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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


Ra    Re    Ri    Ru    




























































*Rabak tear, in tatters


PWMP     *Rabak tear, in tatters

Kapampangan gabáktear, rip
Malay rabaklarge tear; rip; in tatters

Note:   Kapampangan normally shows *R > y, but has g from *R in some other forms (e.g. *Rapus ‘bind’ > gapús ‘binder, fetters, chain’, ga-gapus ‘be bound, tied’).


*Rabat driftwood; flotsam


PPh     *Rabat driftwood; flotsam

Ivatan (Isamorong) yavatdriftwood
Ilokano gábatflotsam; debris; stray; straggler; loot
  gabát-ento loot, rob a house; gather anything useful from flotsam
Palawano gabatarea where many dead branches are lying


*Ra(m)bej wind around


PWMP     *Ra(m)bej wind around     [disjunct: *qa(m)bej]

Hanunóo gabúd, yabúdtangle; entwining, climbing up and up something, as of vines
Balinese ambedstrap, girth (horse)

Note:   With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*Rab(e)qun cover with earth


PWMP     *Rab(e)qun cover with earth

Bontok labunto cover
Kankanaey gabʔúnfill up (with earth, etc.), to earth up, to cover
Ifugaw labúnact of burying a newborn child or any small child which cannot be put in a death chair
Kayan havuncover something; covered, e.g. with earth
Malay rabunpile branches and leaves on a muddy spot to allow people to cross it dry-shod

Note:   With root *-bun or *-bequn ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*Rabiqi late afternoon, evening; evening meal


PAN     *Rabiqi late afternoon, evening; evening meal

Kavalan Rabievening (about 4:00 or 5:00 to 6:00 PM); night
Amis lafidinner; the evening meal
  misaka-lafito prepare dinner
  ma-lafito eat dinner (as in ma-lafi kita ‘Let’s eat dinner!’)
  pa-lafito give dinner to (as in feeding a child)
  lafiithe middle of the night; midnight
Amis (Kiwit) laviʔievening, night


PMP     *Rabiqi late afternoon, evening; evening meal; yesterday

Ilokano rabiínight, evening
  agka-rabiíto stay out late at night
  maŋ-rabiíto eat dinner
Isneg xabíevening, night
  maŋ-gabíabstain from rice and taro while in mourning
  pag-ab-gabiy-ánto darken, to obscure
Kalinga (Guinaang) Rabiqinight
Bontok labilate evening, night
Kankanaey labínight, nighttime, evening
  sin-labíone night
Ifugaw labínight, darkness of the night
Ifugaw (Batad) labimidnight (i.e. about 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m.)
  l<um>abifor it to be midnight
  labiy-onduring the night
Ibaloy dabinight --- esp. as a period of time or as a measure of time
  i-dabito do (something) at night
  man-dabito be, stay overnight
Pangasinan lábinight, evening
  on-lábibecome night
Sambal (Botolan) yabinight
Tagalog gabínight, evening
Masbatenyo gábʔinight, evening
Aklanon gabíievening, nighttime
Waray-Waray gabʔíevening
Agutaynen labinight
Hiligaynon gábʔinight, evening
Cebuano gabíʔinight
  pa-gabíʔispend the night
Maranao gabimeal at evening
Binukid gabiʔyesterday, sometime in the near past
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) geviʔiyesterday
Mansaka gabinight
Tombonuwo awinight
Supan gabpi-nnight
Melanau (Mukah) abəylate afternoon, evening
  abəy-mabəyyesterday evening
Mongondow gobiinight
Bimanese awi(na)yesterday
Wandamen ravi-nenaafternoon
Ron robnight
Numfor robnight


POC     *Rapi afternoon, evening; yesterday

Munggui robinight
Bali (Uneapa) ga-ravievening
Lakalai ala-laviyesterday
Gapapaiwa raavievening
Bunama lahi-lahiafternoon
Magori ra-ravievening
Keapara lavi-lavievening
Motu ado-rahiafternoon
Gabadi raviyesterday
Mekeo (East) ŋapinight
Cheke Holo rafiget dark, become evening
Toqabaqita thaʔu-lafilate afternoon, evening, be late afternoon, be evening
'Āre'āre sau-rahidusk, evening (about 6:00 p.m.)
Sa'a säu-lehievening
Arosi suu-rahievening
Bauro manu-rahievening
Mota ravdusk
  ma-ravto be dim, misty; dimness, mist, fog
Wayan ei aviin the evening, especially the period from late afternoon until darkness; tonight, this evening
Fijian yak-avithe evening, and by extension the afternoon


PMP     *ka-Rabiqi last night

Agta (Central Cagayan) ka-həbiyesterday
Tagalog ka-gabílast night
Aborlan Tagbanwa ka-gabiʔiyesterday
Mamanwa ka-habiyesterday
Mansaka ka-gabiyesterday
Kalagan ka-gabiyesterday
Sangir ka-həbiyesterday
Mongondow ko-gobiilast night


POC     *ka-Rabiqi evening (?)

Bali (Uneapa) ga-ravievening


PMP     *paka-Rabiqi (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano paka-gabíʔispend the night


POC     *paka-Rapiqi afternoon, evening

Lenkau ho-yepafternoon, evening
Sori pa-yapafternoon
Bipi ha-yahafternoon, evening
Wuvulu f-afiafternoon, evening (from about 4:00 p.m. til sunset)
Woleaian fega-afiprevious evening, last night
Wayan vaka-avigo in the early evening
Fijian i vaka-yak-avisupper
Samoan faʔa-afiafiin the evening


PAN     *ka-Rabi-an (gloss uncertain)

Amis ka-lafi-andinner time
Ilokano iti ka-rabii-anthe night of
Pangasinan ka-labi-ánlast night, the previous night


PPh     *ma-Rabi-an be overcome by darkness, be benighted

Ilokano ma-rabii-anbe overtaken by the night, be late at night (in arriving, etc.)
Ibaloy me-dabi-anto be somewhere upon its getting dark, to be overtaken by darkness, to be benighted
Tagalog ma-gabih-ánbe late in the evening, be overtaken by nightfall
Masbatenyo ma-gabʔih-ánbe benighted, be overtaken by night
Agutaynen ma-labi-anto be overcome by the night; to be benighted


PPh     *R<in>abiqi every night, happening every night

Ilokano r<in>abiíevery night
Cebuano g<in>abíʔihappening every night


PPh     *R<um>abiqi become night, turn into night

Ilokano r<um>abiínightfall; to turn into night
Ifugaw l<um>abíit becomes night, the night sets in
Ifugaw (Batad) l<um>abifor it to be midnight
Tagalog g<um>abíto be or become evening or nighttime


PAN     *Rabi-an evening, night

Atayal gbi-anlate afternoon, evening
Proto-Atayalic *gabiy-anevening
Bunun labi-annight


PPh     *Rabi-en taking place at night

Ifugaw (Batad) labiy-onduring the night
Cebuano gabhí-un <Mtaking place at night


PAN     *Rabi-Rabi every night, happening every night

Kavalan Rabi-Rabievery night
Tagalog gabí-gabínightly, happening every night
Tombonuwo awi-awiafternoon
Tanga ef-eflate afternoon
Manam rai-raiafternoon (from noon til sunset)
Cheke Holo rai-rafiget dark, become evening
Mota rav-ravevening, the dusk of evening
Wayan avi-avievening, be evening, especially the period from late afternoon (about 4:00 p.m.) until darkness; afternoon, be afternoon
  vaka-avi-avigo in the early evening; have an evening meal
  avi-avi boŋithe period soon after dark, early part of the night
Tongan efi-afi(to be or become) afternoon or early evening
  efi-afi-a(to take place) early in the evening, or earlier than usual (or than expected)
Niue afi-afievening
  fetū afi-afithe Evening Star
Futunan afi-afievening (after about 5:00 p.m.)
Samoan afi-afiafternoon, evening
  faʔa-afi-afiin the evening
Tuvaluan afi-afievening
  faka-afi-afitowards evening
  afi-afi pooperiod just after sunset
Kapingamarangi hi-ahievening
Nukuoro ahi-ahilate afternoon and early evening
Rennellese ahi-ahilate afternoon and evening until about 10 or 11; to be such time
Rarotongan aʔiaʔiafternoon, after 1:00 p.m.
  aʔiaʔi pōjust as darkness sets in
Maori ahi-ahievening
Hawaiian ahi-ahievening, late afternoon; to become evening
  hoʔ-āhiahito become evening; to spend an evening; to detain until evening; to darken, obscure

Note:   Also Puyuma ɭabi ‘dinner’, Ida'an Begak gabpi ‘night’. The most serious problem with this comparison is that some languages point unambiguously to *Rabiqi, while others just as clearly indicate *Rabi. Both variants appear in Amis, where Fey (1986) gives lafi ‘dinner, the evening meal’, but lafii ‘midnight’, and several languages that should have a non-zero reflex of *q instead show no intervocalic consonant, as with Atayal gbi-an ‘late afternoon, evening’, Agutaynen labi ‘night’, Maranao gabi ‘meal at evening’, Tongan efi-afi and Rennellese ahi-ahi ‘afternoon, early evening’. One option would be to reconstruct doublets *Rabi, *Rabiqi, but for now I prefer to posit only PAn *Rabiqi, and assume that *q tended to be lost between identical vowels in words of three or more syllables.


(Formosan only)

*RabiS small knife


PAN     *RabiS small knife

Kavalan Rabisa pocket knife
Saisiyat Labiʃsmall knife


*RabuC uproot, pull out by the roots


PAN     *RabuC uproot, pull out by the roots

Bunun ma-labutpull up grass


PMP     *Rabut uproot, pull out by the roots

Tagalog gábotuprooting, pulling up by the roots
Bikol gabótpull up or out (as weeds, gray hairs)
Hanunóo gábutunsheathing, drawing, as of a bolo
Masbatenyo gábotpull out, extract, uproot
Hiligaynon gábutpull out, weed, extract, uproot
Cebuano gábutpull out plants not in a careful way
Mansaka gabotpull out, extract
Lun Dayeh rabutpulling, uprooting
Iban rabutpulled out or off, as the head of a spear in the flesh of an animal (Scott 1956)
Malay rabuttearing at; grabbing and pulling (as at a beard)
Sundanese rabutuproot, pull out by the roots
Balinese habutpull out, pull up, raise anchor
Tontemboan awutto weed, pull up or out
Chamorro gapotpull by the hair
Manggarai rabutpull up grass, weed a garden
Yamdena na-rabutpull out
Kei rawutpull
Buruese hafu-hto pluck, pull out
Numfor rabəkpull up by the roots


POC     *Raput uproot, pull out by the roots

Roviana rabutupull out by the roots
Kwaio lafutake off, lift; pull up or transplant
  lafu-alift; give a pig for sacrifice; pull out
  lafu-tastopper, plug
Lau lafupull out, pull up, as weeds
Toqabaqita lafu-aremove; extract, uplift
  lafu-lifo-aextraction of a tooth/teeth
'Āre'āre rahuuprooted; pull out

Note:   Also Bontok gábot ‘pull out by the roots, as weeds, grass or hair’, Kankanaey gábut ‘eradicate, uproot’, Ifugaw gábut ‘to weed, pull out weeds and grass’, Tagalog lábot ‘drawing out of something rooted in soft matter, pulling away of teats of cattle (or such animals) from the suckling mouth of the young’, Manggarai rambut ‘pull up grass, weed a garden.’ With root *-buC.


*Rabuk decaying wood; dust, powder


PMP     *Rabuk decaying wood; dust, powder

Casiguran Dumagat gabúkdecayed, rotten (of wood)
Tagalog gabóksettled dust; dust or ash particles
  ma-gabuk-ánbecome dusty, become dirtied by dust
Bikol gabókrotten (wood)
  mag-gabókto decay, rot
Hanunóo gabúkdust; rotten
Romblomanon gabukdecayed (vegetable matter, including lumber)
Masbatenyo gabókdecayed, rotted; fragile
Aklanon gabókto rot, become rotten
Hiligaynon gabúkrotten, decayed
  ma-gabúkto be rotten, to decay
Cebuano gabúkfor wood and fiber to be weakened from decay (as in a floor); not well-founded, unsound
Maranao gabokrotten, crumbling
Binukid gabuk(for wood, fiber, etc.) to be weakened from decay; rot; to be decomposed
Mansaka gabokrotten; easily broken; old and not strong (as clothing or a rope)
Mapun gabukrotten (wood); crumbling (wood); turned to dust (as wood eaten by termites)
Yakan gabukrotten, of wood (it can already be taken apart by hand)
Tausug gabukrotten, crumbling, turned to dust (as wood eaten by termites)
  g<um>abukto rot, crumble
  gabuk-unto rot, crumble
Malay raboktinder; touchwood (usually soft dusty material found in bamboo and inflammable); ash that does not crumble easily; litter or rubbish
Gayō rabuktinder
Toba Batak rabukpowder
  par-rabuh-anpowder container
Javanese abukpowder; dung, manure
Madurese rabukpowder
Tae' rabukphosphorescent fungus on a decaying log
  bataŋ rabukskeleton of a corpse
Makassarese rabuʔbroken to bits; in rags, tatters
  rabuk-itorn to tatters
Manggarai rawukashes from the hearth; gray
Rembong rawukashes, dust


POC     *Rapuk worn out, decaying

Kwaio fou-lafuwhite powdery stone
  ma-lafusoft, well cooked inside (of root crops)
Lau lafuto be worn out, old (as clothes)
'Āre'āre rahuʔ-ato be old, worn out and dirty, of things
Arosi rahuold, worn out, as an old bag

Note:   Also Manggarai rawok ‘dusty’. With root *-buk₁ ‘decay, crumble; powder’.


*Rabun drizzling rain, mist; fog


PMP     *Rabun drizzling rain, mist; fog     [doublet: *ambun 'dew, mist, fog']

Ilokano i-rábonto start, begin (rain)
Cebuano gábunfog; be covered with fog
Maranao gaboncloud
Binukid gabuncloud; fog; for clouds or fog to cover (something)
  paŋ-gabunto be foggy
Mansaka gabonfog; cloud (as obscuring the side of a mountain)
Tiruray rawena cloud
Klata lawuwhite cloud
Yakan gabuncloud, rain cloud; mist (they may be white or dark and bringing rain)
Tboli lobuncloud; fog; cloudy
Tausug gabuncloud
Kadazan Dusun gavunmist, fog, (white) cloud
Ida'an Begak gaunsmoke
Supan gabunsmoke
Lun Dayeh rabunmist; haze
Kenyah abuncloud
Kayan avuna cloud
Bukat avunfog
Malagasy zavunamist, fog
  man-javunamisty, foggy
Iban rabunweak-sighted, almost blind; hence hazy, fogged, obscure
Malay rabunfumigation, whether with incense to perfume a house or with heavy smoke to blind evil spirits; dimness of vision
Old Javanese ambuncloud (or mist?)
Balinese hambuncloud
  hambun-ana cloud of smoke; smoke
  hambun-aŋbe lifted into the clouds
Tonsawang abunsmoke
Kola afunfog


POC     *Rapun misty, dim

Mota ravdusk


PMP     *ma-Rabun cloudy, misty, hazy

Tausug ma-gabuncloudy
Lun Dayeh mə-rabunmisty; hazy
Kenyah m-abunmisty, cloudy
Kayan m-avunto make or be hazy; cloudy, of atmosphere


POC     *ma-Rapun misty, hazy, dim

Mota ma-ravdim, misty

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gapun ‘a cloud’, peŋ-gapun ‘(of the sky) to become cloudy’, Ngaju Dayak hawon ‘sky, heavens’, Toba Batak rambon 'unclear, hazy, indistinct, Motu γahu ‘mist; fog at sea; haze’. The gloss ‘cloud’ in some languages seems too generalized to be useful, since *Rabun evidently referred only to clouds that hung low over the tops or sides of mountains --- in other words, to those that obscured landscape features through an intervening mist or fog, not to clouds high in the sky. Dempwolff included Malay rambon ‘hail’, but no such form is cited in Wilkinson, and its connection with the present comparison remains in doubt.


*RaCus hundred


PAN     *RaCus hundred

Hoanya matala-gasutone hundred (matala = ‘one’)
Siraya (Gravius) ka-atux-anhundred
Siraya (Utrecht ms.) ka-xatux-aŋhundred
Proto-Siraya *ka-γatus-anhundred


PMP     *Ratus hundred

Itbayaten yatosidea of one hundred
  om-yatosone hundred
Ivatan sa-yatosone hundred
Ilokano gasúthundred
  g<in>asútmany hundreds, by the hundreds
Bontok gasútunit of one hundred
Kankanaey sin-gasútone hundred
Ifugaw gahúthundred
  hiŋ-gahútone hundred
Ifugaw (Batad) gahúta unit of a hundred
  hiŋ-gahútone hundred
Tagalog gatósOld Tagalog for one million, but now means one billion
Bikol gatóshundred
Hanunóo gátushundred
  ʔusá ka gátusone hundred
Masbatenyo gatóshundred
Aklanon gatóshundred; one hundred
Waray-Waray gatóshundred
  usa ka gatósone hundred
Hiligaynon gatúshundred
Cebuano gatúshundred
  tag-gatúsa hundred each
Maranao gatoshundred
Binukid gatushundred
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gatushundred
Mansaka gatosunit of hundred
Tiruray ratuhunit of one hundred
Mapun hatusa hundred
Yakan hatushundred
Tboli latuthe cardinal number 100
  l<em>atua hundred
Tausug gatusa hundred; hundreds
Lun Dayeh ratuhundred
Kelabit ratuhundred
  edʰeh ŋeh ratuone hundred
Berawan (Long Terawan) gitohhundred
Berawan (Long Teru) gitoʔhundred
Narum ceh ratawone hundred
Kenyah (Long Anap) cah atoone hundred
Murik atuhhundred
Kayan atuhhundred
  ji atuhone hundred
Kayan (Uma Juman) atuhundred
Kiput latawhundred
Bukat ʔatuhundred
Bekatan atuhundred
Iban ratushundred
  sa-ratusone hundred
Jarai retuihhundred
Roglai (Northern) ratuhhundred
Malay ratushundred
  se-ratusone hundred
Bahasa Indonesia be-ratus-ratushundreds and hundreds
Gayō ratushundred
  se-ratusone hundred
Simalur latushundred (in women’s speech)
Karo Batak ratushundred
  si-ratusone hundred
  ratus-ratus-enhundreds (of people), hundreds upon hundreds
Toba Batak ratushundred
  sa-ratusone hundred
  mar-ratus-ratus halihundreds of times
Nias otuhundred
Lampung xatushundred
  sa-xatusone hundred
Sundanese ratushundred
  sa-ratusone hundred
  ba-ratus-ratusby the hundreds
Old Javanese atushundred
  aŋ-atus-iin hundreds
Javanese atushundred
Balinese hatushundred (occurs only in compounds, as telu-ŋ-hatus ‘300’)
Sangir se-hasuʔone hundred
  ka-hasuk-aŋappear in large quantities
Tontemboan atushundred
  maka-atusa hundred times
  atu-atushundreds and hundreds
Mongondow gatuthundred
Gorontalo hetutohundred
Kaidipang gosuto <Mhundred
Pendau sa-gatusone hundred
Dampelas sa-atuone hundred
Uma atuhundred
  ha-ʔatuone hundred
Bare'e atuhundred
  sa-atuone hundred
Tae' ratuʔhundred
  sa-ratuʔone hundred
  maʔ-ratuʔ-ratuʔby the hundreds
Palauan dart <Mhundred
Chamorro gatushundred (Costenoble 1940)
Bimanese sa-ratuone hundred
Komodo ratuhhundred
Manggarai ratushundred
Rembong ratushundred
Lamaholot (tə)-ratuhundred
  ratu toʔuone hundred
  ratūhundreds, a multitude
Adonara te-ratuone hundred
Tetun atushundred
Tetun (Dili) atushundred
Vaikenu n-atu-nhundred
Galoli atushundred
Talur atusone hundred
Tugun ratu ehaone hundred
Leti rasuhundred
Wetan raihundred; several; many
  rai idaone hundred
Selaru athundred
Yamdena ratihundred
  raty-ar saone hundred
Fordata ratuthundred
  ratut isaaone hundred
  fa-ratus isaaa hundred times
Dobel ratuhundred
Lele ma-saŋatone hundred
Drehet rinakone hundred
Lakalai sa-latuhundred
  sa-latu saaone hundred
Uruava rasuone hundred
Torau rasuhundred


PWMP     *ma-Ratus one hundred

Ibanag ma-gatuʔone hundred
Isneg ma-xatútone hundred
  mamin-xatútone hundred times
Itawis mátuthundred
Tiruray me-ratuhone hundred; a brideprice
Tombonuwo ma-atusone hundred
Lun Dayeh me-ratuone hundred
Narum me-ratawone hundred
Kayan m-atuhone hundred
Kiput mə-latawone hundred
Malay me-ratusin hundreds, the hundredth; to twitter, of bulbuls
Karo Batak me-ratus-ratushundreds, by the hundreds
Old Javanese m-ātusto be a hundred (hundreds?) in number
  m-ātus-atusto be hundreds
Sangir ma-hasuʔhundred
Tonsea m-atusone hundred
Tondano ma-atusone hundred
Tontemboan ma-atushundred
Mongondow mo-gatutone hundred
  mo-gatu-gatutbecome hundreds
  mo-gatut mo-gatutby the hundreds
Gorontalo mo-hetutoone hundred
Totoli ma-gasutone hundred
Lauje ma-gatusone hundred
Uma mo-ʔatu-atuby the hundreds
Bare'e mo-atu, mo-atu-atuby the hundreds


PMP     *sa-ŋa-Ratus one hundred

Ilokano sa-ŋa-gasútone hundred
Tagalog sa-ŋ-gatósOld Tagalog for one million, but now means one billion
Bikol sa-ŋ-gatósone hundred
  sa-ŋ-gatus-onto count by hundreds
  manaŋ-sa-ŋ-gatósone hundred each
Lou soŋotone hundred
Loniu ma-sa-ŋ-atone hundred
Nali ma-sa-ŋ-atone hundred
Andra sa-ŋatone hundred
Leipon ma-s-ŋ-etone hundred
Ahus sa-ŋ-atone hundred
Papitalai sa--ŋatone hundred
Ponam saŋatone hundred
Sori sa-ŋ-aone hundred
Lindrou ri-n-ekone hundred
Bipi sa-ŋ-akone hundred
Nggela ha-ŋa-latuone hundred
Ghari kesa sa-ŋ-atuone hundred
Talise ča sa-ŋ-atuone hundred
Tolo sa-ŋ-atuone hundred
Lau ta-ŋa-lauone hundred
'Āre'āre ta-na-rauhundred
Sa'a ta-ŋa-laucardinal numeral, one hundred
Arosi ta-ŋa-raua hundred, of men only
  haʔa-ta-ŋa-raua hundred times
Avava a-ŋathundred


PWMP     *Ratus-an by hundreds, hundreds at a time

Cebuano gatus-anin groups of a hundred, hundreds
Maranao gatos-anfeast celebrated for the dead one hundred days after burial
Mapun hatus-anby the hundreds, in terms of hundreds
Yakan hatus-anhundreds of something
Tausug gatus-anby the hundreds, in terms of hundreds
Bahasa Indonesia ratus-anhundreds and hundreds
Lampung xatus-anby the hundreds
Sundanese ratus-anhundreds (multiples between 100 and 1,000)
Javanese atus-andigit marking the ‘hundreds’ place (in calculations); numbering in the hundreds

Note:   Also Isneg ma-gasút ‘one hundred’, Casiguran Dumagat dátos ‘unit of a hundred, a hundred’, Agta (Dupaningan) ma-gátu ‘one hundred’, Ibaloy dasos ‘hundred’, san-dasos ‘one hundred’, d<in>asos ‘by hundreds, multiples of one hundred’, Pangasinan lasós ‘hundred’, Ida'an Begak ratu ‘hundred’, mə-ratu ‘one hundred’, Kadazan Dusun atus ‘hundred’, iŋ-gatus ‘a hundred times’, Bintulu ratus (< Malay), Melanau (Mukah) ratuih (< Malay), Simalur ratui, Sasak atus ‘hundred’.

The PAn status of this reconstruction depends crucially on Hoanya matala-gasut, recorded by Naoyoshi Ogawa from a 75-year old male in 1909 (Tsuchida 1982:40). However, this form is problem-free, since *R > g is independently attested in *um-aRi > magi ‘come’, *C > s in *Caliŋa > saŋila ‘ear’ or *CebuS > sibus ‘sugarcane’, and *s > t in *susu > tutu ‘female breast’. Unlike such Northern Luzon forms as Ilokano gasút or north Sulawesi forms as Sangir se-hasuʔ, then, the Hoanya form does not show metathesis in relation to PMP *Ratus. In fact, if Hoanya reflected *RasuC its expected reflex for ‘one hundred’ would be **(matala-)gatus, and so would appear to agree with unmetathesized reflexes of the PMP form. Both PAn and PMP reconstructions for this form thus appear to be firmly established, with consonants in the order reflected by the great majority of the languages.


*Radut pluck, pull out


PMP     *Radut pluck, pull out

Bontok ládutpluck some feathers from a bird; pull out hairs from the head
Tiruray randutuproot, pull out
Manggarai radutpluck, pull out

Note:   With root *-dut ‘uproot, pluck, pull out’.


*Ragem clenched in the fist


PWMP     *Ragem clenched in the fist

Lun Dayeh ragemclenching of the palm
Old Javanese agemhandful; grasp
Sasak ragemheld tightly in the fist


PWMP     *maŋ-Ragem hold something tightly in the fist

Lun Dayeh ŋe-ragemhold something tightly in the palm
Old Javanese aŋ-agemhold (in one’s hand), grasp, hold firmly
Sasak ŋe-ragemhold something tightly in the fist

Note:   Old Javanese agem may also reflect *agem. With root *-gem ‘grasp in the fist’.


(Formosan only)

*Rahap seeds for sowing


PAN     *Rahap seeds for sowing

Atayal gahapseeds for sowing
Seediq (Truku) gəxapseeds for sowing
Tsou mi-rapoto sow
  hio-raposeeds for sowing
Saaroa taru-arapəto sow


PAN     *R<um>ahap to sow seeds

Atayal g<əm>ahapto sow
Kanakanabu r<um>a-ráapəto sow

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) gəxak ‘seeds for sowing’. This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976: 136).


*Rakéd to hitch, tie two things together


PPh     *Rakéd to hitch, tie two things together     [doublet: *Rakit]

Itbayaten yakedtying material (of house or building
  ya-yakedtying material which is not being used
Ilokano rakédhitching post
  i-rakédtie an animal to a tree or post
  pa-rakédoutrigger of a canoe
Bikol mag-gakódto tie something to
  ma-gakud-ánto be tied to a job, family, etc.
  gakud-ánto tie something to
Cebuano gakúdto lash, tie something against something

Note:   Also Tausug mag-gakut ‘to tie or fasten something securely’.


*Rakep seize, grasp, wrap around


PWMP     *Rakep seize, grasp, wrap around

Kapampangan -yakapcatch, apprehend
Ida'an Begak gakopput arms around
Dairi-Pakpak Batak rakepwrestle with someone

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.


*Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs


PWMP     *Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs

Cebuano gakʔáŋsquat, sit on one's heels on top of something
Malay raŋkaŋcrawl

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ (or *keqaŋ?) ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*Rakit lay long objects side by side; raft


PMP     *Rakit lay long objects side by side; raft

Ilokano rákitbamboo raft; bamboo or wood that covers the rafters; scaffolding, the part of a scaffold workmen stand on
  ag-rákitto ride on a bamboo raft
Isneg xákitraft, float
Gaddang ga:kitraft
Cebuano gákitbamboo or log raft; ride on a raft; make into a raft
  g<in>ákitlashed together to form a raft
Maranao gakitboats for wedding; string together; to make a raft
Binukid gakitraft (made of bamboo or logs)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gakita raft
Mansaka gakitraft
Tausug gakitbanded with continuous winding with overlapping ends not joined together
Kadazan Dusun gakitraft, ferry
  mama-gakitusing a raft
Kelabit raʔitraft
  ŋə-raʔitto travel by raft
Kenyah akita raft
  ŋ-akitto contruct a raft
Kayan akitraft
Kayan (Long Atip) akitraft
Bintulu akitraft
Ngaju Dayak hakitraft
Malagasy záhitraa bundle of rushes or bamboos tied together and used as a raft
Iban rakitbring together (as in bringing one boat alongside another, of bringing a married couple back together after they have separated)
Jarai rəkiʔraft
Rhade (a)kiʔraft
Malay rakitlaying long objects side by side; anything so arranged, especially of a raft of long bamboos laid side by side, but it is applied also to crossbeams or floor planking in a house, to a man’s ribs sticking out in parallel lines, to things in layers such as a mat in two thicknesses, or two sireh leaves sandwiched one on the other, and even to a yoke of oxen; rafts (generally; special types have special names); loosely, it may mean ‘arrangement, planning’
Acehnese raketraft
Gayō rakitraft
Karo Batak rakita raft, used to cross a river
Toba Batak raŋkitraft; rattan bridge over the water
  maŋa-raŋkit-honto float bound-together tree trunks in the water
Sundanese rakitwhat is tied in tandem (a pair of water buffalo, a raft of wood or bamboo, etc.); pair, yoke, raft
Balinese hakityoke, pair (oxen); be paired
Sasak rakitraft
Sangir hakiʔraft
  mə-hakiʔbind together, attach to one another
Tontemboan rakitraft
  ma-rakittravel by raft; make a raft of wood or bamboo
  r<um>akittravel by raft; make a raft of wood or bamboo
Mongondow gakitraft
Totoli akitraft
Balaesang akitraft
Petapa Taje akiraft
Bare'e akiraft
  mo-ʔakimake or use a raft
Tae' rakiʔkind of raft made of four or five planks and used to transport soil to the rice paddies
Buginese rakiʔraft
Makassarese rakiʔraft of wood or bamboo
Wolio rakiraft
Palauan saktstring, cord, wire used for making raft
  mə-sáktmake (raft); tie side by side; crowd out (as weeds in crowding out other plants); change (subject of conversation)
Rembong raŋkitraft
Selaru r-rakittie together with various ropes
Kei rākraft, wooden raft
Buli etraft


PWMP     *paR-Rakit bound together (?)

Kelabit pəraʔitraft
Kenyah p-akitto cruise down in boats side by side
Sangir pa-hakiʔbound together into one piece


PWMP     *Rakit-an (gloss unclear)

Kadazan Dusun gokit-anto build or to place a raft
Balinese hakit-hakit-anbe paired off, be married off
Sasak rakit-anraft
Gorontalo heʔit-araft (used, e.g. in time of flood)
Lauje gaʔit-anraft
Dampelas gaʔit-anraft
Makassarese rakik-aŋa raftful (in counting the quantity of bamboos or houseposts)

Note:   Also Agta (Dupaningan) rákit ‘raft’, mag-i-rakit ‘send something by raft’ (< Ilokano), Mapun gakit ‘raft (usually made from bamboo)’ (< Central Philippine source), Iban akit ‘raft; make or use a raft’, Javanese rakit ‘pair (as of carabaos), team, span; layout, arrangement; (forming) a set or pair’, Manggarai raŋki ‘raft’.

The *Rakit probably was made of bamboo, which is highly buoyant, and difficult to sink or become waterlogged. Although cognates are unknown in Taiwan, it is likely that Austronesian speakers reached Taiwan from the mainland of southern China (Fujian) by means of bamboo rafts, since there is no evidence for the outrigger canoe prior to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. Rafts continued to be useful for purposes of short water crossings, long after outrigger canoes had become the primary means of long-distance oversea exploration. Their function probably was primarily to ferry people and goods across large rivers or short water crossings. For this reason rafts were retained in places like Mindanao or Borneo, where there were many rivers to cross, but lost in places like the Marianas, Micronesia or Polynesia, where open water crossings required more sophisticated watercraft. With root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’, a raft being the major cultural production made by joining objects (bamboos or logs) along the length.


*Rakut tie together


PMP     *Rakut tie together

Bontok gákutto bind, as a load to one's basket
Cebuano gákuttie something so as to prevent it from being opened or detached
Maranao gakottie
Malay rakutspin a web, of spiders
Karo Batak rakutbind firmly together
Toba Batak rahutbound together tightly
Sangir hakuʔbind tightly, tie together (as the opening of a basket)
Manggarai rakutsew something torn
Arosi rakutie, fasten

Note:   Zorc (1971) gives PPh *Rakut ‘rope; bind, bundle’.


*Rambaŋ casting net; spread out, as a casting net


PWMP     *Rambaŋ casting net; spread out, as a casting net     [doublet: *Rambat]

Ilokano rambaŋkind of very thin casting net
Malay rambaŋbroad, widespread, expansive, of a wide-flung net (jala rambaŋ) intended to catch any fish and not particular fish
Mongondow gambaŋstretch out the arms after something


*Rambat large casting net


PWMP     *Rambat casting net     [doublet: *Rambaŋ]

Agutaynen lambata traditonal large fishing net made of hemp rope and used in deep water
Mapun lambata round, hand-thrown fishing net
Malay (Brunei) rambatcasting net

Note:   Possibly a Malay loan distribution.


*Rambia sago palm


PMP     *Rambia sago palm     [doublet: *Rumbia]

Ngaju Dayak hambiæsago palm
Totoli ambiasago
Lauje labiasago
Dampelas habiasago
Bare'e labiasago flour, pith of the sago palm
Kola habiasago
Alune lapiasago
Wahai lapiasago
Mayá ꞌbi³sago


POC     *Rabia sago palm

Nauna paran episago palm
Loniu episago palm
Nali n-apiysago palm
Ere key apiysago palm
Titan patan apisago palm
Leipon y-episago palm
Papitalai episago palm
Sori n-abiysago palm
Lindrou j-abisago palm
Bipi apisago palm
Seimat apisago palm
Wuvulu pia-piasago palm
Kairiru rapisago palm
Gapapaiwa rapiasago palm
Bunama labiasago
Hula rabiasago
Motu na rabiasago palm
Gabadi rabiasago palm and flour
Kilivila yabiasago, sago palm
Tawala labiyasago
Tubetube labiyasago

Note:   Also Wetan lpia, Asilulu lapia ‘sago tree, Metroxylon spp.’, lapia mutin ‘cold sago porridge’, Alune lapia, Kayeli mpia ‘sago palm’, Likum lepi, Molima labiʔa ‘sago palm’. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *rumbi(y)a ‘sago palm’, but reflexes of *Rambia are more widely distributed, and less vulnerable to the interpretation that they are loanwords from Malay. Nonetheless, both *Rambia and *Rumbia appear to be justified by comparative evidence. In addition, nearly all known reflexes of this form in CMP languages show p for an expected voiced bilabial stop, and this may be evidence for a third variant, but one that cannot be attributed to a proto-languages higher than Proto-Central Malayo-Polynesian.


(Formosan only)

*RameC root


PAN     *RameC root     [doublet: *RamiS]

Trobiawan lametroot
Saisiyat Lamesroot
Pazeh xamessmall roots
Thao lhamicroot of tree or grass

Note:   Also Amis lamit ‘root (with literal and figurative meanings). Possibly identical to PMP *Ramut ‘root’, with an irregular change of the last vowel.


*Rames squeeze, knead, to mix with the hands


PAN     *Rames squeeze, knead     [doublet: *remas]

Amis lamecto mix with the hands
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) me-Ra-Ramesrub and crumble without much force
Ilokano ramasknead (in washing clothes, cleaning rice before cooking, crumbling clods, massaging some part of the body, etc.)
Malay ramastaking in the hand and pressing; kneading; massaging (of kneading dough, pressing juice out of fruit, modelling clay, massaging very tired feet)
Talaud žamissato knead, massage
Malay (Jakarta) raməskneading; massaging
  nasi raməsrice mixed with vegetables
Karo Batak ramesrub or press out with the fingers
Sundanese ŋa-ramɨsknead with the hand or hands; also lustfully massage with the hand, as a woman’s breast
Sasak amesknead, press
Sangir mə-hámisəʔto knead, massage, press with the fingers; wash sago flour (by squeezing in water)
Selaru i-k-ramasto knead, massage with a kneading motion
Yamdena na-k-ramasscratch with the nails
Fordata n-ramasto knead, massage
Buruese hame-hpress dry, squeeze all the moisture from, leaving a pulp
Buli amassift, squeeze out or wash sago
Numfor ramespress out with both hands

Note:   Also Gayō ramas ‘to massage, knead flour’.


(Formosan only)

*RamiS root


PAN     *RamiS root     [doublet: *RameC]

Bunun lamisroot
Tsou rmisiroot
Puyuma ramisubterranean root
Paiwan amishair-root (of plant); rough hemp cord

Note:   Also Atayal gamil ‘root’, Amis (Central) lamit ‘root’.


*Rámit to use


PPh     *Rámit to use

Ilokano ram-ramíttools; items; facts; circumstances; components; ingredients; elements
Casiguran Dumagat gámitto use, to make, to do, to utilize, to employ, to make use of
Tagalog gámituse; the act of using; putting to use; applying; application
  g<um>ámitto use; to exert
  ka-gamit-ánapparatus; appliance
Bikol mag-gámitto use; to avail oneself of
Hanunóo gámituse, employment, as of an instrument
  gamít-unto be used
Agutaynen gamitthings; possessions; tools; equipment; utensils, etc.
  mag-gamitto use something


*Rampaŋ passionate, quick-tempered


PWMP     *Rampaŋ passionate, quick-tempered     [disjunct: *gampaŋ 'easy, frivolous']

Maranao gampaŋflirt; coquette
Karo Batak rampaŋpassionate, hot-tempered, envious of others


*Rampas rob, plunder


PWMP     *Rampas rob, plunder

Iban rampassnatch, loot, take violently
Karo Batak rampasseize, appropriate, rob
Sangir hampaseʔrob, plunder
Tae' rampaʔto rob; be taken captive

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) proposed *Ra(m)pas ‘tear loose’.


*Rampis thin, thin layer


PWMP     *Rampis thin, thin layer

Karo Batak rampisthin, smeared out
Javanese rampisprettily slender, esp. of a slender waist
Balinese ampisthin, worn thin

Note:   With root *-pis₂ ‘thin (of texture)’.


*Ramut₁ fibrous roots, as of grass


PMP     *Ramut₁ fibrous roots, as of grass

Yami yamotroot
Itbayaten yamotroot
Ilokano ramótroot
  ag-ramótto grow roots
  i-ramut-anto cut off the roots
  ramut-ento uproot
Ibanag gamuʔroot
Atta (Pamplona) gamuʔroot
Isneg xamútroot
  mag-gamútto take root
Itawis gamútroot
Arta ramutroot
Bontok lamútroot
Kankanaey lamótroot
Ifugaw lámutroots of trees or any kind of plant
Yogad gamutroot
Gaddang gamutroot
Casiguran Dumagat gimótroots (of a tree or plant); to sprout, of a root; to grow out of a coconut shell
Ibaloy damótthe root of a plant or tree
  damot-ónto take root in the ground
Pangasinan lamótroot
Sambal (Botolan) yamótroot
Kapampangan yamutroot
Tagalog gamótmedicine; anything given in the treatment or cure of diseases; cure; remedy; antidote
  i-gamótto administer a specific medicine; to give something as medicine or treatment
  mag-gamótto try to cure oneself; to treat oneself
  mag-pa-gamótto consult a doctor; to get someone as a physician; to cure one’s ailment
  maŋ-gamótto practice medicine; to follow the profession of a doctor
  maŋ-ga-gamótphysician; a doctor of medicine
  pa-gamótto allow oneself to be cured or treated
  pag-gamóttreatment; the act or process of treating an illness
  paŋ-gamótmedicinal; healing; curative
  ka-gámút-anapplicable cure, remedy or relief
  ka-gamut-ánspecific cure or medicine
  pá-gamut-andispensary; infirmary; clinic
  g<um>amótto treat or cure a sickness or patient
  gámút-anthe process of treating a patient; place where treatment is given
  gamut-ínto doctor; to cure; to get rid of an ailment or bad habit; to treat; to deal with in order to relieve or cure
Bikol gamótroot
  pag-gamótto put forth roots
Hanunóo gamútroot, as of a tree
Romblomanon gamutthe root of a plant or tree
Masbatenyo gamótroot
  pa-gamut-ónto cause to take root
Inati yemotroot
Aklanon gamótroot
Agutaynen lamotroot, as of a plant; a magic love charm, directed at a person by another in order to cause him/her to be attracted to her/him
  lamot-onto put a love charm on somebody
Hiligaynon gamútroot
Palawan Batak gamótroot
Cebuano gamútroot of plants; root cause; for plants to take root; stay long in a place
  pa-gamútpropagate plants by letting cuttings develop roots
Central Tagbanwa yamotroot
Binukid gamutroot (of plants); (for plants) to take root
Mansaka gámotto grow roots
Mapun gamutroot, as of a tree
  ŋaŋ-gamutto take root; to develop roots; to become established
Yakan gamutroot , as of a tree or plant (also used of teeth)
Molbog ramutroot
Tausug gamuta root (of a tree or plant)
  mag-gamutto develop roots; to become settled or established
  g<um>amutto develop roots; to become settled or established
Kadazan Dusun gamutroot
  papa-gamutto cause or allow to root
  ko-gomut-an(act of) producing roots; rooting
  po-gomut-onallowed to root
Minokok gamutroot (of a tree)
Lun Dayeh ramuta thick and untidy beard
Kelabit ramutfibrous roots, as of grass, rice or coconut trees
Sa'ban muətfibrous roots
Dali' ramutroot
Kiput lamutroot
Bintulu amutsmall or fine roots, fibrous roots
Lahanan amutroot
Talaud žamuttaroot
Madurese ramoʔroot
Tonsea amutroot
Tonsawang amucroot
Bimanese amuroot
Manggarai ramutmoss, mossy; tangled and thick, of hair
Sika ramutroots of a tree
Lamaholot amutroot
Adonara ramutroot
Kédang ramu-rroot
Kodi amuroot
Anakalangu amuroot
Kambera amuroot; cause
Hawu amo ajuroot; medicine (because the people prepare medicines from roots)
Dhao/Ndao amoroot
Mambai ramu-nroot
Talur ai-ʔamotroot
Nuaulu namut-eroot
Paulohi lamut-ismall roots
Alune ai-lamut-itree root
Keapara lamuroot
Hula ramuroot
Motu ramuroot
Mekeo (East) ŋamu-ŋaroot
Mono-Alu lamutu-naroot
Varisi ramutu-naroot
Nggela lau-lamuhairs on mango
Talise lamu-naroot
Arosi ramu-ramusmall fibrous aerial roots, loose ends of bag, hanging strings, etc.
  ramu-ramu-ʔahairy, as a ghost or a man’s legs (ghosts are hairy)


PWMP     *maka-Ramut to take root, grow roots

Itbayaten maka-yamotdue to, because of
Ilokano maka-ramutto be able to grow roots, take root; (fig.) to be financially stable
Masbatenyo maka-gamótable to root, able to take root
Kadazan Dusun naka-gamuthas rooted, settled down

Note:   Also Agta (Dupaningan) ramót ‘the root of a plant or tree’ (< Ilokano), Maranao gamot ‘poison’, Dobuan ramuna ‘root’. Surprisingly, this widespread form is missing from Dempwolff (1938) because no two of the critical witnesses on which he relied have a homosemantic reflex.


*Ramut₂ a charm used to control someone magically


PPh     *Ramut₂ a charm used to control someone magically

Agutaynen lamota magic love charm directed at a person by another in order to cause him/her to be attracted to him/her
Maranao gamotpoison
Mansaka gamotpoison
Tiruray ramutan object with an occult power which can be used by its owner to cause sickness and death in another person, or to protect the owner against another ramut; to use a ramut

Note:   Also Tboli lamat ‘a kind of charm; for someone to have this charm means to have a little knowledge about spirit-beings which can help other people by knowing the cause of their illness.’


*Ranebut pluck out


PWMP     *Ranebut pluck out

Ilokano rabnótto snatch, remove forcibly and suddenly
Cebuano (dialectal) gábnutuproot something flexible with a jerk
Malay rəbutsnatching, tearing at, of people struggling for the possession of anything

Note:   Also Tagalog gábot ‘uprooting’. With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.


*Rantaŋ kind of large carrying basket


PMP     *Rantaŋ kind of large carrying basket

Malay rantaŋhamper, stout basket made of coconut midrib or other similar material
Javanese rantaŋvertical nest of food containers with a top handle, for transporting a variety of foods simultaneously
Mongondow gantaŋrather large basket woven of pandanus leaves
Manggarai rantaŋlarge carrying basket

Note:   Also Proto-Minahasan *bantaŋ ‘large basket’.


*Raŋa₁ open the mouth wide


PMP     *Raŋa₁ open the mouth wide

Maranao gaŋaopen the mouth
Bimanese aŋaopen wide (mouth)

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*Raŋa₂ the spider conch: Lambis lambis


PMP     *Raŋa the spider conch: Lambis lambis     [disjunct: *Raŋak, *RaŋaR]

Sangir le-haŋapretty shell with horn-like projections and translucent rim
Palauan saŋspider conch: Lambis lambis
Soboyo haŋaa large seashell
Numbami laŋa-naspider conch
Arosi raŋaspider shell, with long spines
Proto-Micronesian *aŋathe spider shell
Gilbertese ne-aŋspider shell: Lambis sp.
Mota ŋara <Mspider shell
Fijian yaŋageneric name for some varieties of shell-fish: Pterocera and Lambis sp.

Note:   Most of this comparison (excluding the Malay cognates) was first noted in print by Geraghty (n.d.) who, however, proposed no reconstruction above the POc level.


*Raŋak the spider conch: Lambis lambis


PMP     *Raŋak the spider conch: Lambis lambis     [disjunct: *Raŋa, *RaŋaR]

Malay raŋaka spiky shell: Pteroceros. Varieties are: P.lambis (true rangak) and P. chiragra
Arosi raŋaspider shell, with long spines


*RaŋaR the spider conch: Lambis lambis


PMP     *RaŋaR the spider conch: Lambis lambis     [disjunct: *Raŋa, *Raŋak]

Malay raŋara spiky shell: Pteroceros. Varieties are: P. lambis (true rangak) and P. chiragra
Arosi raŋaspider shell, with long spines


*Raŋaw₁ new shoot of vines or creepers


PPh     *Raŋaw₁ new shoot of vines or creepers

Ivatan yaŋawa branch
Ibatan yaŋawa new shoot of vines and creepers, as sweet potato, squash, beans, etc.
Ilokano raŋáwedible branches or vines
  ag-raŋáwto gather the tops of vines
Maranao gaŋawtwigs, stick


*Raŋaw₂ to dry up, wither


PCEMP     *Raŋaw₂ to dry up, wither     [doublet: *Raŋu]

Bimanese m-aŋodry
Buli māŋdry
Label ma-raŋdried out
Tolai rāŋto dry, scorch, burn
Manam ma-raŋodry, arid
Selau roŋodry
Bugotu raŋoto wither, of leaves, yam vines
Arosi raŋowithered, dead, of grass, green boughs, etc.
Bauro raŋo-raŋofirewood of dead boughs
Samoan maŋodry, dry up


*Raŋkay dry


PWMP     *Raŋkay dry

Cebuano gaŋkaywell dried out, cooked dry
Iban raŋkaidry, harsh
Tae' raŋkedry (of ground, etc.)


*Raŋkep to crawl, creep, as vines


PWMP     *raŋkep₁ crawl

Tiruray raŋkefthe crawling stem of a vine; (of vines) to crawl
Iban raŋkap(of creeping plants) to spread and cover


*Raŋkub to cover


PWMP     *Raŋkub to cover     [disjunct: *aŋkub]

Bontok lakúbto cover completely, as a landslide covering a whole pondfield
Javanese aŋkubsheath of a flower (green cover that splits at blossoming) (Soeparno, p.c.)
Mongondow gaŋkubto cover
  go-gaŋkubsleeping cover, blanket

Note:   With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*Raŋu dry


PMP     *Raŋu dry

Ayta Abellan yaŋodry; of weeds, plants, to wither
Kalamian Tagbanwa laŋuʔmedium degree of dryness
Maranao gaŋodry, dried
Proto-Sangiric *Raŋudry
Kambera kawa-raŋunot entirely dry; still somewhat moist


PCEMP     *ma-Raŋu dry

Bimanese m-aŋodry
Hawu m-aŋudry
Taba maŋdry
Sawai maŋdry
Minyaifuin maŋdry
Tongan m-oŋu, m-aŋuscab
Samoan m-aŋu, m-aŋu(of leaves, etc.) be dry, withered

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gaŋuʔ 'of plants, to dry up, Manggarai daŋo ‘dry’. The agreement of the Kalamian Tagbanwa and Kambera glosses suggests that this form may have referred to a contrastive degree of incomplete dryness.


*Rapiq crumble


PWMP     *Rapiq crumble     [doublet: *Rapuq]

Agutaynen lapikto intentionally snap or break something in half, or break something off
Maranao gapiʔbreak into pieces, chip off parts of objects
Malay rapéhcrumbling


*Rapuq₁ rotten, crumbling


PWMP     *Rapuq₁ rotten, crumbling     [doublet: *Rapiq]

Tagalog gapóʔdecayed, rotted
Cebuano gapúʔweak, easily broken; sickly, weak due to old age, brittle-boned
Malay rapohbrittle, fragile, easily broken up

Note:   With root *-puq ‘brittle’.


*Rapuq₂ branches carried along and deposited by water


PPh     *Rapuq₂ branches carried along and deposited by water

Cebuano gápuʔdriftwood, twigs or bamboo pieces found beside the seashore
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gapuʔa pile of dead trees or branches; a log jam in a stream
Mansaka gapoʔdeteriorated; dead (as of a tree)
Tiruray rafuʔbranches laid across a trail to block its use; to place rafuɁ

Note:   Also Tboli lafuɁ ‘dry leaves or twigs’.


*Rapus to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope


PMP     *Rapus to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope

Casiguran Dumagat giposto detain someone; to control, to prevent, to stop, to delay (either by word or physical force)
Tagalog gáposmanacle; rope tied around the arms or hands; a prisoner’s bonds
  gapósmanacled, tied up by the arms
Bikol mag-gáposto manacle; to tie the hands or feet
Hanunóo gápustying, manacling
Aklanon gáposto tie up, bind
  gapóstwine, rope
Agutaynen mag-lapotto bind or tie up a person by the arms and/or feet, or an animal by the feet, usually with a rope
Maranao gaposstop or restrict movement of angry person
Mansaka gaposto bind hand and foot
Tausug mag-gapusto tie, bind (as a cow to be butchered; grasp (someone) and hold firmly, esp. one who resists
Kadazan Dusun gapusto embrace, hug, hold someone in one’s arms
Kayan apuhto catch hold of, to grip; to arrest, to capture
Malay mə-rapus ~ mə-rampusto pinion a buffalo’s legs and throw it down for slaughter
Gayō rapustie, bond
  mu-rapustied up; caught, as in a snare trap
Toba Batak maa-rapushold fast, detain
Old Javanese apus-apusbond, band, fillet, noose; ensnaring, trap, trick, deceit
  aŋ-apusto bind, ensnare; to bind together
  apus-anbond, fetter
Javanese apusdeceit; lame, crippled (in arms or leg); horse’s trappings
Balinese hapusto deceive, cheat; deceit, cunning, cheating
Proto-Sangiric *Rapusto bind, tie up
Sangir la-hapusəʔband; fetters, shackles
  mə-hapusəʔto bind, shackle someone
Buruese hapu-hto tie, bind (as a person)


PWMP     *R<in>apus bound, tied up

Kadazan Dusun g<in>apushugged, embraced
Old Javanese in-apusto bind, ensnare; to bind together


PWMP     *Rapus-en to bind, tie the hands or feet

Tagalog gapús-into bind; to tie up a person; to manacle or tie up by the arms
Bikol gapós-onto manacle; to tie the hands or feet
Hanunóo gapus-únto tie, manacle
Agutaynen lapot-onto bind or tie up a person by the arms and/or feet, or an animal by the feet, usually with a rope
Tausug gapus-unto tie, bind (as a cow to be butchered; grasp (someone) and hold firmly, esp. one who resists
Kadazan Dusun gopus-onembraced, hugged


*Raqan lightness (weight)


PMP     *Raqan lightness (weight)

Tagalog gaʔánlight in weight
Cebuano gaʔanlight in weight
Tboli laanlightness, as in weight, mood
Lun Dayeh raanlightness
Mongondow mo-gaanlight in weight
Kei ma-raanlight in weight


PMP     *ma-Raqan light in weight

Lun Dayeh mə-raanlight in weight
Mongondow mo-gaanlight in weight
Selaru m-rānlight in weight
Kei ma-raanlight in weight
Kowiai/Koiwai ma-ra-ranlight in weight

Note:   Also Ilokano lagɁán ‘lightness; (fig.) easiness’, Bikol giʔán, Kelabit mə-raɁən ‘light in weight’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) reconstructed *Raqan (written *ɣahan) ‘light in weight’, but cited no reflexes other than Cebuano gaʔán. Mills (1981) attributes Selaru rān and some other CMP forms which may belong to the present cognate set to "Proto-Indonesian" *Daŋ(-an) ‘light(weight)’.


*Raqup cup the hands


PMP     *Raqup cup the hands     [doublet: *raqup]

Malay rahup, raupputting the hands together cup-wise; turning in the paws (as a cat, to prevent its prey escaping)
Mongondow gauphold between something, clench, clasp
Buruese hau-hgather
Motu rau-ascrape or gather together with two hands

Note:   Also Mongondow aup ‘hold between something, clench, clasp’.


*RaRaŋ large marine mollusk: Turbo marmoratus


PPh     *RaRaŋ large marine mollusk: Turbo marmoratus

Itbayaten yayaŋseashell with a shutter or lid: Turbo marmoratus (larger of the two Turbo varieties)
Ivatan yayaŋturbo shell
Ibatan yayaŋkind of large sea snail
Ilokano raráŋkind of large, elongated mollusk with a pointed shell; mother-of-pearl


*RasRas to rub vigorously, scour


PPh     *RasRas to rub vigorously, scour

Ilokano rasrásscratching sound
  ag-rasrásto scratch, rub oneself
  na-rasras-anfrayed, fretted, chafed
Bontok laslásto rub or scrape clean, using sand or earth as an abrasive (as in cleaning the soot from a pot)
Casiguran Dumagat gasgásto scratch or scrape something (as to scrape soot off the outside of a blackened kettle)
Bikol gasgásabrasion
  mag-gasgásto scratch (not used to refer to scratching an itch); to mark or mar the surface
  maka-gasgásto scratch, chafe
Cebuano gasgásto damage something by scratching it
Central Tagbanwa gasgasscrape on the skin
Maranao gasgasto rub hard or vigorously
Mansaka gasgasto rub against

Note:   Also Bontok gasgás ‘to grate; to scrape, as sweet potatoes or coconut’.


*RaSuŋ ambush, attack from concealment


PAN     *RaSuŋ ambush, attack from concealment

Thao lhashunambush, attack
  lh<m>ashunstalk, follow with intent to ambush; shoot at something from a position of concealment
Bunun lasuŋ-unambush
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Rauŋlie in wait for an enemy or animal


PMP     *Rahuŋ ambush, attack from concealment

Cebuano gahuŋpit trap; trap something in a pit

Note:   Also Paiwan rauŋ ‘place of ambush’, r<m>auŋ ‘to ambush, wait in ambush’, pa-rauŋ ‘ambush by means of a trap (as a firearm rigged with string to trip trigger’ (< Puyuma ).


*Rataq coconut milk


PMP     *Rataq coconut milk     [doublet: *gateq]    [disjunct: *Ratas]

Tagalog gatáʔcoconut milk
Hanunóo gatáʔcoconut cream obtained by squeezing and leaching shredded coconut meat
Cebuano gataʔjuice squeezed from coconut meat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gataʔcoconut milk
Miri rataʔmilk from the breast
Motu ratamilk, breasts

Note:   Also Bikol gutáʔ ‘coconut milk’.


*Ratas₁ sever, tear


PMP     *Ratas₁ sever, tear     [doublet: *ra(n)tas]    [disjunct: *Retas]

Minangkabau ratassevering with a slit
Manggarai ratassever, tear

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever; rip’.


*Ratas₂ milk


PMP     *Ratas₂ milk

Isneg xátatbreast, udder
Casiguran Dumagat gátasmilk
  ma-gátasto milk a cow, carabao, etc.
  gatás-anto add milk to coffee
Tagalog gátasmilk
  ma-gátashaving plenty of milk
  maŋ-ga-gátasmilkman; a man who sells or delivers milk to customers
  g<um>átasto milk; to draw milk from cow, goat, etc.
  gatas-ándairy; milker; animal from which milk is taken
Agutaynen yatatbreast milk
Tiruray ratahhuman breast milk
Tausug gatasmilk
  mag-gatasto add milk to (something)
  gatas-unfor a woman to begin to lactate
Kadazan Dusun gatasmilk from nursing mammals
Murut (Timugon) gatasmilk from nursing mammals
Lun Dayeh ratamilk
  ŋe-ratato feed or give milk to an infant
Kelabit ratamilk (human and animal)
Kiput latamilk
Sinaugoro latafemale breast
Motu ratamilk; breasts, udder
Gabadi rakamilk

Note:   Also Ilokano gátas ‘milk’ (presumably a Tagalog loan).


*RauS scoop net


PAN     *RauS scoop net     [doublet: *kauS]

Pazeh tu-rausto gather together
Thao lh<m>aushto scoop up with a dip net, etc.
  lhaush-into be scooped up, dipped out of a container


PAN     *Ra-RauS a dip net

Pazeh raa-rausa type of small, round scoop-net with a handle
Thao lha-lhaushdip net; strainer or filter

Note:   Although the semantics of Pazeh tu-raus may raise questions about cognation, the noun formed by Ca- reduplication is clearly cognate with the Thao form.


*Rawaŋ gap, full of gaps


PWMP     *Rawaŋ gap, full of gaps     [doublet: *awaŋ, *lawaŋ]

Aklanon gawaŋdoor
Cebuano gawaŋdoor; hole in flooring or in a wall
Iban rawaŋhollow, cavity
  ke-rawaŋhollow or channel, fretwork
Malay rawaŋopenwork, fretted
  ke-rawaŋopenwork, à jour design
Karo Batak rawaŋà jour wickerwork
Old Javanese roŋhole, cave, cavern

Note:   Also Iban rabaŋ ‘incomplete, having gaps, patchy’.


*Rawed betel pepper


PWMP     *Rawed betel pepper

Itneg (Binongan) lawɨdbetel leaf
Balangaw lawɨ'dbetel leaf
Casiguran Dumagat gaweda vine, the ikmo, or betel pepper, Piper betel (this leaf is used extensively for chewing with the betel nut; it is also believed to have medicinal value)
Pangasinan lawérpepper leaf used for wrapping betel
Ayta Abellan yawedbetel leaf (for chewing preparation)
Kalagan lawódbetel leaf
Kenyah auat (= awət)betel pepper


*Raya big, large


PAN     *Raya big, large

Kavalan Rayabig, large, great; fat (trunk of the body); strong (as wind); large in amount
  qa-Rayato grow
  Ra-Rayahigh officer; coarse (sand); large (mesh); to grow (person)
Yakan hadjebig (as a house)
  pa-hadjeto honor someone, treat someone with respect
Sama (Central) heabig
Bisaya (Lotud) a-gayobig
Dumpas a-gayoʔbig
Kadazan Dusun gazobig
  a-gazobig, great, large, chief, main, principal
  g<in>azosize, magnitude
  ka-gaza-anact of growing; greatness, hugeness; desire, wish
Tatana ma-gayobig
Murut (Paluan) a-ayobig
Abai Sembuak ma-ayobig
Minokok a-gazəbig
Ida'an Begak gayobig
Murut (Tagol) ma-ayobig
Tingalan (West) ma-ayobig
Bisaya (Lotud) a-gayobig
Bisaya (Limbang) gayobig
Belait rəjehbig
Bulungan rayabig
Lun Dayeh rayəhbig, grand, spacious, wide, large; loud (of sound)
  ŋə-rayəhmake something big; celebrate; promote
  kin-rayəhthe size of something
Tabun rayabig
Kelabit rayehbig, great, physically large (people or things); old (people)
Sa'ban rahbig
Berawan (Long Terawan) kijihbig
Tring layahbig
Berawan (Long Jegan) kijəybig
Dali' rayabig
Bintulu azəhbig, wide
Tunjung hajaʔbig
Iban rayalarge, major
  aiʔ rayaspring tides
  buah rayabumper fruit season
  hari rayamidday
  rumah rayalonghouse (as distinct from farm huts)
Proto-Chamic *rayabig
Malay rayagreat; mighty
  hantu rayathe greatest of the evil spirits of the forest
  hari raya besarfestival after the fasting month; the greatest holiday in the Malay year
Acehnese rayabig, wide, extensive; considerable, very; vehement; full-grown
Gayō rayabig, great
Karo Batak rayafollowing some nouns this indicates large for its kind
Toba Batak reabig, main
  dalan reamain road
Rejang laibig, large
Balinese hayabig, large, extremely large
Kédang riabig, large
Buruese haabig
Tifu haabig
Soboyo hayabig, large (as a big island); very; serious
  matatuu haya-hayaa very distinguished or important person

Note:   Also Tombonuwo aayo ‘big’, Kayan (Uma Juman) ayaʔ ‘big, large, great; old’, Narum rayaaʔ ~ ayaaʔ, Miri ayaʔ, Taboyan, Dusun Malang gaya ‘big’, Acehnese rayeuʔ ‘big, extensive, fat, considerable’, Rejang loi ‘big, large’, Sundanese raya ‘big’, Old Javanese raya ‘great, big’, Javanese rɔyɔ ‘great, important’.

While this term evidently encompassed the meaning ‘big’ in English, it seems to have referred to more than simple physical size, and probably included such culturally-defined senses as ‘important’, ‘main’, ‘major’ and the like, as well as denoting powerful natural phenomena, as strong winds and loud noises.

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*Rebaq felling of trees to make a swidden


PWMP     *Rebaq felling of trees to make a swidden     [disjunct: *gebaq, *rebaq]

Ilokano rebbáruins
  ag-rebbáto break down, collapse, crumble down
Bikol mag-gabáʔto destroy, to level, to raze
Maranao gebaʔclearing, slash and burn farming
Malay rəbahthe crashing fall of trees and other heavy objects


PPh     *ma-Rebaq destroyed, demolished

Ilokano ma-rbáto be shipwrecked; wrecked; crumble down, collapse; to fall down; decay
Bikol ma-gabáʔto be leveled, razed


PPh     *Rebaq-en to destroy, demolish

Ilokano rebba-ento demolish, destroy
Bikol gabaʔ-ónto destroy, to level, to raze


*Rebek to fly


PMP     *Rebek to fly

Palauan s-u-ebəkto fly (out from)
  ol-sebəkmake (something) fly
  omək-sebəkmake (something) fly
Chamorro guputo fly, move through the air, travel through the air
Gimán opato fly
Buli opato fly
Biga -oboto fly
Dusner riobto fly
Numfor robto fly
Munggui ryobato fly


POC     *Ropok to fly

Nalik ləfto fly
Bali (Uneapa) robokoto fly
Arop i-noto fly
Lakalai lovoto fly
Gitua rovoto fly
Motu rohofly, leap, skip
Pokau rovoto fly
Mono-Alu lohoto fly
Nggela lovoto fly
  vaka lovoairplane; to move, of clouds; float in the air
Kwaio lofoto fly
  lofo-ʔiato seize and fly off with, of birds of prey
Lau lofojump, fly
Toqabaqita lofoto fly
  akalo loo-lofomagic possessed by some people that enabled them to jump very high or far
'Āre'āre rohoto fly
  haka ro-rohoairplane
Sa'a lohoto fly; to swoop; to reach, of words
Arosi rohoto fly, as a bird
  haʔa-rohoto let fly, loose
  roho-sito fly to
Mota rowospring, leap, move quickly up forward, rise, grow; of birds and flying fish, to fly


POC     *Ropo-Ropok flying

Mussau loo-looto fly
Lakalai lovo-lovoto fly
Gapapaiwa rovo-rovoto fly
Nggela lovo lovofast-moving clouds

Note:   Also Gedaged zou ‘to fly, flutter along’, Tambotalo roβu, Atchin row ‘to fly’.


*Rebut pull out, extract


PWMP     *Rebut pull out, extract     [doublet: *RabuC]

Palawano gebutto put something out (usually weeds or a tooth)
Malay mə-rəbutsnatching, tearing at (of people struggling for the possession of anything)


*Re(ŋ)kem grasp in the fist


PMP     *Re(ŋ)kem grasp in the fist

Ifugaw gokómfist, clenched hand
Manggarai reŋkemembrace, wrestle with

Note:   With root *-kem₁ ‘enclose, cover; grasp’.


*Reken coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set


PAN     *Reken coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set     [doublet: *reken]

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan
Bikol gukónhot pad; wooden or bamboo shield placed beneath a pot to keep it from burning or dirtying the table

Note:   Blust (1980) assigned Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Reken erroneously to *reken.


*Re(ŋ)keŋ shrink, contract


PMP     *Re(ŋ)keŋ shrink, contract

Sangir heŋkiŋwrinkle, shrink


POC     *Rokoŋ shrink, contract

Arosi rokocontract, contracted

Note:   With root *-keŋ₄ ‘shrink, shrivel’, seen also in 1. PMP *keŋkeŋ ‘shrink’, 2. Kayan ukeŋ ‘stunted, dwarf’, Malagasy ónkina ‘shrink, be shrivelled’, 3. Malagasy vónkina ‘contract, shrivel, shrink’ and 4. Fijian saqoqo ‘shrivelled, as a leaf, decrepit, as an old man, shrunk, as cloth’.


*Remek crush, pulverize; crumble


PMP     *Remek crush, pulverize; crumble     [doublet: *Remuk]    [disjunct: *remek]

Bontok gəməkcrush, crumple, as a leaf of tobacco; to pound rice, of rice when it is first placed in the mortar
Manggarai remeksoft (of earth around a termite mound)


*Reneg press down


PMP     *Reneg press down

Tiruray renegpush, press down
Manggarai renekpress down
Buruese henekcram, compress (the contents of a container) to make room for more

Note:   Also Tboli lenog ‘press down; release; press to test fruit’.


*Renek silent, taciturn


PWMP     *Renek silent, taciturn

Bontok gənə́kbe quiet, stop talking
Balinese henekbe silent


*ReŋeC angry, annoyed


PAN     *ReŋeC angry, annoyed     [disjunct: *reŋeC]

Paiwan ma-reŋetsjealous


PMP     *Reŋet angry, annoyed

Kankanaey géŋetcholeric, angry, easily irritated
Manggarai ceke-reŋetgrumble, complain; make a sour face


*Repak break to pieces


PMP     *Repak break to pieces     [doublet: *Repik]    [disjunct: *Repek]

Ilokano reppákto snap, break in two, of boughs or branches
Bontok gəpakshard
  gəpak-ənsmash, break, shatter
Kankanaey gepákbroken, burst, cracked, crushed, shattered
Malay repakcrumbling under pressure


POC     *Ropak to break something brittle

Arosi rohato break something brittle

Note:   Also Javanese rempak ‘broken into bits’.


*Repik break to pieces


PWMP     *Repik break to pieces     [doublet: *Repak]

Maranao gepikbreak, usually as brittle item
Iban repiksplit in (thin) pieces


*Re(m)puk crumbling, of wood


PMP     *Re(m)puk crumbling, of wood     [doublet: *Repak, *Repek, *Repik]    [disjunct: *repuk]

Hanunóo gupúkwood hollowed by weevils or termites
Mandar reppoʔbreak, destroy (as a wooden floor)
Manggarai rempukfriable, crumbly (of wood)
  repuksound of wood, bone, etc. breaking

Note:   With root *-puk₂ ‘dust’.


*Resaq restless, fidgeting


PWMP     *Resaq restless, fidgeting

Cebuano gúsaʔfor a child to be restless, fussy
Malay rəsahrestlessness
  məm-buaŋ rəsahnervous fidgeting


*Retak split, crack (intr.)


PWMP     *Retak split, crack (intr.)

Bikol gatákto split (as a glass, dry land)
Tboli letaka big crack, as in a glass or wood
Iban retaklines on the palm of the hand
Malay rtakcrack-marking, e.g. on crackle porcelain, in contrast to a real rift, however narrow


*Retaq crack, cleft


PPh     *Retaq crack, cleft     [doublet: *Retak]

Palawano getaʔa crack, cleft
Tiruray retoʔbrittle
Tboli letaka big crack, as in a glass or wood


*Retas to separate gently, as in weaning


PWMP     *Retas to separate gently, as in weaning

Central Tagbanwa mag-lɨtatto wean
Malay rətassevering gently; giving way without the use of violence


*Retiq popped rice


PWMP     *Retiq popped rice     [disjunct: *retiq]

Bikol gutíɁpopped rice or corn
Malay retéhspring up in little jerks, like shrimps jumping about in a landing-basket
  beras be-rtéhparched rice

Note:   Also Cebuano bitíʔ ‘snapping, popping sound; popcorn’. Based on the comparison Toba Batak bo-r-ti, Malay be-r-tih, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *be[tT]iq ‘popped rice’. There is a high probability that the Toba Batak form is a loan from Malay, but Dempwolff's reconstruction appears to be additionally supported by Proto-Minahasan *bətiʔ ‘burst (of roasting corn)’.

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*Riak shout, shouting


PWMP     *Riak shout, shouting     [disjunct: *riak]

Ilokano riákclamor, noisy talking
Kadazan Dusun gizak-anto be shouted at
Malay tə-riakcry; shout; exclamation in a loud tone


PWMP     *R<um>iak to shout, talk loudly

Ilokano r<um>iákto swagger, talk with noisy violence
Kadazan Dusun g<um>izakto cry, shout, scream, shriek

Note:   Wilkinson (1959) gives Malay tə-riak as monomorphemic. I assume that historically this word contained the ‘spontaneous action’ prefix *taR-.


*Riaq sword grass: Imperata cylindrica


PAN     *Riaq sword grass: Imperata cylindrica

Bunun liahsword grass: Imperata cylindrica
Kanakanabu rə'əʔəsword grass: Imperata cylindrica
Tae' riasword grass: Imperata cylindrica

Note:   Also Kavalan ered ‘sword grass: Imperata cylindrica’, Tsou vrio, Saaroa ərəɬa, Karo Batak rih ‘long sharp-edged grass: Imperata cylindrica’, Sasak re, Bare'e le, Makassarese rea, Rotinese li, Manggarai riʔi ‘Imperata cylindrica’. Part of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1967-70). Tsuchida (1976:170) posits Proto-South Formosan *(wə-)Riaq₂ ‘cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica)’.


*Riaw cry out, clamor


PWMP     *Riaw cry out, clamor

Ilokano riáwcry out, clamor (scolding)
Kankanaey giáwshout, clamor, cry, squall, bawl
Malay riaunoise, clamor
Mongondow giowclamor; cry, shriek, shout

Note:   Also Buli liau ‘noise, din, uproar’. Mills (1975:686) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *rio, "Proto-Indonesian" *[rR]iuq ‘glad, noisy’. The South Sulawesi forms could as easily be assigned to the present cognate set.


*RibaS demolish


PAN     *RibaS demolish     [disjunct: *rebaq]

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Rivasdemolish
Tagalog gibáʔdemolished, destroyed; wrecked, fallen down


(Formosan only)

*Ribawa swell; swelling, tumor


PAN     *Ribawa swell; swelling, tumor

Saisiyat ma-Lbawaswelling
Amis lifawaswell, be swollen; tumor
Thao lh<um>fawaswollen from contusion (not water retention)
  lh<m><im>fawawas swollen

Note:   Also Amis (Kiwit) ma-lu-vawa (= ma-luvawa?). Saisiyat bawaʔ probably is a product of analogical wrong division which resulted from reanalyzing the prefix *ma + stem-initial *R as the common active verb prefix maL-.


*Ribu thousand


PMP     *Ribu thousand

Maranao ŋ-gibothousand
  sa-ŋ-giboone thousand
Lun Dayeh mə-ribuhone thousand
Kelabit ribuhthousand
Sa'ban pə-lbəwone thousand
Berawan (Long Terawan) gikkuhthousand
  acih gikkuhone thousand
Tring cah libuone thousand
Berawan (Long Teru) gikkuhthousand
Berawan (Long Jegan) ce gikkəwone thousand
Narum ma-ribewone thousand
Sebop iβuthousand
  jah iβuone thousand
Kenyah (Long Wat) ja ivəwone thousand
Kenyah (Long Anap) ca ibuone thousand
Penan (Long Labid) ibəwthousand
  jəh ibəwone thousand
Murik nji ibuone thousand
Tonsea se-iwuone thousand
Lamaholot ribuone thousand
Atoni nifu-n meseʔone thousand
Tetun (Dili) rihu-nthousand
Vaikenu n-ifu-nthousand
Tugun rihu-n ehaone thousand
Selaru ribu-nthousand; multitude
Nuaulu nihu-nthousand
Kamarian rihu-nithousand

Note:   Also Itbayaten rivo thousand; om-rivo ‘one thousand’, rivo-rivo-en ‘by the thousands’, Ilokano ríbo ‘thousand’, sa-ŋa-ríbo ‘one thousand’, Agta (Central Cagayan) mə-hibo, Agta (Dupaningan) ma-ríbu ‘one thousand’ (< Ilokano), Isneg ma-ríbu ‘one thousand’, Itawis ma-ríhu ‘thousand’, Bontok líbo ‘a unit of one thousand’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) libu ‘thousand’, Mansaka libo ‘unit of thousand’, sa-n-libo ‘1,000’, Binukid libu ‘thousand’, libu-libu-en ‘thousands; countless number’, Tombonuwo oribu, Bisaya sə-ribu, Kenyah (Long Dunin) se-ribu, Kayan (Uma Bawang) ji libuʔ, Kiput ma-libo, Bintulu sə-ribuʔ, Melanau Dalat sə-ribu ‘one thousand’, Proto-South Sulawesi *riwu ‘hundred thousand (perhaps < Malay ribu)’, Wolio rewu ‘thousand’, sa-rewu ‘one thousand’, Muna riwu ‘thousand’, Bimanese sa-rivu ‘one thousand’, Kambera riu ‘thousand’, ha-riu ‘one thousand’.

Based on Tagalog libo, Toba Batak ribu, Javanese ewu, Malay, Ngaju Dayak ribu, Malagasy a-rivu ‘thousand’ Dempwolff (1938) posited *ribu ‘thousand’. However, this reconstruction was problematic from the start, since the Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy words are almost certain loans from Malay. As the matter is pursued in greater depth with more languages the history of this word becomes even more perplexing, as nearly all reflexes in both the Philippines and Indonesia appear to be Malay loans, yet a few languages have forms that cannot be explained in this way, pointing instead to *Ribu. This is clearly true of Maranao in the southern Philippines, and of the Berawan languages in Sarawak, both of which reflect PMP *R as g in this word. It also appears to be true of the Kenyah dialects (including Penan), which normally lose *R word-initially. Many other forms are ambiguous: e.g. is Ilokano ríbo ‘thousand’ native, or is it a Malay loanword that has acquired native affixation in the form sa-ŋa-ríbo ‘one thousand’? All in all it seems best to assume that PMP had a word *Ribu ‘thousand’ that was lost or replaced in Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, but preserved in many languages of western Indonesia and the Philippines, only to be replaced in time by Malay ribu, presumably as a consequence of the dominant role of Malay in pan-archipelagic trade over the past two millennia. In this respect it stands in sharp contrast to reflexes of *Ratus ‘hundred’, which appear to be native in most languages, including those that have an apparently borrowed form of *Ribu.


*Ri(m)bun heap up


PWMP     *Ri(m)bun heap up

Bikol gibónsmall mound of earth in which seeds are placed
Sasak rimbunto assemble, gather

Note:   With root *-bun (or *bequn?) ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*Riduq to shake, as the ground in an earthquake


PPh     *Riduq to shake, as the ground in an earthquake

Bontok gidúearthquake; to rock, of an earthquake
Kankanaey i-gidóto wake up; to awaken; to be roused
Proto-Minahasan *ehdoʔearthquake

Note:   This comparison was first suggested by Sneddon (1978:124/185). Since reflexes of PAn *linuR ‘earthquake’ are far more robustly attested in Philippine languages, I assume that this word referred to the shaking or rocking movement experienced during an earthquake.


*Rihuq tree sp.


PWMP     *Rihuq tree sp.

Tagalog gihóʔlumber producing tree of the first group: Shorea guiso
Malay rioha tree: Timonius peduncularis


*Ri(ŋ)kas trim, cut off excess


PWMP     *Ri(ŋ)kas trim, cut off excess

Aklanon gíkasstrip, trim, cut
Malay riŋkasbrief, succinct, concise
  me-riŋkas-kanto shorten, condense, summarize


*Riken coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head


PWMP     *Riken coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head     [disjunct: *riken]

Bontok gíkənring used to support a head basket
Kankanaey gíkenringlike pad made of grasses and sedges, and placed on the head by women when carrying loads
Sasak réken ~ rikenwhat women place on the head in order to carry a load


(Formosan only)

*Rimeja sword grass: Imperata cylindrica


PAN     *Rimeja sword grass: Imperata cylindrica

Saisiyat ləmzæsmall miscanthus
Seediq (Tkdaya) gmeyasword grass: Imperata cylindrica
Thao lhimza <Msword grass, a dominant opportunistic colonist of former farmland traditionally used as roofing material on houses and granaries: Imperata cylindrica

Note:   This comparison was first pointed out by Li (1994).


*Rimukud soul


PPh     *Rimukud soul

Binukid gimukudsoul, spirit (of a person); ghost
  paŋ-gimukudto perform a rite believed to return the wandering soul (of someone) to the body
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gimukudthe immaterial part of a person which lives after death and passes on to Ivaya’an; a ghost or soul of a dead person
Proto-Sangiric *Rimukudsoul, spirit
Sangir himukudəʔsoul; ghost of a departed person
Proto-Gorontalic *gimukuDosoul, spirit (usually of a good person, a parent or a sibling)

Note:   Also Tontemboan (n)imuɁkur ‘soul, ghost, the individuality of a living or dead person’, Mongondow dimukud ‘ghost, soul’, rimukud-an ‘ghost, soul (priestly language)’. The high level of irregularity in the attested shapes of this form raises questions about possible borrowing. This appears to have been a PPh replacement for PMP *sumaŋed ‘soul of a living being’.


*Rinu winnowing basket


PAN     *Rinu winnowing basket

Atayal (Mayrinax) ginuʔa small-sized winnowing basket
Pazeh xinua large winnowing basket used for ladling rice


PMP     *niRu winnowing basket

Bikol nígowinnowing basket
Hanunóo nígua flat, circular winnowing tray made of twilled bamboo strips
Masbatenyo nígowinnowing tray
Waray-Waray nígowinnower
Palawan Batak niguwinnowing basket
Cebuano nígurattan winnowing tray; make into a winnowing tray
Maranao nigowinnowing basket
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) niɣua winnowing basket; to winnow
Lun Dayeh rinuh <Ma shallow open-weave square basket used to separate pounded rice from chaff
Kelabit rinuhwinnowing basket
Malay ñirua basket-tray, pointed and almost heart-shaped, on which grain is tossed up and shaken to rid it of dust and chaff after pounding

Note:   Also Bontok ligʔó ‘winnowing basket’, Tombonuwo lilibu ‘oblong winnowing tray’, Bintulu ñiruʔ ‘winnowing basket’ (< Malay), Ngaju Dayak ñiro ‘a round, flat basket used to winnow rice’ (< Malay). The shape of the PAn form is unclear, since the two primary witnesses (Pazeh and PMP) disagree in the order of consonants. I assume that Lun Dayeh, Kelabit rinuh represents a metathesis from the PMP form rather than a conservative agreement with Formosan languages, and that the nasal in Malay ñiru is a product of historically secondary palatalization, as in ñiur < *niuR ‘coconut’.


(Formosan only)

*RiNaS long feathers used for personal adornment


PAN     *RiNaS long feathers used for personal adornment

Kavalan rinasfeather (long and beautiful)
Thao lhizashlong feathers of a bird or fowl, whether wing pinions or tail feathers
Bunun (Isbukun) ɬinaspheasant


PAN     *RiNaS-an the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant

Saisiyat LilaʃanSwinhoe’s blue pheasant
Thao lhizash-anthe male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant, a chicken-sized bird with blue and white tail feathers and a red face: Lophura swinhoii Gould

Note:   Given the clear morphological connection between these forms it is reasonable to assume that *RiNaS referred in particular to the tail feathers of the male Swinhoe’s blue pheasant, since these are particularly long and striking, with their peacock-like patterns of ocelli. Within historical times such feathers were highly valued in the traditional cultures of several Formosan aboriginal groups. This term is striking in that the name of the animal from which the natural product comes is derived by suffixation with *-an ‘locative’ (male Swinhoe’s blue pheasant lit. = ‘source of long tail feathers’). The correctness of this interpretation is confirmed by a parallel usage with *waNiS ‘tusk of wild boar’ : *waNiS-an ‘wild boar’, where the name for the wild boar is literally ‘source of tusks’, another natural product that was traditionally valued for its decorative uses among the Formosan aborigines.


*RiNuk the Japanese raspberry: Rubus parvifolius (Linn.), Rubus taiwanianus (Matsum.)


PAN     *RiNuk the Japanese raspberry: Rubus parvifolius (Linn.), Rubus taiwanianus (Matsum.)

Kavalan Rinuka plant with edible berry: Rubus parvifolius
Saisiyat (Taai) Liluka plant with edible berry: Rubus parvifolius
Atayal (Mayrinax) iluka plant with edible berry: Rubus parvifolius
Rukai (Tanan) Liluka plant with edible berry: Rubus parvifolius

Note:   This comparison was first noted in print by Li (1994:261).


*Riŋaw fish sp.


PWMP     *Riŋaw fish sp.

Aklanon gíŋawkind of fish
Iban riŋaua river fish


*Ripak split, crack


PWMP     *Ripak split, crack

Kankanaey gipákto clack, clap, crack
Hanunóo gípakbroken, crushed
Iban rimpakchip, notch; broken (break) piece of
  ke-rimpakbroken (break) piece of
Malay rémpaksplit at the side

Note:   With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.


*Ri(m)pit squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers


PMP     *Ri(m)pit squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers

Tagalog gipítwanting or lacking in space
Maranao gimpitpress, crush
Tae' rimpiʔto clip, pinch, squeeze
Kambera ripitutake between the fingers; pinch, pluck

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*Riqek thresh grain by trampling


PAN     *Riqek thresh grain by trampling

Kavalan rikremove grains by treading or kneading with feet
Casiguran Dumagat əgikto thresh grain
Tagalog giʔíkthreshing of palay (rice)
Hanunóo gíʔukthrashing by trampling
Romblomanon gīʔuksomeone’s treading out unhulled rice from the stalks
Masbatenyo mag-gíʔokto thresh
Aklanon gíʔokto thresh rice with one’s feet
Waray-Waray giʔókthe act of threshing, as of palay
Cebuano giʔúk ~ gíʔukremove grain from rice stalks with the feet
Maranao gikthresh
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) giʔekto step on something; thresh rice by walking on it
Tiruray ʔerékthresh by trampling
Kadazan Dusun ogiktread out corn from the ears
Lun Dayeh r<en>iktrampling, threshing, walking on (such as rice to separate it from stalk)
  r<in>ikwas trampled on (such as by a water buffalo), threshed, walked on
  rik-enwill thresh, walk on, trample
Kayan hikthreshed rice; rice separated from straw
Proto-Sangiric *Riəkto thresh (grain)
Sangir mə-hiəʔthresh by trampling
Totoli iokthresh with the feet


PWMP     *maŋ-Riqek thresh grain with the feet

Kadazan Dusun maŋ-ogiktread out corn from the ears
Karo Batak ŋ-eriktrample rice ears with the feet


PWMP     *R<um>iqek to thresh by trampling

Hanunóo g<um>íʔukto thresh by trampling
Lun Dayeh r<um>iktrampling, threshing, waling on (such as rice to separate it from stalk)

Note:   Also Bikol giník ‘to thresh rice with the feet’ (< *Riqek?), Tiruray erék ‘to thresh by trampling’, Yakan mag-diʔik ‘to tread on something, step on something, be run over by something; to thresh grain’. Zorc (1985) assigned Tagalog giʔík to "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *Gíek ‘to thresh’, citing Kanakanabu uma-iriki, Malay (h)irék ‘thresh’ as the only non-Philippine reflexes. However, Kanakanabu uma-iriki, like Puyuma (Tamalakaw) iRik ‘thresh with the feet’ is most simply derived from *iRik, and Malay (h)irek from *qiRik. Most languages appear to reflect *eRik, but given this reconstruction the Tagalog, Hanunóo, BISA, Manobo (Western Bukidnon), Lun Dayeh, Sangir and Totoli reflexes must be treated as though they are similar but unrelated forms. A careful consideration of other bases that have a postvocalic schwa, such as *kaen ‘eat’ suggests that contraction of the vowel sequence that resulted from loss of *q was likely to occur independently in many languages, and the disyllabic canonical preference of most AN languages would then have led to restoration of the lost disyllabism by schwa epenthesis, hence *Riqek > *Riek > *Rik > *eRik.


*Risi tear, split, cut


PMP     *Risi tear, split, cut     [disjunct: *Risiq]

Hanunóo gísitearing, ripping intentionally, as of cloth
Lau lisicut short, cut fingernails
  lisi-acut short, cut fingernails
Sa'a lisicut off a piece or section
Arosi risicut off, cut up (tobacco), shave
Fijian isi, isi-atear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise, as bamboo; cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string
Niue īhi (length unexplained)split, divide, rip open
Samoan isi(of wood, etc.) split
Maori ihisplit, divide; separate; strip bark off a tree
Hawaiian ihito strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove


*Risiq tear, split, cut


PMP     *Risiq tear, split, cut     [disjunct: *Risi]

Kankanaey gisíbreak, burst, crack, split
Bikol gisíʔa tear (as in a shirt); torn
Cebuano gísiʔtear something; make a slight cut or laceration
Lau lisicut short, cut fingernails
  lisi-acut short, cut fingernails
Sa'a lisicut off a piece or section
Arosi risicut off, cut up (tobacco), shave
Fijian isi, isi-atear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise, as bamboo; cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string
Niue īhi (length unexplained)split, divide, rip open
Samoan isi(of wood, etc.) split
Maori ihisplit, divide; separate; strip bark off a tree
Hawaiian ihito strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove


(Formosan only)

*Ritu loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa


PAN     *Ritu loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa

Saisiyat (Taai) LituɁloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Atayal (Squliq) gituevergreen tree with yellow plumlike fruit: the loquat: Eriobotrya deflexa
Seediq gituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Bunun lituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Tsou rtuuloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Kanakanabu rítuloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Saaroa rituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Paiwan itjuloquat, fruit of Eriobotrya deflexa

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).

TOP      Ra    Re    Ri    Ru    























*Ruab high tide, tidal flow


PMP     *Ruab high tide, tidal flow     [doublet: *luab]

Miri rəbab ~ rababhigh tide
Kiput lufiəptide, tidal rise in the river
Sangir huabə(in the Sangirese tidal calendar) time of the first and last quarter (of the moon); after haresəʔ the huabə begins, which is to say that the reef is no longer visible
  la-huaw-əŋtidal state where there is neither ebb nor flow
Yamdena ruapflood
Waropen ruflood, high water


POC     *Ruap high tide, tidal flow

Tolai ruapbreakers, waves breaking on the rocks; to break heavily, of the sea
Gedaged zua-ia large tidal wave
Numbami luwawafloodtide, high tide
Nggela luaa flood of water; full tide, opposite sembe (low tide); to flow, of the tide
Kwaio luahigh tide
  lua-luaflood tide
Lau luahigh tide; unusually heavy sea, big waves; to flow in, of tide
Toqabaqita luatide, sometimes with the implication of high tide
'Āre'āre ruaflood tide, incoming tide
Sa'a lueflood tide
  lue-luea flood
Ulawa luaflood tide
  lua-luaa flood
Arosi rua-ruaa flood of water
Bauro rua-ruahigh tide
Gilbertese iatide, flow, flux, ebb
Mota rueflow of tide, flood-tide, high tide
Wayan uawave; tide; high tide; to flow, come in (of the tide); wash over or cover something (of waves)
  vaka-uahave big waves washing to it, be covered with big waves
Fijian uathe tide, a wave

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun uvab ‘high tide’, Iban (Scott 1956) uap ‘a tide mark, a mark left by liquid’, Fordata ruat ‘flood, rising water’, Numfor rub ‘flood’. Milke (1968) posited POc *Ruap ‘tidal wave’, but he was unaware of cognates outside the Oceanic group, and his gloss is at odds with the great majority of languages, which suggest that both PMP *Ruab and POc *Ruap meant ‘high tide, tidal flow’.


*Ruaq empty out


PWMP     *Ruaq empty out     [doublet: *luaq]

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) guwaʔto go out of something or someplace
Malay ruahto empty out, of emptying things out of sacks, etc., not of pouring out liquid


(Formosan only)

*Rubu nest, lair


PAN     *Rubu nest, lair     [doublet: *Nibu]

Kavalan rubuden, animal lair; beehive, ant nest
Pazeh xubunest (of bird); sheath (of sword)
Puyuma rubunest
Paiwan (Tjuabu) ruvua nest
Paiwan (Western) ruvu-ruvunest; prison

Note:   Also Kavalan Rupu ‘pen, corral (as for pigs), enclosure; pigpen, chicken house; bird nest, ant nest’.


*Rudaŋ old, of people


PAN     *Rudaŋ old, of people

Proto-Rukai *ma-roɖaŋəadult/old person
Ilokano guráŋold, mature (animal)
Tagalog gúlaŋage; old, of age
  ma-gúlaŋparent, father or mother; mature, of age, full-grown
  mag-ka-siŋ-gúlaŋall of the same age
  g<um>úlaŋto become mature; become older
  guláŋ-anto take advantage of someone who has not had much experience yet
Bikol guráŋold (humans, animals); aged, old
  mag-guráŋto grow old
  ma-gu-gúraŋconservative, traditional; out of date; also used to refer to the stories told by old people
  ka-guráŋ-anold age
  ka-guraŋ-nánthe Lord, the Almighty
Hanunóo gúraŋage; old, referring especially to people
  guráŋ-unold person, elder
Masbatenyo gúraŋold, aged
  ka-ma-guráŋ-angroup of older siblings
Aklanon gúeaŋto get older
  ma-gúeaŋold, elder
  ma-gueáŋelder sibling
  ka-gueaŋ-áneldest, oldest
  m<in>a-gueáŋrelating to older people or ways; “of the older generation”; “adult way”
Waray-Waray gúraŋold; matured; adult; of majority age
Hiligaynon gúlaŋage, maturity
  mag-gúlaŋto be old, to become mature, to ripen (as fruit)
Cebuano gúlaŋold in age; mature; to grow old; for fruit to become mature
  a-guláŋtitle for an old man or woman; old man or woman
  ma-guláŋelder sibling; older than someone; a little more than something compared to
  ka-ma-guláŋ-aneldest among a given group; first-born
  kati-guláŋ-anold folks; ancestors
Binukid ma-gulaŋold in age; adult (person); mature (fruit)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-ɣuraŋan old person; old

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) ludan ‘old, elderly; parents’, ma-ludan ‘to age, become old’, Maranao roraŋ ‘old leaf; old’. This is a somewhat difficult comparison, since all languages except Rukai, Truku Seediq, and Maranao reflect an initial consonant that is ambiguous for *g or *R, and --- as noted by Dempwolff (1938:56), apparent cognates in Toba Batak and Malagasy point to *gudaŋ. The Truku Seediq word is irregular but cannot easily be accounted for as a loanword, while the Maranao word presumably derives from a Bilic source, but the sources available for Tiruray and Tboli show no such form. Despite these problems I take the agreement between Rukai and Maranao to indicate PAn *R-, and dismiss Malagasy mi-hórana ‘to increase, to augment, to become aggravated, as a fire, a plague, etc.’ as unrelated on semantic grounds, and Toba Batak godaŋ (expected **godaŋ) ‘much, many; large’, ma-godaŋ ‘to grow; high, of water level’ as unrelated on both formal and semantic grounds.


*Rujan cargo, load (on a boat)


PMP     *Rujan cargo, load (on a boat)     [doublet: *lujan]    [disjunct: *ujan]

Kayan udancargo on a boat


POC     *Rucan to load, as cargo on a boat

Nauna usto load, as cargo in a boat
Seimat uxan-ito load, as cargo in a boat
Bugotu lu-lujacargo
Nggela lundaload a canoe or ship with cargo; cargo
Lau ludato carry in a canoe, carry as cargo; to load a canoe or ship; a coconut tree loaded with fruit
  luda-icarry cargo
'Āre'āre rutato charge, load, carry a load
  ruta-niato load, charge
Sa'a ludacarry cargo, load a canoe
  ludeŋ-ito carry, as cargo; to recruit men
Arosi rutato load a canoe, carry to canoe and stow; cargo, to carry cargo


*Rukib cave


PPh     *Rukib cave

Ilokano rúkibcave, grotto, cavern
Ayta Abellan yokibcave


*Rumaq house


PAN     *Rumaq house

Pazeh xumahouse
  matu-xumato build a house
Sakizaya lumaʔhouse
Amis lomaʔbuilding, a house, a home
  misa-lomaʔto build a building or house
Bunun lumaqfamily; house; home
Puyuma rumaʔhouse
Paiwan umaqhouse; (Western Paiwan) grave
Sambal (Botolan) gómaʔsheath for bolo
Subanon gumaʔ-ansheath for bolo
Binukid gumaʔbolo sheath, scabbard; to sheathe a bolo, put a bolo in a sheath
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gumaʔa sheath for a sharp tool or weapon; to make a sheath; to put in a sheath
Tiruray rumaʔa scabbard or sheath
Mapun lumaʔhouse; store, or building
  mag-lumaʔto live in a house
  ŋa-lumaʔ-anto go from house to house
  lumaʔ-lumaʔa playhouse for children
Yakan lumaʔhouse
  mag-lumaʔto live somewhere, to make one’s place somewhere
  ka-lumaʔ-anvillage, cluster of houses
Tboli lumakscabbard; sheath for sword or dagger; put a bolo into a scabbard; to sheathe; to wear a sheath around the waist
Bilaan (Sarangani) lumaʔsheath for bolo
Tabun rumahouse
Kelabit rumaʔhouse (= longhouse)
Sa'ban maʔhouse, longhouse
Kenyah umaʔhouse (= longhouse)
Kayan umaa longhouse, a single house, any building; a Kayan clan
Kayan (Uma Juman) umahouse
Bintulu umaʔhouse
Ngaju Dayak humahouse (the large, permanent dwelling houses in villages)
  maŋka-humahave a house somewhere, reside
Iban rumahhouse, permanent dwelling; housing; longhouse as ritual center of menoa (area of land held and used by distinct community)
Malay rumahhouse; specifically, a dwelling house in contrast to a mosque, or to a balai or meeting house open to all
  be-rumahto set up house, to get married
  me-rumah-ito break into a private house to compromise or violate one of its inmates
  rumah-rumah-anplayhouse for children
Acehnese rumòhhouse, dwelling
Gayō umahhouse
  umah-umah-enplayhouse for children
Simalur lumahouse
  luma-lumaminiature house (playhouse for children)
Karo Batak rumahhouse, dwelling; the true village, as opposed to what lies outside it (gardens, bathing place, etc.); lineage or family as a segment of the sub-merga
  me-rumahlive in a house (as opposed to animals, which live in holes)
  pe-rumah-ito use as a house
  ŋe-rumah-ito diagnose an illness
  berat rumahpregnant (lit. ‘heavy house’)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak rumahhouse
Toba Batak rumahouse, especially the beautifully constructed houses of the wealthy
Mentawai umalarge house, common house
Enggano e-ubahouse
Old Javanese umahhouse, home, abode
  m-omahto have a house, run a household
  p-omah-omahproperty brought into a marriage
Javanese omahhouse, home
Balinese humahhouse, the complex containing the usual group of buildings (stone house, open platform with thatched roof for daily activity, rice-store, kitchen, pig-sty and house shrine)
  humah-inbe housed, dwell
Proto-Sangiric *Romasheath
Sangir homaslip, cover, sheath; also mask under which an enchanted prince appears
Proto-Minahasan *umaʔsheath; to sheathe
Tonsawang umaʔsheath; to sheathe
Mongondow gumaʔsheath (for a bolo, etc.)
Chamorro gumaʔhouse, home, shelter, refuge, dwelling, dormitory, building
Donggo umahouse
Anakalangu umahouse
Kambera umahouse
Rotinese umahouse, home
Tetun umahouse, dwelling place, lair (of animals), coccoon (of insects)
Tetun (Dili) umahouse
Vaikenu umɛhouse
Erai rumagranary
Leti rumahouse
Luang roməhouse
Wetan romahouse; also clan, lineage, e.g. Roma Lona, the house (clan lineage) of Lona
Ujir Rumaqhouse
Watubela lumakhouse
Bonfia sumahouse
Masiwang umahouse
Teluti umahouse
Manusela luma ~ numahouse
Nuaulu numahouse
Gah lumehouse
Wahai luma-nhouse
Saparua rumahhouse
Hitu lumahouse
Asilulu lumahouse, building
  luma-tauan extended family, all of whom bear a single family name, passed on patrilineally; a clan comprising a single family in this sense, and usually one or two smaller families which are historically dependent on that clan
Larike dumahouse
Batu Merah lumahouse
Morella lumahhouse
Buruese humahouse
Sula umahouse
Taba umhouse
Gimán umhouse
Sawai umhouse
Mayá ꞌu³mhouse
Biga (w)umhouse
Minyaifuin umhouse
Moor rumahouse
Numfor rumhouse
Waropen rumahouse; shop; branch of a family
Nauna yumhouse
Lou umhouse
Loniu umhouse
Andra umhouse
Leipon wumhouse
Papitalai wumhouse
Ponam umhouse
Sori gumhouse
Bipi wumhouse
Tolai rumahouse
Bali (Uneapa) rumakahouse
Arop numahouse
Kove lumahouse
Lakalai la-lumafamily house, domicile (as opposed to men’s house)
  la-luma-lumahouses (collectively), village
Wogeo rumahouse
Sio lumahouse
Gitua rumwahouse
Patep γumakhouse
Suau numahouse
Motu rumahouse
Gabadi rumahouse
Tawala numahouse
  numa hinemamaenamarriage bond
Saliba numahouse
Tubetube numehouse
Haku a-lumahouse
Selau rumahouse
Piva nuumahouse
Uruava rumahouse
Torau rumahouse
Kwaio lumadwelling house
Lau lumaa family house, house for married people
Toqabaqita lumatraditionally: house where a woman and her children lived; today: family house
Arosi rumaa house, oblong in shape; a family
Gilbertese umaany kind of dwelling, anything with roof; house, dwelling, hut, shelter, cabin, roof, tent, umbrella
  i umain an inhabited place, in the village, at home
  te aine-n umahousewife (married woman)
Pohnpeian ihmwbuilding, house, home, dwelling
  imwe-possessive classifier used for buildings
Mokilese umwhouse
Chuukese iimwhouse, building, hut, shelter, shed
Puluwat yiimwhouse, building of any kind
  yimwa-nhis/her house
Woleaian imwhouse, dwelling, room, shelter
  imwa-possessive classifier for dwellings or sleeping places
Ulithian yiṁahouse
Mota imwaa house
Lakona umwehouse
Piamatsina imahouse
Malmariv imahouse
Mafea imahouse
Amblong imahouse
Araki imahouse, home
Vao ne imehouse
Atchin ne-imhouse
Rano na-imhouse
Avava i-imhouse
Axamb na-imhouse
Lonwolwol imhouse
Southeast Ambrym imhouse
Paamese e-inhouse, home
Toak n-imhouse
Lelepa na-sumwahouse
Kwamera n-imwahouse, building
Iaai umahouse
Canala mwãhouse

Note:   Also Pazeh xumak ‘house’, Sambal (Botolan) gómaʔ ‘sheath’, Balaesang, Dampelas, Totoli guma ‘sheath for a machete’, Bare'e guma ‘sheath of a sword or knife; husk of fruits that have a husk’, mo-guma ‘have or use a sheath’, Wuvulu umu, Mbula ruumu, 'Āre'āre nima, numa ‘house’. The Balaesang, Dampelas, Totoli and Bare'e forms are clear loanwords from a Philippine source. Although this initially may appear surprising, it is plausibly explained as a product of contact during the Greater Central Philippine expansion into northern Sulawesi, which gave rise to the Gorontalo-Mongondow subgroup, and evidently led to significant contacts with languages as far south as central Sulawesi (Blust 1991). In addition to meaning ‘house’ it is clear from a number of reflexes in northern Sumatra and eastern Indonesia that by at least Proto-Malayo-Polynesian times *Rumaq also referred to a segmentary lineage or kin group defined with reference to an apical ancestor (Blust 1980a).


*Rumbia sago palm


PMP     *Rumbia sago palm     [doublet: *Rambia]

Palawano gumbyasago palm
Tausug lumbiyasago flour (a starchy foodstuff derived from the soft interior of the sago palm)
Malagasy rufíaa palm used for various purposes; the midrib of the leaf is employed for the poles in making palanquins; the fiber from the young leaves is used as string, for which purpose it is exported under the name of raphia grass; from the stem a sweet liquid called harafa is obtained, which is drunk by the natives; the shell of the fruit is employed as a receptable for small articles
Malay rumbiasago palm, Metroxylon sagus or M. rumphii. The pith of the palm (sagu rumbia) is the sago of commerce which is not much liked by Malays as a foodstuff ... but its leaves make an excellent roofing thatch, considered superior to the usual nipah thatch
Simalur rumbiosago palm, Metroxylon Rumphii L.
Karo Batak rumbiasago palm
Toba Batak rumbiasago palm
Minangkabau rumbiosago palm
Sangir humbiasago palm
Tae' rumbiaa large Colocasia taro with tall stem; the leaves are cooked as pig fodder
Makassarese rumbiasago palm
Wolio rumbiasago palm, Metroxylon sagu
Muna rumbiasago tree (the leaves are used for roofing; and the pith of the stalk is eaten, but rarely)
Manusela ipiasago
Larike dupiasago

Note:   Also Simalur dumbio ‘sago palm, Metroxylon sagu Rottb.’. Several of the forms cited here (e.g. Tausug lumbiya, Malagasy rufia, Muna rumbia) appear to be loanwords from Malay, although this seems rather unlikely with Sangir humbia. That the entire comparison might be a loan distribution also seems improbable in view of the fact that the doublet *Rambia clearly cannot be explained in this way, and shows unambiguously that the sago palm was known and valued for various purposes from at least Proto-Malayo-Polynesian times.


*Rumek to crush, smash


PPh     *Rumek to crush, smash     [doublet: *Remek]

Ilokano rumékto smash, break, shatter; pulverize; pound
Maranao gomekto crush, smash


*Runaw melt, liquefy


PWMP     *Runaw melt, liquefy

Ilokano rúnawmelt, liquefy, dissolve (wax, sugar, etc.)
Cebuano gunáw ~ gúnawto melt, dissolve something
Kelabit (Long Napir) runomelt, liquefy

Note:   With root *-naw₂ ‘melt, liquefy’.


*Runut plant fibers


PMP     *Runut plant fibers     [doublet: *bunut₁ 'coconut husk']

Hanunóo gunutfibers, i.e., the very long stiff black hairs from the sheathing parts of the leafstalks of the sugar palm (Arenga spp.); these hairs are used to make snare ropes and are traded to the coastal Christians, who employ them as thatch for the ridges of house roofs
Iban runutlong black fibres under leaf-butts of palms, esp. Arenga spp.
Palauan suldcoconut fiber used for cord (originally used for wiping)
  mə-súldwipe off (mouth, nose, private parts, etc.)
Chamorro gunotcoconut fiber, from trunk of coconut tree, used especially for straining tuba (coconut toddy) and other liquids
Yamdena runutjutelike fibrous material of the coconut tree
  tali runutcord of runut fibre, hence trip-cord (lunut) of spring-trap


*Ruŋkeb cover over, cover up


PMP     *Ruŋkeb cover over, cover up

Javanese uŋkebcook or store foods in covered containers
  ukebcover something tightly
Manggarai ruŋkepcover over, as with a dish cover

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*Rupas loosen, untie


POC     *Rupas loosen, untie     [disjunct: *lupas]

Motu ruha-iato untie, loosen
  ruha-ia negeto cast off
Sa'a luheto remove, to free, to loosen
  luhe-sito loosen, to free, to let go
Ulawa luhato remove, to free, to loosen
Arosi ruhato lose, let go, untie
  ruha-sito lose, let go, untie, set free from debt, forgive (modern)
  ruha-siaset free, let go, untied

Note:   Also Roviana rupaha ‘to untie, release, free’. With root *-pas ‘tear or rip off’.


*Ruqa neck


POC     *Ruqa neck

Marau₂ ruaneck
Wuvulu ua-naneck
Biliau rua-neck
Gitua luaneck
Takuu uaneck
Mono-Alu lua-naneck
Hoava ruaneck
Roviana rua-nathe neck
Eddystone/Mandegusu rua-naneck, nape of the neck
Bugotu lua-ñaneck
Nggela luathe neck
Kwaio lua-naneck
Lau lua-nathe neck
Toqabaqita luaneck, throat (traditionally it was impolite to use lua to refer directly to another person’s neck, throat)
  obi luachoker-like necklace worn by the bride during the wedding ceremony and a few weeks afterwards
'Āre'āre rua-nathroat, neck, back
  rua susularyngitis
Ulawa luaneck, throat
Sikaiana uaneck
Pileni uaneck
Tongan uʔahonorific or regal for kia, neck, or monga, throat
Niue uathe neck
  pū-uathe throat
  tuki-uanape of the neck
Futunan ʔua <Mneck
Samoan uaneck
Rennellese uʔaneck, throat
Anuta uaneck
Maori uabackbone; neck, back of the neck; thick twisted or plaited hem on the collar of a cloak

Note:   Also Gitua lua ‘neck’.


*RuqaNay male


PAN     *RuqaNay male

Paiwan uqalʸaymale


PMP     *Ruqanay male

Moken kanaimale
Palauan səʔálmale
Manggarai ronamale


PMP     *ma-Ruqanay male

Bintulu manaymale
Balinese moani, mwanimale
Proto-Sangiric *maRuanaymale
Banggai malaneman; male
Muna moghaneman, husband, male
Anakalangu moniman, male
Vaikenu mɔnɛ-fhusband
Tugun ma-maneman/male
Roma mwanaman
Masiwang muanaman, male
Kamarian malonaman, male
Asilulu malanaman, male; husband
Kowiai/Koiwai muanaman, male
Taba monhusband
Biga wa-manman
As manman


POC     *maRuqane male

Kaniet muaneman; male
Amara ta-manemale
Ali muaŋman, male
Motu maruanemale
Mekeo (East) maŋuae-ŋaman, male
Saliba mwanehusband
Mono-Alu manuale <Mmale
Tongan -ŋaʔane(in composition) male

Note:   Also Vitu ta-mohane ‘man, male’. Replaces *waNay (Blust 1970). Tsuchida (1976:171) gives Proto-South Formosan *(S₁₆a-)Ruq₄aɬay ‘man (male)’.


*Ruqaŋ hole, pit


PWMP     *Ruqaŋ hole, pit     [doublet: *luaŋ, *lubaŋ₁]

Tagalog guʔáŋ ~ guáŋhollow, empty inside; a gap, hole, crevice or hollow
Tiruray ruwaŋthe inner surface of a canoe; the surface of the earth
Malay ruaŋhollow space; a ship’s well; the hollow of the back; the depression between the breasts; the grave-trench; the hollow containing the seed in certain fruit; the center room in a house
Sangir huaŋsubsidence of the ground, hole, pit
Mongondow guʔaŋmine shaft, in particular one from which gold is excavated


PWMP     *Ruqaŋ-an spacious room or area

Ilokano roáŋandoor, entrance, passage, gate (the opening, not the movable frame of boards or other material)
Bahasa Indonesia ruaŋ-ana spacious room, as a classroom

Note:   Also Hawu roa ‘hole, pit’.


*Rusuk ribcage


PAN     *Rusuk ribcage

Favorlang/Babuza oot o ar-rosorib (lit. ‘rib bone’)
Ilokano rúsokepigastrium, pit of the stomach; abdomen; concavity
  ru-rusuk-ento eructate fetidly
Agta (Dupaningan) gúsoksternum, center of chest below breasts
Casiguran Dumagat gusókterm for the part of a person’s body just below the heart area
Pangasinan losókstomach, abdomen
Bikol gusókrib
Romblomanon gūsuka rib of an animal or person
Masbatenyo gusókrib
Aklanon gúsokrib bone
Waray-Waray gusokribs
Agutaynen gosokrib
Cebuano gúsukrib; hit in the ribs
  gusúk-anplace where the rib cage is found
Maranao gosokrib
Manobo (Ata) gusukrib
Binukid gusukribs
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gusukrib bone of a vertebrate, with the exception of fish
Mansaka gosokrib
Tiruray rohoka rib
Kalagan gusukrib
Tboli lohokrib
Sangil rusuʔrib
Blaan (Koronadal) lohokrib
Tausug gusuka rib (the bone)
Lun Dayeh ruukchest
Tabun ruokchest
Kelabit ruukchest
Kayan usukchest, breast
Kayan (Long Atip) usukrib
Kayan (Uma Juman) usukchest (anat.)
Kiput roəʔchest (anat.)
Bintulu usukchest (anat.)
Melanau (Mukah) usukchest (anat.)
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) usuəkchest
Lahanan usokchest
Ngaju Dayak usokchest, the upper side of the body
Iban rusokside, flank
  tulaŋ rusokribs (lit. ‘side bones’)
Malay rusokflank; side; region of the ribs
  me-rusokto approach sideways
  tulaŋ rusokrib; rib bone
Acehnese rusoʔribs (of the body, of a leaf, a roof); side, border
Simalur lusuʔribs
Karo Batak rusukrib beams of the roof
Dairi-Pakpak Batak rusukspars of house roof used to support the thatch
  rusuk silaoside, flank; armpit
  meŋe-rusuk-i jukutstring meat on a rope
Toba Batak rusukribs
  rusuk barathe transverse beams placed through the posts under a Batak house so that carabaos can’t enter the space
  maŋa-rusukstrung together, impaled, as fish
Mentawai usurib
Rejang tlan usuʔribs
Old Javanese usukrafter
Javanese usukvertical beam(s) on the lower part of a traditional-style roof; ribs, rib bones
Madurese rosoʔribs, rib bones
Balinese husukthe sharp edge or protruding point of something
  husuk-husuk-anthe protruding ends of the beams of a roof
Proto-Sangiric *Rusukrib; thin (of person)
Sangir husuʔrib, skinny (so that the ribs are visible)
Bantik husuʔthin (of person)
  duhi nu husuʔrib
Lolak gusukrib
Mongondow gutukrib, ribs
  tulan iŋ gutukrib bones, rib cage
Kaidipang gusukorib, ribs
Totoli buku usukrib
Boano usukrib
Tajio fuʔu nu usuʔ-rib
Balaesang buku usukrib
Banggai lusukside of the body
  lusukside of the body
Bare'e (wuku) usurib (bone)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *rusuthin, scrawny (person, animal)
Proto-South Sulawesi *rusukribs
Hawu ruhurib
Selaru rusukrib
Yamdena rusukrib
  rusuk kesefloating rib
Fordata na-b-rusukbe thin, skinny
Manusela nusu-aribs
Kamarian rusurib
Asilulu lusu-ribs, rib-cage; kind of fastening which fixes the gunnels to the dugout base of an outrigger sailboat
Buli usirib
Bunama lusu-lusu-nahis/her ribs
Hula rururib
Motu ruduside of chest
  rudu turia-narib bone
Bugotu luhuthwart of canoe
Nggela luhubreast, bosom; thwart of a canoe; ridges of shell inside a clam, Tridacna
Kwaio lusurib of canoe
Lau lusuthwart of canoe, curved like U; ribs, ribs of pork
'Āre'āre rusuthe ribs of a canoe, cut out of a slab of hardwood, used to strengthen the canoe and to support the seats
Sa'a lusuthe ribs in a canoe cut out of the solid from a hard wood
  lusu keruseat and rib combined; broad; the ribs of a clam shell
Arosi rususupports for seats of canoe


PWMP     *ma-Rusuk thin, skinny (?)

Old Javanese ma-usukwith rafters
Sangir ma-husuʔbecome thinner and thinner, dwindle away
Banggai mo-lusukthin, skinny (showing the ribs), emaciated
Uma mo-ruhuʔskinny (showing the ribs)


PPh     *maka-Rusuk (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano maka-ru-rúsoknauseating
Sangir maka-husuʔbe the cause of someone growing thinner

Note:   Also Nias osu ‘piece of rib (?)’, Sundanese usuk ‘roof rafter’ (< Javanese), Mongondow mo-rutuk ~ mo-yutuk ‘thin, skinny’, Tae' usuk ‘rib’, Lau lisu ‘knob of wood on bottom of canoe on which lusu rests’, Arosi risu ‘supports for seats of canoe’. The PAn status of this form depends on a single Formosan reflex recorded in the 17th century in a language that is now extinct. Moreover, although all other sound correspondences are regular, the initial vowel of Favorlang/Babuza arroso is unexplained. This word and PAn *tageRaŋ both appear to have meant ‘rib; ribcage’; if there was a semantic distinction it is not apparent from the available reflexes.


(Formosan only)

*RuSRuS to scrape smooth, to plane a surface


PAN     *RuSRuS to scrape smooth, to plane a surface

Kavalan luslusto plane; to grate; plane (tool)
  m-luslusto plane, to grate
  ni-luslus-anplaned board
Pazeh mu-xusuxusto plane (a board)
  x<a>usuxusto scrape bamboo knots


*Ruyag shake, wobble


PWMP     *Ruyag shake, wobble

Isneg xuyágto shake
Old Javanese uyagbe shaky, wobble


*Ruyuŋ shake, sway, stagger


PWMP     *Ruyuŋ shake, sway, stagger     [doublet: *huyuŋ]    [disjunct: *ruyuŋ₁]

Bikol guyoŋto shake (as a house, a tree to bring the fruit down, etc.)
Malay royoŋ, ruyoŋreeling, staggering
Balinese uyuŋdizzy, staggering

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)