the constellation Scorpio
Fordata faristingray; the constellation Scorpio
Kei fārstingray; the constellation Scorpio
Seit alistingray
Soboyo ahistingray
Kowiai/Koiwai farstingray
Sawai fastingray
Buli stingray
Mayá ꞌfa³stingray


POC     *paRi stingray

Nali peystingray
Ahus paythe smallest kind of stingray
Kele peistingray
Levei pepstingray
Lindrou beystingray
Bipi paystingray
Wuvulu paistingray
Mendak wastingray
Tanga festingray
Label warstingray
Kove palistingray
Gedaged pazstingray
Gitua parstingray
Kilivila vaistingray
Molima valistingray
Takuu haistingray
Cheke Holo valistingray
Nggela valia species of fish, ray, skate
Lau falistingray
'Āre'āre haristingray
Sa'a halistingray
Arosi haristingray
Gilbertese bai-manugiant ray, manta ray (Polynesian loan)
Puluwat fáári-yápkind of large but harmless ray fish
  fáyiray fish
Woleaian fai-yafile (a tool); rayfish (general term)
Mota var, varistingray
Vatrata verstingray
Mosina verstingray
Merig verstingray
Piamatsina varistingray
Peterara varistingray
Atchin ni-vastingray
Lingarak ne-vastingray
Axamb ni-vestingray
Maxbaxo ni-vestingray
Bonkovia vistingray
Pwele faistingray
Lelepa paistingray
Efate (South) faistingray
Canala pestingray
Rotuman haistingray
Fijian vaia ray or skate, Raiidae; also a string figure
Tongan faiskate or sting-ray
  fai kilikind of skate or sting-ray with very hard, rough skin from which rasps are made
Samoan faisting-ray, Dasyatis sp.
Rennellese haigeneral for rays and skate-like fishes
Maori whaiDasyatis brevicaudatus, sting-ray and Raja nasuta, skate
  te whai a titipathe "coalsack", a dark spot near the Southern Cross; cat's-cradle; play at cat's-cradle


PMP     *paRih manuk large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray

Tagalog pali-manókJavan cow-nosed ray
Kwaio fali-manumanta ray
'Āre'āre hari-manubig ray fish
Tongan fai-manukind of skate or sting-ray
Kapingamarangi hai-manufish sp.: bar ray
Hawaiian hī-hī-manuvarious stingrays (Dasyatidae) and eagle rays (Myliobatidae) (with assimilation of *hai-hai to hī-hī).

Note:   Also Bare'e pagi ‘file, consisting of a block of wood wrapped in stingray skin’, Wolio pagi ‘ray (fish); file, grater, rasp’, Manggarai, Kambera pai ‘stingray’, all of which may be loans, though source languages are difficult to find for at least the first three words. This fish was valued for its rough skin, which was used like sandpaper.

PMP *paRih evidently described all skates and rays, and also referred to a constellation which was conceived as resembling a skate or ray. Three CMP languages which are either closely related or geographically contiguous agree in indicating Scorpio as the constellation in question, while Malay bintaŋ pari, Maori te whai a titipa both refer to the Southern Cross or to some feature that is visually near it. The reference to a string figure used in Cat's-cradle in Fiji and parts of Polynesia may derive historically from the constellation.

Finally, reflexes of PMP *paRih manuk vividly illustrate the value of loanwords in reconstruction. In a number of languages the larger manta or eagle rays are lexically identified with eagles or bats: Loniu menuay, Ahus menwa, Pak, Leipon menwey ‘sea eagle; spotted eagle ray’, Wuvulu, Aua manua ‘sea eagle’, Gapapaiwa manu-manua ‘small (=large?) sting ray’, Chamorro fanihen tasi (lit. ‘bat of the sea’) ‘manta ray, sting ray, leopard ray’. Reflexes such as Kwaio fali-manu, Tongan fai-manu thus apparently derive from POc *paRi manuk ‘manta ray, spotted eagle ray’ (lit. ‘bird ray’). This inference is confirmed by a single known non-Oceanic reflex, which is clearly a loan: Tagalog pali-manók. Given the larger pattern of known borrowing in Tagalog, one would naturally suspect Malay as the source of this term, but pari manok apparently does not occur in Malay. Despite the difficulty of identifying a source, however, Tagalog palimanók must derive from a WMP language and the inference to PMP *paRih manuk is inescapable.


*paRo₁ drill through, pierce, perforate


POC     *paRo₁ drill through, pierce, perforate

Nggela valopierce a hole in a porpoise tooth, so as to string it
Kwaio falodrill a hole
  falo-faloa drill
'Āre'āre haropierce, bore, drill
Sa'a halobore into with circular motion, as feet into sand; twist a stick in making a hole; the flint point of a drill, haro mao
Nukuoro haodrill through, burrow
  hao-ŋaa hole in something
Maori whaoperforate, chisel out

Note:   Maori whao, given as a single dictionary entry with the meanings ‘perforate, chisel out’, probably reflects two etyma, POc *paRo₁ and POc *paqot ‘chisel’ (q.v.).


*paRo₂ snatch, seize, rob


POC     *paRo₂ snatch, seize, rob

Nggela valorob openly, take and keep, refuse to return, an open act, unlike gito, steal
  valo-valoto rob
Samoan faosnatch, seize, grab; rob (of belongings, money, spouse)
Hawaiian haoscoop or pick up; grasp, pillage, plunder; robber


*paRut pluck, uproot


PMP     *paRut pluck, uproot

Ilokano párutpull up, grub up, uproot, pluck up by the roots, pull off, pluck (feathers, hair, etc.)
Ifugaw pálutpull out grass, weeds, small plants including the roots
Pangasinan pálotpull out
Gorontalo pahutouproot (plants), unsheathe (weapon)
Kwaio faluremove, pluck

Note:   The resemblance of the isolated Kwaio form to the corresponding term in WMP languages may be a product of chance. If so, this etymology is reduced to a PPh innovation.


*pasa swamp


POC     *pasa swamp

Kilivila pasaswamp
Marshallese patswamp
Puluwat paatswamp
  peta-nits swamp

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond, Pawley and Ross (2003:55). However, they compare the Oceanic forms with Dempwolff’s *paja (= *paya) ‘swamp’ on the mistaken assumption that Dempwolff’s *j was ancestral to POc *c rather than to POc *y.


*pasaŋ₁ pair, matching set


PMP     *pasaŋ₁ pair, matching set

Ilokano pásaŋcounterpart, match
  ag-ka-pásaŋto form a pair, to match
  i-pásaŋto substitute, give in exchange; transfer; endorse
Maranao pasaŋ-anset, as of kolintang (gongs) or buttons
Tiruray fasaŋ-ana set of five Tiruray tuned gongs
Yakan mag-pasaŋ(-pasaŋ)to be approximately the same size (of people and animals); it is always comparative
Tausug pasaŋa pair, set (of material things)
  pasaŋ-unto put things together into sets or groups
Kadazan Dusun pasaŋpair
  ka-pasaŋsuitable as a pair
  pi--pasaŋ-onto be put into pairs
  sa-pasaŋone pair
Iban sa-pasaŋa pair
Malay pasaŋpair; (slang) to couple (kasut sa pasaŋ ‘a pair of boots’)
Acehnese pasaŋpair, team, spouse, partner, equal
Simalur sa-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-anyoke on the neck of a carabao
Karo Batak pasaŋa pair; belonging together
  si-pasaŋ rasforming a set; in agreement with
Toba Batak pasaŋmatching, going together
  sa-pasaŋone pair
Nias sa-fasaa pair
Lampung pasaŋpair
  sa-pasaŋone pair
Sundanese pasaŋpair, team
  sa-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-anyoke for a team of draught animals
Old Javanese sa-pasaŋone yoke or pair, one cart
  a-pasaŋ-pasaŋ-anarm in arm
Javanese pasaŋpair (of shoes, etc.), team (as of draught animals)
  pasaŋ-anyoke (for draught animals)
Balinese pasaŋpair (of inanimate objects); a distich, a couplet in verse
  ha-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-ana couple, pair
Sasak pasaŋpair, team (of animals and objects)
  sə-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-anone of a pair
Wolio pasapair (e.g. of shoes), team (of horses); set; make a pair, match well, be well suited, be alike, be equal
Muna pasamatch, equal, rival; pair (male and female)
  pasa-no mbadhamarriage partner (lit. ‘match of body’)
  po-pasato pair up (in games)
  pasa-ejust like, exactly like
Rembong pasaŋto match; a pair
Kambera pahaŋupair; form a pair; agree or fit with one another
Sa'a hatato go together, to accompany one another

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Sa'a hata ‘to go together, to accompany one another; to set well, to be easy, comfortable’, Tongan māhaŋa ‘born together, to be twins, triplets; (in marks, score, winning a race, etc.) equal, tie; (of two bananas, etc.) growing together, joined’ Futunan, Samoan māsaŋa ‘twins’ under *pasaŋ. However, Sa'a hata is best treated as a chance resemblance without a known etymology, and the Polynesian forms appear to reflect *ma-saŋa ‘bifurcated, forked, as a branch’.


*pasaŋ₂ insert, wedge in; prepare something for use


PWMP     *pasaŋ₂ insert, wedge in; prepare something for use

Tagalog pásaŋa well-adjusted wedge
  mag-pásaŋto wedge; to put in a wedge
  p<um>ásaŋto go or enter through a narrow passage
Bikol mag-pásaŋto fit the head of an axe on the handle by splitting an end of the handle so that it may be wedged tight in the head
Maranao pasaŋto aim, as a firearm
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pasaŋto place a leaf-bound resin lamp in a holder made of a piece of wood which is partially split so that the lamp may be wedged in it
Malay pasaŋputting in use or order or motion, as saddling or harnessing a horse, firing a cannon, hoisting a flag, setting a sail, lighting a lamp, setting up a machine, buttoning, etc.
Gayō pasaŋinsert
Karo Batak pasaŋinsert (in a game)
Toba Batak pasaŋprepare, use; prepare for use
Javanese pasaŋto put in place, set up

Note:   Also Gayō pasuŋ ‘insert (as peg in hole)’.


*pasaŋ₃ stake a bet in gambling


PWMP     *pasaŋ₃ stake a bet in gambling

Maranao pasaŋto bet, as in card game
Javanese pasaŋto place a bet
Muna pasastake one’s money (in gambling)


*pasaŋ₄ flood tide


PWMP     *pasaŋ₄ flood tide

Ida'an Begak pasaŋsea
Ngaju Dayak pasaŋflood tide (opposite of ebb tide)
Malay pasaŋtidal flow, in constrast to surut (ebb)
  pasaŋ anakneap tide
  pasaŋ bahtide causing inundation
  pasaŋ bəsarspring tide
Toba Batak pasaŋflood tide
Javanese pasaŋrising of flood waters
Tae' pasaŋflood tide

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan, since languages such as Toba Batak and Tae’ are spoken in inland areas far from the sea.


*pasaqaN shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole


PAN     *pasaqaN shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole     [disjunct: *pesan]

Thao pataqazshoulder pole (one person, two loads)
  mataqazcarry on a shoulder pole


PMP     *pasaqan carry on the shoulders

Tagalog pasána load or burden on the shoulders; burden; what is carried; a load (of things, care or work in physical or moral sense)
  pasan-ínto carry on the shoulder
Bikol paʔsáncarry on the shoulder
Cebuano pasʔáncarry something over the shoulders
Mongondow mo-motaancarry on the shoulder
  potaan-ontake it on your shoulder!
Bare'e mam-pasaʔacarry on the shoulder
Tetun hasancarry on the shoulders

Note:   Also Toba Batak ma-morsan, Sangir ma-masaəŋ ‘carry on the shoulder’


*pasa(rR) a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus


POC     *pasa(rR) a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus

Mendak pasaa plant: Vitex cofassus
Patpatar vasaraa plant: Vitex cofassus
Lakalai la-vasaa plant: Vitex cofassus
Marovo vasaraa plant: Vitex cofassus
Nggela vahaa plant: Vitex cofassus
Lau fataspecies of hardwood: Vitex cofassus
Sa'a hatahardwood tree
Fijian vasaa plant: Cerbera odollam

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Milke (1961), but considerably expanded by Ross (2008:206). The current version is an abbreviation of the latter.


*pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost


PAN     *pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost     [doublet: *pacek]

Amis paceka nail, nails
  mi-pacekto nail, hammer a nail into
Puyuma paseknail; hammer in a nail
  mi-pasekhave a nail in
Itbayaten paseknail
  i-pask-endowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree
Kankanaey pásekwedge
Ifugaw páhokwedge used to cleave logs before they can be split and serve as firewood
Bikol pásokwooden peg
  mag-pásokput something together with such pegs
Maranao pasekpost, pillar
Tombonuwo pasokpole
Kenyah (Long Anap) pasəkinsert something into something else
Iban pasaktreenail, dowel, peg, wedge; fix with these
Malay pasakfastening or tightening with a bolt, peg or wedge
  pasak-kan sepatu kudato shoe a horse
Rejang pasoʔnail (metal)
Mori Bawah pasowooden peg, nail


PCEMP     *pasekₐ drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops)

Komodo paséʔto plant (as rice, or bananas)
Manggarai pacekdrive in a stake (in making a fence); to plant, as rice; planted
Ngadha pasoto plant, as rice
Dobel ʔa-yayito plant


POC     *pasok to plant (crops)

Vitu vazo ~ vazo-vazoto plant
  vazoh-iato be planted
Gitua vazokto plant
Motu hado ~ hado-hadoto plant
Gabadi vagoto plant crops
Tawala wagoplant by pushing into the ground; to strike a cutting
Proto-Micronesian *faSoplanted; to plant; a planted thing
Gilbertese arok-aa plant, cultivated plants
Pohnpeian pɔdto be planted
  pɔdokto plant (something)
Chuukese fótoplanting
Puluwat fótto plant, insert, pick out, select; to be inserted, selected
Woleaian fata plant
  fato-giplant it, put it in place
  fato-goplant set aside for a particular purpose, usually for planting at a new taro patch or new garden
Mota wasto drive a hole, make a hole by hammering in some tool, as to drive holes through the plank side-pieces with a shell tool, and lash them to the hull

Note:   Also Mbula paaza ‘to plant, put into ground’. Ross (1988:88) reconstructed POc *pasoq ‘plant (tuber+)’, but this form appears to contain the monosyllabic root *-sek ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’ (Blust 1988), thus forcing an interpretation that the final consonant, which is ambiguous in nearly all languages he considered, is *k, not *q.


*pasi to plant yams


POC     *pasi to plant yams

Nggela vahi-koluto plant yams
Lau fasito plant
'Āre'āre hasi-ato plant (of food except taro)
Arosi hasito plant
Fijian vasito plant yams in the same ground two or more years in succession

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first proposed by Osmond (1998:132), who assigned it to ‘Proto-Eastern Oceanic’, although no such proto-language has been clearly established as distinct from Proto-Oceanic.


*pasiR sandbank, shoal in river or sea


PWMP     *pasiR sandbank, shoal in river or sea

Tagalog pásiga river that flows into the sea; sandy bank of a river
Cebuano pasígshoals, a shallow place in a body of water; for a water-covered area to become shallow
Mansaka pasígshallow rocky place in the sea
Iban pasirsand, sandbank; mudbank
  pasir buŋafine sand
  pasir keresikquicksand
Malay pasirsand; sandy stretch; sand-like
  pasir bəlanaksandy sea bottom that holds anchors well (lit. ‘mullet sand’)
  pasir panjaŋstretch of sandy beach
  buŋa pasirfine sand particles on still water
  ibu pasirgravel, shingle
Acehnese pasibeach, sand
Old Javanese pasi-sisea; beach, strand, shore
Balinese pasihthe sea
Totoli pasigsandbank
Tajio pasigsandbank
Ampibabo-Lauje pasigcoral reef
Bare'e pasigireef, shoal, sandbank
  pasigi malulusea grass
Tae' pasiʔsand
  batu pasiʔsandstone


PWMP     *pasiR-an sandbar, shoal in river or sea

Tagalog pasig-ansandy bank of a river
Malay pasir-ansand; sandy stretch; sand-like
Balinese pasih-pasih-ana small pool, pond

Note:   Also Old Javanese pasir ‘sea; beach, shore, river-bank’, a-masir ‘to go to the beach (the sea); like the sea’, pasir wukir ‘sea and mountains, also: rocky (mountainous) coast?’, pasir-pasir ‘lake; beach of lake; artificial lake or pond’, pasir-an ‘strand animal’ (< Malay?), Sundanese pasir ‘sand’ (< Malay).


*paspas₁ beat out, thresh


PAN     *paspas₁ beat out, thresh

Kavalan p<m>aspasto hit with a stick, to strike with a stick or twig
Amis pacpacbeat hard; thresh out; hit with twigs
Bikol paspása method of threshing in which the rice is beaten with sticks


*paspas₂ to brush away dust or dirt


PWMP     *paspas₂ to brush away dust or dirt

Yami paspasremove dirt; remove bad luck
Itbayaten pa-paspas-ento shake something so that dirt or something inserted comes out
Ifugaw pahpá(h)to purify, cleanse; applied to wounds
Tagalog pag-pa-paspásdusting (by sweeping, fanning or flicking action)
Waray-Waray pag-paspásthe act of wiping off mud and moisture from shoes or feet; the act of shaking off or getting rid of, as dust, etc.
  paspas-íto shake or dust off
Cebuano paspasduster; stick with strips of paper at the end to chase away flies; drive flies away with a fly whisk; hit someone with a duster or a fly whisk
Binukid paspasto dust, brush, sweep off (an area)
Mansaka paspasto brush away (as dust); to drive away; to exile (as person)
Mapun mapasto remove something by slapping, banging, brushing off (as when slapping a ball out of someone’s hand, banging an eraser against something to remove the built up chalk, brushing a bug off of one’s arm
Tausug mag-paspasto get rid of by brushing off; to brush off (something)
  paspas-ibrush it off (imper.)
Ngaju Dayak papasbroom; what is swept
  ma-mapa-mapassweep away a little
Malagasy fafasweeping, cleaning off
  ma-fafaexhaused, empty, gone
  ma-mafato sweep, to wipe, to clear away
  mi-fafato sweep, to wipe, to clear away
  ma-maspasto shake out, beat out dust from clothing


PPh     *paspas-an₁ (gloss uncertain)

Yami paspas-anremove grime
Itbayaten paspas-anto remove dirt or dust by brushing, to brush off or away
Kapampangan paspas-ansponge bathe, dab something on, whisk
Waray-Waray paspas-andoormat


*paspas₃ ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof


PWMP     *paspas₃ ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof

Hanunóo paspásdripping of rain from eaves
Kadazan Dusun papasditch, drain, channel
  ma-mapasto make a ditch or channel
  ka-papas-anact of making a ditch, drain, channel
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paspas-ena place on the ground where rain dripping from a roof makes a groove or channel; the dripline from a house (which is made by rain dripping from the roof)


PWMP     *papas-an (gloss uncertain)

Hanunóo paspás-anditch formed by rain dripping from eaves; rain ditch
Kadazan Dusun papas-anto make a ditch for


*paspás₄ do something quickly, in a hurry


PPh     *paspás₄ do something quickly, in a hurry

Ilokano paspas-ánto do quickly
Casiguran Dumagat paspasto work energetically
Ibaloy paspasfast, quick, speedy
Tagalog paspásspurt or burst of speed, activity or effort
Bikol paspásfast, quick, rapid
  mag-paspásto be quick, to accelerate
  pa-paspas-onto make something run faster (as a vehicle)
  paspas-érospeedster, speed demon (with Spanish agentive ending)
Aklanon páspasto hurry up, speed up, go faster; fast, quick, hurried; rash, too quick
Waray-Waray paspásfast; sudden; swift; prompt; quickly; with haste; rapidly
  pag-paspásthe act of hurrying up; haste; a hurry; quickness of movement or action
  paspas-íto hurry up; be hasty; get faster; rush up
Agutaynen paspasquickly, in a rush
Cebuano paspasfast in motion or doing something; do something hurriedly, get to be fast
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paspasto do something in a hurry
Tiruray fasfasto hurry something; quick, speedy
Tausug mag-paspasto put forth a sudden burst of speed, exert physical effort
  paspas-ispeed up! (imper.)


PPh     *paspas-an₂ to speed up, increase the pace of something

Ibaloy paspas-anto do something quickly
Agutaynen paspas-ando something quickly, at once, nonstop, or in a rush
Mapun paspas-anto speed up (when doing something); to do something faster
Yakan paspas-anto speed up an action

Note:   Also Tiruray fasfas ‘to hurry something; quick; speedy’, Mapun paspas ‘speedily (in contrast to the usual pace)’, and Yakan paspas ‘to do something fast (without stopping)’, maspas ‘to exert effort or be fast in doing something’, pa-paspas to ‘exert effort or be fast in doing something’, are assumed to be loans from a Greater Central Philippines source that is yet to be identified.


*pasu₁ cheek bone


PAN     *pasu₁ cheek bone     [doublet: *pasuŋ]

Puyuma pasucheek bone
Paku pahucheek
Old Javanese pasuroot of the nose
Makassarese pasuprominent cheek bones
Chamorro fasucheek, face
Bimanese pahuface
Manggarai pacucheek
Li'o pasucheek
Selaru asu-kecheek, jaw, molar teeth
Kamarian asucheek
Proto-Sub-Ambon *pasu-cheek

Note:   Also Thao patuk ‘cheek’.


*pasu₂ forehead; eyebrow


POC     *pasu₂ forehead; eyebrow

Mekeo (East) pakuforehead
Bileki vasuforehead
Dobuan asuforehead
Nggela vau-vahueyebrow
Arosi vasu-vasu-eyebrow
Marshallese yāteyebrow
Fijian vacuthe eyebrows

Note:   Osmond and Ross (2016a:119-120) connect this with PMP *pasu/pasuŋ ‘cheekbone’, but given the consistent semantic differences between Oceanic and non-Oceanic witnesses I favor two distinct comparisons for now.


*pasu₃ give birth to, have a child


POC     *pasu₃ give birth to, have a child

Hote vaubear a child, give birth; bear fruit
Bugotu vahubring forth, give birth to
Nggela vahuto bear, give birth to; be born
Paamese vasgive birth, have a child

Note:   A longer version of this comparison which suggests contamination with *pa-susu ‘to nurse, suckle a child’ was proposed by Ross and Osmond (2016c:221).


*pasuk enter


PAN     *pasuk enter

Amis pacokto slaughter, to kill with a knife or sword
Amis (Kiwit) mi-patsukto stab
Tagalog pásokentry; entrance; act of entering; admission; infiltration
Iban pasokenter into or upon, begin, go into


PMP     *p<um>asuk to enter

Ngaju Dayak masokenter, go into
Iban masokenter into or upon, begin
Malay masokentry; admission into
  masok-ito enter
Toba Batak masukto enter
Hawu mahuto enter, go inside

Note:   With root *-suk ‘insert, penetrate, enter’. PPh *suquk ‘enter’ suggests that this root may have been *-suquk rather than *-suk.


*pasuŋ cheek bone


PMP     *pasuŋ cheek bone     [doublet: *pasu]

Kankanaey pásoŋupper jawbone
Javanese pasuŋbridge of the nose, root of the nose
Sika pahuŋcheek


*pásuq to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn


PPh     *pásuq to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn

Itbayaten pasoroast (imper.)
  ma-masoto roast, to broil (root crops, meat)
Ivatan pasoto roast, broil
Ibatan ma-masoto roast over hot coals
Isneg pásoheat
Itawis pátuheat
  na-pátuhot (of things)
Tagalog pásoʔa scald; a burn; injury caused by fire or heat; burnt; scalded; seared
  p<um>ásoʔto burn slightly
Bikol mag-pásoʔto deliberately burn, scorch or scald; to cauterize
Inati pasoʔto burn
Agutaynen pa-masosomething which causes a caustic burn
Tausug pasuʔheat, warmth, high temperature; anger, temper
  pasuʔ atayhot temper, short temper
Proto-Minahasan *pasuʔhot
Tondano pasuʔhot
Tontemboan pasoʔwarm, hot


PPh     *ma-pásuq be scorched, scalded

Ilokano ma-pásoto be scalded, burnt
Tagalog ma-pásoʔto be burnt, scalded or injured by burning; to be seared (as by a hot iron)
Bikol ma-pásoʔto get burned, scalded, scorched
Agutaynen ma-pasofor the skin to be accidentally burned or scalded by hot or caustic substances
Tausug ma-pasuʔhot, warm (weather, body temperature); unlucky (of a day or month; e.g. for planting)
Tontemboan ma-pasoʔheat up something, become warm or hot
Mongondow mo-patuʔwarm


PPh     *ka-pasuq-an affected by heat (?)

Itawis ka-patw-ánhot (of persons)
Tontemboan ka-pasoʔ-anaffected by heat


PPh     *pasúq-en to roast; singe, cauterize

Itbayaten paso-ento roast, to barbecue
Ilokano pasú-ento singe wounds (to disinfect)
Isneg pasow-ánto heat
Tagalog pasúʔ-into burn slightly, e.g. the skin of a person or animal
Bikol pasúʔ-ento deliberately burn, scorch or scald; to cauterize
Tausug pasuʔ-unto heat (something)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pasi ‘heat’, ma-pasi ‘to burn oneself’, me-pasi ‘hot’, Hanunóo pásu ‘ritual scarification by burning, done most frequently by unmarried men’.


*patániq lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus


PPh     *patániq lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus

Ilokano patánilima bean: Phaseolus lunatus
Bontok patánilima bean: Phaseolus lunatus Linn.
  patani-ənto gather this bean
Tagalog patániʔlima bean
Hanunóo patánilima beans (Phaseolus lunatus Linn.), the largest type of beans cultivated by the Hanunóo
Cebuano patániʔlima bean: Phaseolus lunatus


*pataq break, broken, cut through


PMP     *pataq break, broken, cut through

Sambal (Botolan) pátaʔto break bones of something or someone
Maranao pataʔcut down
Iban patahbreak, snap (something long) (Scott 1956); broken, snap, break across (Richards 1981)
Malay patahfracture; the snapping of a stick or limb
Sasak pataʔcut rice stalks, harvest the rice
Uma pataʔcut through
Hawu padabroken


*pa(n)tar₁ level, flat


PMP     *pa(n)tar₁ level, flat     [disjunct: *paCaR, *pataR]

Ilokano pantártreeless plain; (in some districts) shore, land immediately bordering on a stream
Ayta Abellan patalan extensive tract of level, open land
  ma-patala flat, level place
Maranao pantarlevel, flat, even, plane surface
Kelabit pataralluvial plain
Malay patarwooden rasp
Sundanese pantarequal (in age, height, strength, beauty, etc.)
Banggai pantalflat, level