Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


sa    se    si    so    su    




















































































































sale sale



















































































































































































*sa₁ nominative case marker for plural personal names


PAN     *sa₁ nominative case marker for plural personal names

Amis canominative case marker for plural personal names
Ivatan sanominative case marker for plural personal names
Bikol (Camarines Sur) sanominative case marker for plural personal names
Old Cebuano sanominative case marker for plural personal names
Binukid sanominative case marker for common nouns


*sa₂ locative marker


PAN     *sa₂ locative marker

Kavalan salocative marker (less frequently used), toward
Tagalog sato; at; in; against; between; by; during
  sa báhayat the house
Bikol salocative marker occurring before general nouns, equivalent to the English prepositions: at, by, in, into, through, to, on, onto, upon, with (among), against (as in leaning against)
Aklanon sareferent marker, used to illustrate locations, indirect objects, beneficiaries and agents in causative constructions; it is also used to indicate future time with any words stating time
  sa idáeomunderneath
  sa Lúneson Monday
Hiligaynon saby, on, at, in, relational particle
Cebuano saparticle indicating grammatical relations: preceding a phrase referring to a place, to time, to past time, to possession or analogous concepts; indicating dative relations, etc.; in comparisons: than
  sa Manilato Manila
  sa ibábawup on top
Kayan haɁat, in, to
  haɁ unanat the front; in front of; before a person
  haɁ aleminside; within
Kayan (Uma Juman) haɁat, on, into
Javanese saexactly in, at, on (place, time); up to, as far as
Kwara'ae salocative preposition


*sa₃ one (clitic form of *esa)


PAN     *sa₃ one (clitic form of *esa)

Kavalan saone
Puyuma sa-clitic form of ‘one’
Paiwan ta-one
  ta-alay-ana single thread
  ta-idayone hundred
Yami saone
  sa a ranawone hundred (dollars)
Ilokano sa-clitic form of ‘one’
Subanon so-one (clitic)
  so-buŋkusa bundle
Malay sə-a prefix implying unity; one; one in some feature
  sə-puloha group of ten
Sasak sə-clitic form of ‘one’
Asilulu saone

Note:   This is clearly a clitic form of PAn *esa ‘one’, but because the two forms are not related by any morphological process they appear to require separate listings. Wilkinson (1959) gives Malay sa-, but this appears to be a written form only.


*sa₄ that --- indicating something close to the hearer


PPh     *sa₄ that (indicating something close to the hearer)

Bontok sathat, close to hearer; there, close to hearer
Kankanaey sathat --- near the person one speaks to; demonstrative adjective and pronoun; there, thither; adverb of place; indicates the future, ordinarily joined to a personal or possessive pronoun
  sa etthen, and then
Maranao saparticle --- close

Note:   Evidently distinct from *sa₂ ‘locative marker’.


*sabakap a tree: Alstonia scholaris


POC     *sabakap a tree: Alstonia scholaris

Lakalai la sabakaa large tree with milky sap: Alstonia sp.
Vaghua baγavaa tree: Alstonia scholaris
Varisi baγavaa tree: Alstonia scholaris
Nggela habagaa tree: Alstonia scholaris
Ghari sambahaa tree: Alstonia scholaris
Kwaio tabaɁaa tree: Alstonia scholaris
Lau tabāa species of tree
Toqabaqita tabaɁathe Milky Pine: Alstonia scholaris; sticky sap is used as glue, the wood to make kokobaqule (traditional dance) masks; small branches are used for traditional priests’ headdresses; trees are frequented by pigeons
Ulawa tapaɁaa tree of soft wood used for making food bowls or for carving into ornaments, the ‘milk tree’ of North Queensland

Note:   Also Arosi tobaɁa ‘a species of tree used in making bowls; the dead were buried around tobaɁa trees; bowl’. A comparison that included these forms and a number of others that display a wide range of unexplained irregularities was proposed by Ross (2008:187), based on earlier work by Chowning (2001). Vaghua and Varisi evidently have lost the initial syllable in a word that would otherwise have been quadrisyllabic after the addition of an echo vowel, and the Ulawa form is reported by Ross (2008) as tabaɁa, but is given by Ivens (1927) as tapaɁa. This morpheme apparently replaced PMP *ditaq in the same meaning.


*sabáliq except, other than; another, different


PPh     *sabáliq except, other than; another, different

Ilokano sabáliother, another; separate; diverse, different; someone else, something else
  ag-sabálito become different, to change
  sabalí-anto change something; do again
Bontok sabálianother, different
Kankanaey sabáliall right; it is well; fine; very well
  sa-sabáli-kait does not concern you; it is none of your business
Bikol sabáliʔif not, except for
  paŋ-sabalíʔ-anto make an exception for


*sabaŋ₁ estuary, shore near the mouth of a river


PMP     *sabaŋ₁ estuary, shore near the mouth of a river

Ilokano sabáŋ-anmouth (of a river); harbor, port, haven
Ifugaw hábaŋsaid of a person who arrives at the bank of a river and goes across; also said of a tributary of a large river that flows into it and thereby enlarges it
  habáŋ-anplace where a tributary flows into the main river
Casiguran Dumagat sabeŋarea of beach which is within the vicinity of the mouth of a river or a mangrove swamp
Pangasinan sabáŋmouth of a river
Cebuano sabaŋarea on or near the mouth of a river
Maranao sabaŋshore, mouth of a river
Binukid sabaŋfor a smaller body of water to flow into a larger body of water
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) savaŋof a small creek, to run into a larger creek or river
Mansaka sabaŋconfluence of two rivers
Malay sawaŋthe light-colored water near the shore (Klinckert)
Selaru sahlower course of a river

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Malay sawaŋ with, for example, Fijian matā-sawa ‘landing place on a beach, where canoes are drawn up’. I assume that he confused two cognate sets, distinguished here under the reconstructions *sabaŋ and *sawaq (q.v.). Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *sabaŋ ‘pond’.


*sabaŋ₂ a tree: Erythrina spp.


PPh     *sabaŋ₂ a tree: Erythrina spp.

Itbayaten savaŋa bush with purplish, pink and violet flowers and green fruit, found in woods and grasslands, Melastoma
Ivatan sabaŋa tree: Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr., Fabaceae (Madulid 2001)
Bontok sabaŋa tree: Erythrina variegata L. Fabaceae


*sabaq irrigated ricefield?


PWMP     *sabaq irrigated ricefield?

Bisaya (Limbang) sabaɁdownriver
Malay sawahland cultivated with swamp rice, whether the rice is planted in a natural swamp (sawah ayer) or on irrigated soil (sawah bencah); rice is planted usually in small lots separated from one another by low dykes (batas); a stretch of these lots is sa-bəndaŋ; the word sawah is used in South Malaya and Minangkabau, but bəndaŋ has taken its place in Kedah and Perak, and baroh in Kelantan and Patani
Karo Batak jumah sabahirrigated ricefield (jumah ‘swidden’)
  nabah-kenconvert a piece of land into a rice paddy
  sabah tabanrice paddy that returns to control of the village head because the owner has violated traditonal law
  tuba sabahpoisonous root used to stun fish
Dairi-Pakpak Batak sabahwet ricefield, rice paddy
Toba Batak sabairrigated ricefield (as opposed to hauma tur ‘dry ricefield/swidden plot’)
  saba laŋitricefield that is irrigated only by the rains
  aek par-sabairrigation water for the rice paddies
Angkola-Mandailing Batak sabawet ricefield, rice paddy
Old Javanese sawahirrigated ricefield
  a-sawah-sawahto work in the sawah, grow irrigated rice
Javanese sawahrice paddy, wet rice field
  ñawahto work rice paddies
  se-sawahto be a rice farmer
  pa-sawah-anrice paddies collectively, i.e. land devoted to raising rice
  sawah ulupaddy that is easily flooded during

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak, Kuamut, Belusu, Bulungan sawa ‘wet ricefield’, Iban tanah sawaɁ ‘irrigated land’, Salako sawàh ‘wet ricefield’, Sundanese sawah ‘artificially flooded ricefield’, High Balinese sawah ‘ricefield that can be flooded at will’.

The history of irrigated rice in the Austronesian world remains unclear. While evidence of rice agriculture at the time of the initial Austronesian settlement of Taiwan is abundant in both the long-established linguistic record and in the much more recent, but key archaeological site of Nankuangli East at the Science-based Industrial Park in Tainan, all that either line of evidence unambigously supports is swidden rice.

The present comparison (based just on Toba Batak, Javanese, Malay, Ngaju Dayak manawan ‘to harvest’, and Fijian cava ‘harvest time’), was first proposed by Dempwolff (1938). However, the Ngaju Dayak and Fijian forms are best left out, little additional supporting evidence has been found through subsequent searching, and the Ida'an Begak, Kuamut, Belusu, Bulungan, Sundanese, Balinese, Salako and possibly Iban terms all seem to be loans from Malay. Given this limited evidence, and the absence of a suite of related terms such as is known for swidden rice in PAn, the meaning of *sabaq must remain tentative. Nonetheless, given the consistent indications that the Batak terms are native the word itself clearly has some antiquity among languages in island Southeast Asia.


*sabaqaŋ a shrub: Cordyline spp.


PWMP     *sabaqaŋ a shrub: Cordyline spp.

Ivatan sabaŋa flowering tree: Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.)
Bontok sabaŋa flowering tree: Erythrina varietata L.
Iban sabaŋgeneric for palmlike plants (Palm Lily), Cordyline spp. ... forest Pleomele spp., also (?) Dracaena and other spp., widely used in SE Asia in medicine, cooking, and ritual, popularly called in Eng. "croton"
Malay sawaŋa plant, sp. unidentified, used as a remedy for skin-disease (kurap)
Bahasa Indonesia sawaŋplant used to treat kurap: Cordyline fruticosa
Mongondow tabaʔaŋ, tobaʔaŋkind of shrub: Cordyline terminalis; the leaves are used in sacrificial offerings and the branches employed as boundary markers

Note:   Also Proto-Minahasan *tabaɁaŋ ‘kind of shrub (Cordyline sp.)’.


*sa(m)bar seize in the mouth or beak


PMP     *sa(m)bar seize in the mouth or beak

Malay sambarpouncing to seize and carry off; suggests the use of teeth, nails or talons and is used of hawks, crocodiles, sharks, dragons, etc.
Rotinese safaseize with mouth or beak; bite, mouthful


*sabasaq a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea


PWMP     *sabasaq a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

Tagalog sabasamoderate-sized shrub found in mangrove forests or sandy beaches: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (Madulid 2001)
Malay səbasahname given to some small trees (Euphorbiaceae), esp. Glochidium desmocarpum and Aporosa spp.; also to a shrub, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

Note:   The Tagalog form should have a final glottal stop, but the orthography in Madulid (2001) is not always phonemic.


*sabat to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving


PWMP     *sabat to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving

Itbayaten savatidea of going home; idea of arrival at home or anywhere
  i-savatto bring home
Ilokano sábatwelcome; greeting; meeting of a person
  ag-sábatto meet; agree
  ka-sábatthe person one meets
  pag-sabát-anmeeting place
  pag-sabát-ento negotiate on behalf of; to make both ends meet
  s<um>ábatto meet (or greet) a friend
Casiguran Dumagat sambatto meet up with (as to meet someone on the trail who is coming from the opposite direction
Bikol mag-sabátto meet someone (as at the station when he first arrives); to welcome
  ma-sabat-ánto encounter; to run or bump into someone unexpectedly
Kimaragang Dusun s<um>ambatto meet
Tombonuwo mu-sambatto meet


PPh     *sabat-en to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise

Ilokano sábt-ento meet (or greet) a friend
Bikol sabat-ónto meet someone (as at the station when he first arrives)


*sa(m)baw soup, broth


PWMP     *sa(m)baw soup, broth

Casiguran Dumagat sabawbroth, soup, gravy (the water in which any type of viand has been cooked)
Sambal (Tina) habáwjuice; soup, broth
Kapampangan sabósoup
Tagalog sabáwbroth
Bikol sabáwsoup, broth
Aklanon sabáwjuice; soup, broth
Maranao sawawsoup, broth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) savewsoup, broth
Kenyah (Long Anap) sambawwatery (of rice, etc.)
Kenyah (Long San) savawwatery (as rice porridge)
Malay sambauheavy with water; sodden, soggy

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *sabaw ‘soup’.


*sabay₁ do something together with others


PAN     *sabay₁ do something together with others

Amis cafaycompanion to do something
  pa-cafayto be a companion, to go with
Sangir sambegood acquaintance who lives far off
Toratán sambeintimate friend


PWMP     *sa(m)bay do something together with others

Ibatan mag-sabaytwo boats go together
Ilokano ag-sabáyto act simultaneously; to go, do, etc. together
  sabay-anto accompany; go together
Tagalog sabáyat the same time; simultaneous
  mag-sabáyto go, do, act, etc. together at the same time; to have or get someone to accompany oneself
  maki-sabáyto go or leave at the same time with another or others
  sabáy-sabáyconcurrent; occurring together
Bikol sabáyto do something together; to do something at the same time
  mag-sabáyto speak at the same time as someone else
  magka-sabáyto end up together; to coincide
  maki-sabáyto go with; to do something at the same time as
  sabáy-sabáyconcurrent, simultaneous, synchronized, together, in unison
  sábayaccompanying, going along with (as gongs in a musical
Cebuano sábaywalk with, beside
Maranao sambaytouch lightly, invoke
Kayan habeifollow a leader in song; chorus
Old Javanese sambecall, beckon, invoke, invite, bid come, call out


PPh     *ka-sabáy companion in some activity

Ibatan ka-sabaya companion in doing something side by side or together
Tagalog ka-sabáysimultaneous; occurring at the same time; in conjunction with
  ka-sabay-ínto have a person accompany oneself
Bikol ka-sabáycohort, colleague, companion


*sabay₂ to arrive


PWMP     *sabay₂ to arrive

Tarakan ka-sabayto arrive (Beech 1908:61)
Murut (Nabaay) s<um>aboyto arrive
Murut (Timugon) saboyto arrive
Tidung Mensalong ñaboyto arrive
Napu haweto arrive
Sa'dan Toraja saeto arrive
Proto-South Sulawesi *sa(b)eto arrive
Buginese saweto arrive

Note:   The essence of this comparison was first proposed by Mills (1975:810). Additional Sabahan forms were made possible by Lobel (2016). The semantic distinction between this form and PWMP *dateŋ ‘to arrive, reach a place’ remains unclear.


*sabeD barrier, obstacle


PWMP     *sabeD barrier, obstacle

Casiguran Dumagat sabédtrip and fall over something
Tagalog sabídhindrance, obstacle around
Cebuano sabudcatch something against an obstruction; trip, cause someone to stumble; be delayed
Iban sabarwall of brushwood, etc., with a gap in which a trap is set
Malay sawarbarrier, obstruction, including i) a fishweir with an opening letting fish into a trap, ii) fences to lead mousedeer into a trap, iii) a girdle of thorns fastened round a tree-trunk to prevent thieves climbing it and stealing the fruit
Toba Batak saborbarrier of sugar-palm shoots placed in the water so that fish may be netted along it
Gorontalo taboduhinder, obstruct

Note:   Also Kapampangan sábat-an ‘block, barricade something’, Cebuano sabid ‘encumbrance, something making action laborious’, Toba Batak sabar ‘barrier of sugar-palm shoots placed in the water so that fish may be netted along it’. Dempwolff's (1934-38) *cabad ‘hinder’ may be related, but all reflexes cited by him are distinct from the above (Tagalog sabád ‘interruption in someone's speech’, Toba Batak sabat ‘hindrance’, Malay cawat ‘loincloth’ (!)).


*sab(e)láy to hang, drape over something


PPh     *sab(e)láy to hang, drape over something

Itbayaten saxbay <Midea of shoulder-carrying
Ibatan sabhaycarry something, as a bag or sack suspended over the shoulder
Bontok sabləyto hang over something, as clothes over a line or a blanket over one’s shoulder
  sabláy-anclothes line
Ifugaw habléthe act of hanging something
  habláy-anhanger, protruding peg (or anything that can serve as a hanger)
Hanunóo sabláycarrying something slung from the shoulder
  s<in>abláyslung from the shoulder
Central Tagbanwa tablayto hang something over a fence or rope in order to air dry
Maranao sablaydrape
Binukid sablayto lay, hang, drape something over something else
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sebleyto hang something over something else
Tausug sablaya long, loose, collarless blouse reaching below the hips with long, loose sleeves
  mag-sablayto hang or drape something (as a garment) to dry; to wear a sablay blouse


*sab(e)lék to crave, as food one wants to eat


PPh     *sab(e)lék to crave, as food one wants to eat

Casiguran Dumagat sabləkto crave, to hunger for (of foods)
Ayta Abellan habekto crave or desire some kind of food; eagerness or desire to see someone
Tagalog sabíkkeen; eager; solicitous, desirous
  ka-sabik-áneagerness; longing; to eagerly desire; to long for
Bikol sablókglutton (said in anger)
Cebuano sablúkintense desire to eat something one hasn’t eaten in a long time; have an intense desire to eat something
  hi-nablúkeat something in great quantity to
Mansaka sablukone who hungers; to crave (as certain foods)


*sabeqa cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco


PWMP     *sabeqa cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco

Ilokano sabácooking banana
  ka-saba-ánbanana grove
  s<in>aba-ánbanana grove
  saba-ánto use bananas in cooking
Isneg sabáanother name for the baláyang variety of banana, Musa sapientum, L. var compressa. Blanco; a thick-skinned, yellow, flattish banana that is eaten either raw or cooked
Casiguran Dumagat sabaspecies of banana plant and its fruit
Ibaloy sabakind of banana: tree of medium height, large fruit with only one seed, not rounded at the ends (can be boiled or eaten raw)
Pangasinan sabáa variety of cooking banana with large squarish fruits
Kapampangan sabaa banana type which is used for cooking
Tagalog sabáspecies of banana, generally cooked before eating
Bikol sáʔbabanana (species for cooking)
Hanunóo sabʔáan angular, short banana (Musa sapientum var. compressa [Blco.] Teodoro) or plantain; yellow-skinned when ripe, but usually picked green and boiled to make it palatable; one of the important staples of the central Hanunóo
Aklanon sábʔasmall round banana, good for cooking, Musa sapientum var. compressa
Cebuano sábʔavariety of cooking banana with rectangular fruit similar to but smaller than the kárdaba, with 7-12 or more hands in the bunch; the fiber can be made into cloth: Musa sapientum var. compressa
Binukid sabɁakind of plantain; cooking banana
Balinese sabakind of banana

Note:   Also Itbayaten saba ‘kind of banana’ (< Ilokano). Tsou suɁba ‘kind of banana’, ITNE subá ‘banana (generic)’, which were pointed out to me by David Zorc, may reflect a doublet *suqeba.


*sa(m)beR sow, scatter, broadcast seed


PWMP     *sa(m)beR sow, scatter, broadcast seed     [doublet: *sa(m)buR]

Tiruray sawersow seed by broadcasting; scatter something over an area
Balinese sambehscatter, broadcast (seed), strew, lie scattered

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *sabe(d) ‘scatter, sow’.


*sabi-sabi shell disk used as ear-ring


POC     *sabi-sabi shell disk used as ear-ring

Tawala sapi-sapiear-ring
Molima sapi-sapilarge red shell disks sewn to belt
Tubetube sapi-sapiear ornament (small one)
Arosi tabi-tabiear ornaments

Note:   Also Arosi tabe-tabe ‘ear ornaments’. The essence of this comparison was proposed by Osmond and Ross (1998:104).


*sa(m)bit to speak of, mention


PWMP     *sa(m)bit to speak of, mention

Aklanon sámbitto speak of, mention
Hiligaynon mag-sámbitto refer to, to mention
Murut (Timugon) kaka-sabitto have just been mentioned
  ma-nabitto mention
  sabit-onsomething that has been mentioned


PWMP     *pa-ña(m)bit-an (gloss uncertain)

Aklanon pa-nambít-anproverb, saying
Murut (Timugon) pa-nabit-antime or reason for mentioning something


*sabit hooked implement


PWMP     *sabit hooked implement

Ilokano sábitto pin a medal on
  sabít-anto pin a medal on
Isneg sabítbarb (of spears, etc.); a diminutive herb in the shape of a fishhook, that grows on trees; it cures pain in the side
Casiguran Dumagat sabitfor a fishhook to get caught, snagged on something (either in the water, or up in a tree)
Pangasinan man-sabítto hang clothes, etc. on a peg
Tagalog sábitanything hanging from a peg or hanger; hooked or caught, esp. in the moral sense
  i-sábitto hang something on a nail, hook, stand or rack
Agutaynen mag-sabitto hang something up on a nail; to pin something on, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt
Maranao sabitto clasp, hook on
Kadazan Dusun savitto hang, hook onto, entangle
Iban sabitsmall silver or brass chains worn by women around the waist
  Sabit bekaitCrooked Sickle, sea lawyer and trouble-maker of the heavens, always ready to settle disputes by fighting
Malay sabitreaping hook; sickle
Rejang sabita sickle
Balinese sabitto carry something under the arm against the body

Note:   Also Ilokano sabɁít ‘hook; hanger’, i-sabɁít ‘to hang from a hook; hook’, Isneg i-sabɁít ‘to hang on a hook’. With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*sabsab slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down


PAN     *sabsab slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down

Thao taftafmake a loud slurping noise in eating, like a pig
Ilokano ag-sabsábto eat noisily (as a pig)
  s<um>absábto gulp down, guzzle; munch down; eat voraciously
Bontok ʔin-sabsábto eat, of dogs or pigs eating slops
Kankanaey men-sabsábto gulp down; to eat greedily; to swallow gluttonously; applied to pigs and dogs
Ifugaw habhábgluttonous manner of eating, i.e. eat with heaping spoonfuls or with a hand more than full
Ibaloy me-nabsabto eat voraciously, wolf down, gulp down, devour, eat one’s food with fervor, especially of animals (as pigs), but also perhaps figuratively of people
  s<ag>absabanimal (as pig, carabao) that eats anything given to it, not being choosy
  s<in>absab-aneating contest
Pangasinan man-sábsab(of pigs) to eat, (of people) to eat like a pig, slurping food with smacking lips
Tagalog sabsábthe way pigs and dogs eat
  sabsab-ánfeeding trough for pigs; a box in a barn or stable for horses and cows to eat from
Bikol mag-sabsábto graze
  mag-sabsab-ánto graze on (as a particular section of land)
  mag-sabsab-ónto graze on (as a particular type of grass)
  pa-sabsab-ánto pasture, to put out to pasture
  sabsab-ánpasture land
Romblomanon sabsábanimals feed or graze on vegetation
  ma-sabsábwill feed or graze on vegetation
Masbatenyo mag-sábsabto chew a cud (refers to animals which regurgitate their food to chew it more thoroughly)
Aklanon sábsabto lap up. drink (with tongue), said of animals
  sabsáb-anfeeding trough
Waray-Waray sabsábthe eating habit of quadruped animals like dogs, cows, or carabaos
  sabsab-ánfeeding trough
Cebuano sabsábto graze (as goats)


PPh     *sabsab-én be gobbled up, eaten voraciously

Ilokano sabsab-énto guzzle, gulp down food
Bontok sabsab-ə́nto eat, of dogs or pigs eating slops
Tagalog sabsab-ínto hog, eat like a hog
Bikol sabsab-ónfodder, hay

Note:   Rubino (2000) marks the Ilokano form as a loan from Hokkien sàp sàp ‘eat like a hog’, but in view of the wider comparative picture this seems unlikely.


*sabu waterfall, cascade


POC     *sabu waterfall, cascade

Buang (bel) rabuwaterfall (bel ‘water’)
Ghari sa-savuwaterfall
Wayan savuto flow down, fall like a waterfall; waterfall
Fijian savuwaterfall, a spout for water, aqueduct, conduit
  bati ni savuprecipice with a waterfall
Tongan hafuto trickle down, run down; dribble; small waterfall
Samoan āfuwaterfall
  afu-afulight shower
Rennellese sahuto drip, flow, as water or blood; to cause to fill with water; to place to catch rain water

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Ross (2003:61), who combined it with PWMP *sabuq ‘drop, fall’. Since the latter applies to the dropping of anchors in one of the two known witnesses, I prefer to treat these two forms as distinct.


*sabuag to scatter wildly


PPh     *sabuag to scatter wildly

Ilokano i-sabuágto cast something at one’s opponent; to cast earth out of a hole in the ground
Ifugaw habúwagto disperse, scatter, throw things (of the same kind) in various directions toward several persons
Bikol i-sabwágto scatter or broadcast seeds
Aklanon sábwagto sow, to scatter (seeds); to broadcast seeds
Agutaynen mag-saboagto spread, as of news or gossip, to scatter news or have it come out suddenly
Hiligaynon mag-sábwagto scatter (as ashes), to sow (as seeds)
Binukid sabwagto scatter, strew (something) over an area; to sow seed
  i-sabwagscatter them!

Note:   Also Cebuano sabúlag ‘strew, scatter out’, sabúlak ~ sabúwak ‘strew, sprinkle something small (as grated cheese on food)’.


*sabuD sow, strew, scatter


PWMP     *sabuD sow, strew, scatter     [doublet: *sa(m)buR]

Bikol sabódseed bed (rice)
Hanunóo sábudsowing, broadcasting, as of seeds
Aklanon sábodto feed (fowl or poultry)
Hiligaynon sabúdscatter, sow
Cebuano sábudsow, sprinkle seeds on a bed; feed chickens by sprinkling grains on the ground
Maranao saodsow, scatter (as rice seed)
Toba Batak saburscatter, disseminate
  ma-naburto sow (seed)
  pa-nabursower, one who sows
  sabur-ontime of sowing; as a calendrical term, the three months of the rice-growing cycle
Old Javanese sawura scattering, a rain (of arrows)
  (p)a-sawurstrewing, spreading
  s<um>awurstrewn, spread, scattered
  ka-sawur-anto bestrew, strew on
Javanese s<um>awurscattered, sprinkled
Proto-Minahasan *sabudspread, scatter
Mongondow tabudstrew, scatter, sow
Uma hawuʔstrew

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *sabuD ‘scatter ... feed (for fowl)’.


*sabunut to pull by the hair; to pull out hair


PPh     *sabunut to pull by the hair; to pull out hair

Itbayaten savonotidea of pulling out
  savonot-anto pull out from; that from which something is pulled out (as skin, head, body, animal)
  savonot-ento pull out
Casiguran Dumagat sabunotto yank s.o. by the hair
Bikol mag-sabunótto pull s.o. by the hair or beard
Aklanon sabúnotto pull hair when fighting

Note:   Also Yami savoŋit ‘to pull hair (as when fighting)’.


*sabuŋ₁ pit two opponents against each other; cockfight


PWMP     *sabuŋ₁ pit two opponents against each other; cockfight

Itbayaten savoŋrooster (for cockpit)
Ilokano sabóŋ-ancockpit
Kapampangan sa-sábuŋpit-fighting cocks against each other
Tagalog sáboŋcockfight
  i-sáboŋto pit a gamecock against another; to use for betting in a cockfight (referring to a certain amount of money)
  mag-sáboŋto go to a cockfight
  sabuŋ-áncockpit; cockfighting gallery
  sabúŋ-into attack with the feet and beak, as a fighting cock attacking another
  sa-sabúŋ-inrooster for cockfighting; gamecock
Bikol mag-sáboŋto push one’s fighting cock toward another to entice them to fight
Hanunóo sábuŋcockfight; a sport known but not practiced by the Hanunóo
Aklanon sáboŋcockfight, cockfighting
Cebuano sábuŋcockfight, usually without gaffs; to fight cocks; pair of people, usually in a love match
Ngaju Dayak ma-ñawoŋpit (people) against one another, provoke a fight between other people
Iban saboŋto set in opposition to, match
  saboŋ jadito urge a couple to marry
  saboŋ jadi baruto reconcile, bring a married couple together again
  saboŋ manokcockfighting
  manok saboŋfighting cock; fig. bodyguard or bully
  tuai saboŋmanager and umpire at cockfighting
Malay saboŋflying at each other, of cross seas, criss-cross flashes of lightning, of an uneasy sleeper kicking out (an act deemed very unlucky), certain fish (Betta spp.), and cocks; in this last sense the word has become specialized, and is used only of fights with artificial spurs
  ombak bər-saboŋwaves crashing into one another
Gayō sabuŋcockfighting
  mu-ñabuŋto fight cocks
Karo Batak er-sabuŋpit cocks against each other, or in general of anything that will fight, or of inanimate natural phenomena, as waves crashing together, or criss-crossing flashes of lightning
Toba Batak ma-nabuŋset up a contest or competition; encourage a fight (of cocks or persons)
  mar-sabuŋto fight, contest one another
  sabuŋ-ancock, rooster
  sabuŋ-sabuŋinflame two parties to discord
Old Javanese sawuŋfighting cock; cockfight
  a-nawuŋto stage a cockfight
  pa-sawuŋa certain tax (on cockfights?)
Javanese sawuŋrooster, cock; chicken
Tialo mo-nabuŋto fight cocks
Tajio po-sabuŋto fight cocks (with artificial spurs)
Tae' sauŋpit cocks against one another
  manuk sauŋ-ana fighting cock

Note:   Also Itbayaten saaboŋ ‘cockfight, fight among fowls’, i-saaboŋ ‘to use in cockfighting; rooster intended for cockfighting; to pit against each other’ (< Tagalog).

As noted under PWMP *bulaŋ, the antiquity of cockfighting in the Austronesian world is obscure, but the probability is high that it did not exist until ironworking made the production of artificial cockspurs available. If this is the case it must have begun some 2000-2500 years ago, and term posited here would have begun with a more general meaning such as that seen in Ngaju Dayak, Iban, Malay, or Toba Batak. Once it became specialized in the meaning ‘cockfighting’ it evidently spread back into the Philippines from Malay.


*sabuŋ₂ flower, blossom of fruit tree


PPh     *sabuŋ₂ flower, blossom of fruit tree

Yami savoŋflower (as on a tree)
  mi-savoŋto bloom
Itbayaten savoŋflower
  ka-savoŋact of flowering
  ma-savoŋhaving many flowers
  ma-savo-savoŋfull of flowers
Ivatan savu-savuŋbloom, blossom, flower
Ibatan saboŋbloom, blossom, flower
Ilokano sáboŋflower; petals; blossom; (fig.) female genitalia
  ag-sáboŋto blossom, bear flowers
  sabóŋ-ento pay court to
Bontok sábuŋto decorate with flowers
Ifugaw (Batad) hābuŋa plant bud, which develops into a flower
Ibaloy saboŋflowers (for ornamentation as opposed to blossoms of useful plants; said to be from Ilokano)
Pangasinan sabóŋimmature fruit


*sabuq drop, fall


PWMP     *sabuq drop, fall

Kadazan Dusun savuanchor
Wolio sabujump down, drop; jump (into water)

Note:   With root *-buq ‘fall’.


*sabuR to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something


PMP     *sabuR to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something

Tagalog sábogscattering; dispersing; planting of seeds by scattering them; explosion, loud bursting; eruption, as of a volcano; dispersion, as of light; things scattered around
  sabógscattered; dispersed; widely separated from each other, as members of a family
  mag-sábogto scatter; to throw loosely about; to throw here and there
  sabúg-anto sprinkle; to scatter in drops or tiny bits; to cause a place to be strewn with things; to have a field sown with seeds
Bikol mag-sábogto sow by scattering seeds; to splash water on
  sabog-ánseed bed
Malay saburconfusion; in scattered formation; wild melee
Alas saburscatter seed, sow
Toba Batak saburscattered, disseminated
  sabur bintaŋthe stars are strew countlessly across the sky; sprinkled with white, of a fowl
  sabur ubanscattered white hairs in a head of black
  ma-naburto sow seed
  sabur-onsowing season, time for sowing
Old Javanese sawurscattering, rain (of arrows)
Javanese sawursmall objects (coins, rice, etc.) scattered before a funeral procession as it makes its way to the cemetery
  ñawurto strew small objects in this manner; to plant rice seeds by scattering them
  ka-sawurto strew, spread, scatter
  pa-sawurstrewing, spreading
  ka-sawur-anto bestrew, strew on
Proto-Sangiric *sabuRto sow, scatter
Sangir ma-nawuhəɁto strew, sow seed
  ma-sawuhəɁstrewn, scattered about
Boano sabugto sow (scattering the seeds)
Uma -hawuɁto strew, scatter
Bare'e mo-tunda sawuto sit helter-skelter, not lined up in a row
  man-cawuto sow, scatter seed
  pan-cawutime, place or manner of sowing
Buruese safu-kto disseminate, sow (as millet)
Roviana saburuthrow or cast with a fishing rod
  sa-saburubamboo fishing rod
Nggela havuto scatter, as seeds
  havul-agicause to be scattered
  havul-ito scatter or sprinkle water


PWMP     *s<um>abuR (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog s<um>ábogto explode; to burst and scatter (as a bomb)

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak sambur ‘spray out, as water from the mouth’. With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow; sprinkle’.


*sabut plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc.


PWMP     *sabut plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc.

Casiguran Dumagat sabútpubic hair
Hanunóo sabútpubic hair
Romblomanon sabútpubic hair
Aklanon sabótpubic hair
Waray-Waray sabótfiber; thread; theadlike part
Mansaka sabotball of tangled fibers (e.g. of abaca)
Mapun sabutfiber in fruits (like fiber in coconut husks, stringy fiber in mangoes)
Tboli sabut(of abaca) waste from the stripping
Ngaju Dayak sawutthe fibrous material found around coconuts and areca nuts, used in scrubbing, kindling fires, etc.; also the fibrous material found around the single large seed of some fruits (as mangos)
Iban sabutpalm fiber
  sabut niurcoconut husk
  tali sabutcoir rope, rope of ijok [sugar palm] fiber
Malay sabutfibrous shell; husk; coir
  sabut pinaŋareca nut fiber
  tali sabutcoir rope; cheap rope
Gayō sabutfibers, as of coconut husk
Karo Batak sabutthe fibrous outer shell of a coconut
Toba Batak sabutthe fibrous outer shell of a coconut
Sundanese sabutthe hairy, fibrous rind of some fruits
Palauan mə-lábdto skin (animal, fish); remove bark/outer fiber of plant; to husk a coconut
  tebúd-elis to be skinned, scraped

Note:   The meaning ‘pubic hair’ appears to be an innovation in certain languages of the Philippines, where a reflex of *sabut ‘plant fiber’ may have replaced an earlier morpheme as an avoidance term. The Palauan member of this comparison was pointed out by Alexander Kuznetsov.


*sabutu a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp.


POC     *sabutu a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp.

Loniu saputyellow-spotted emperor: Lethrinus kallopterus
Motu dabutublack bream: Acanthopagrus berda
Tikopia saputuLethrinus kallopterus
Rotuman saputukind of fish
Tongan hoputuLethrinus miniatus, possibly also Lutjanus gibbus

Note:   Also Wayan ðābutu ‘generic for several species of Lutjanidae and Lethrinidae, including Lutjanus sebae, red emperor, and Lethrinus nebulosus, spangled emperor’. This term was first noted by Osmond (2011:76).


*sadab to singe, burn off


PWMP     *sadab to singe, burn off

Itbayaten sarabidea of catching fire and burning partially
  ka-sarab-anto catch fire (with partial burn)
  sarab-ento burn partially
Ilokano sárabto singe, scorch; put into direct heat
  in-sárabslightly roasted meat or fish
Bontok sálabto blacken with soot, as by hanging above a fire or by placing close to a fire
Bikol sárabburnt hay or straw
  mag-sárabto burn hay or straw
Cebuano sálabto singe, pass a flame over
Binukid salabto singe, pass (something) over a flame (as a chicken to remove the small feathers)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sarabto roast something in the flames of a fire
Tboli sadabto roast meat, corn, bananas or tubers in the flame of the fire rather than the coals
Ida'an Begak sarabburn rice field
  mə-narabto burn a rice field
Mongondow tayabto roast
  tayab-ana grill


*sadat in need, in want


PWMP     *sadat in need, in want

Tagalog salátin want; in need; poor, needy; scarce, scanty
  mag-salátto be in want; to be in need of clothing, etc., to be very poor
  ka-salat-ánprivation; lack of the comforts or necessities of life; lack; scarcity; insufficiency
  pa-na-nalátlack of supplies; financial crisis; depression
Iban sandatin need, pressed, in want (as when lacking food)


*sad(e)qaŋ to hang, as something on a nail


PPh     *sad(e)qaŋ to hang, as something on a nail

Bontok sadáŋto place wood on a rack for drying, especially of the wooden forms from which kamey digging tools are shaped (kamey = curved wooden tool with narrow blade, used for breaking and turning the soil in a pondfield)
Kankanaey i-sadɁáŋto hang; to hang upon; to hook; to catch; to catch in
Hanunóo sádɁaŋhanging, as on a peg, hook, etc.
Binukid sadɁaŋto hook something over something else; to hang something by a hook
Mongondow mo-tadaŋto hang something up, as on a nail in the wall
  mo-mo-tadaŋcarry something that hangs from the middle of a strap over the shoulder

Note:   Also Tiruray sedaŋ ‘to hook something’.


*sa(n)det packed tightly


PWMP     *sa(n)det packed tightly     [doublet: *padet]

Casiguran Dumagat sadetbe touching, be against, close together (as trees growing close together, people standing or sleeping close together, etc.)
Tagalog sandátfull, replete, satiated (after eating)
Minangkabau sandatnarrow, confined, squeezed
Old Javanese saṇḍetslowed down, blocked, impeded


*sadsad trample, stomp on


PPh     *sadsad trample, stomp on

Itbayaten sadsadkick, idea of kicking
  ka-pa-nadsadact of kicking
  sadsad-anto kick
Ibatan sadsadto kick someone or something, of a person or animal
Ibaloy sadsad(in rice agriculture) trampling as part of crushing down rice stalks
  i-sadsadto trample, stomp on something, step on something repeatedly (as dried bean pods to free seeds)
  s<in>adsadthe method of cultivating a rice paddy --- breaking the mud clods with the feet
Bikol mag-sadsádto perform dance steps
Cebuano sadsaddance with the feet (rather than with the hands or some other part of the body)

Note:   Also Tiruray sadsad ‘to trample or crush something underfoot’.


*saeŋ umbrella made of palm leaves


PWMP     *saeŋ umbrella made of palm leaves

Dairi-Pakpak Batak saoŋroof, house cover of split bamboo or wood; whatever may be improvised as an umbrella, as large banana leaves; women’s head cover
  mer-saoŋhaving a head cover
Toba Batak saoŋumbrella made of pandanus leaves
  mar-saoŋ-saoŋcover the head with a cloth so that the face is not visible
Old Javanese soŋsun-shade, cover, protection
  a-noŋto seek cover under
  a-soŋhaving as cover, covered by, in the shadow of, overshadowed by; also of feelings of sadness, etc. which are carried along like a soŋ
  maka-soŋhaving (using) as cover (protection), covered by, in the shadow of; being (serving as) cover, etc.
  ka-soŋ-anto shade, overshadow, hang (project) over
  soŋ-soŋparasol, umbrella
  a-soŋ-soŋwith a parasol (cover) of
Javanese soŋ-soŋumbrella, sunshade
  pa-noŋsoŋone who has the task of sheltering a dignitary from sun or rain with umbrella

Note:   Originally proposed by Dempwolff (1938). Despite its limited distribution this form is almost certainly not borrowed (unlike Malay payuŋ ‘umbrella’, which is a widely-distributed loan), and since the Batak languages and Javanese show little evidence of a close relationship, it seems safe to attribute considerable time-depth to this reconstruction.


*saet spear, to spear


PMP     *saet spear, to spear

Palauan táodthree-pronged fish spear
Yapese taawothspear with many prongs (probably a Palauan loan)


POC     *jaot spear, harpoon

Kaniet saospear (Dempwolff (1905:207)
Puluwat ttowto spear
Rotuman jaojavelin, spear
Wayan spear, harpoon. Spears, used in fishing and warfare, were formerly made from hardwood poles, reeds or bamboo. Fishing spears were pointed with tood, fishbone or ray stings.
Tongan taospear or javelin
Niue saospear
Samoan taospear
Tuvaluan taospear, fishing spear
Nukuoro daospear; branch of, part of
Rennellese taospear, dart, as for fighting, fishing, or spearing birds
Anuta taospear
Rarotongan taoan ancient short-throwing spear
Maori taospear, about six feet long
Hawaiian kaodart, fish-spear, javelin; spike, as on the tail of a stingray

Note:   Also Proto-New Caledonian *ⁿɟau ‘spear’. The Polynesian members of this comparison exhibit the "third palatal reflex."


*saga a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius


PWMP     *saga a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius

Hanunóo ságasmall vine (Abrus precatorius Linn.) the seeds of which are vermillion with some black, and are used as eyes in carved figures, beads, etc.
Malay sagathe "crabo eye" or seed of Abrus precatorius (used as a measure of weight for gold and therefore as a standard of value)
Karo Batak sagaclimbing plant with small red fruit: Abrus precatorius L.
Sundanese sagaplant said to be efficacious against sprue (psilosis)
Javanese sagatrailing shrub having small round aromatic leaves (sometimes used as tea) and small red and black beans
Balinese sagaplant that has a fruit with bright red pits: Abrus precatorius L.
Sasak sagaplant that has a fruit with bright red pits: Abrus precatorius L.

Note:   Also Iban sagaɁ ‘generic for plants yielding small uniform hard seeds used as beads, and as smallest unit of weight for gold, esp. Abrus precatorius’, Tagalog ságaʔ ‘a vine with small red and black seeds often used as beads’.


*sagapsap fibrous and dry to the taste


PPh     *sagapsap fibrous and dry to the taste

Ibaloy en-sagapsaprough to the taste, tongue --- describes the unpleasant feeling some things give in the mouth (as hair on meat, bone in fish, peeling of some beans that come off, stone or husk in cooked rice)
Tagalog sagapsáptasteless, insipid
Cebuano sagapsápfibrous and dry to chew; rough to the touch


*sagisí wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata


PPh     *sagisí wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata

Ilokano sagisíspecies of slender, wild palm: Heterospathe elata
Bikol sagisífruit of the anáhaw (fan palm)
Cebuano sagisítall, slender, ornamental palm with pinnate leaves, the fruit of which are similar to the Areca and may also be chewed: Heterospathe elata


*sagitsit to hiss, sizzle


PPh     *sagitsit to hiss, sizzle

Ilokano sagitsíthissing sound, sound of frying lard
  ag-sagitsítto make a hissing sound
Maranao sagitsitshuffling noise, hiss

Note:   Possibly an infixed form of *sitsit, although this form is listed in the sources for both of the language cited here as a single morpheme.


*sagsag₁ break, crack


PWMP     *sagsag₁ break, crack

Ilokano sagságbecome destroyed by beating or shaking (as a roof in a storm)
Isneg ma-nagtágto cut stalks of sugarcane into equal lengths before crushing them in the mill
  tagtax-ānto divide sugarcane into sections
Ibaloy sagsagbreak dirt clods up into small pieces; to split bolo bamboo lengthwise into fourths, eighths, sixteenths, etc.
Tagalog sagságbroken lengthwise (said of canes, wood, tubes, etc.) without being entirely so
Tausug ma-sagsag(for something) to break off, as branches from a tree after a strong wind
Balinese sagsagbreak, crack


PPh     *sagsag-en break up into small pieces

Ibaloy sagsag-enbreak dirt clods up into small pieces
Tausug sagsag-unto break (something) off, destroy or damage (something)

Note:   Possibly identical to PWMP *sagsag ‘to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking’, although the latter appears to apply only to foodstuffs.


*sagsag₂ to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking


PWMP     *sagsag₂ to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking

Itbayaten sagsagidea of chopping
  ka-pa-nagsagact of hashing
  ma-nagsagto chop (not wood, but meat, fish, taro, = food) into somewhat small pieces, to hash
  sagsag-ento mince, to hash, to chop meat or fish or the like
Ibatan ma-sagsagsomething is chopped up, meat is minced
  may-sagsagsomeone chops up something, minces meat; someone chops up fallen branches in a field before burning
Lun Dayeh aagthe chopping of meat or bones into small pieces
Kelabit aagminced fish or meat, so called because the traditional way of making such products was by tediously chopping (naag) away at the fish or meat until the whole became finely chopped, like minced fish or meat


*sagu₁ processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm


PMP     *sagu₁ processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm

Ibatan sagosago palm tree: Cycas revoluta
Ilokano sagóarrowroot, tapioca: Maranta arundinacea
Pangasinan sagóa herbaceous plant the roots of which are cooked and eaten
Tagalog sagóthe sago palm tree and its white globular seeds used in making puddings
Bikol sagósago palm, Metroxylon
Aklanon sago(h)ball of starch made from araro (arrow root), and used in desserts
Cebuano sagúsago starch obtained from palm trunks, especially the sago palm (lumbiya) and the buri palm (buli)
Malagasy sákua provincial word for Indian corn
Iban saguɁpearl sago, made by roasting
Malay sagumealy pith, associated usually with ‘sago’, the mealy pith of the sago palm (sagu rumbia), which is of value as a foodstuff, and much consumed in the Archipelago in localities where rice is not grown; in Malaya and Sumatra, where rice is preferred, untong sagu (sago luck) is the lot of the second best, or of a lady’s “second string”
Karo Batak sagusago, a flour extracted from certain palms
Toba Batak sagupith or meal of certain plants (sago palm, arrowroot, etc.)
  sagu-sagulittle cakes made of moistened ricemeal (a favorite Batak delicacy)
Sundanese saguthe edible pith from certain palms, as the sago palm
Javanese sagusago (tree)
Balinese sagusago, starch
Sasak saguɁsago, starch from various palms that is prepared and eaten
Banggai sagusago, edible palm pith
Makassarese sagusago, edible palm pith
Chamorro sagutype of plant, arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea
Bimanese sagusago, edible palm pith

Note:   Also Wolio sago ‘sago, edible palm pith’, Rembong sagu ‘store-bought sago’. Wolio sago, Rembong sagu, and several other forms in languages of Indonesia may be products of borrowing from Malagasy, but it seems unlikely that this is true for all forms in the Philippines. The agreement of Iban and Sasak in pointing to a form with final glottal stop is puzzling, but the recognition of this segment remains too problematic for secure reconstruction (Blust 2013, sect.


*sagu₂ fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse


PWMP     *sagu₂ fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse

Ilokano ságopus, watery matter in wounds
Tagalog ságodrip; dripping of saliva or mucus; suppurating; exuding
Bikol i-ságoto ooze (as blood from the nose or mouth of the dead, brine from a jar of salted preserves)
  mag-ságoto exude a liquid
Romblomanon sāgubody fluid, especially of a dead person after about 24 hours following death
Aklanon sagocarrion, dead/decaying flesh or body
Cebuano sagúdead man’s saliva
Maranao sagosmell peculiar to a body prepared for burial
Binukid sagubody fluid (of a corpse)
Yakan saguwatery discharge, serious drainage (from sores)
  naguto discharge watery, sticky liquid (said of sores)
Bare'e sagufluid from a corpse
Chamorro sagubad cold, runny nose, influenza, epidemic


*sagút to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for


PPh     *sagút to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for

Casiguran Dumagat sagútto answer for, to blame, to assume responsibility for
Tagalog sagótanswer; reply to a question; key; the answer to a puzzle or problem; reply; response; rejoinder; an answer by word or act; assumption of another’s responsibility
  i-sagótto give as an answer to a person or to question; to give as a security, pledge or guarantee
  ma-nagótto assume responsibility for; to take upon oneself; to answer for
  maka-sagótable to answer; to recite; to say part of a lesson; to answer a teacher’s question
  ka-ságút-ansolution; answer; key; a sheet or book of answers to questions, puzzles, etc.; a person with whom another is engaged in an argument
Bikol mag-sagót-sagótto answer back, to be sassy
  pa-sagut-ána discussion
Hanunóo sagútanswer

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loanword.


*saheNaR to shine, of the sun


PAN     *saheNaR to shine, of the sun

Amis cahdalthe condition when the sun comes out for a moment between rain showers


PMP     *sanaR to shine, of the sun

Masbatenyo sanágcheerful, bright outlook
Hiligaynon sánagbright, shiny (as the sun)
  ma-sánagbright, shiny
  mag-sánagto be clear, to shine (of the sun)

Note:   With root *-NaR ‘ray of light’.


*sahuq words, speech (?)


PPh     *sahuq words, speech (?)

Ilokano saóword; speech, talk; conversation; language; statement; saying; conversation; terminology; expression; proverb
  ag-saóto speak, talk; converse
  i-saóto say, express
  s<um>aóto speak up
  saó-saórumor, idle talk
  sao-én ~ saw-énto say, utter: state
Bikol sáhoɁreferring to words that are indistinctly pronounced
  ma-sahúɁanto manage to express oneself; to make oneself understood

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*sahuR to mix; a mixture


PPh     *sahuR to mix; a mixture

Tagalog sahógmixture; secondary ingredients in a mixture
  i-sahógto add as an ingredient to a mixture
  ka-sahóga person such as a visitor who is included in the preparation of food in a home
  ma-sahógwith or having many ingredients, esp. in a dish of food
  sahug-ánto add something to a mixture (stress on the mixture)
Bikol sahógfish or meat added to vegetables as a seasoning
  mag-sahógto add fish or meat to vegetables as a seasoning
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sahugof a small quantity or number, to be mixed with a larger quantity or number
Proto-Minahasan *saɁuhto mix, mingle, blend


*sai who?


PMP     *sai who?     [doublet: *sei]

Mapun soywho; whom; what (when asking someone’s name)
Sangil saywho?
Samal saiwho?
Sa'ban aywho?
Bintulu saywho?
Melanau (Mukah) saywho?
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) saywho?
Buol taiwho?
Keo saiwho?
Ende saiwho?
Palu'e haiwho?
Sika haiwho?
Galoli seiwho?
Ponam seiwho?
Arop seiwho?
Kove seiwho?
Ali e-seiwho?
Motu dai-kawho?
Mekeo (East) kaiwho?
Zabana heiwho?
Bugotu haiindefinite pronoun, anyone; who?
Lau tai ~ teiwho, whoever
Tonga haiinterrogative pronoun, who?, whom?
Niue haiinterrogative pronoun, who?, whom?
Futunan aiinterrogative pronoun, who?, whom?
Samoan aiwho?
Tuvaluan ko aiwho?
  a aiwhose?
  a te aito whom?
Kapingamarangi aiwho?, whose?, what? (name)
Nukuoro go-aiwho?
Rennellese aiinterrogative pronoun, who?
Anuta ko aipronoun: who?
  e aiby whom?
  ki aito whom?
  mai aifrom whom?
  mo aiwith whom?
  i aiwith whom?


PMP     *i-sai who?

Bonggi e-siwho?
Rungus Dusun i-saywho?
Dumpas i-saywho?
Tatana i-saywho?
Kujau i-saywho?
Bisaya (Limbang) i-saywho?
Dohoi i-aiwho?
Sangir i saiwho?
Lamboya i-aiwho?
Minyaifuin siei <Mwho?
Ahus isewho?
Lele seywho?
Lakona isewho?
Merig isewho?
Malmariv iseiwho?
Lametin isewho?
Lingarak i-siwho?


PMP     *sai sai whoever

Mapun soy-soywhoever
Sangir i sai-saiwho? (plural)
  i sai-sai-ŋeach one, everyone, whoever
Sika hai-haiwhoever

Note:   Also Rarotongan āi ‘who, whom, what?’. This form largely replaced PAn *ima ‘who?’, but for reasons that remain unclear, it took the person-marker *i (non-third person) rather than *si (third person).


*saiŋ stand or be placed near to someone or something


PPh     *saiŋ stand or be placed near to someone or something

Ibaloy se-saiŋto want something that someone else is eating or selling but not to ask for it; rather to stand nearby as a hint, hoping to be offered some
Pangasinan saíŋto join two objects end to end
Mansaka saiŋto put beside (as a pot next to a pan)


*sajab to singe, burn slightly


PPh     *sajab to singe, burn slightly

Kankanaey sagáb-ento bring fire near; to draw a brand close; to put a firebrand close (to bedbugs, etc. to expel or kill them)
Keley-i halabto roast young rice over a fire
Ifugaw hágabto scorch something; to become scorched
Bikol sárabburnt hay or straw
  mag-sárabto burn hay or straw
Hanunóo sárabroasting
  s<in>árabroasted with the skins left on, as bananas
Cebuano sálabto singe, pass a flame over
Binukid salabto singe, pass something over a flame (as a chicken to remove the small feathers)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sarabto roast something in the flames of a fire
Mansaka sarabto singe (as the hairs from a pig)


*sáka leg of a fowl (?)


PPh     *sáka leg of a fowl (?)

Ilokano sákafoot; leg
  pa-sákastring of rattan; string used to tie fowl
  pa-saká-anto tie at the leg; beat the leg
Bikol sákacockspur
  mag-sákato wound with a cockspur


*saka to climb, go up


PPh     *saka to climb, go up     [doublet: *sakay]

Ayta Abellan hakato go up
  mama-hakafor someone to climb a mountain or hill
Hanunóo sakáclimbing up, going up, as into a house
  s<um>akáto go up, enter
Cebuano sakáto climb (as stairs), bring something up
Mansaka sakato ascend (as a mountain); to go upstream
Proto-Sangiric *sakato climb (mountain)

Note:   Also Aklanon sákaɁ ‘to climb up, go up (stairs, tree); get higher (prices)’.


*saká and; also


PPh     *saká and; also

Casiguran Dumagat sakáand, also
Ayta Abellan hakaand
Bikol sakáand


*sa(ŋ)kab to seize prey in the water, as a crocodile


PPh     *sa(ŋ)kab to seize prey in the water, as a crocodile

Agutaynen t<om>aŋkabfor an animal, such as a dog or lion, to lunge at someone, something; for an animal to snatch, grab s.t. in its mouth and eat it; for s.o. to viciously bite, or bite off s.t., usually in a fight
Maranao sakabto swallow
Binukid saŋkab(for a fish) to open its mouth to catch food
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sakabof water creatures, to prey on other creatures from under the water by snatching them from the surface of the water; of a crocodile, to seize its prey

Note:   Also Tiruray sakab ‘(of crocodiles) to grab prey in its jaws’, Tboli sakab ‘to jump up and chase after s.t.; to rise up suddenly after s.o., apparently a Manobo loanword.


*sakal restraining device on animals


PAN     *sakal restraining device on animals

Amis cakalmuzzle for ox, water buffalo
Ilokano sakal-énto squeeze the neck (of another)
Tagalog sakálchoked; strangled; very tight (as a collar)
Bikol sakályoke


*sa(ŋ)kal adze or similar tool


PWMP     *sa(ŋ)kal adze or similar tool

Bontok sákaladze
  sakál-anto use an adze
Bikol saŋkála large wooden hammer or mallet used for driving in stakes or posts
Maranao sakalhoe, pike
Malay (Brunei) bəlioŋ saŋkaladze used by boat builders
Malay saŋkalhandle of a hammer or adze
Old Javanese saŋkalthe handle of an adze

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*sakaŋ bowlegged


PMP     *sakaŋ bowlegged

Ilokano sakáŋbow-legged
Itawis sakáŋbowlegged
Ifugaw hákaŋcrooked leg
  hakáŋto stand astride on the ground
Casiguran Dumagat sakáŋto hold a baby with its legs straddling your side
Ibaloy sakaŋto have the legs, or similar parts of an object (too) wide apart
Tagalog sakáŋbandy-legged; bowlegged; having the legs curved outward; state of being bowlegged; a bowlegged person
Bikol sakáŋbow-legged
  magin-sakáŋto become bow-legged
Hanunóo sakáŋastride, astraddle
Agutaynen sakaŋcrotch
Tiruray sakaŋbow-legged
Lun Dayeh akaŋa pace, step, stride
  ŋ-akaŋopen the legs to step forward, step over something
  kaŋ-en ~ kaŋ-inwill be stepped over
Kayan hakaŋwidely open, as of legs
Samoan saʔa(especially of two-legged creatures like men or chickens) be short-legged

Note:   Also Ilokano sakkáŋ ‘astraddle; walk with the legs apart’. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*sakáqaŋ walk or stand with legs wide apart


PPh     *sakáqaŋ walk or stand with legs wide apart     [doublet: *sakáŋ]

Ibaloy sakaaŋto have the legs, or similar parts of an object (too) wide apart
Cebuano sakáʔaŋtotter under a heavy weight with the legs spread far apart for balance and foothold; walk with the legs wide apart due to some ailment

Note:   Since this form appears to be a doublet of PMP *sakáŋ it raises the question whether the assumed monosyllabic root *-kaŋ₁ was actually *kaqaŋ. However, languages that preserve *q as a uvular stop show no reduction in forms like Paiwan ma-vakaŋ ‘to walk bowlegged’ (with root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’), forcing the interpretation that the longer apparent root in this form is a product of secondary change in Philippine languages.


*sakaRu reef


PMP     *sakaRu reef

Chamorro sahagudeep water
Asilulu saʔalua natural barrier just below the sea surface, especially of coral reefs
Kowiai/Koiwai saɁarreef
Buli sareef’
Bali (Uneapa) zagharureef
Mbula sagarcoral (smaller, white in color; said to be a loan fromMutu)
Roviana sagarureef; Milky Way
Arosi taʔarushoal, shallow spot in the sea
Gilbertese rakaiblock of coral rocks; rock; reef
Fijian cakaureef
Samoan aʔaureef

Note:   Also Sangir sagheʔ ‘reef’.


*sakat rise, climb up


PAN     *sakat rise, climb up

Amis cakatarise, go up
Bikol sakátgo upstairs; climb, scale, mount, ascend
Maranao sakatstep up, rise up
Ngadha sakaascend, mount (as a horse); rise (as water in a stream)
Buruese saka-hascend to


*sakau small species of Malay apple


POC     *sakau small species of Malay apple

Kuruti sakowlong red variety of Malay apple
Mondropolon sakowlong red variety of Malay apple
Likum sa:kowlong variety of Malay apple
Lindrou saɁMalay apple with flower-shaped fruit
Nggela sagauMalay apple (small species)


*sakay₁ catch a ride, join a group, ride on something


PMP     *sakay₁ catch a ride, join a group, ride on something

Ilokano sakáyto ride, mount (a horse, etc.); to embark (go on board a steamer, etc.)
Bontok sakáyto ride, as on an animal
Kankanaey men-sakáyto ride on horseback; to mount, to ride; to sit astride of, to straddle something
Ifugaw (Batad) hakayfor someone to ride on an animal, such as a horse or carabao
Ibaloy man-sakayto ride on an animal, bicycle, scooter, etc.
Pangasinan sakáyto navigate
Ayta Maganchi hakayto ride, get in or on
Kapampangan sakeride
Tagalog sakáypassenger; load
Bikol sakáyfluvial procession
  mag-sakáyride in a boat
Hanunóo sakáyriding on a horse or in a boat or land vehicle, etc.
Aklanon sakáyride (on), travel (on), get on (vehicle), mount (an animal)
Cebuano sakayput something, ride, get on a vehicle; join in with other people; include something together with a list that has been made up
Kadazan Dusun sakayto go up; to ride
  ka-sakaz-anact of going on, riding (a horse, bicycle, etc.)
Ida'an Begak sakayget on board
Bintulu sakaywith; friend
Iban saŋkai(of boats) come to land, touch at, go alongside; put ashore; take passage (in boat), carry cargo, set down (cargo or passenger); join in business or work, lend a hand
Mongondow takoiget on a horse or a vehicle, go for a ride, sail, navigate
Tae' sake-ito ride a horse
Chamorro sahy-anautomobile, small vehicle
Tetun saɁeto climb on, to mount (as a horse)
Asilulu saɁato ride (as in a boat)
Kowiai/Koiwai na-saʔato go by vehicle
Nggela hageto embark, mount a horse, get into a car
Lau taeembark
  tae doŋahitchhike in canoes, travel by successive canoes
  tae-liembark on a ship or a canoe
'Āre'āre taʔeride, embark; used to denote the numerical strength of a canoe
  taʔe taʔaia one-man canoe
  taʔe ruaa two-man canoe
Sa'a taʔeembark, start off
  tataʔeembark, start off; used to denote the capacity of a canoe
  taʔe ileŋine horseto ride a horse
  taʔe-liembark, get into a canoe
Arosi taɁe(-na)embarcation party
Pohnpeian dakeride in or on a vehicle
Puluwat tááyvehicle, ride in a vehicle
  tááye-lóride, as in a canoe or on a horse
Woleaian tageey (tagee-a)ride it, sail in it
Wayan cakeclimb up or on, mount


PWMP     *sakay-an vehicle for riding

Pangasinan sakay-ánship, vessel
Bikol sakáy-anboat
Tae' sake-anwilling to be ridden (of a horse or carabao)
Chamorro sahy-anautomobile, small vehicle, jeep, sedan, car

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Tagalog sakáy to *sakay ‘ascend’, but appears to have confounded two distinct cognate sets.


(Formosan only)

*sakay₂ walk


PAN     *sakay₂ walk

Kavalan saqaywalk
  pa-saqayto send (something), to deliver
  p<n>a-saqaycontagious disease, epidemic
  saqay-awanjob, work
Pazeh zakaywalk
  z<in>akay-anfootprints, traces


PAN     *s<um>akay to walk

Trobiawan ts<um>akaito walk
Kavalan s<m>aqayto walk
Pazeh mu-zakayto walk


*sakay₃ stranger; visitor; guest


PWMP     *sakay₃ stranger; visitor; guest

Kenyah sakaystranger
  ñakayto visit
Kenyah (Long Wat) sakayvisitors
  ñakayto visit
Bintulu sakaywith; friend, companion
Iban sakaycrew member of (racing) boat
Malay sakaysubject; dependent, of subject peoples in contrast to the ruling race; therefore somewhat contemptuous
Proto-Minahasan *sakeyguest
Tontemboan sakeyguest, stranger
Boano sakoyEguest
Lauje saɁoyguest


*sakay₄ to climb, ascend, rise up


PMP     *sakay₄ to climb, ascend, rise up

Yami sakaygo up, climb up
  pa-sakay-inpull up, make something go up
Kadazan Dusun sakayto go up
Ngaju Dayak sakæyto climb, ascend
Tetun saɁeto rise up; to ascend (as the sun)
Tetun (Dili) saeto climb, ascend
Proto-Ambon *saka(y)to climb, ascend
Hitu saʔato ascend
Nusa Laut u-satato lift, raise
Mayá ꞌsa¹²to climb
Biga -sato climb
Minyaifuin -sato climb


POC     *sake to ascend, rise up

Asilulu saɁato climb (as a coconut palm), to rise (as the moon)
Buruese sakaupper; on, upon, at
  saka-hascend to
  saka-sakaup high
Vitu zahego up; move away from land (when travelling in a boat)
Kove saeup
Motu daeto ascend
  dae-kauto ascend to and reach a place, e.g. to go up onto a veranda from the ground
  dae-rohato rise (of sun); to climb to the top
Gabadi gaeto ascend
Cheke Holo hageto go or come up, move higher, rise, ascend, climb up; lift up
Kwaio taɁerise
  faɁa-taɁeto recruit (of a plantation laborer)
  ta-taɁeto stand up
  ta-taɁe-ato lift up
Lau taeto rise, ascend, get up, climb; to lift up; to exhume
'Āre'āre taɁerise, get up, stand
  taɁe-ato raise up, make get up, put somebody on their feet, lift up
Sa'a taɁeadverb of direction, up, inland
Arosi taɁeto alight on a branch, perch, of a bird; to go up,l ascend; to climb a hill; to rise to the surface
Proto-Micronesian *Sakeup, upward
Marshallese takdirectional enclitic, eastward, upward
Pohnpeian dakto rise, of the sun and moon
Chuukese tááup, upward, eastward,rising
Puluwat táá-táto rise, as star or sun
Woleaian tag(e)directional --- upward, eastward
Avava sakto go up, ascend
Efate (South) sakto ascend
Wayan cakeclimb, ascend, climb up or on, mount; climb up for something, esp. fruit; have intercourse with (vulgar)
Fijian cakeupwards, above
Tongan hakeup, upwards, along, past, etc.; go up, esp. from the sea to the land
  ha-hakedirection in which the sun rises, east
Niue hakedirective particle, upwards, to the north or to the east
Futunan sakejump over
Samoan sa-saɁeeast

Note:   Also Isneg mag-sáxay ‘to ascend, said of pendulous stems, like those of the rattan’. Apparently distinct from *sakay ‘ride on’, with which it is combined in Dempwolff (1938), although the two are difficult to distinguish when reflexes of the latter mean ‘climb up to get on (a horse, etc.)’. Bender et al. (2003:82, 87) posit both Proto-Micronesian *(sS)ake ‘ride’ and *Sake ‘up, upward’, but with a cross-reference due to the common practice of combining them in dictionaries of the modern languages.


*sakeb to lie face down, prone


PPh     *sakeb to lie face down, prone

Yami sakeblie flat, stick close to the ground
  pa-sakebplace something face downward
Itbayaten sakebidea of lying with face down
  pa-sakb-ento cause to lie with face down
Ibatan sakebbe inverted, upside down (as a barrel), lie face down (person)
Casiguran Dumagat sakəbto lie face down (as a person, or for a canoe to be floating upside down in the water)
Kapampangan mi-sakábfall on face
  maka-sakáblying face down

Note:   With root *-keb₂ ‘face downward’.


*sa(ŋ)keb lid, cover


PWMP     *sa(ŋ)keb lid, cover

Ayta Abellan hakebcover or lid; cap or top of a bottle; to cover
Hanunóo sakúbcovered or closed container or cage
Karo Batak saŋkemearthenware lid of a copper cooking pot

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


(Formosan only)

*sakeC muntjac, barking deer


PAN     *sakeC muntjac, barking deer

Thao takicmuntjac, barking deer
Bunun sakutmuntjac, barking deer
Bunun (Isbukun) sakutbarking deer
Paiwan taketsmuntjac, pygmy deer

Note:   Also Pazeh maket, Tsou taʔacə, Kanakanabu sakut, Proto-Rukai *akəcə ‘muntjac, pygmy deer’. Although this word can be securely reconstructed for PAn, it shows phonological irregularities in a number of languages, and its attested distribution may be due in part to borrowing. Kanakanabu sakut is most simply explained as a loan from Bunun but loan sources for the irregular forms in Pazeh, Tsou and the Rukai languages remain unclear. Finally, as the smallest of the three species of deer native to Taiwan the muntjac is often called the ‘pygmy deer’, but in Borneo and other parts of western Indonesia it is the middle-sized member of three deer species (the smallest being the mousedeer, Tragulus kanchil), and is commonly known there as the ‘barking deer’, from its dog-like barking call.


*sakedú to fetch water (for drinking)


PPh     *sakedú to fetch water (for drinking)

Ilokano sakdówater drawn from a well (for drinking)
  s<um>akdóto draw water from a well
Bontok sakdúa ceremony in which water is drawn secretly from one of the springs in a foreign village and brought home, to counteract a child’s illness, as impetigo or an infected ear
  ma-nakdúto draw water
Kankanaey s<um>akdóto fetch water, to go for water
Bikol mag-sakdóto fetch water (as from a river, stream)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sekezua water pole; to fetch water

Note:   Also Kapampangan sakló ‘to fetch (e.g. water)’.


PPh     *sakedu-en to fetch water (for drinking)

Ilokano sakdu-ento draw water, imbibe knowledge
Bikol (East Miraya) sakdu-ónto fetch water (as from a river, stream)

Note:   Also Kapampangan sakló ‘to fetch (e.g. water)’.


*sakeláy to carry something by shoulder strap


PPh     *sakeláy to carry something by shoulder strap

Casiguran Dumagat sakléto carry s.t. by shoulder strap
Tagalog sakláyyoke; light shawl; sling; a hanging loop of cloth fastened around the neck to support a hurt arm
Bikol i-sakláyto sling s.t. across the shoulders
Tiruray segelaya strap used to sling s.t. from one shoulder; to carry s.t. with a segelay


*sak(e)lút hold tightly, clutch to oneself


PPh     *sak(e)lút hold tightly, clutch to oneself

Ilokano saklótlap
  s<in>aklótbaby in the womb
Tagalog pag-saklótto grab; grabbing or snatching
Bikol saklótprey
  ma-naklótto fly with something clutched in the claws (birds)


PPh     *sak(e)lut-en hold tightly, clutch to oneself

Ilokano saklót-ento hold in the lap
Agta (Eastern) sáklothold crossways in the arms (as to hold a sleeping child crossways in the arms)
Bontok saklut-ənto hold in the lap; to sit on someone’s knee; to carry against the front of the body, as a child in a carrying blanket
Kankanaey saklót-anto carry in a piece of cloth, one’s apron, one’s skirt; to bear in one’s blanket
Tagalog saklut-ínto snatch; to ravish; to carry off by force; to whisk; to take away something quickly
Bikol saklut-ónto prey on; to swoop down on; to carry off in the claws (birds)

Note:   Also Bontok sakloy ‘to hold in the lap’.


*sakém to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy


PPh     *sakém to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy

Ilokano sakémgather everything in reach
  sakm-énto gather everything in reach; take all one can; to include in one’s jurisdiction; take everything in reach
Pangasinan sakémterritory, jurisdiction; to absorb, acquire
  man-sakémto clasp
Tagalog ma-sakímavaricious; covetous; greedy; avid; greedy; rapacious; selfish; caring too much for oneself
  ka-sakim-ánavariciousness; rapacity; greed; selfishness
Maranao sakemcatch (as a ball), reach (as fruit on a tree)


*sak(e)mál snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it


PPh     *sak(e)mál snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it

Ilokano na-sakmálsnatched by a mouth; bitten (by dogs)
Tagalog sakmála snap; a quick, sudden bite or snatch; held tightly in the mouth
  s<um>akmálto snap; to snap at; to snap up; to seize suddenly; to grab; to snatch with the mouth (of dogs)
Bikol mag-sakmálto grab as big a handful as possible; to clasp the arms around someone roughly and tightly; to clinch, to hold in a bear hug


PPh     *sakmal-én be snatched, be seized suddenly

Ilokano sakmal-énto snatch and run; run away with; grab with the mouth; bite (dogs)
Tagalog sakmal-ínto snap; to snap at; to snap up; to seize suddenly
Bikol sakmal-ónto grab as big a handful as possible; to clasp the arms around someone roughly and tightly; to clinch, to hold in a bear hug


*sak(e)níb overlapping, one on top of another


PPh     *sak(e)níb overlapping, one on top of another

Ilokano sakníboverlapping
  ag-sakníbto lap over, overlap
Bikol i-sakníbto place one thing on top of another (referring only to thin things such as mats, linen, paper)
  mag-sakníbto insert something beneath; to insert something into a pile (of mats, paper, etc.)
Cebuano sakníblay two things out flat so that the one is partly over the other (as mats with edges overlapping)
Binukid saknibto overlap, extend over and cover part of something (as pieces of roofing material)


*sakep catch, seize


PMP     *sakep catch, seize

Cebuano sakúpcatch, capture
Maranao sakepcatch, capture
Kayan sakepa trap (e.g. a mouse trap)
Iban saŋkapfish trap
Manggarai cakepcatch (something falling), seize by a swift movement

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’. Also cp. Balinese saŋkeb ‘device for catching quails’.


*sa(ŋ)kep close, shut


PWMP     *sa(ŋ)kep close, shut

Cebuano sakupclose something (as a door, book)
Kayan sakepa trap (as a mouse trap)
Banggai saŋkopclose
  pa-saŋkopdoor, lid
Bare'e sakodrawstring of a carrying basket


*sakil rest the foot on; touch or knock with the foot


PMP     *sakil rest the foot on; touch or knock with the foot

Subanon sakilheel
Kalagan sákilheel
Proto-Sangiric *sakelheel
Sangir sakeləɁheel of an animal; cockspur
Bantik sákeleɁto kick (with toes)
Manam sakistamp one’s foot on the floor of the house
  sakil-istamp one’s foot on the floor of the house
Motu dai-ato rest on, as a foot on the ground
Bugotu sakito step
Arosi takito knock, stumble against; touch

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Sneddon (1984:101).


*sa(ŋ)kit tie, fasten together


PMP     *sa(ŋ)kit tie, fasten together

Proto-South Sulawesi *saŋki(C)to tie
Nggela ndakifasten, as a loincloth

Note:   Possibly with root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’.


*sakit sick, painful


PMP     *sakit sick, painful

Ilokano sakítsickness, disease, ailment; pain, ache
  ag-sakítto be sick; to hurt, ail
  i-sakítto defend, protect, aid; help, support; uphold
Isneg takítsickness, disease, indisposition, pain, ache
Itawis takítsickness, pain
Bontok sakítto be painful; to hurt
Kankanaey men-sakítto be sick, ill, diseased, unwell, indisposed; to ail; to be sore, tender, painful, smarting; to ache, to hurt; to swoon, to faint away
Ifugaw hakítpain, sickness; grief, sadness
Ifugaw (Batad) haʔitthe pain of a body part; of an affliction specifically located, as the pain of a boil, a headache, stomachache, a wound
Casiguran Dumagat saketsuffering, sickness, pain, illness, ailment, infirmity, disease; to be hurt by, to get hurt, to become ill; painful
Ibaloy sakitsickness, illness
Pangasinan sakítache, disease, pain, sickness, hurt; become painful
Kapampangan sakitdisease
  mag-ka-sakitexperience hardship, difficulty or pain
  mana-sakitfeel hurt, grudge, be hurt, get hurt, feel pain
Tagalog sakítdisease; sickness; illness; complaint; ill, malady; illness; pain, suffering (emotional pain or suffering is sákit, while hapdî and kirót could be either physical or emotional)
  hina-nakítumbrage; resentment; suspicion that one has been slighted or injured; feeling offended; grudge, ill will; a sullen feeling against
  mag-ka-sakítto fall ill, to become sick
  maka-sakítto hurt; to cause injury or pain to (physically)
  sákitconcern; solicitude; interest; devotion; dedication to a purpose and expressing such in earnest service
Bikol mahiŋ-sakítto feel slighted or offended; to resent or take offense at; to hold a grudge against
  maka-sákitto cause difficulties
  ma-sakit-anto find something difficult
Hanunóo sakítpain; illness
Romblomanon sakitan illness, internal or external, including extensive skin infections
  sakit sa babāyia venereal disease
  maga-sakita part of the body aches
Masbatenyo mag-ka-sakítbe sick, be in pain
Aklanon sakítillness, ailment, infirmity; to be hurt by, suffer from; to hurt (physically), cause pain
  paŋ-hi-nakítto feel sorry for, sympathize with; to bear a grudge, feel bad about, take ill (someone’s actions or talk)
Waray-Waray sakítdisease; sickness; malady; a stinging or smarting pain; pain; ill, sick, not well; painful, hurting; a sick person, a patient
Hiligaynon sakítillness, pain; grief, sorrow
Cebuano sakítpainful; hurting, causing wounded feelings; violent death or way of dying; physical pain; ache, emotional pain;
  sakít sa babáyivenereal disease; menstruation (sickness of a woman)
  paka-sákitto make sacrifices
  ma-sakít-unpatient, an ill person; be, become gravely ill
  s<al>akít-ansusceptible to diseases; infested with organisms that cause diseases
Maranao sakitdisease, sickness, pain, ache, ailment, hurt
  sakit a bebaygonorrhea (sickness of a woman)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sakitpain
Mansaka sakitillness
Tiruray ʔagitpaining, painful
Tausug sakitsickness, illness, pain, soreness, ache
  sakit atayanger, hatred, bitterness of feeling
  sakit babaivenereal disease
  mag-sakitto become painful, sore
  mag-ka-sakitto develop sickness, get sick
Kadazan Dusun sakitsick, ill
Tombonuwo o-sakitsick, painful
Ida'an Begak sakitcrazy
Kelabit aʔitsickness, pain
Kenyah sakitsick, diseased; in pain
Kiput aketillness
  səp-aketpretend to be ill
Iban sakitsick, ill; painful; illness
Malay sakitsick; diseased; being ill or in pain
  sakit bulanmenstruation (‘monthly sickness’)
  sakit hatiannoyance; anger; ill-will
  ber-sakitto take pains
  hantu pe-ñakitspirits of disease
  me-ñakit-ito afflict
  sakit-ito afflict
Acehnese sakétpain; sick, indisposed; labor (in childbirth); difficult, painful; trouble; torment; grief
  sakét ulεəheadache
Gayō sakitsick, painful
  sakit uluheadache
Karo Batak sakitpain; sick
Dairi-Pakpak Batak sakitsickness
  per-sakit-ensickness, illness, disease
Toba Batak sahitsickness, illness, disease
Sundanese sa-sakit-anpainful (bitter) weeping
Old Javanese sakitpain (esp. physical)
  s<in>akit-anto inflict pain, hurt, wound
Javanese sakitill; painful
Balinese sakitillness, pain, damage, hurt, annoyance
  sakit-sakitsick persons
Sasak sakitbe sick, have pain (including by a blow); sickness, suffering; be annoyed; hate someone
  sakit aŋənjealous
Sangir sakiʔsickness
Tontemboan sakitspirit of sickness, ghost that causes illness; sickness, illness
Proto-Gorontalic *sakitosick, painful
Mongondow takitghosts of lower rank that cause sickness and all sorts of trouble, and that reside in springs, rivers, oddly-shaped stones, in the forest, etc., above all in lonesome and deserted places; takit also means ‘sickness’, and is then associated with the forces that cause sickness
  moko-takitcause sickness or pain
Banggai sakitsickness
  maŋka-sakitmake someone sick, cause someone pain
Uma hakiʔsickness, complaint
Bare'e sakisickness
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *hakiQpain, sickness
Wolio kumbi sakismallpox
Muna sakiillness; sick, ill
  manan-sakisickly, in poor health
Palauan raktsickness, disease
  rəkt-əl a rədilmenstruation
  ou-ráktto be sick, suffer chronically from
  olab rəkt-əlpregnant
Kowiai/Koiwai sait noʔo ito be taken ill


PWMP     *ka-sakit (gloss uncertain)

Masbatenyo ka-sakítpain
Aklanon ka-sákítsuffering, pain
Cebuano ka-sakítpain, physical or emotional
Binukid ka-sakitpain (physical or emotional); ache; to be painful, to ache; to hurt (someone)
Kadazan Dusun ka-sakit(can make) sick, ill
Sundanese ka-sakitsickness, indisposition, illness


PWMP     *ma-ñakit to hurt or injure others

Tagalog ma-nakítto hurt or injure others (physically or morally); to pain, to ache; to be aching all over
Bahasa Indonesia me-ñakit-ito cause pain to someone (sadness, suffering, etc.)
Sundanese ma-ñakitsickness, complaint; disease
Old Javanese ma-nakitto cause pain? to be a disease?
Balinese ñakitto hurt, damage, torture
Mongondow mo-nakitpainful; smarting, of pain

Note:   The expected form in Old Javanese is **ma-ñakit. It is unclear why nasal substitution in this form and in other forms of this base that take a prefix ending with –N violates the general pattern by which /s/ is replaced by a palatal nasal.


PMP     *ma-sakit sick, painful

Ilokano ma-sakítpatient; to be sick
Agta (Dupaningan) ma-sakétsick
Itawis ma-takítsick
  ma-ma-takítto harm
Ifugaw ma-hakítit is painful
Ibaloy ma-sekitsickly, frail
  ma-s<in>akitsickly, frail
Kapampangan ma-sakíthurts, painful; difficult, hard
  ma-sákita sick person
Tagalog ma-sakítsore; painful; hurting; tender, sensitive (physically or morally); nasty, hurting; hurtful, hurting (morally); biting; bitter; sharp; cutting; mordant; acrimonious, sarcastic; incisive; cutting; sharp; penetrating; hard (as words); unpleasant to the feelings
  ma-sakt-ánto be hurt (morally); to be sore or offended; to be injured; to be hurt (physically)
  ma-sa-sakt-ínsickly, delicate; prone to sickness; unhealthy; not possessing good health; infirm, feeble
  ma-sákít-insickly, delicate; prone to sickness; susceptible or subject to sickness; unhealthy, not possessing good health, not well; infirm, feeble
Bikol ma-sákitarduous, difficult, formidable, hard, laborious, rigorous, onerous, tough, complex, complicated
Hanunóo ma-sakíthurt, pain, be painful
Romblomanon ma-sakitsomeone or something suffers pain; a part of the body is painful; someone becomes sick
Masbatenyo ma-sakítsick, painful, hurt (of body or feelings)
  ma-sákitdifficult; suffering; painful
Aklanon ma-sakítpainful, hurting; sick, ill
Waray-Waray ma-sakítill, sick, not well; painful, hurting; a sick person, a patient
Hiligaynon ma-sakítpainful; sorrowful
Binukid ma-sakitachy, painful, hurting
Mansaka ma-sakitpainful, sick; to become painful
Tausug ma-sakit(with atay) bitter against, hateful (toward someone)
Kelabit m-aʔitsick, painful
  m-aʔit lipentoothache
  m-aʔit uluhheadache
Kiput m-aketsick, ill
Old Javanese a-sakitin pain, ill, hurt, wounded
Sangir ma-sakiʔbe or become sick
Tontemboan ma-sakitbe sick, become sick
Mongondow mo-takitsick
Banggai ma-sakitsick, painful; cause pain
Uma mo-hakiʔsick
Bare'e ma-sakisick
Palauan mə-ráktlook as if one is very sick


POC     *masakit sick, painful

Tolai maitto be ill or sick
Bali (Uneapa) mazaghichisick
Vitu mazahiillness, disease, sickness
Gitua mazaisick
Yabem -macpainful, sick
Nginia masahisick
Kwaio mataʔifever
Lau matai ~ ma-mataito be ill
  matai-a ~ matai-ŋaillness
Toqabaqita mataʔibe sick, ill
  mataʔi-asickness, illness, disease
  mataʔi-laʔafeel sick, ill
'Āre'āre mataʔito have fever, to have an attack of malaria
Sa'a mataʔito have an attack of malarial fever
Arosi mataʔito have fever, malaria; be feverish
Proto-Micronesian *masakibe painful, hurt
Gilbertese marakipain, suffering, grief; painful
  ka-marakicausing pain
  ma-marakipainful, paining; to be suffering
  maraki n nanohurt feelings (‘painful insides’)
  nano marakito regret, repent
Kosraean atəkpainful, hurting, sore; pain, ache, intense pain in the bones or joints
Marshallese metakpain; hurt; ache; sore
Pohnpeian medekto hurt; to be painful; to ache
Mokilese mɔdɔkhurt, painful
Chuukese metek ~ meteki-pain, hurt; (be) painful
Puluwat metákto hurt, pain; pain
Woleaian metagipain; be painful, sick, hurt
  ga-metagimake it hurt
Sonsorol-Tobi metakisick, ill
Mota masagague
Atchin mi-masasick
Rerep mesexsick
Axamb məsaxsick
Faulili mesaisick
Tonga mahaksick
Nakanamanga masakisick
Pwele masakisick
Lelepa msaksick
Efate (South) masaksick
Tongan mahakisick person, patient; sickness, disease, ailment; temperamental or characteristic fondness or liking, ‘weakness’, craze, addiction; sick, diseased, ailing; dead (polite for mate)
Futunan makisick
  masakibe sick; patient, sick person; sickness, illness, disease
Samoan maʔibe sick, fall ill; infection (in general), disease, sickness; patient; pregnancy
  maʔi-aitucondition said to be caused by temporary possession of a person by a ghost or a devil
  maʔi-lasi(of a child) be sickly
  maʔi-manatube homesick; be lovesick; homesickness, lovesickness
  maʔi-māsinamenses, monthly period
  maʔi-tōbe pregnant
  faʔa-ma-maʔibe madly in love, yearn or pine for someone
  faʔa-maʔi-maʔifeel unwell, be indisposed
Tuvaluan mahakisick; a sick person
Kapingamarangi magibe sick, infirm
  magi ahinamenstruation (lit. ‘woman’s sickness’)
Nukuoro magisick, sickness; ill, illness; disease (physical or mental)
  magi dabeomenstruation (lit. ‘unclean sickness’)
  magi-aaenvious, jealous (non-sexual jealousy)
Rennellese masakisickness; sick person, patient; to be sick
  masaki-aʔarascal, scamp, nasty supernatural
  masaki kege-kegewoman’s monthly period; to have such a period (lit. ‘dirty sickness’)
  haka-masakito cause sickness
Rarotongan makigeneral term for disease, sickness or illness of any nature: the word with which it is joined denotes the particular disease or illness; sick, affected by disease, ill
  maki pivafevers of any kind
  maki vainemenses (lit. ‘woman’s sickness’)
  maki-makibe indisposed; be ill or feel ill; be suffering from some complaint
Maori makiinvalid, sick person; sore; to afflict, of an illness
  maki-makicutaneous disease
Hawaiian maʔipatient, sick person; sickness, disease; sick, ill; menstruating
  hoʔo-maʔito cause sickness; to feign sickness; genitals


POC     *masakit-ia fall ill, become sick

Vitu mazahit-iafall ill
Tongan mahaki-ʔiato be sick or unwell (a milder or more polite word than puke): of persons, animals, etc., and trees or plants; of a woman, to have her monthly sickness


PMP     *ma-saki-sakit to fall ill, become very sick

Mongondow mo-taki-takitsickly, often sick
Vitu mazahi-zahit-iabe very sick


PWMP     *maR-sakit to be sick

Isneg mag-takítto be sick, to ail
Bikol mag-sákitto become difficult
Hanunóo mag-sakítto be painful, to be hurt, to feel bad about
Masbatenyo mag-sákitto be difficult
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-sakitsick; bedridden because of sickness
Toba Batak mar-sahitto be sick
  mar-sahit-ito make someone sick (said of the spirits)


PPh     *na-sakit was hurt or sick

Ilokano na-sakítsick, aching, hurt, sore
Bontok na-sakítto be sick; sickness; illness
Binukid na-sakit-anwas hurt by someone
Mongondow no-takitbecame sick


PWMP     *pa-ñakit sickness, illness

Cebuano pa-nakítpains, aches, characteristics of a sickness
Kenyah pe-ñakitsickness
Iban pe-ñakitillness
Malay pe-ñakitdisease
Gayō pe-ñakitsickness, illness, disease
Karo Batak pe-nakitsickness; also an expression for intestinal worms
Toba Batak pa-nahitworms in the intestines; having intestinal parasites
Sundanese pa-ñakitsickness, complaint; disease
Old Javanese pa-nakitdisease
Javanese pa-ñakitsickness (physical or spiritual)
Sasak pə-ñakitsickness


PMP     *pa-sakit hurt someone; make someone sick

Ilokano pa-sakit-anto pain, afflict, distress; hurt, trouble; torment
Ibaloy pe-sakitto make someone sick (esp. with the spirit world as agents)
Kapampangan pa:-sakitburden; give a burden
Romblomanon pa-sakitsomeone is caused to experience pain by a part of the body which pains
Aklanon pa-sákitto cause/inflict suffering on
Cebuano pa-sákitto make sacrifices
Nggela vahagito be in pain; to be ill, have malaria


PWMP     *ka-sakit-an a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness

Tagalog ka-sakit-ánpainfulness; soreness
Bikol ka-sakít-andifficulty, complexity; adversity, hardship, pain, persecution, suffering, tribulation
Romblomanon ka-sakīt-ansomeone is afflicted with pain in a part of the body which aches
Malay ke-sakit-ana state of pain, trouble or illness
Sundanese ka-sakit-anbe sick
Old Javanese ka-sakit-ansuffering pain, aching, ill
Sasak kə-sakit-ansuffer intense pain
Tontemboan ka-sakit-anbe attacked by a spirit of sickness, afflicted by illness
Mongondow ko-takit-anbecome sick


PWMP     *pa-sakit-an (gloss uncertain)

Masbatenyo pa-sakít-andispleasure
Javanese pe-sakit-anprisoner


PWMP     *paR-sakit-an (gloss uncertain)

Isneg pag-takit-ánto make sick, to afflict, to torment
Toba Batak par-sahit-anillness


PWMP     *s<um>akit become painful (?)

Ifugaw h<um>akítit will give (cause) pain
Ifugaw (Batad) h<um>aʔitfor something to pain
Tagalog s<um>akítto ache; to become painful; to hurt; to suffer or feel pain
Tausug s<um>akitto become painful, sore
Kadazan Dusun s<um>akitfall sick, become ill
Tontemboan s<um>akitillness; sick person


PWMP     *sakit-an to hurt, cause pain or trouble

Pangasinan sakit-anto hurt
Tagalog ma-sakt-ánto be hurt (morally)
Romblomanon sakit-anbe afflicted with pain in a body part (as the stomach)
Toba Batak sahit-anto be sick
Sundanese sakit-anprisoner
Balinese sakit-aŋbe ill, be in pain, be hurt; be made ill


PWMP     *sakit-en hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness

Ilokano sakit-ento hurt, ache
Ibaloy sekit-ento be sick with something
Tagalog sákit-ínsickly, prone to sickness
Masbatenyo sakit-ónsickly
Gayō sakit-ensuffering from an illness
Dairi-Pakpak Batak sakit-ensick
Balinese sakit-inbe hurt by, be caused pain by someone
Sasak sakit-into mistreat; force someone to do something that is too difficult
Tontemboan sakit-ənperson who is always sick, sickly person

Note:   Also Mapun saki ‘sickness’, maka-saki ‘having the potential of causing a sickness’, pa-naki ‘habitually sick’, sakih-an ‘having a sickness’, ka-sakih-an ‘having a sick member in one’s household’, Yakan saki ‘sickness, illness; to be sick or ill’, maka-saki ‘to make someone sick’, Tae' saki ‘sick; sickness’, saki deata ‘sickness sent by the gods, sickness due to natural causes rather than caused by human malice’, ma-saki ‘sick’, Manggarai akit tuka ‘stomach ache’, Proto-South Sulawesi *saki ‘sick’.

It seems clear that PMP *sakit referred both to sickness and to pain, without a clear distinction. In the latter sense reflexes in a number of languages, especially in conjunction with a reflex of PAn *qaCay/PMP *qatay ‘liver’ (the seat of the emotions) show that it included pained feelings, or emotional pain. In addition, specific but variable collocations (‘monthly sickness’, ‘woman’s sickness’, ‘unclean sickness’) in various languages show that PMP *sakit probably figured in expressions meaning ‘menstruation’. With regard to geographical distribution it is odd that this cognate set almost completely skips eastern Indonesia (attested here only in Kowiai/Koiwai sait noʔo i ‘to be taken ill’), and is very rare in the western Pacific, although it is common in the Southeast Solomons, Micronesia, parts of Vanuatu, and Polynesia. Finally, the irregular loss of the final consonant in both Sama-Bajaw and South Sulawesi languages is puzzling, since there are few if any other innovations that appear to be exclusively shared by this set of languages.


*saksák insert


PPh     *saksák stuff, pack tightly     [doublet: *seksek]

Itbayaten saksak-ento pierce, stab, pierce with a sharp pointed knife
Ilokano i-saksákto insert; put in; plug in
Tagalog pag-saksákstuffing; cramming; tight packing
Bikol mag-saksákto plug something in; to insert something


PPh     *i-saksák to insert, plug something in

Ilokano i-saksákto insert; put i; plug in
Bikol i-saksákto plug something in; to insert something


*saksak₁ hack, chop into pieces


PAN     *saksak₁ hack, chop into pieces

Amis cakcakcut into pieces with a machete, as sweet potatoes; hoe ground until it is well tilled
Puyuma saksakcut in pieces (as bamboo)
Bontok saksakdivide a piece of meat into two portions
Pangasinan saksákto stab with any pointed object
Cebuano saksákchop something into pieces, usually to mix it into something else
Maranao saksaktear, split, cut into small pieces
Binukid saksakto cut (something) into chunks (as sweet potato or squash)
Mansaka saksakto cut into small pieces
Tiruray saksakto pierce, to stab
  mag-saksakto make a cut or incision, split something
  s<um>aksakto be or become ripped
Malagasy sásakathe half
  roa sásakadivided into halves, cut into two equal parts

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *saksak ‘prick, pierce, stab’.


*saksak₂ gecko


PWMP     *saksak₂ gecko     [doublet: *cekcek]

Tombonuwo sasaktype of house lizard
Wolio sasahouse lizard, gecko
Muna sasagecko, house lizard


*saku₁ extract the pith from the sago palm


PMP     *saku₁ extract the pith from the sago palm

Bare'e mo-sakuextract the pith of the sugar palm by pounding
Asilulu saɁuto chop sago pith away from the trunk with a hoe-like tool
  sa-saɁuhoe-like tool used for scraping sago

Note:   Possibly identical to *sagu₁ ‘processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm’.


*saku₂ needlefish, young of Istiophorus spp.


PMP     *saku₂ needlefish, young of Istiophorus spp.

Wogeo sak baremasailfish
Marshallese takneedlefish
Pohnpeian dahkneedlefish
Puluwat taakneedlefish
Fijian sakua swordfish, Makaira spp, of the following kinds: saku-voro-waŋga, a large kind that can sink canoes; saku-laya, the sawfish proper; saku-lele, a small kind
Tongan hakukind of fish, a young hakulā
Hawaiian aɁuswordfish, sailfish, marlin, spearfish (Istiophoridae)


PMP     *saku-layaR sailfish, swordfish

Palauan təkrársailfish
Fordata sulaarwhale, the fins of which project above the water when it swims on the surface (clearly misidentified, since whales have no dorsal fin; cf. Fordata laar ‘sail’)
Yapese thoglaarswordfish
Wogeo sak baremasailfish
Pohnpeian dekilahrswordfish, sailfish, blue marlin
Mokilese daklarswordfish
Puluwat taakneedlefish
  taakúlaar'sailfish, swordfish
Sonsorol-Tobi tagilalswordfish
Fijian sakusword-fish, Makaira spp.
  saku-layathe saw-fish proper
Tongan hakukind of fish, a young hakulā
Niue hakuswordfish
  haku lātrue swordfish (compare haku piu 'sailfish')
Samoan saʔu, saʔulāname given to sword-fish and saw-fish
Hawaiian aʔuswordfish, sailfish, marlin, spearfish

Note:   Also Chamorro sao-araɁ ‘type of fish --- Istiophorus genus; sailfish, swordfish’. Although direct evidence for the base form is lacking to date, it seems clear that PMP must have had *saku in addition to *saku layaR. *saku may have referred to needlefish, swordfish and other fish with an elongated upper jaw that lack the sail-like dorsal fin of Istiophorus species. The longer word almost certainly contains PMP *layaR (Tongan, Niue, Samoan ) ‘sail’. Some languages, however, have replaced either the second element of *saku layaR or the word for ‘sail’ (or both) with an unrelated root: Wogeo sak barema (compare ieba ‘sail’), Mokilese i, Puluwat maaŋ, Pohnpeian serek ‘sail’.

Other languages have what appears to be a reflex of *layaR in both words, but the phonological development of this morpheme in the fish name exhibits irregularities: compare Palauan yars, Yapese laay, Fijian laca ‘sail’. Still others, such as Niue, contain a regular reflex of *layaR in both meanings, but do not appear to relate them synchronically. Loniu, Titan, Nauna colay ‘sailfish, swordfish, marlin’ (but Loniu peley, Titan paley, Nauna pale ‘sail’) possibly show an irregular contraction of the first morpheme. Together with Malay ikan selayar ‘sailfish; name given to fish with large dorsal fins, esp. the sword-fish, sun-fish, and basking shark’, however, these forms from the Admiralty Islands may point to a doublet *selayaR.


*saku₃ kind of banana


POC     *saku₃ kind of banana

Motu daukind of banana (very long)
Tape ni-saɣbanana
Paamese sou-soukind of banana
  sau-saukind of banana (southern dialect)

Note:   Ross (2008:278) has proposed POc *sakup ‘banana cultivar with long fruit’ (?), but most of the data given as support for this form is irregular, and I have selected only those forms that appear to be free of problems as the basis for this comparison.


*sakúb lid, cover


PPh     *sakúb lid, cover

Ilokano sakkúbkind of basket put over the mother hen to keep her in place, with small openings for the chicks to run in and out
Pangasinan sakóbcover, lid; to cover
Bikol mag-sakóbto place a layer of iron over steel in the working of a knife or bolo; to cover with a layer of iron
Mansaka sakobcover (as of a kettle)
  saŋkobto put on or cover with

Note:   With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁ resounding sound


PWMP     *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁ resounding sound

Tiruray saŋkuŋan echo
Ngaju Dayak sakuŋ-koŋroar (of tigers, etc.)
Malagasy sahonafrog (generic)

Note:   With root *-kuŋ₂ ‘deep resounding sound’. For a semantic parallel to Malagasy sahona in a non-cognate word with the same root (cf. Javanese baŋkoŋ ‘large old frog’).


*sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂ curved inward, sunken


PWMP     *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂ curved inward, sunken

Cebuano sakúŋbent downward more than it should be (as a spring pole used with noose traps)
Mansaka saŋkoŋcurved (as a bow or bolo)
Iban sakoŋsunken (of cheeks), hollow and drawn looking

Note:   With root *-kuŋ ‘bend, curve’. Possibly a product of convergence.


*sakup₁ to catch


PMP     *sakup₁ to catch

Cebuano sakúpto catch, capture (as a runaway pig; someone who is cheating); come upon someone doing something
Nggela sakuto catch, as a young animal as a pet; to catch a person out in a fault
Mota sakto catch, hang on a line
  sak kaloto catch a thing, under it, as it falls; hang up on a line

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’, apparently a variant of *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.


*sakup₂ jurisdiction, territory


PPh     *sakup₂ jurisdiction, territory

Ilokano sákupjurisdiction; territory; sphere of authority
  sakup-ento include, contain, comprise; invade, take over
Tagalog sákopsubject; a person who is under the power, control or influence of another; vassal
  sakópsubject; under some power, influence or jurisdiction
  s<um>ákopto occupy; to take possession of, e.g. by an enemy; to seize, to capture
Maranao sakopfollower, serf
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sakupfollower; subject; pay someone’s expenses

Note:   Also Tiruray sakuf ‘the extent, geographical or social, of a leader’s following, jurisdiction, authority’, Tboli sakuf ‘to include, to take in a whole area, as being under one’s jurisdiction’ (loan from a Danaw, Manobo or Greater Central Philippine language).


(Formosan only)

*sakut to carry, transport, move something


PAN     *sakut to carry, transport, move something     [disjunct: *SakuC]

Kavalan saqutto move something, to carry, to transport (anything)
  ti-saqutto carry with or by
  saqut-icarry it!
Atayal hakutcarry, bring


PAN     *s<um>akut to carry, transport, move something

Kavalan s<m>aqutto move something, to carry, to transport (anything)
Atayal h<m>akutto carry, bring

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Wat) sakud ‘to carry something piecemeal (in several trips)’.


*sakwa grasshopper or stick insect


POC     *sakwa grasshopper or stick insect

Kara (East) saɣwagrasshopper
Gedaged sok ~ soksokstick insect, Phasmatidae
Takia soklarge insect, prickly, with six legs, eaten
Molima saga-sagagreen mantis (eaten)

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:396), who also included Carolinian tāxa ‘grasshopper’. However, vowel length is the Carolinian word is unexplained, and cognates are unknown in any other Micronesian language, suggesting that the similarity of tāxa to the other forms cited here is a product of chance. In addition, the vowel correspondences between Gedaged-Takia on the one hand, and Molima and Kara on the other are irregular, and are accepted here only on the assumption that penultimate *a was rounded in the two closely related north coast New Guinea languages by the rounding of the following labiovelar stop.


*sala sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin


PEMP     *sala sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin

Numfor sārsharp
Molima sa-salafishhook
Nggela halaan echinus, sea-egg
Tongan talathorn, prickle, spike, barb or bristle
Niue talaa barb, prong
Futunan talaspine, horn, dorsal fin
Tuvaluan talafin, thorn; glans of penis
  tala-talarough surfaced
Nukuoro dalafin, spine (extending from a fish, etc.)
Anuta tarabarb (of a spear, fishhook, etc.)
Rarotongan tarasomething that is sharp-pointed, such as a thorn, spike, or the points of horns, a barb of any kind; bristling, etc.
Hawaiian kalasurgeonfish; rough, as sharkskin

Note:   With the ‘third palatal reflex’ in Proto-Polynesian.


*saladeŋ male deer, buck (?)


PMP     *saladeŋ male deer, buck (?)

Maranao saladeŋdeer
Binukid salareŋdeer
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) selazeŋmale deer
Tiruray seladeŋa deer: Cervus francianus Heude, Cervus nigellus Hollister
Tboli sledeŋspotted sambar deer: Cervus alfredi
Malay seladaŋgaur, wild ox: Bos gaurus; tapir (in Sumatra)

Note:   Also Proto-Rukai *salaoŋanə ‘male deer, buck’.


*salakeb cover trap for fish or crustaceans


PPh     *salakeb cover trap for fish or crustaceans

Itbayaten saxakeba net to catch shrimps, etc.
Ilokano salakébbamboo fish trap
Kapampangan salakába fish-trap, carried in the hand and plunged into a shallow stream on top of a fish; when thus corraled the fish is removed by hand through a hole in the top
Tagalog salakábfishtrap shaped like a basket and made wider at the bottom than at the top (usually used for catching mudfish)
Bikol salakábsmall fish trap used in the rice fields

Note:   Also Malay sərkap ‘a conical trap or coop that is thrust down suddenly over fish in shallow water’. The Tagalog form is irregular (expected **salakíb), and probably is a loanword from Kapampangan. With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*salaksak kingfisher sp.


PWMP     *salaksak kingfisher sp.

Ilokano salaksákkind of kingfisher with blue and black plumage, larger than the bíding, named for its sound, which is thought to bring about bad luck
  ag-salaksákto cry (said of the kingfisher)
Kankanaey salaksáka variety of very dark-colored Italian millet, and a kind of middle-sized black gusí (jar used mostly for storing rice wine)
Ifugaw halakháka kind of kingfisher with dark brown plumage, medium size; in hudhúd chant the word is used in the sense of a dark brown jar (not necessarily used for rice wine), which has a special cover resembling the crest of a kingfisher
Ibaloy salaksakkind of bird: common kingfisher
Pangasinan saláksaka bird with red breast and green feathers, sometimes considered a bird of ill omen
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) selaksaka kingfisher which nests in holes in trees
Tombonuwo solasakkind of kingfisher

Note:   Also Bontok alakʔak ‘river kingfisher’. Despite its radical semantic divergence, the cognation of the Kankanaey form seems likely in light of the Ifugaw usage in hudhúd literature (traditional stories chanted by women working in the rice fields, especially during the harvest).


*salambaw kind of large fishing net


PWMP     *salambaw kind of large fishing net

Ilokano salambáwkind of large fishing net
Pangasinan salambáwa specially constructed large fishing net
Tagalog salambáwfishing net supported by bamboo crosspieces, and mounted on a raft
Iban səlambawlarge triangular fishing net set between stakes or, in tidal streams, anchored boats
Malay səlambawa Borneo form of net fishing

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution through contact with Brunei Malays, although its apparent absence in the southern Philippines makes this less likely.


*salampay hang or drape over the shoulder or from a line


PWMP     *salampay hang of drape over the shoulder

Ilokano i-salapáyto hang (to dry); wear a shawl over shoulders
Tagalog salampáyneckerchief; muffler; light scarf worn round the neck
Ngaju Dayak salampaycloth that is worn around the neck or hanging from the shoulder
  (ma)-ñalampayhang over the shoulder (a cloth or something else)
Iban selampaywoman’s embroidered scarf for ceremonial, worn round throat with ends hanging behind
Malay səlampaywearing so that it dangles, esp. of wearing the ceremonial shoulder cloth so that it hangs down on either side of the shoulder; also of any cloth or towel slung loosely over the shoulder

Note:   It is tempting to consider this an infixed form of *sampay ‘drape over the shoulder or from a line’, but there is no clear morphological relationship between the two forms in terms of a productive infix *-al-.


*salaŋ spiny sea urchin


POC     *salaŋ spiny sea urchin

Nauna calsea urchin
Pak talsea urchin
Loniu cansea urchin
Leipon calsea urchin
Mussau raraŋakind of sea urchin
Manam salasea urchin
Halia salnasea urchin with long thin black spines
Selau sannasea urchin with long thin black spines
Nggela halaan echinus, sea-egg
Tongan talathorn, prickle, spike, barb, or bristle
Niue talaa barb, prong
Futunan talaspine, horn, dorsal fin
Samoan talaspike, prong; barb (as of a stingray); spine, prickle (as of a fishes fins); spur (of a cock); thorn
Tuvaluan talafin; thorn; glans of penis
  tala-talarough surfaced
Nukuoro dalaappendage, fin, spine (extending from a fish, etc.)
Anuta tarabarb (of a spear, fishhook, etc.)
Rarotongan tarasomething that is sharp-pointed, such as a thorn, spike, the point or points of horns, a barb of any kind; bristling, etc.
  tara-tararough, prickly, thorny, serrated
Maori tarapoint, spike, as a thorn, tooth of a comb, spine in the dorsal fin of a fish or in the tail of a stingray, spear, etc.; peak of a mountain; horn of the moon; rays of the sun; membrum virile, papillae on the skin; skewer of greenstone
Hawaiian kalascrewdriver; surgeonfish; rough, as sharkskin

Note:   Also Numfor sār ‘sharp’, Ahus car, Likum sah ‘sea urchin’, Mota sar ‘an echinus, or cidaris, blue, with needle-spines’.


*salap broom, to sweep


POC     *salap broom, to sweep

Misima halasweep
Lau ta-talabroom made from midribs of sago palm
'Āre'āre tā-tarasweep the house
Sa'a talasweep the house with a bunch of leaves or grasses
Arosi tararake, sweep, gather; a broom


POC     *salap-i broom, to sweep

Yabem salepbroom, originally the fruit stem of the nipa
Lau talaf-isweep (s.t.)
Arosi ta-tarahisweep (s.t.)

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Ross (2008:244), who also included the more questionable Gedaged sala-i ‘the inflorescence of the coconut palm, including the fruit’.


*salapa betel nut case


PWMP     *salapa betel nut case     [disjunct: *calapaʔ]

Maranao salapabetel nut case
Malay (Sumatra) selapaoblong betel box
Iban selapaʔbrass betel box


*salapid braid


PWMP     *salapid braid

Itawis mat-talapídto weave (mat, rope, etc.), to braid (hair)
Aklanon saeápidto braid, entwine
  mag-salápidto plait, to braid, to twist (hair, etc.)
Hiligaynon salápidbraid
Cebuano salápidbraid, plait; walk crossing the feet over each other; be inarticulate in speech
Binukid salapidbraid, plait; to braid, plait something (as hair)
Mansaka sarapidto braid, to twist together (as abaca fibers)
Malay səlampitbraid; flat plait; plaiting; passing a tape-like body between two others, by which it is pressed; passing a loincloth between the lower limbs
Sangir salapidəɁbraid of hair or of lontar leaves used as decoration on hats

Note:   Also Cebuano sulápid ‘braid, plait; walk crossing the feet over each other; be inarticulate in speech’. With root *-pid ‘brait, wind together’.


*salaq₁ wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault


PMP     *salaq₁ wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault

Yami salaget off the course, deviate
Itbayaten salafaulty; defect; misdemeanor, misbehavior, deviation, violation, error
Kapampangan salaʔerror, fault, mistake; sin
Bikol sálaʔan error, fault, mistake; a flaw, blunder
  mag-ka-sálaʔto sin
  pag-ka-saʔl-án <Mfailure, mistake
Romblomanon saláʔa mistake, wrongdoing; be mistaken or wrong in an action, a situation
Masbatenyo saláʔerror, mistake, transgression, sin, fault, crime
  maka-saláʔsin, make a mistake, transgress, disobey, violate
Aklanon saeáʔsin, error, mistake, wrongdoing; to err, make a mistake, do wrong
Waray-Waray saláʔsin; original sin; fault; mistake
  salá-ato blame, find fault with
  sala-áto commit mistakes
Agutaynen talaksin; fault; wrong; crime; guilt, guilty
Hiligaynon saláʔmistake, crime, sin, error
Cebuano sálaʔsin, fault; commit a sin
Maranao salaʔcrime, mistake, fault, sin
Binukid saláʔsin, wrongdoing, misdeed; fault; offense, crime; to commit a sin, fault, crime, etc.; to err, to sin against; to wrong (someone)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) salaʔsin, fault, wrong
Mansaka sáraʔmake a mistake; be out of order; sin, fault
Tiruray salaʔguilt, the responsibility for someone’s offended feelings
Yakan salaʔa mistake, a wrong, a fault; for something to be wrong, be at fault, faulty
Tboli salaʔmistake, error; sin; missing the mark, as an arrow
Tausug sāʔmistake, fault, error, flaw
Kadazan Dusun hasaʔ <Mmistake, error, fault, blunder, crime
Tombonuwo salaʔsin
Ida'an Begak salaʔmistake; mistaken
Lun Dayeh alaʔa miss (in shooting)
Kenyah salaʔwrong
  pe-ñalaʔa mistake
Murik salaʔwrong, in error
Kayan salasin; wrong; wrongly
Kayan (Long Atip) salawrong, in error
Melanau (Mukah) salaʔwrong, in error
Ngaju Dayak salawrong, incorrect, in error, mistaken
  ba-salaguilty, be at fault
  sala baraexcept, outside of
Iban salahwrong, bad; be wrong, find guilty; shoot and miss (a target)
Malay salahat fault; amiss, of anything going wrong or being out of place, as a strained sinew, a false step, a misunderstanding, a thing being ill-timed, a word giving offense that is not intended
Acehnese salahmistake, error, fault; offense
Simalur salafault, error, mistake; offense
Karo Batak salahfault, error, mistake; transgression; guilt
Toba Batak salafault, error, mistake; defect; sin
Nias salablemish, defect; fault, error; make a mistake
Rejang saleaʔincorrect, mistaken, wrong
  saleaʔ kembuʔindigestion (kembuʔ = ‘eat’)
Lampung salahwrong
Sundanese salahmistake, error, fault; guilt
  pa-salah-an jalantake the wrong way
Old Javanese salahchanging into something different, deviating from what is right (normal, intended, expected, etc.); wrong, at fault, mistaken, missing (the target); missed, not attained; escaped from
  salah alaptaking the wrong one
  salah bhāsausing the wrong words or speech
  salah gawechanging one’s work, doing something different
  salah huluupside down, reversed
Javanese salahmake a mistake, do something wrong; one (of them)
Balinese salahfault, guilt, wrong-doing, misdeed (the wrong is not moral, but is an offense to normal standards, hence salah pati ‘do wrong in dying’ = ‘die in an abnormal way, as by being executed
Sasak salaʔwrong, erroneous (of an act)
Sangir saḷamistake, error, fault; flaw, failing; mistake for which a fine must be paid; punishment that one must undergo; sin
Tontemboan salaʔfine that one pays to compensate for a misdeed
Mongondow taḷaʔmistake, error, fault, guilt; difference, distinction; fine, penalty
  moko-taḷaʔable to make a distinction (as in a dispute)
Balantak salaʔwrong
Banggai salawrong; mistake, error, fault
  poo-sa-saladifferent, various
Bare'e salamistake, error, fault
  sala-pajust, only
Tae' salamistake, error, fault; flaw, failing; transgression, offense; inaccurate, wrong; guilty
  salaʔintensive form of sala
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *halaqfault, debt
Proto-South Sulawesi *salawrong; lack; fault
Mandar salaerror, mistake
  si-saladifference; what is different
Buginese salaalmost; mistake, error
Makassarese saladeviating from what it should be: mistake, error, fault; guilty, and because of it needing to pay a fine; something resembling a thing that it really is not; not true, pseudo; accidental; useless, in vain; preliminary, not definitive; fine, penalty (for offense)
Wolio salafault, error, sin, condemnation; wrong, at fault, guilty, mistaken; miss (e.g. the right way), fail to find
Muna salalest, so that not, or else, let us hope not
Chamorro salaʔlate, far gone, incurable (as a disease that has gone too far to cure)
Bimanese salaerror, mistake
Kambera halaincorrect, mistaken; fault, mistake
  tíbu halafalse sugarcane (resembles it, but is different)
  ana ndua halafalse twins (of opposite sex)
Hawu halamistake, error, fault
Rotinese sala(k)wrong, in error, mistaken, miss (a target, as in shooting); to differ, vary; fault, error, guilt
Tetun salato err, to make a mistake, to be wrong, to be in error, to sin; error, mistake, sin, crime, blame; wrongly, erroneously, etc.
  sala maluto disagree with each other
Tetun (Dili) salawrong, in error
Kisar halawrong, fault; sin, crime
Leti salafault, guilt, sin
Selaru salmistake, fault; guilt
Yamdena saleguilt, fault; mistaken, in error; guilty
  n-sallose one’s way
Fordata salaguilt, fault; mistaken, in error; sin
Watubela halakwrong
Alune salafault; mistake
Asilulu salaerror; be wrong
  sala-sala-nunclear (of vision)
Buruese salawrong; guilty
Kowiai/Koiwai salamistake
Buli sālfault, error, mistake
Mayá ꞌsa³lerror
Numfor sārleft side
  sa-sarerror, mistake; sin
Kwaio talato fail, miss (as a magic spell)
Lau talato miss a mark, fail; amiss, wrongly
  fana talashoot and miss
  tala alaŋiato call (someone) by mistake
  tala fītōdistrust
Toqabaqita talamiss (a target); miss one’s footing, miss one’s hold; (of a limb) be dislocated
'Āre'āre tarato fail, miss
Sa'a talato miss, to fail
  däu talato aim and miss
Arosi tarato do without sufficient cause or reason; to do badly, carelessly, foolishly
Sikaiana salamistake
Rotuman sarato fail to hit its mark, to miss; to fail to attain one’s object; to make a mistake, to err, to do wrong; to slip out of position, or out of joint (as one’s shoulder)
Wayan calabe wrong, incorrect; make a mistake or error; wrongly, mistakenly, in error; miss a target, go astray; do wrong, transgress; wrongdoing, sin, transgression of moral principle
Fijian calato err, be in error, to miss a mark; as adjective erroneous, or adverb immediately after the verb, erroneously, by mistake
Tongan halato err, to be wrong or erroneous, to make an error, go wrong, be at fault; to fail or be unsuccessful; to be without, to have none; to ‘miss out on’, not to get any of; to be missing, not there or not in existence
Niue halasin, wrong; sinful; to sin
Futunan salabe at fault, faulty; be excessive; fault, error; in error
Samoan salamake a mistake; (of tongue) slip; offense, fault; be punished, fined
Tuvaluan halaworthy of punishment; wrong; be punished; punishment
Kapingamarangi halawrong; crime; blame; guilt, fault
Nukuoro salamistake, error, accident
  made salamistaken (in identifying); mistake someone for another
Rennellese sagato be mistaken, incorrect; to err
Rarotongan arasin, wilful violation of law, neglect of duty or the laws of morality and religion; wickedness, iniquity, offense, crime, fault; to commit sin; to do wrong; to offend or commit a crime; to be at fault, to commit an offense
Hawaiian halaerror, fault, mistake; sin


PWMP     *ka-salaq have faults, be at fault (?)

Aklanon ka-saeáʔto sin (morally), do evil
Kadazan Dusun ka-hasaʔcan be wrong, mistaken
Ngaju Dayak ka-salafault, error, mistake; sin
Old Javanese ka-salahfault, mistake
Mongondow ko-taḷaʔhave faults


PWMP     *ma-ñalaq accuse someone, find fault with someone (?)

Ida'an Begak mə-nalaʔto forbid
Ngaju Dayak ma-ñalaʔaccuse someone
Toba Batak ma-nala-honaccuse someone, find fault with
Balinese ñalahdo wrong, commit a fault, be guilty; sin

Note:   Also Malagasy nala ‘a moral defect, a vice’.


PPh     *mapa-salaq (gloss uncertain)

Yami mapá-salacause to deviate, cause to get off the course
Sangir mapa-ka-saḷato condemn, put in the wrong
Mongondow mopo-taḷaʔto accuse


PWMP     *maR-salaq make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something

Itbayaten mi-salato fail
Bikol mag-sálaʔto admonish, censure, reprimand, reprove, rebuke
Hanunóo saláʔmistake, error
Hiligaynon mag-saláʔto make a mistake, commit an error
Tausug mag-sāʔto commit a mistake, error or fault, have a flaw; err, miss the mark, be wrong
Acehnese meu-salahsprained (as an ankle)
Toba Batak mar-salacommit an error, make a mistake; be faulty, defective

Note:   Also Mapun mag-sāʔ ‘make a mistake; to err; to be wrong’, Yakan mag-salaʔ ‘for something to be wrong; esp. sprained, dislocated (it is used mostly of the body)’, with an affix borrowed from some Greater Central Philippines source.


PWMP     *ma-salaq (gloss uncertain)

Tausug ma-sāʔcommit a mistake; to suffer dislocation (of a nerve or bone), sprain oneself
Banggai ma-salacommit adultery
Bare'e ma-salaguilty; be in the wrong


PMP     *pa(ka)-salaq to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish

Cebuano paka-sadʔ-unimpute a fault on someone
Kadazan Dusun paka-hasaʔto say that someone is wrong, to blame
Kayan pe-salato accuse someone; to assert strong disagreement
Nias fa-salabe blemished, defective, erroneous; commit an error
Sasak pə-salaʔto condemn, sentence
Bare'e pa-salaa magical formula that the bearer protects in order to keep evil away
Kambera pa-halapayment made for a transgression
Buli fa-sālaccuse, declare guilty; punish
Numfor fa-sárpunish, condemn
Kwaio faʔa-talamagic to clear or ward off taboos, to clear the effects of a ritual prohibition
Wayan vaka-calacause something to go wrong, lead someone astray, put someone off (target, concentration); disagree with someone
Fijian vaka-calato cause to err
  vaka-cala-kado a thing by mistake
Tongan faka-halato cause to err, to mislead, delude, cause to go wrong or make a mistake; causing to err, misleading, delusive
Niue faka-halafine, punishment, penalty; to condemn, convict, punish, sentence
Samoan faʔa-salapunish, fine; condemn, sentence
  faʔa-sala-ŋapunishment, sentence
Tuvaluan faka-halato punish
  faka-hala-halabe repeatedly disobedient; do things wrong to amuse others
Rennellese haka-sagato complain, as of stinginess


PWMP     *ka-salaq-an error, mistake; fault, offense

Bikol ka-saʔl-án <Msin; fault; guilt, offense
Romblomanon ka-salʔā-nana grievance against someone
Masbatenyo ka-sál-ansins, transgressions, sinfulness
Aklanon ka-saeʔ-án-ansinfulness; sins
Mapun ka-sa-ana fault in doing something
Tausug ka-sā-ana fine for touching an unmarried girl
Kadazan Dusun ka-hasa-an(act of making a) mistake; (act of committing a) sin
Bahasa Indonesia ke-salah-anmistake, error; fault, offense
Toba Batak ha-sala-sala-ana fine with which one makes amends for wrongdoing
Sundanese ka-salah-anfall into error, be mistaken in; error, mistake
Old Javanese ka-salah-anto do wrong to; to deviate, go away from, avoid, refuse
Javanese ka-salah-anmistake; guilt; blame

Note:   Also Karo Batak ke-salah-en ‘guilty’.


PWMP     *pa-salaq-en (gloss uncertain)

Yami pa-sala-encause to deviate (as in mispronouncing words)
Kadazan Dusun pa-hasa-onto be blamed


PWMP     *s<in>alaq missed (as a target); blamed

Lun Dayeh n-alaʔmissed (as a shot)
Old Javanese s<in>alahto blame, disapprove


PWMP     *s<um>alaq do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target

Itbayaten s<om>alato fail; to go off the course
Hanunóo s<um>aláʔto err, be wrong, make a mistake
Mapun s<um>āʔto make a mistake; to err; to be wrong; to commit a wrongdoing
Tausug s<um>āʔto commit a mistake, error or fault, have a flaw; err, miss the mark, be wrong
Kadazan Dusun h<um>asaʔto make a mistake; to break the law
Lun Dayeh m-alaʔmiss the target


PWMP     *salaq-an to blame, assign fault to (?)

Cebuano sadʔ-anguilty, be found guilty
Maranao salaʔ-anto fine
Yakan salaʔ-anto worsen something, corrupt something, make something deteriorate
Sasak salaʔ-aŋto blame


PMP     *salaq salaq (gloss uncertain)

Malagasy sala-salamiddling, tolerable; doubtful, hesitating
  mi-sala-salato be in doubt, to hesitate
Rotinese sala sala faik esaon one day or another

Note:   Also Kapampangan sala ‘error, fault, mistake; sin’, Tagalog sála, ka-salá-nan ‘error, mistake; blame, fault; sin, transgression; offense; crime’, Bintulu saləʔ ‘wrong, in error, mistaken’. The reduplication in Malagasy sala-sala and Rotinese sala sala faik esa may well be a product of convergent innovation.


*salaq₂ dislocated, of bones


PWMP     *salaq₂ dislocated, of bones

Tagalog saláɁbroken or dislocated (referring to bones)
Iban pe-salah(of joint or muscle) sprained, twisted
Sundanese salahto dislocate (bones)
Javanese salah uratto have a sprained muscle

Note:   Possibly identical to PMP *salaq ‘wrong, in error’ through a two-word expression such as Javanese salah urat.


*salaR nest


PMP     *salaR nest

Sambal (Tina) haláynest
Ayta Maganchi halaybird’s nest
Cebuano sálagnest
Maranao salagnest
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) salagnest of a bird or rat
Tiruray salagnest
Tboli salanest
Kelabit ararnest
Kayan halaha pig’s shelter; a bird’s nest; honeycomb; the placenta
Wahau slæhnest, lair
Gaai slae̯hnest, lair
Kelai slæhnest, lair
Mei Lan Modang sələa̯hnest, lair
Woq Helaq Modang sələa̯ʔnest, lair
Long Gelat Modang səlehnest, lair
Atoni sananest

Note:   Posited by Dempwolff (1924-1925), but with little supporting evidence. For *-R > Tboli Ø, cp. *saŋelaR > s-ʌm-la ‘to fry’.


*salatan south, south wind


PWMP     *salatan south, south wind     [disjunct: *silatan]

Casiguran Dumagat salátangentle south wind (always comes with good weather)
Tagalog salátansouthwest; southwest wind (opposite of amihan, northeast wind)
Bikol salátana wind which blows from different directions
Hanunóo salátansouthwest monsoon, southwest
Agutaynen talatansoutheast direction, wind
Cebuano salátanstrong wind coming from the south during storms
Maranao salatanwind, breeze
Iban aŋin selatanhot south wind of the burning-off season
Malay selatansouth; explained as "the direction in which the straits lie"
Mongondow tolatansouth, south wind
Mandar salataŋsouth, south wind
Makassarese sallataŋland wind

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *salat-an ‘wind: south’. This comparison casts doubt on the traditional interpretation of Malay selatan as selat (‘straits’ = ‘the Straits of Malacca’) plus a suffix of location (Kern 1889).


(Formosan only)

*salaw to pour, of heavy rain


PAN     *salaw to pour, of heavy rain

Thao mun-tarawto pour, of heavy rain; to rain ‘cats and dogs’
  un-taraw-inbe caught in a downpour
Paiwan talawfalling water
  ki-pa-talawto sit under falling water
  pa-talawput out a container in order to catch falling water
  t<m>alawto catch falling water in a container
  t<in>alawwater which has fallen


*salay to dessicate, parch near a fire


PWMP     *salay to dessicate, parch near a fire

Malagasy sália spit, a toasting fork
  vua-sáliroasted by the use of a fork
Iban salayto dry or smoke over a low fire, esp. fish
Malay salayslow roasting; heating; grilling, of the medicinal “roasting” near a very slow fire to which a Malay woman is subjected after her confinement; of plaintains parched over a fire; and generally of processes where prolonged exposure to heat (not extreme heat) are required
  salay-anthe rack nearest the kitchen fire; the lower rack
Acehnese salɛsmoke something over a fire; to roast; suspend something in the smoke in order to dry in out
Gayō salédry something (as fish) over a fire
Karo Batak salédried out, smoked, of meat or fish
  nalédry meat on a spit over the fire
Toba Batak ma-naleto dry something by a fire; to smoke; to expose wood to fire to make it lighter to carry
Sundanese salédried fruits (such as bananas)
  ñaléto dry fruits
Javanese salésun-dried banana slices


PWMP     *salay-an place to dry wood

Malagasy saláz-anaa gridiron
Toba Batak sale-ana shelf placed over the hearth and used to dry wood quickly

Note:   Although its distribution is relatively limited, this form does not appear to be a loanword, and it is found in languages that are not closely related.


*sale sale float


POC     *sale sale float

Gedaged sale-salebobbing, swaying, teetering, moving up and down (as a long pole carried on the shoulder)
Arosi tarefloat; flow; dribble
Mota salefloat, drift, soar with open wings; flow, run with water
Tambotalo sal-salefloat
Tangoa salefloat
Vinmavis sal-salfloat
Nakanamanga sa-salefloat

Note:   Also Gedaged sale-sala ‘bobbing, swaying, teetering’, Roviana ale ‘to float’, patu ale ‘pumice’.


*salem dive; immerse oneself


PWMP     *salem dive; immerse oneself     [disjunct: *selem]

Hanunóo salúmdiving, swimming under water; immersion
Cebuano sálumswim under water; for the sun to set (literary)
Iban salamconceal a fact, keep quiet about
Minangkabau salamimmersing oneself in water; diving
Mongondow talomsink


*saleŋ pine tree, pitch pine


PAN     *saleŋ pine tree, pitch pine

Saisiyat (Taai) hæLəŋpine tree
Atayal hayuŋpine tree
Amis caleŋpine tree or wood
Thao tarinpine tree, traditionally an important source of firewood
Bunun saaŋpine tree; torch
Tsou sroŋəpine tree
Kanakanabu aɭə́ŋəpine tree
Saaroa alhəŋəpine tree
Rukai (Maga) srə́ŋəpine tree
Rukai (Mantauran) aɭəŋəpine tree
Paiwan taleŋpine tree, evergreen (generic); Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana
Ilokano sáleŋPinus insularis pine, pitch pine, timber of this pine
  salŋ-ento cut into firewood
Ibanag saleŋa pine: Agathis philippinensis Warb. Araucariaceae (Madulid 2001)
Agta (Dupaningan) salaŋdammar pine tree; its raw wood is waxy, as is burned as candles, Agathis philippinensis
Isneg tálaŋthe pine tree, Pinus insularis Endl.; pitch pine; soot obtained by burning it is smeared on the part of the body that has to be tattooed
Bontok sáləŋresinous pine; pitch pine
Kankanaey sáleŋresinous pine; pitch pine
Ifugaw háloŋresin of pine trees; the word may be used in the sense of pine tree, though the exact term is bolból; splinter of a pine tree containing resin, used as a torch
Ifugaw (Batad) hāloŋpitch pine root of a pine tree, bolbol, heavily saturated with pine resin; a pitch-pine torch
  ma-nāloŋfor someone to gather pitch-pine root
Casiguran Dumagat saləŋthe almaciga tree and its sap, Agathis philippinensis (a pine tree used locally for incense burning, torches, starting fires, caulking boats, and especially as lamps in the houses)
  ma-naləŋto gather almaciga sap
Ibaloy saleŋthe highly resinous heartwood of old or prematurely injured trees, pitch pine (valued as kindling, torches, house posts, fence posts)
Tagalog sáhiŋa species of tree also known as pilì (almond nut); a white, sticky resin or pitch obtained from this tree
Bikol sáloŋresin
  mag-sáloŋto fasten or seal with resin
  maŋ-sáloŋto collect resin from trees of the forest
Hanunóo sáluŋpitch, resin, used for lighting
Masbatenyo sáloŋresin
Aklanon sáeoŋsap of tree
Cebuano sáluŋdammar resin in a soft state or as an ingredient of the balaw (resinous preparation used to caulk and waterproof a boat) used to caulk boats, esp. from the almasíga tree
Mansaka saruŋpitch, used for torch fishing at night (pitch from an almasiga tree is very combustible)
Kadazan Dusun hasoŋ <Mdammar, resinous pitch
Tombonuwo saloŋresin, incense
Malay (Brunei) salaŋdammar (resinous pitch used for torches)
Mongondow taḷoŋa resinous tree: Dammara Celebica; resin from this tree

Note:   Most of this comparison was first pointed out by Tsuchida (1976:127). PAn *saleŋ evidently referred to the pitch pine, a tree valued for its combustible resin, which served as a ready source of material for torches. The importance of this feature of the tree is seen in several languages of the central and southern Philippines, and in northern Borneo, where reflexes of *saleŋ refer to the pitch rather than to the tree from which it is derived.


*sal(e)qit lightning


PWMP     *sal(e)qit lightning

Isneg salʔítlightning (a term that is sometimes used as a curse)
Berawan (Long Terawan) salaiʔlightning

Note:   Also ITNE silʔit ‘lightning’.


*saleR floor of a house


PMP     *saleR floor of a house

Tagalog sahígfloor
  sahig-ánto floor, put a floor on or in
  sahig-ínflooring material ready for use
Bikol salógfloor
  mag-salógto construct a floor for a house
  salog-ánto construct a floor for a house
Hanunóo salúgflooring, floor
Masbatenyo salógfloor
  mag-salógto lay flooring
  salúg-onlumber for flooring
Aklanon saeógsplit bamboo stick (used for flooring); floor
  pa-naeóg-ansupport or brace for bamboo flooring
Hiligaynon salúgfloor
Cebuano salúgfloor; storey; put, construct a floor
  pa-nalg-án-anstorey of a house; floor joist; floor clearance from the ground
Mamanwa salɨgfloor
Ngaju Dayak laseh <Mfloor (in a house, boat, etc.)
  ma-lasehput down a floor, install a floor
Proto-Sangiric *saliRfloor
Sangir ən-saliʔfloor of (bamboo) laths, housefloor
Bantik sáhihiʔfloor
Tontemboan saleʔfloor
Mongondow taḷogfloor
  taḷog-anprovide with a floor or foundation
Totoli salafloor
Tae' salifloor of a house
Bimanese sarifloor (of bamboo)


PWMP     *saleR-i make a floor, install a floor

Waray-Waray salog-íto make or construct a floor
Chamorro satg-einstall a floor; floor, platform

Note:   Also Binukid saeg ‘floor’, ag-saeg-an ‘to put a floor, lay flooring in a structure’, Although Chamorro satg-e clearly reflects *saleR-i ‘install a floor’, the expected **salok < *saleR is unattested in extant sources. It is a curious feature of this comparison that relatively few reflexes are found, and many of them have some type of irregularity (*l > h, which is recurrent, but rare in Tagalog, metathesis in Ngaju Dayak, fossilized suffix in Chamorro, sporadic loss of *l in Binukid. To these we might even add Mansaka lagus ‘floor; to make a floor’, but only on the improbable supposition that the original consonant order 123 has become 231 through a double metathesis (pre-Mansaka *salug > lasug > lagus).


*salét to insert between, intersperse


PPh     *salét to insert between, intersperse

Itbayaten saxetwedge
Pangasinan salétto put between
Tagalog salítinterspersing; alternately putting something in betwee; alternating
  ka-salítreferring to a person or thing placed alternately with another


PPh     *i-salét to insert between, intersperse

Itbayaten i-saxetto wedge in
Tagalog i-salítto intersperse


PPh     *saletán to insert between, intersperse

Itbayaten saxt-anto place a wedge, put a wedge (in)
Tagalog salitánto intersperse
  ma-salitánto be interspersed


PPh     *salét-salét alternate, interspersed

Pangasinan salét-salétto intersperse
Tagalog salít-salítalternate, interspersed

Note:   With root *-let ‘intervene, intersperse’.


*sale(n)tek clicking sound


PWMP     *sale(n)tek clicking sound

Ilokano saltékthe common house lizard; its cry is supposed to announce the arrival of visitors
Kayan seletekmake a click with the tongue
Ngaju Dayak salentaka click of the tongue

Note:   With root *-tek₁ ‘clicking or light knocking sound’.


*sali strip leaves from branch


POC     *sali strip leaves from branch

Arop salistrip leaves from branch or palm frond
Nggela salito tear downwards
Lau talito cut undergrowth, clear a garden, especially for taro
Toqabaqita tali-aclear the ground (cutting down the bush, etc.) around the perimeter of a garden to be made
Sa'a tälito split down, to tear down the stem of the betel pepper preparatory to eating, to split a vine or a bamboo, to strip the skin of wale cane
Arosi tarito strip off
Paamese salītrim leaves from cane

Note:   A version of this comparison was first proposed by Ross, Clark and Osmond (1998:258) who, however, cite the phonologically incompatible tari (sao) ‘split the sides of sago palm leaves (sao), leaving the rib for use as a bird arrow’ for Sa'a, instead of the form given here.


*salimbeŋ concealment; to conceal


PPh     *salimbeŋ concealment; to conceal

Ayta Abellan halimbeŋto conceal, cover up; a cover
Bikol salíboŋto run from one place to another, as if trying to escape a pursuer
Cebuano salimbuŋto cover something as a protection from view or the elements; to hide, conceal something from someone’s knowledge (literary)
Mansaka sarimboŋcamouflage; to hide the truth of one’s doings


*salim-petpet firefly


PWMP     *salim-petpet firefly     [doublet: *qali-petpet, *kalim-petpet]

Iban selempepatfirefly
Toba Batak salimpotpotfirefly


*salin pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret


PWMP     *salin pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret

Casiguran Dumagat sálinto change (as to put something into another container so you can use the first one, or to transfer, or to change clothes)
Pangasinan salínoccupy one’s place against another’s will
Tagalog sálinpouring of liquid, grain or the like from one container to another; translation; copy; copying
  i-sálinto translate; to change from one language to another; to render
  pag-ka-ká-sálintranslation; having been translated
  taga-sálintranslator; interpreter
Hanunóo sálintransferring the contents from one container to another; translation; translating
  ʔi-sálinbe transferred from one container to another; be translated
Agutaynen mag-salinto pour a liquid into another container; to transfer something to another container or plate
  i-salinto transfer, move something, as a cake from one plate to another
Maranao salinchange, transform, copy, rewrite
  salin-ento change, as behavior; to copy, as a book
Tiruray salinto undergo change; to change something
Ngaju Dayak salin-anwhat is transferred (from one vessel into another); what is translated (from one language to another)
  ñalin-anto transfer from one vessel to another; to translate or interpret
Malay salinchange of dress or food or outward form; transference from one dish or vessel to another; of a person borrowing books to have them copied
Gayō salinto change
  mu-salinto move, change location
Karo Batak salinother, another
  pe-salin tulan-tulanexcavate the bones of the deceased and transfer them to another place
Dairi-Pakpak Batak me-nalinto translate, interpret
  mer-salinto change clothes
  mer-salin tempato change form or shape
  salin-tubuhimages or statues that represent people
Toba Batak ma-nalinto exchange; to transfer something; to translate into another language
  mar-salinto change clothes
  mate s<um>alin(of a woman) to die while pregnant; to die in giving birth; in general, to die a demeaning death
Old Javanese salinchange, replacement
  a-salinto change
  a-nalinto change
  s<um>alin-ito give a change; change, replace
  pi-salinnew clothes (weapons, etc.), usually as a gift
Javanese salinchange, replacement; a change of clothing; to change, replace; to change clothes
  ñalinto change or replace something; to change someone’s clothing
  pa-salin ~ pi-salinnew clothing
  salin s<um>alinto change off, change around
Balinese salinto change, alter; change clothes; pour from one vessel into another
Sasak salinto replace, change
  bə-salinto change clothes
  tə-salinto change (of colors or thinking)


*saliŋsíŋ to prune a tree; new growth from pruning


PPh     *saliŋsíŋ to prune a tree; new growth from pruning

Bontok saliŋsiŋ-anto strip sweet potato leaves from the stem; leaves which have been stripped from the sweet potato vine
Kankanaey saliŋsiŋ-anto lop, to prune; to remove; to take off; to remove (all twigs and leaves) from; to trim
Ibaloy saliŋsiŋ-anto cut the branches from a tree
Pangasinan saliŋsíŋto prune the new shoots from a tree
Hanunóo salíŋsiŋbranches, twigs
  ma-nalíŋsiŋto branch out
Cebuano saliŋsíŋnew branch growing out from a mature branch; one’s offspring (literary); outgrowth, outcome of something (literary); to grow new branches
Mansaka sariŋsiŋto send out shoots; to have young branches (as a tree)

Note:   Also Bontok saliwsiw ‘to strip sweet potato leaves from the stem’, Ifugaw hagiŋhíŋ the thin branches of trees which are still more or less straight’, Hanunóo síŋsiŋ ‘branch, i.e. of a tree’.


*saliR to flow, of water


PMP     *saliR to flow, of water

Melanau (Mukah) salihebbtide
Rotinese salito overflow, pour out; overflowing
Fordata salirconduit for water, water pipe
Tigak salikto flow
Lakalai salito flow
Nggela hali-halito flow swiftly
Lonwolwol halto gush out, of liquids
Wayan salito flow
  i-salisomething for water to flow through: drain, channel, acqueduct, pipe, etc.; ditch or drain made by water flow
Fijian salito flow, of water
  vaka sali-ato drain
  sali-vato flow towards or against
  sali-sali waiwatery, of the eyes

Note:   With root *-liR ‘flow’.


*saliw buy, sell


PAN     *saliw buy, sell     [doublet: *baliw 'buy, sell']

Amis caliwborrow, lend
Ivatan mapa-saliwsell
Ilokano saliw-ento buy slaves; traffic in slaves or prostitutes
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) taiwbuy
Manobo (Ata) saliutrade
Proto-Sangiric *saliuexchange


*salsál to masturbate


PPh     *salsál to masturbate

Ilokano salsálto rebound, dribble, beat repeatedly; to masturbate
Bontok salsálto masturbate; to beat an object repeatedly
Tagalog mag-salsálto masturbate
Bikol mag-salsálto thin or flatten out metal by pressing or beating; (vulgar) to masturbate
Palawan Batak sálsalmale masturbation


PPh     *salsal-en to masturbate

Ilokano salsal-ento masturbate a part of the body
Bontok salsal-ənto masturbate; to beat an object repeatedly
Bikol salsal-ónto thin or flatten out metal by pressing or beating; (vulgar) to masturbate

Note:   Although it is treated as a separate comparison here, PPh *salsál is very likely the same form as PWMP *salsal ‘blacksmithing; cold-hammering iron ore’.


*saluD water conduit


PWMP     *saluD water conduit

Itbayaten salodidea of containment
  ma-saxodto be contained in
  pa-saxod-ento put into a container
Bontok saludfunnel
Kapampangan saludtake a bath
Bikol sálodsave liquids, store liquids
Hanunóo sáludreceiving something, as water, from a bamboo tube in a receptacle held in the hands
Aklanon sáeodcatch a dripping liquid like tuba (coconut wine)
  saeódvessel used for gathering tuba
Cebuano saludvessel used to catch falling liquids
Maranao salodcatch with container, as water from gutter or faucet
  salod-aɁgutter of roof
Malay salurchannel; gutter
Balinese saludscoop up water with a vessel, draw water
Mongondow taludcatching of rainwater, spurting blood, etc.
Banggai salulwater conduit of bamboo
Uma haluʔstream
Makassarese saluʔbamboo water conduit (from well to kitchen, etc.)

Note:   Cf. Dempwolff (1934-38) *saluR ‘pond, lake’, Zorc (n.d.) PPh *saluD ‘vessel for catching drippings; conduit’. Mills (1975:815) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *salu(ɣ?) ‘gutter; bamboo water-pipe’, suggesting a derivation from PAn *saluR.


*salugsúg get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail


PPh     *salugsúg get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail

Ilokano salugsógsliver, bigger than the puris, but smaller than the rud-ak
  salugsug-anto get a sliver; pierce sideways, stab sideways
Casiguran Dumagat salogsogto get a sliver in the hand or foot; to stub the foot in such a way that it bleeds
Tagalog salugsógthorn or sliver in the hand or foot; detailed search or investigation
Bikol salugsóga splinter
Cebuano salugsúgsplinter sticking into the skin; get a splinter in the skin
Maranao salosogto stitch, sew; baste
Binukid salugsugfor a splinter, etc. to prick, get under the skin (of a part of the body)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) selugsugin sewing, to make a straight over and under stitch; of a splinter, to slip in under the skin or fingernail


PPh     *ma-salugsug-án get a splinter in the skin

Ilokano ma-salugsug-ánto be pricked, pierced
Bikol ma-salugsug-ánto get a splinter

Note:   Also Ibaloy me-saloksok-an ‘to be punctured (as skin) with a splinter, thorn, etc. at an angle so that it does not go deep’, Pangasinan saloksók ‘to skewer meat; insert stick, etc. into chink or crack’. Despite the irregular coda devoicing, the semantics of these forms suggests that they belong with reflexes of *salugsúg rather than with the similar but distinct *suksúk. This is particularly clear in Ibaloy me-saloksok-an, which precisely parallels PPh *ma-salugsug-án ‘get a splinter in the skin’. In any case, the two trisyllabic forms must have been distinct, since *suksúk contains the widespread monosyllabic root *-suk, while *salugsúg does not, a submorphemic root *-sug is unknown, and a base *sugsúg from which *salugsúg might be derived by infixation is so far unknown.


*saluksuk₁ tool like chisel or trowel


PPh     *saluksuk₁ tool like chisel or trowel

Bontok saluksuka chisel-like tool
  saluksuk-ənto chisel, use a chisel
Maranao salosoktool for weeding --- shaped like spatula


*saluksuk₂ insert, slip between


PPh     *saluksuk₂ insert, slip between

Pangasinan saloksókto skewer meat; insert stick, etc. into chink or crack
Binukid saluksukto put, insert, slip, slide (something) in between something else (as bolo between the cracks of a wall)

Note:   Apparently distinct from PPh *saluksuk ‘tool like chisel or trowel’, and distinct from reflexes of *suksuk ‘to pierce, penetrate, insert’ in enough languages to merit an independent reconstruction.


*salúkub cover something to protect it or oneself


PPh     *salúkub cover something to protect it or oneself

Ilokano salukúb-anto cover (in order to protect); defend, shelter; conceal
  i-salúkobto shield; guard; conceal
Hanunóo salúkubtubular bamboo quiver for arrows, especially if poison-tipped
Maranao salokobthimble

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat salokop ‘to cup something over something else (as to put a hat on the head, to cup a tin can upside down over a post or stick, etc.)’. With root *-kub ‘to cover’.


*salúp small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods


PPh     *salúp small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods

Ilokano salúpa measure equivalent to three liters, used for dry goods
  s<um>alúpto measure by the salúp
Bontok salúpone ganta (three liters); any container, as a woven basket, which contains about one ganta
Kankanaey sinka-salúpone ganta (three liters); a measure for rice, beans, etc.; there are 25 salúp in one kabán
Ibaloy salopganta, a unit of dry measure equal to about three liters; used for measuring coffee, rice, peanuts, etc
  sedop-anto measure for someone (as the buyer)
Pangasinan salópa ganta (three liters dry measure)
Tagalog salópa ganta; three liters dry measure
Bikol salópsmall basket made from burí (talipot palm) leaves
Hanunóo salúpa measure of volume equal to one 25th of a pásuŋ; one ganta (3.17 quarts liquid)


PPh     *salup-en to measure by gantas

Ilokano salup-énto measure by the salúp
Ibaloy sedop-ento measure something, especially of measuring by the ganta, but also used for other measures
Tagalog salup-ínto measure grains by the ganta

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution through Tagalog, with secondary spread through Ilokano.


*saluR brook or small stream


PWMP     *saluR brook or small stream

Tagalog sálogpool or puddle of water after heavy rain
Masbatenyo sálogriver, watercourse
Waray-Waray sálogriver; brook; stream
Cebuano sálugriver, any body of flowing water
Lun Dayeh arura small stream
  ŋ-arurto walk up towards the source of a river
Kelabit arurstream, small branch of a river
  ŋ-arurto follow a path along a stream or river
Malay salurconduit; pipe in gambier-making
  salur-anguttering; drain; channel for carrying away water
Simalur salulvalley, gorge; name of a river in the region of Təpa
Toba Batak sarurdiarrhoea
Proto-Sangiric *saluRriver
Proto-Gorontalic *salugowater
Mongondow talugedge, short
  mo-talugfollow the edge of a cultivated field, a river bank or river bed
Ponosakan saluhto travel along a river
Gorontalo taluhuwater
Pendau salugcreek, small stream
Tajio salubrook, stream
Balaesang saluriver mouth
Banggai ba-salul-anwater conduit, water pipe of bamboo
Uma haluʔbrook, stream
  pitu ncaluʔseven streams
Bare'e sayugutter or pipe (bamboo or split log) used to direct a stream of water that makes an artificial waterfall for people to bathe
Proto-South Sulawesi *salu(C?)river
Mandar saluʔriver
Buginese saloʔriver
Makassarese saluʔbamboo water pipe from a well to the kitchen or a spring to the house
  saluʔ-kayuroof gutter of wood

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) hāyug ‘a water trough, made of bamboo or the outer layer of a banana stalk’, Pangasinan salóg ‘to water (plants, etc.)’. With root *-luR ‘flow’.


*salúyut a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae


PPh     *salúyut a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae

Ivatan saluyuta shrub, Corchorus aestuans
Ibatan salōyotokra plant with edible green pods and spinach-like leaves: Hibiscus esculentus, or Abelmoschus esculentus
Ilokano salúyotCorchorus olitorium, Jew’s mallow with edible spinachlike leaves famous in Ilokano cuisine; appellation given to the Ilokano people
Sambal saluyota shrub, Corchorus aestuans
Ayta Abellan haloyotokra
Cebuano salúyutkind of wild shrub, the leaves of which are eaten as greens, and sold commercially under the name of salúyut: Corchorus olitorius

Note:   The data for Ivatan and Sambal come from Madulid (2001), although he cites all three languages for this form in his massive survey of Philippine plant names. The forms for Ivatan and Ibatan appear to be loans from Ilokano.


*sama mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order


PWMP     *sama mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order

Tagalog ka-sámacompanion; partner; associate; companion, as on a trip; person living with another in a house; anything included, attached, or enclosed with something; something mixed with another or others in a mixture; portion or part of something
  maki-sámato unite; to join with others
  ka-samah-áncompanion in a group or company; colleague; an associate; fellow member of an official body
  ka-samah-into take someone along as a companion; to live with someone as a common law spouse; to get along well with others
Bikol mag-samáto be partners in a money-making enterprise; to hold shares in the same business or commercial venture
Hanunóo sámatogetherness; among, with, together with
Cebuano sámalike, same as; similar; treat, consider someone as, or similar to
Maranao samaall, like, same as
Mapun samain unison; for things to be in line with each other; simultaneously; parallel to each other
Ngaju Dayak samaalike, same; in agreement; all, entire; communally
Malagasy samiboth, each, every one; same
Malay samasameness; parity
  mə-ñama-ito come up to; to equal
Bahasa Indonesia samaof one kind; not different; aligned
Karo Batak samasimilar
Toba Batak samatogether, with one another
Komodo samatogether
Manggarai camaalike, similar to; the same; together with
Rembong samathe same, with no difference
Ngadha samaalike, identical, same; together with; similar
Lamaholot hama ~ samalike, same as; as if
Hawu hamasame, similar
Rotinese samaalike, similar


POC     *jama mate, companion; like, similar to

Kwaio dama-aline up, put in good order; intersection
Lau damamate, fellow, corresponding part; exactly like, the same
'Āre'āre tamain line, in pairs
Ulawa damafellow, mate
Arosi damamate, fellow, companion, corresponding part; like, similar


PMP     *sama-sama with no difference, equally to both

Cebuano sama-sámabe fair, not taking undue advantage of one another; be in a spirit of good fellowship with someone
Mapun sama-samain unison; for things to be in line
Bahasa Indonesia sama-samaall of them; equally for both sides
Sika hama-hamathe same, with no difference
Sa'a dama-damain pairs; side-by-side, of canoes

Note:   Also Karo Batak samah ‘similar’. Arosi sama ‘mate, fellow; like; in rows, ranks, orderly’. Commonly thought to be a Sanskrit loan (as in Wilkinson 1959), but the wide distribution of this form raises doubts about the validity of this interpretation.


*samak a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius


PWMP     *samak a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius

Ilokano sámakMacaranga tanarius, tree whose bark and bitter leaves are used to brew bási (sugarcane wine) and give it a brown color
Isneg támaɁMacaranga tanarius L., a small dioedious, euphorbiaceous tree; its bark is used for alná (ingredients in sugarcane rum), and give the rum its brown color and its bitter taste
Iban samaktanning, plants yielding tannin, preservative for cordage, nets, etc.
  ñamakto steep or dye cordage, as a casting net
Malay samaktanning; material for tanning and prerserving leather, cordage, nets, etc.; tanning material is often bark from certain trees, mostly Eugenias, but mangrove bark is also used; one passage speaks of a wounded man’s clothes being stained with blood “as though tanned”
  kulit samakdressed hide


(Formosan only)

*samaq remnant, leftover


PAN     *samaq remnant, leftover

Puyuma samaɁremnant (as of soil being used for a job, food left for someone)
  mi-samaɁto have remnants
Paiwan tamaqa fraction (of thing, number)

Note:   I normally avoid proposing a reconstruction that is based solely on the comparison of two geographically adjacent Formosan languages. However, in the present case significant differences in both phonological form and meaning greatly reduce the likelihood that this distribution is a product of borrowing.


*sambak hit, strike a heavy blow


PMP     *sambak hit, strike a heavy blow

Mandar sambaʔhit, strike (with an instrument that has a flat or broad end)
Yamdena sambakstamp on the ground with the feet or something else
Fijian sabaslap, strike strongly


POC     *sabak to slap hard

Arosi tabaslap, slash, slap (as water with fishing line)
Fijian sabato slap, strike strongly
  saba-kato slap (trans.)

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of heavy smack’.


*sambuni to hide, hidden


PWMP     *sambuni to hide, hidden     [doublet: *buni₂, *tabuni₂]

Malay səmbuñihiding; concealment
Totoli ma-sambunito hide
Boano mo-nambunito hide (something)
Balaesang sambunito hide

Note:   The Malay word is assumed to show sporadic palatalization, much as in *niuR > ñiur ‘coconut’.


*sambuŋ sheath, covering


PWMP     *sambuŋ sheath, covering

Maranao samboŋglove
Kayan habuŋtemporary protective covering; to cover


*sambut₁ take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage


PPh     *sambut₁ take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage

Pangasinan man-sambótto be on time; take advantage of an opportunity to do something
Bikol maka-sambótto make a good match for oneself; to land a good catch (as a marriage partner, a girlfriend or boyfriend)

Note:   Also Tiruray sombut ‘to put to advantage some situation’.


*sambut₂ to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way


PWMP     *sambut₂ to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way

Tagalog sambótcatching with the hand something falling or thrown
  maka-sambótto be able to catch something; to be able to recover, e.g. one’s capital in an investment
Ngaju Dayak sambutbe received or welcomed
  ma-ñambutto accept, receive
Malay sambutto take in hand, to take what comes one’s way; to receive, especially in the figurative sense of receiving a guest
  ber-sambut-sambut-anexchange ceremonial visits
Gayō samutto answer
  samut-samutexchange replies in a conversation
Toba Batak mar-sambutget an advance payment, purchase on promise
  s<um>ambutmeet someone halfway, compromise
Old Javanese a-nambutto seize, grasp, fetch, take up; take up (words), receive, continue, reply
  s<um>ambutto seize, grasp, fetch, take up; take up (words), receive, continue, reply
Javanese sambutto borrow; debt
  ke-sambutto get caught or grasped
  ñambutto take hold of, grasp; to receive
Sasak sambutseize, catch, grasp
  tə-sambutto take the place of

Note:   Also Malagasy sámbutra ‘a seizure; a captive (Malay loan).


*sambut₃ to rush, hurry


PPh     *sambut₃ to rush, hurry

Ilokano ag-sambútto rush, hurry
Maranao sambotearly, soon, immediately, directly, sudden
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sambutto do something early or quickly, in the sense of not waiting for a long time


*samek dense undergrowth


PWMP     *samek dense undergrowth

Ilokano na-samékdense (undergrowth)
  ka-samek-anthick underbrush; lush area of vegetation
  k<in>a-saméklushness of vegetation
  s<um>amékto grow lush
Hanunóo sámukthat which causes entanglement or impedes travel, as dense thickets
  ma-sámukthorny, thick, dense, as of jungle underbrush; entanglement(s)
Malay semak <Mscrub, undergrowth
  semak-samunvery much overgrown (of a clearing); undergrowth of all sorts
Minangkabau samakscrub, undergrowth


*samir leaf awning


PWMP     *samir leaf awning

Ilokano sámirpinnae of coconut palm leaves woven into basketwork and used for a temporary shade
Maranao samirawning
Malay samir/nipah/ leaf dried but not worked up into roofing-thatch (atap). Plain dried leaves are used for temporary screens or shelters; or for laying a tarpaulin over cargo
Toba Batak samiranything used to provide shelter -- as leaves
Old Javanese samircurtain, cloth, cover (of wagon, salver, etc.)
  a-namirto put on a scarf?
  a-samirwith a curtain or cloth cover
Javanese samirround banana leaf fixed in a shallow inverted cone shape and used for covering foods
Balinese samircurtain

Note:   Also Iban samit ‘cover or awning of leaves’.


*sampaw waterfall


PPh     *sampaw waterfall

Agta (Central Cagayan) sʌpʌwwaterfall
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) tapawwaterfall
Manobo (Ata) sampowwaterfall
Kalagan sampawwaterfall
Manobo (Sarangani) sampawwaterfall


*sampay up to, as far as, until


PMP     *sampay₂ up to, as far as, until

Iban sampaiup to, reaching as far as; arrive
Malay sampaiattaining to; reaching as far as
  sampai-kanto convey
Gayō sampeas far as, until
  mu-sampereached, attained
Toba Batak sampearrive, be complete (e.g. sampe tolu bulan ‘three full months/up to, until three months’)
Rejang sapeuito, til, until
Wolio sampeup to; so that, consequently
Sika sapeup to, as far as, until

Note:   Dempwolff also included Malagasy ampi ‘sufficient, enough’, and Futunan safe ‘reach one’s destination’, but the first of these does not appear to be related to the others, and the second does not appear in Moyse-Faurie (1993).


*sampiŋ side, flank


PWMP     *sampiŋ side, flank

Malay sampiŋside; flank; border
Balinese sampiŋside, edge, border, margin
  sampiŋ-aŋbe edged or provided with an edge, hem, border
  sampiŋ-inbe avoided by going to one side
Sasak sampiŋbeside, at the side of
Proto-Sangiric *sampiŋside whiskers
Sangir sampiŋside whiskers

Note:   Also Tontemboan sambiŋ ‘whiskers’, sambiŋ-an ‘having whiskers’, Mongondow tampeŋ ‘beard’, especially of goats’, tampeŋ ‘bearded’. Possibly a chance resemblance.


*sampir type of headcloth


PWMP     *sampir type of headcloth

Maranao sampirstyle of headband or turban
Old Javanese sampirscarf, shawl


*samsám to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage


PPh     *samsám to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage

Itbayaten samsamidea of seizure
Ibatan samsamto seize something from someone
Ilokano samsámloot, pillage, booty, spoils in war
  samsam-énto look; steal everything
Casiguran Dumagat samsamto grab, to take, to get, to confiscate; to seize something by force (as to hold up a bus and take the people’s money by gun point, or to enter a house, kill the occupants, and take the things of value
Pangasinan samsámsamsám
Kapampangan samsamabduct, grab, snatch
Tagalog pag-samsámconfiscation; seizing of property
  má-samsámto be confiscated
  samsam-ánto deprive someone of his or her property by confiscation
Bikol mag-samsámto accumulate wealth by somewhat ruthless means; to grab money or land; to commandeer; to seize or confiscate; to pillage or plunder during a time of war (archaic)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) samsamto feel with the hands in the dark or in a hole where one cannot see; to lay the hands on, i.e. treat for sickness


PPh     *ma-ñamsám to seize, take by force

Itbayaten ma-namsamto seize, take by force
Kapampangan ma-ñamsamto abduct, grab, snatch


*samun undergrowth


PWMP     *samun undergrowth

Ilokano samónan erect grass, very leafy above, in whose inflorescence the spathe is longer than the spikes: Themada triandra Linn.
Malay semak-samunscrub, undergrowth; undergrowth of all sorts


*samuR to mix; mixture


PAN     *samuR to mix; mixture

Amis camolmixture
  mi-camolto mix
  pa-camolto add something to
Ilokano samórto infect (disease); mix; pollute

Note:   Also Itbayaten ipa-samol ‘to make mixed gold’.


*sana there, yonder


PWMP     *sana there, yonder

Bontok sanathat one, close to hearer; there, close to hearer
Kankanaey sánathat, there, thither
Malay sanayonder, over there, yon

Note:   Cp. PMP *a-na, *i-na ‘there (3rd p. deictic)’. *sa- in this etymon may be the nonfocus marker of location.


*sanam ant sp.


PWMP     *sanam ant sp.

Yakan sanamspecies of black ant (they live on trees, such as lansones and coconut trees); one of the divisions of living creatures (includes insects, vermin, other things that creep or crawl)
  s<in>anamfor something to be insect-infested bug-infested (as sugar)
Tausug sanaman ant
  ma-sanamoccupied or filled with ants (as a house)
  sanam-unto get ants (in something), attract ants (as sugar on a plate)
Kenyah sanamant
Penan (Long Labid) sanamant

Note:   Also Tiruray siyonom ‘kind of black forest ant with a strong, stinging bite’.


*sanda pawned, pledged in place of something else


PWMP     *sanda pawned, pledged in place of something else

Iban sandaɁgive token price in kind, give goods for later repayment in kind; hence lend against repayment of equivalent
Malay sandato pledge; to pawn
Old Javanese sanḍapledge, security, pawn
Balinese sandato pawn, pledge; a pledge
Bare'e sandaa pawn, someone who, to pay off a debt or fine temporarily becomes a slave to another person
Buginese sanrapawned

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sandaɁ ‘to pawn something; to borrow money leaving some object of value as security’ (< Malay), Tausug sandaɁ ‘pledge, that which is pawned, security’, mag-sandaɁ ‘to pawn or mortgage something’ (< Malay), Tae' sandaŋ ‘be pawned’.


*sandaŋ wear across the shoulder


PWMP     *sandaŋ wear across the shoulder

Kadazan Dusun sand̲aŋto wear over shoulder, wear a sash or a rattan loop with a bundle of dried palm leaf strings, made frilly (worn around one shoulder during the sumazau dance)
Ngaju Dayak ba-sandaŋhave in the hand (as a sword)
Iban sandaŋcarry slung from shoulder or at hip (e.g. unsheathed knife)
Malay sandaŋwear (anything) as a bandolier is worn, i.e. from the shoulder across the breast to the opposite hip; of so wearing a sword, or a plaid, or the cordon of an order
Karo Batak sandaŋ-enpregnant
Toba Batak ma-nandaŋwear something hanging across the shoulder, as a scarf
Sundanese sandaŋclothing, cover
Old Javanese sanḍaŋthat which one carries from birth, nature; cloths, clothing
  s<um>anḍaŋto carry, wear, dress in; to experience, undergo, suffer; be in or accept a certain condition
Javanese sanḍaŋclothing
Balinese sandaŋcarry on the shoulders or the back

Note:   Possibly a product of borrowing from Malay.


*sandaR lean on or against


PWMP     *sandaR lean on or against     [doublet: *sadeR, *sanday, *sandiR, *sendeR, *sendiR, *sindiR]    [disjunct: *sandeR]

Bontok sádagto lean against something
Kankanaey men-sádagto lean one’s back against; to set one’s back against something
Ifugaw hádagthat against which a sitting or squatting person can bend his or her back; dorsal of a chair
Ifugaw (Batad) hādagto lean something against an erect object, as to lean a load against a tree or house post so it stands on end
Maranao saragprop against, as a pole
Iban sadarlean on
Malay sandarreclining; resting on a support
Malay (Jakarta) sandarlean back on
Alas sandarlean against
Old Javanese sanḍasupport, prop
  s<um>anḍato lean against
Balinese sadahlean, lean against, rest (a tall thing) against
  sadah-into have something leaned against it (e.g. a tree and a ladder)


PWMP     *sandaR-an backrest, place to lean back against

Kankanaey sadág-anerect stone
Malay (Jakarta) sandar-anplace to lean back against, as the back of a chair or bench

Note:   Also Puyuma saŋɖal ‘lean against’ (< *saŋedaN), Ibaloy aŋshal ‘lean against something; rest one’s back against something’ (< *aŋedaR). These two forms suggest that the homorganic nasal-stop clusters in nearly all modern languages are a product of secondary place assimilation in an original heterorganic cluster that presumably derived from schwa syncope. *R > g is irregular in all Central Cordilleran languages, although it occurs sporadically in a number of forms which may or may not be loanwords.


*sandeR lean against, lean or incline on


PMP     *sandeR lean against, lean or incline on     [doublet: *sandaR, *sanday, *sandeR, *sandiR, *sendeR, *sindiR]

Tagalog sáligbased on; deduced from; foundation; keynote; the basic idea
Ida'an Begak sandoglean on
  mə-nandogto lean on
Iban sadarlean on
Malay sandarreclining; resting on a support
Pendau sandegleaning back to rest on something
Proto-South Sulawesi *sa(n)de(γ)to lean on
Buginese sanreʔto lean on
  sanres-eŋback of a chair, thing to lean on
Manusela saheto lean against

Note:   Also Iban saday ‘stand or lean, esp. against wall or frame for drying out of doors’, Balinese sandar ‘lean on, rely on’ (< Malay), sandar-in ‘be given a prop, be supplied with assistance’, Sasak sandar ‘lean on or against’ (< Malay), Ifugaw) haʔdol ‘a retaining block positioned below and against something on an incline to brace it from rolling or sliding; for someone to brace something on an incline with a retaining block’.


*sandiR lean against, lean or incline on


PMP     *sandiR lean against, lean or incline on     [doublet: *sandaR, *sadeR, *sanday, *sandeR, *sendeR, *sendiR, *sindiR]

Ilokano ag-sandírto lean on one’s back
Tagalog sáligbased on; deduced from; foundation; keynote; the basic idea
  i-sáligto base on
  ka-pa-náligfriend, ally
  má-sáligto be based on; to be deduced from
  mag-sáligto base something on; to make or have something as the basis of
  salig-ánorganic; fundamental; basic
  sandígleaning; reclining; a depending or relying on someone; basis
  i-sandígto cause one to lean on something; basis; to base on something
  pa-sandígslanted; tilted; leaning; reclining; by reclining or leaning on something
  sandíg-anback of a seat; person upon whom one “leans” or relies for help; basis
  sandig-ánto recline; to depend or rely on for support
Bikol i-sandígto lean something (as a ladder on a wall)
  mag-sandígto lean on something
Romblomanon sandigsomeone leans backwards
  pa-sandigsomething is leaned against something else by someone
Agutaynen i-pa-tandigto lean one thing against another (as a ladder against a house)
  t<om>andigto lean, recline against something
  tandig-anback of a chair
Central Tagbanwa t<um>andigto lean against
Binukid sandigto lean against; to lean something against something else (as a sack against the wall)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sandigto lean against something
  sandig-sandigto lean back on something
Bonggi sariglean on a wall
Murut (Timugon) maka-sandigable to lean on
  sandig-insomething that is leaned against another
Sungai Seguliud tala-sandiglean on wall
Narum sadiγto lean on or against
Kiput sattinto lean against
Proto-Sangiric *sadeRto lean against
  *sandeRto lean against
Sangir ma-sarehəʔset against, leaning on
  sandehəʔleaning on
  ma-nandehəʔto place or put against something else, lean something on another


PWMP     *s<um>andiR to lean on or against

Tagalog s<um>andígto recline; to depend or rely on for support
Murut (Timugon) s<um>andigto lean on or against

Note:   Also Itbayaten sandih ‘chair’, Ibatan mag-sādag ‘someone or something leans against something’, mag-saŋgir ‘someone leans something against someone or something for support’, Casiguran Dumagat saŋdih ‘to lean against (for something to be leaning against something else)’, Ibaloy aŋshil ‘to lean against something; to rest one’s back against something’, Kapampangan mag-sándal ‘lean on something’, Bikol mag-handíg ‘to recline, lean back’, Maranao sampig ‘lean against, sit partly on’, Mansaka darag ‘lean against (as in leaning against a tree)’, on-sarig ‘to lean against’, Mapun sande ‘to lean against something; to lean something up against something else’, Tiruray sandaŋ-sandaŋ ‘leaning back against something when sitting’, Iban sandih ‘recline, lean or prop against (usually indoors)’, Sundanese séndél, séndér ‘crowd against’, Balinese séndéh ‘to slant, incline, slope, lean over’, Mongondow andoḷ ‘lean on, support (in both literal and figurative senses); to trust, depend on’, Bare'e onda ‘rack or support that something leans against’, hudo ‘lean against something, as a wall’, hudu ‘lean on something, as a dibbling stick’, sudo ‘lean on or against’, Palauan olsírs ‘pawn/pledge (money); sacrifice (one’s life); lean against, lean (something) against’ (< *pan-XidVR), Kambera handera ‘support, prop, something one leans on’, Numfor sàndem ‘lean on, support’.

Dempwolff’s *sandar ‘leaning on, aslant’, based on Tagalog sandál ‘act of reclining or leaning back against something’, Ngaju Dayak sandar ‘something against which one sits or half leans (for support)’, Malay sandar reclining; resting on a support’, Toba Batak sandar ‘lean against, as a plank set leaning on a wall’, appears to be a product of borrowing from Malay. *R > g is irregular in Agutaynen and Central Tagbanwa, although it occurs sporadically in a number of forms which may or may not be loanwords.

For reasons that remain obscure, words meaning ‘to lean on or against’ fall into a number of cognate sets reflecting distinct but very similar proto-forms. This comparison and those with which it is cross-referenced thus turn out to be exasperatingly robust examples of doubling that appears to be purely system-internal, that is, not due to borrowing (Blust 2011a).


*sanduk spoon, ladle


PWMP     *sanduk spoon, ladle     [doublet: *saruk]

Tagalog sandókladle or scoop made of coconut shell
Bikol mag-sárokto dip for water
Hanunóo sandúkladle
Waray-Waray sarokthe act of fetching water
  pa-narokdipper, scooper
Hiligaynon sándukladle; big spoon
  sandúk-unto dig or scoop out
Cebuano sandúkscoop something out or off of; utensil used to scoop rice from the pot; a scoopful
Maranao sandokscoop
Kadazan Dusun saukto scoop
Malay sandokspoon, ladle
Wolio sanduspoon, ladle

Note:   Also Bikol mag-hárok ‘to dip for water’. With root *-duk ‘ladle, spoon’.


*sani clearing of a garden for planting (?)


POC     *sani clearing of a garden for planting (?)

Loniu cani-to clear, cut down bush or sugarcane
  pono-sani-to clear out, sweep, straighten up a garden after heavy clearing is completed; trim trunk of tree before chopping up
Motu dani-to cover, as weeds a garden
Fijian sanito remove leaves
Tongan hanito remove all the leaves (from tree or plant); to cut the hair short

Note:   This comparison was proposed by Osmond (1998:121). However, in view of the Motu citation as dani-a (rather dahani-a) the resemblance of the Loniu and Motu forms to those in Fijian and Tongan may be a product of chance.


*sanipa borderline, edge, as of roof or garment


PPh     *sanipa borderline, edge, as of roof or garment

Ilokano sanípapatchwork on a thatched roof; thatchwork; venetian blind
Bikol sanípaa board which runs along the edge of a roof
Cebuano sanípaedging similar to an eaves board which trims a roof; a short curtain across the top of a window, framework of a bed, and the like; design in series at one side or around the edges of a cloth; folding room divider; lamp shade to concentrate light
Maranao sanipaborder of eaves

Note:   Also Tagalog sanepa ~ senepa ‘a decorative facing or lining for garments (in sewing); board facing (in construction of a building). Possibly a loan distribution.


*santak pull or jerk at something


PWMP     *santak pull or jerk at something     [doublet: *sintak]

Cebuano santákpull a fishing line with a jerk to hook a fish that nibbled at the bait
Bahasa Indonesia santakpunch, jerk at something

Note:   Also Malay səntak ‘jerking; sudden pull; grabbing at (of a jerk to the footboard of a Malay swinging cot to get it to rock, of a girl snatching off her neck pendants, or a man plucking at his kris but failing to unsheathe it)’, sentak ‘to jerk’, tidur tər-sentak ‘to start in one’s sleep’, səntap ‘to jerk’.


*santán a flowering plant: Ixora spp.


PPh     *santán a flowering plant: Ixora spp.

Ilokano santánspecies of ornamental flower: Ixora chinensis
Tagalog santána shrub with white, red or pink flowers
Bikol santánplant with either white, red, or pink flowers: Ixora stricta

Note:   Also Ilokano santáŋ ‘shrub with pinkish flowers: Ixora chinensis’, Cebuano santál ‘kind of ornamental bushes: Ixora sp.’.


*santik click or clink together, as stones in making fire


PPh     *santik click or clink together, as stones in making fire

Bikol santíkflintstone; a clicking or clinking sound (such as that made when two bottles or stones are hit together)
  santik-ónto strike a flintsone
Agutaynen mag-santikto hit or clink two things together, as stones, or even heads; to strike a match using a matchbox
Cebuano santíkbuild a fire by rubbing two dry bamboo sticks together; build a fire by rubbing flint and steel together; kind of flint used in building a fire by friction
Maranao santikto rub


PPh     *santik-an (gloss uncertain)

Agutaynen santik-anto hit or clink two things together, as stones, or even heads; to strike a match using a matchbox
Maranao santik-anflint, match

Note:   With root *-tik₂ ‘ticking sound’.


(Formosan only)

*saNiw whetstone


PAN     *saNiw whetstone

Amis cadiwto sharpen
  sa-cadiwinstrument used for sharpening, as a rock
Paiwan taɬiwsmall (pocket-sized) whetstone
  t<m>aɬiwto hone, to whet (as knife)


*saŋa₁ bifurcation, fork of a branch


PMP     *saŋa₁ bifurcation, fork of a branch

Itbayaten saŋabranch, forking, branching off
  ka-maŋ-sa-saŋamolar tooth
  mapa-saŋaable to include in one’s activities, to be able to include in one’s field of attention (consciousness); to be able to branch yourself out to other things (multi-task)
  mi-saŋasingle branch, of two pointed parts (of mountain)
  pi-saŋajoints of two branches
  pa-saŋa-anthat on which a ‘branching’ load (basket) is placed
Ilokano saŋábranch, point; offshoot; division, section
  a-saŋáto branch out, diversify
  nag-saŋa-án ti dalanintersection (of paths or roads)
  saŋa-ánwith many branches
Isneg pa-saŋábranching (trees, antlers, rivers, etc.)
Bontok saŋáa forked stick; the upright piece of wood in the center of a plough, to which the shear is attached
  saŋa-saŋásedge, a grasslike plant with triangular stems (used as a headband during some ceremonies): Cyperus distans L.F.
Kankanaey men-sa-saŋáto lean, to rest one’s head on one’s hand; to hold one’s head in one’s hands (through laziness, fatigue, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat saŋábranch (of a tree or bush); to branch out
Ibaloy man-saŋato lean one’s head, jaw on one’s hand, or both hands, for support (connotes disappointment, sadness, or sometimes thinking)
Pangasinan saŋábranch of a tree, stalk of a plant, stem
  on-saŋáto grow branches
Kapampangan saŋábranch (of a tree)
Tagalog saŋábranch; bough; limb (of a tree); offshoot of a plant; fork; a diverging branch (as of a river); branch of a business firm
  ka-saŋáreferring to that which has branched out from something else
  mag-saŋáto branch; to put out branches, as trees; to radiate, to branch out from a central point
  pa-saŋáslip; cutting from a plant
  s<um>aŋáto branch; to fork; to divide (as a road)
  saŋa-h-ánto cut off a branch or branches from a tree or plant (locative focus); to put forth branches, as a plant or tree does
Bikol saŋábough, branch, limb, shoot, stem, twig; branch (of a river, road), tributary
  pag-saŋa-ánjunction, intersection
  mag-saŋáto put forth a branch, etc.
Hanunóo saŋábranch, limb; a two-pronged wooden stick, a special instrument used in setting up the warp threads for weaving on a backstrap loom
Romblomanon saŋaa main branch of a bush, plant, tree, which branches from the trunk or main stalk
Masbatenyo sáŋabranch, bough, limb, twig, stem
  mag-sáŋato branch out, sprout branches
Aklanon saŋáa branch; to branch off (river); produce branches (tree)
Waray-Waray saŋábranch; a shoot or secondary stem; an outgrowth
Agutaynen taŋabranch of a tree
  mag-taŋato branch into two or three parts, or directions, such as a road
Hiligaynon saŋábranch, bough, twig
Palawan Batak sáŋabranch of a tree or bush
Cebuano saŋábranch, limb of a tree; lateral extension of a road or path; fork of a slingshot; bamboo or wooden hook attached to a rope used to draw up a fish trap from the water; an extra finger or toe in addition to the usual five; have or grow a branch; for the road to fork
  saŋá aŋ dílaʔbe fierce and violent (like a snake with a forked tongue)
  saŋá aŋ tiŋgilfor a woman to have sexual appetite (lit. have a forked clitoris)
  saŋa- saŋáfell a tree branch by branch
Maranao saŋabranch, twig
  saŋa-ʔianintersection – roads, fork – of tree or branch
Binukid saŋabranch, limb (of a tree); to have, grow a branch
Mansaka saŋabranch
Mapun saŋaa fork in a tree, road, river, etc.
Molbog saŋabranch
Bonggi saŋabranch
Malagasy sana-sanaopen, unclosed (used of the mouth)
Iban saŋaʔfork, branch, especially of road or river
Mongondow taŋabranch (of a tree, river)
  ko-taŋahaving branches, branching
Wolio saŋameasure, measure off, measure out
Bimanese saŋaforking, bifurcation; branch of a tree
Tetun sanato stand with the legs apart; to straddle, to encircle with the legs (as in mounting a horse)
  tur sanato sit with the legs apart
  ai sana-ka branch, bough, or fork of tree, a spar or pole
Selaru k-sana-kebranch
Yamdena saŋebranch broken off a tree
  na-saŋbranching, having branches
  na-sa-saŋhaving many branches or sprouts
  na-f-saŋ-ito bifurcate, fork into branches
  saŋa-ntributary of a river
Fordata sana-nbranch, side path, tributary of a river
  san-sana-nhaving many branches
Alune sanabranch
Asilulu sanabranch
  sana-kto lean one’s folded arm on something
Larike sana-nabranch of something
Tifu saŋa-nbifurcation, fork of a branch


PEMP     *saŋa₁ crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers

Buli saŋ māna handspan, from the outstretched thumb to the outstretched middle finger of a man
  saŋ mapiŋa handspan of a woman, somewhat shorter than the preceding
  saŋ-saŋbranching, fork, crotch


POC     *saŋa₁ crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers

Seimat saŋasaŋtwin
Wuvulu ta-tabifurcation, diverging lines from a point
  lili-ta-tafork of a branch
Mussau saŋa-saŋa-nafork of a branch
Mendak zəŋəfork of a branch
Manam saŋa-ŋaopen (as the mouth, or a door)
Gedaged saŋa-ncrotch, groin; bifurcation, fork; acute angle formed by the upper and lower eyelid; the female or male genitals
Mbula saŋa-groin, upper thigh area
Gitua saŋa-crease at the crotch
  tae zaŋa-zaŋacrease of ass
Numbami saŋabifurcation, fork (of tree)
Dobuan saga-saga-naforked
Bugotu haŋato be open
  haŋa-vito open, as a door
Nggela haŋaa span, outstretched fingers
  haŋa-vithe crotch, front of thighs
Kwaio taŋa-nagroin
'Āre'āre tana-nathigh, groin
Sa'a taŋathe crotch of the legs
Arosi taŋaa crotch; fork of the legs
  taŋa-aa hand’s breadth, fingers extended
Proto-Micronesian *Saŋainner thigh, crotch
Gilbertese raŋaleg, thigh
Mota saŋaa fork, crotch, forked stick or post
  tur-saŋathe main post of a house, forked to receive the qatsuna
Rotuman saŋathigh (of human being)
Fijian caŋaa span or stretch of the fingers
  saŋaa crotch; crotched, especially of a branch which forms a crotch with a tree
  i-saŋaa pair of tongs
  saŋa-nathe thigh, as branching out from the body
  saŋa-saŋachafed between the thighs
Tongan haŋaspan (about 9”); augmented span (about 12”), measured by spanning and then bending the hand over to the knuckles; to measure by spans
Tuvaluan aŋameasure in spans; span
Kapingamarangi aŋaunit of measure from tip of thumb to tip of little finger (of outstretched hand)
Nukuoro aŋathe span of the outstretched thumb and little finger; a measurement of one span
Rennellese haka-saŋato stand or sit with legs spread (improper for women): to bend
Hawaiian anato measure, survey, evaluate, rate; survey, measurement, pattern, plan, model


PMP     *ma-saŋa split, forked, as a branch or path

Kapampangan ma-saŋábranching, full of branches
Tagalog ma-saŋáfull of branches; with or having many branches
Aua wa-taa (< *mwa-saŋa)twins
Kwaio ma-taŋacrotch, branching place
Tongan maŋato fork, branch out, branch off, become divided into two or more branches (of a tree, a road, a stream, etc.); to step across or over; to walk with big steps, to stride; branch, fork, crotch, bifurcation
Niue maŋaforked, divided
  māŋadivision, part, fragment; village, town
  ma-maŋascattered (e.g. troops in defeat)
  maŋa-ahoan hour; division of time; part of a day
  maŋa-ito place between, to insert
  maŋa-maŋabetween two things; mature (of the mind)
Samoan maŋa(of a tree, road, etc.) a fork; to fork, divide into two, branch off
  maŋā-limaspaces between the fingers
  māŋa-maŋa(having) many forks
Kapingamarangi maŋabranch (e.g. of a tree, government)
Nukuoro maŋaa branch, part of (something having coordinate parts)
  maŋa lua taecleft in the buttocks


POC     *paka-saŋa (gloss uncertain)

Kwaio faʔa-taŋa-nagroin
Niue faka-maŋato open, of the mouth
  aka-maŋa-maŋato stand with legs apart
Hawaiian hoʔo-anato make measurements


PMP     *saŋa-saŋa starfish

Palauan təŋətáŋstarfish
Nauna caŋacaŋstarfish
Lou saŋesaŋstarfish
Titan caŋacaŋstarfish
Lindrou sakasakstarfish

Note:   Also Fijian ba-saŋa ‘starfish; branchy’. This word seems clearly to derive from PMP *saŋa ‘bifurcation; to branch’, with pluralizing reduplication (the starfish being conceived as a radial sequence of bifurcations). For similar formations with variant bases, cp. Sangir peŋaʔ ‘spread wide, as the legs of a person’, pem-peŋaʔ ‘starfish’, and Nukuoro maŋa ‘a branch’, manu maŋa-maŋa ‘starfish; branchy’.

Note:   Also Mapun seŋa ‘a fork of a tree, river or road’. Although PMP *saŋa appears to have referred to any type of bifurcation, with special reference to the branching off off tree branches or paths, and in reduplicated form to starfish, it evidently came to refer more centrally to the human crotch in POc, as this meaning recurs with high frequency throughout the Oceanic subgroup. With root *-ŋa ‘bifurcation, fork’.


*saŋa₂ a tree: Elaeocarpus sp.?


PWMP     *saŋa₂ a tree: Elaeocarpus sp.?

Kalagan saŋaa tree: Prunus marsupialis
Lun Dayeh aŋeha variety of softwood tree preferred for making the tafiʔ, a two-string guitarlike musical instrument
Malagasy sanatrees, species of Elaeocarpus
Iban saŋaʔa tree, Elaeocarpus sp.
Malay saŋaa large forest tree yielding a fruit the size of a sapodilla and not unlike the avocado-pear in taste, Elaeocarpus sp.?
Makassarese kayu saŋawood of the Stagnaria verniciflua; it has a sap that causes strong itching


*saŋal to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something


PWMP     *saŋal to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something

Casiguran Dumagat saŋalto carry something gripped between the teeth, as a mother dog to carry her puppies, or an ant carrying a grain of rice in its pincers
Bikol i-saŋálto insert something into the mouth or a mouthlike opening; to insert something through any slit or opening
Mongondow mo-taŋalsink the teeth into something
  no-taŋalgrip something with the teeth and drag it away
  ko-taŋa-taŋalhold something firmly between the teeth
Tae' saŋaɁbit, metal bar in the mouth of a horse; put a bit in a horse’s mouth


*saŋay namesake, have the same name as someone else


PWMP     *saŋay namesake, have the same name as someone else

Bikol saŋáya nickname shared shared by two people and used only when greeting one another
Aklanon saŋáynamesake, person having the same first name
  ka-saŋáyto have the same first name
Cebuano saŋáyperson having the same first name
Maranao saŋayperson having the same name
Mansaka saŋayto have identical names
Mapun saŋaya person having the same name as someone else
  mag-saŋayto address or refer to someone as “Sangay” because of having the same name
Yakan saŋeynamesake
  mag-saŋeyto have the same name
  mag-saŋey-saŋeyfor something to rhyme
Tboli saŋayto harmonize, blend well together, as gongs
Kadazan Dusun saŋayto have the same name

Note:   Possibly a Greater Central Philippines loan in Kadazan Dusun.


*saŋeday lean or rest on


PAN     *saŋeday lean or rest on     [doublet: *sa(n)daR]

Amis caŋrayto lean back against something


PMP     *sanday to lean or rest on

Hanunóo sandáyresting of the head (on something)
Cebuano sandaylay or rest something on and across something else
Maranao sandayto prop, lean (as a gun against a post)
  sanday-aʔgun rest, gun rack, pillow serving as foot rest while on bed
Mansaka sandayto lean against
Iban sadaistand or lean, esp. against rail or frame (penadai) for drying out of doors
Malay sadailie prone, as a crocodile on a mudbank
  ter-sadaiastretch high and dry, as a boat drawn up on the beach or a wreck on a reef
Toba Batak ma-nandesupport someone, give help to
  maŋun-sandelean against
Old Javanese saṇḍeslanting, leaning over
Muna sandeto lean (as against a housepost); to prop, lean something against
  pa-sandeto lean against (as a wall), to depend on (as someone for support in time of need)

Note:   Also Muna hade-hade ‘lean against something’, sade ‘upright, erect, straight; to support or hold someone upright in a sitting position’.


*saŋ(e)hid pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell


PWMP     *saŋ(e)hid pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell

Tagalog saŋhídstrong, disagreeable odor
  ma-saŋhídrank, having a strong, disagreeable odor
Malay səŋitpungent --- of a smell that makes the nostrils smart
  mə-ñəŋit-kan hidoŋto curl up the nostrils at a bad smell

Note:   Also Toba Batak sa-l-ŋit ‘stinking, evil-smelling’, Old Javanese a-saŋit ‘with the smell of burning; burnt’, Javanese saŋit ‘overcooked, burned’.


*saŋ(e)lád to run aground, be beached, of a boat


PPh     *saŋ(e)lád to run aground, be beached, of a boat

Ilokano ma-i-saŋládto strand, hit the bottom, ground
  saŋlad-anairport; docking area
Aklanon sáŋeadto run aground (ship)
Agutaynen ma-taŋladto run aground on rocks, coral, or sand; for a boat to run over a rock in shallow water
Cebuano saŋládrun aground, stranded on the sand
Tausug mag-saŋládfor a vessel to run aground


PPh     *s<um>aŋ(e)lád to run aground, be beached

Ilokano s<um>aŋládto anchor; reach the shore; land (planes)
Agutaynen t<om>aŋladto run aground on rocks, coral, or sand
Tausug s<um>aŋládfor a vessel to run aground

Note:   Yakan saŋlad ‘to have run aground, gotten stuck (in shallow water or on rock, of boats’ is assumed to be a loan from a Central Philippine source.


*saŋelaR to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil


PMP     *saŋelaR to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil

Agta (Dupaningan) i-saŋlagto fry
Agta (Eastern) mag-sa-sáŋlagto fry; sizzle, hiss
Isneg saŋlāgto prepare coconut oil, by cooking the milk
Bontok ʔi-saŋlagto roast in a pan, as coffee or peanuts
Ifugaw (Batad) haŋlaga roasting spatula (made of wood or tin with a blade about fifteen centimeters long and ten centimeters wide, and with a handle about one meter long; used for roasting grains in a vat); the roast-quality of cereal grains
Casiguran Dumagat saŋlagto dry rice grain over a fire (so that it will become dry enough to pound; a necessary task when one cannot dry the grain in the sun because of poor weather
Ibaloy i-saŋdalto roast or parch something with dry heat (as coffee beans, peanuts in a cast-iron pot)
Ayta Abellan haŋayto toast (as insects for food)
Kapampangan saŋlayto toast (cacao or maize) (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol mag-saŋlágto fry grains such as rice or corn; to fry peanuts
Hanunóo sáŋlaytoasting
Masbatenyo mag-sanlág <Ato pop corn, roast rice
Waray-Waray pag-sanlág <Athe act of popping, as of corn or rice; the act of making popped corn or popped rice
  sanlágpopped corn; popped rice; fried rice
Hiligaynon mag-sánlag <Ato fry, to cook in oil (as in frying peanuts)
Cebuano saŋlágroast something in a pan with little or no oil (as coffee); action of roasting in a pan
Binukid sanlag <Ato roast something in a pan with little or no oil, stirring constantly
Mansaka sallag <Ato roast; to cook without water or lard
Tausug mag-saŋlagto toast or roast (food in a pan, without oil or water)
Murut (Timugon) ka-ka-salagjust slow-roasted (as fish)
  sa-salagto roast repeatedly
Ida'an Begak salagto smoke, roast
Iban selar(of fire) lick, touch, singe, burn
Malay selarbranding
Simalur saŋgalto roast, bake, cook
Nias man-salato roast
Minangkabau saŋlar ~ salarbroiling
Old Javanese saŋāto roast, bake, scorch
  saŋa-saŋanroasted food
Mongondow tondagto roast (of coffee, corn or peanuts) in a pan on the fire
Tialo tondagto roast (in ashes)
Balaesang no-nolato fry
Petapa Taje salag-ito fry
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *holayfry without oil
Buginese saŋgaraʔfried banana
Makassarese saŋgaraʔbaked, roasted; scorched, singed (of rice standing in the field)
Lamaholot səŋeʔto roast
Kambera hoŋuto bake, roast (as maize or coffee beans)
Rotinese se-senato fry or roast (meat or fish); to dry roast in a pan (corn, rice, millet, etc.
  se-sena noroast or bake grated coconut with sweet syrup
  se-sena-kbaking, frying, roasting
Tetun sonato roast; to fry
  sona-nbaked, fried, or roasted


PWMP     *ma-naŋelaR to stir-fry, dry roast

Isneg ma-naŋlāgto prepare coconut oil, by cooking the milk
Ifugaw (Batad) man-haŋlagto dry-roast cereal grains (maize, peanuts, young rice grains) in a pan or vat, without fat; it is usually stirred with a roasting spatula
Murut (Timugon) man-salagto slow-roast (as fish)
Toba Batak ma-naŋgar-naŋgar iŋkaucook vegetables with salt and pepper in water
Ampibabo-Lauje mo-nalagto fry


PMP     *s<in>aŋelaR food that is dry roasted

Isneg s<in>aŋlāgbroiling coconut milk
Bontok s<in>aŋlagsomething cooked in the saŋlag manner
Ifugaw (Batad) h<in>aŋlagfine roasted cereal
Bikol s<in>aŋlágfried rice
Masbatenyo s<in>anlágfried rice, popped corn
Waray-Waray s<in>anlágpopped corn; popped rice; fried rice
Cebuano s<in>aŋlágthing roasted (as peanuts)
Tausug s<iy>aŋlaggrated cassava roasted in a pan
Murut (Timugon) s<in>alagroasted meat, roasted fish
Old Javanese s<in>aŋāto roast, bake, scorch
Mongondow kacaŋ s<in>ondagroasted peanuts
Lamaholot s<ən>əŋeʔroasted


PWMP     *saŋelaR-an (gloss uncertain)

Ibaloy saŋdal-anto roast or parch something with dry heat
Makassarese saŋgarr-aŋto bake for, to bake with or in


PWMP     *saŋelaR-en what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil

Ifugaw (Batad) haŋlag-onto dry-roast cereal grains (maize, peanuts, young rice grains) in a pan or vat, without fat; it is usually stirred with a stirring spatula; to fry cooked rice, pork fat
Bikol saŋlag-onto fry grains such as rice or corn; to fry peanuts
Masbatenyo sanlag-óngrain to be roasted
Murut (Timugon) salag-onwhat is roasted

Note:   Also Tagalog saŋág ‘fried, roasted or toasted (referring to cereals)’, saŋág ~ s<in>aŋág ‘fried rice’, sáŋag-an ‘a pot or frying pan used for roasting or toasting grains’, Bikol sanlág ‘to fry grains such as rice or corn’, Maranao sendag ‘fry; consume, as fire does’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sandag ‘to roast something in a pan over the fire, raking it back and forth to ensure even roasting; to rake some substance back and forth’, Yakan mag-saŋlag ‘to roast something over a fire while stirring it (coffee beans, other seeds, grated cassava, rice, etc. is heated in a frying pan while being stirred; sometimes a little oil is added’ (< a Greater Central Philippine source), Sundanese ñaŋray ‘to roast (as coffee or peanuts, without oil)’, saŋray-an ‘shallow stone pan used to roast without oil’, Tae' saŋgaraʔ ‘fried banana’ (< Buginese), Muna saŋgara ‘fried or baked banana; bake or fry (bananas, yams)’ (< Buginese), Kambera hoŋu ‘to bake, fry, roast (as corn, coffee), to fry (fish, meat)’, Buli soŋor-a ‘roasted, popped (corn), fried without oil’ (said to be from Ternatan soŋara, although this form in a non-Austronesian North Halmahera language must also have been borrowed from a still-undetermined Austronesian source).

This word evidently contained schwa in the environment VC__CV, where it was subject to syncope in many daughter languages. Vowel syncope left an unstable medial cluster –ŋl-, and languages coped with this in various ways. In the Philippines many languages assimilated the nasal to the place of the liquid, producing –nl- either as the only form (Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Masbatenyo, Binukid) or as a variant of –ŋl- (Bikol). As a further step, in languages such as Maranao, Manobo (Western Bukidnon), or Mongondow, the liquid was replaced by d, thus conforming to the high frequency pattern of medial homorganically prenasalized stops. A similar strategy in languages of northern Sumatra and south Sulawesi preserved the velar nasal and assimilated the liquid to it as a voiced velar stop, as in Simalur saŋgal or Makassarese saŋgaraʔ. Tagalog saŋág may show cluster simplification, although it is just as likely that the loss of the liquid in this form is part of the larger pattern in which some instances of PAn *l became h or disappeared. Minangkabau salar and Malay selar show cluster reduction by deletion of the first consonant (except in the Minangkabau variant saŋlar), and forms in CMP languages show cluster reduction by deletion of the second consonant.

Malay and CMP languages appear to have undergone prepenultimate vowel neutralization to schwa while this word was still trisyllabic: *saŋelaR ([saŋəlar]) > səŋəlaR > səŋlaR > səlaR > Malay səlar (and presumably Minangkabau salar, with regular *ə > a); *saŋelaR ([saŋəlar]) > səŋəlaR > səŋlaR > səŋaR > sənaR > sonaR > Rotinese sena, Tetun sona, etc. The final vowel of Lamaholot səŋeʔ is evidently irregular, although the precise history of this form is unclear.

Finally, the meaning of this form does not seem to correspond exactly to any English term, as it refers to cooking in a frying pan without oil by rapidly stirring the contents to prevent burning, much as in stir-frying with a Chinese wok.


*saŋ(e)qát to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing


PPh     *saŋ(e)qát to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing

Ilokano saŋɁátland (distinguished from water); upland region; bank, ledge
  i-saŋɁátto carry up to a place; land; take to the mountains (a captive)
  na-saŋɁáthigh, steep
Ibaloy on-saŋɁatto arrive up above, to a high place (as climbers of a mountain, the souls of the dead by tradition on Mt. Pulag)
Bikol mag-saɁŋátto climb on top of something; to place something on top
Cebuano saŋɁátput something up somewhere (as an object on top of a fence so a dog can’t get it)


*saŋet intense, industrious


PWMP     *saŋet intense, industrious

Kenyah (Long Anap) saŋətindustrious, enthusiastic about working
Malay saŋatvery; extremely
Sundanese saŋetvery, seriously, ernestly; absolute
Old Javanese saŋəthigh degree, vehemence, intensity; very, intensely
  ma-saŋətvehement, harsh
  s<um>aŋət-ito treat (address) harshly
Javanese saŋetvery (much), considerable, altogether
Balinese saŋetheavy, grave, serious, hard, bad, worse, very
  saŋət-anmore grievous, harder, graver
Sasak saŋətvery, extreme; seriously ill

Note:   Also Maranao saŋat ‘serious’, Karo Batak me-saŋat ‘to a serious degree, vehement, very’ (both < Malay). Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *saŋet ‘excessive, very’, but given its relatively limited distribution the antiquity of this comparison is in doubt.


*saŋga hilt of knife or bolo; to support


PWMP     *saŋga hilt of knife or bolo; to support

Ilokano saŋgácollar or flange surrounding the base of the blade of a knife or bolo, and used to prevent it from entering deeper into the handle
Tagalog saŋgáprotective obstruction (to prevent falling off or being hit)
Iban saŋgasupport, hold up (by the arm)
Malay saŋgaprojecting guard or support; holder; catch
Javanese saŋgaa support, prop

Note:   Also Bikol saŋgáʔ ‘obstruct, block, barricade, bar’, Cebuano saŋgaʔ ‘be underneath something so that it supports or protects it’. *saŋga is perhaps a doublet of Dempwolff's (1934-38) *saŋgaq ‘defend oneself’ (to which he assigned Tagalog saŋgá and e.g. Ngaju Dayak saŋgah ‘support oneself’), but the meaning posited here shows noteworthy differences from that inferred by him.


*saŋgaq to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling


PWMP     *saŋgaq to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling

Itbayaten saŋga-ento catch with cupped hands
Ilokano saŋga-ento fend off; turn aside (with a sword); to shield; deflect
Casiguran Dumagat saŋgato stop something that is rolling
Pangasinan saŋgáto parry a blow
Ayta Abellan haŋgato be caught or hung on something when falling from a higher place
Bikol mag-saŋgáɁto bar, barricade, block; to detain or stand in the way of; to obstruct
Aklanon saŋgáɁbase, platform; dish of water used to keep ants from getting into another container on that dish
Cebuano sáŋgaɁbe underneath something so that it supports or protects it; put something under something else; catch something dripping or falling with a container
Maranao saŋgaɁto block
Ngaju Dayak saŋgahwhat is leaned against; give support to; render aid to someone
Bahasa Indonesia saŋgahreject, turn back, oppose; protest, have a different view or opinion

Note:   Also Iban saŋga ‘support on hands or by arm, hold up; hence, rescue, pick up; (fig.) uphold or support in lawsuit’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Ngaju Dayak saŋgah to *saŋgaq ‘defend oneself’.


*saŋgul hair bun, wear the hair in a bun (of women)


PWMP     *saŋgul dress the hair (of women); hair bun

Kapampangan saŋgulbraid, hair bun
  ma-ñaŋgulto braid the hair or put it in a bun
Bikol mag-saŋgólto cut the hair short when in mourning
Malay (Sumatra) saŋgul saŋgulhair in a loose twist
  siput saŋgulcoils or "buns" at the back of the head
Iban saŋgul(of women's hair) braid, plait, coil, dress, put up
Malay saŋguldressed hair; coiffure, when the hair is bound up at the back of the head and not allowed to hang down in a knot or queue; in Sumatra saŋgul = hair in a loose twist; in Malay saŋgul is generic for all coils on the head (several named varieties recognized)
  saŋgul siputcoils or “buns” at the back of the head (evidently from the shape resembling the coils of a snail’s shell)
Sundanese saŋgulhair knot, hair bun, coiffure
Javanese saŋgultraditional ladies' hairdo consisting of a smooth bun at the back of the head

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun saa-saŋul ‘anything in the form of a hair bun’. Given its rarity it is tempting to see this as a Malay loan distribution, but cognate forms are unknown in Tagalog or other Philippine languages that have borrowed from Malay. Moreover, Malay loans were normally acquired in a context of trade or religious proselytization, which involved virtually exclusive contact with men, leaving the question of why a word that referred to women’s coiffures would be borrowed far from its source location.


*saŋi molar tooth (?)


PPh     *saŋi molar tooth (?)

Yami saŋijawbone
Itbayaten sañijaw
Ilokano sáŋimolar tooth; pinna at base of palm blade
  ag-sáŋito have a toothache
  s<um>áŋito be bullheaded
Bontok sáŋichin; lower jaw
Ibaloy saŋitooth
  man-saŋito have teeth, esp. of artificial ones
  saŋi-anto put “teeth” into something, as harrow
Pangasinan saŋímouth


*saŋit anger; angry


PWMP     *saŋit anger; angry

Murut (Timugon) ma-saŋitfurious, fierce (as an animal)
  masa-saŋit‘hothead’, one who easily gets angry
  si-saŋitangry with one another
  saŋit-antime, place or reason for someone getting angry
Ida'an Begak saŋitto wail (at a funeral)
Ma'anyan saŋitangry
Malay (Kedah) saŋitspite; malice
Mongondow taŋitkind of song that is heard, for example, during the demolition of the scaffolding in the deathhouse of a prince
  mo-taŋitto sing such a dirge

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’. Although this word appears to contain a root that normally means ‘anger, irritation’ the reflexes in Ida'an Begak and Mongondow suggest that it referred as well to mourning, and hence grief.


*saŋkalan chopping block used to prepare food


PWMP     *saŋkalan chopping block used to prepare food

Tagalog saŋkálanchopping block used in the kitchen; (fig.) scapegoat, one made to bear the blame for the mistakes or sins of others
  i-saŋkálanto use as a block for cutting or chopping meat, etc.; to place on a block, referring to something to be cut or chopped
  saŋkalán-anto make use of a chopping block
Mapun saŋkāna cutting board (as for chopping fish)
Tausug saŋkalana (kitchen) chopping board
Ngaju Dayak saŋkalana chopping block on which one minces meat or fish
Iban seŋkalanboard for crushing spices on, kitchen board, chopping block
Malay səŋkalanslab or block of wood (often well-carved) used by cooks when grinding down curry spice
Toba Batak saŋkalanchopping board for meat

Note:   Also Malagasy akálana ‘a chopping block’, Iban eŋkalan ‘chopping block or board’, Karo Batak saŋkalen ‘chopping block’. Possibly a loan distribution from Malay.


*saŋkap well-equipped, having what one needs to do live or do a job


PPh     *saŋkap well-equipped, having what one needs to do live or do a job

Ayta Abellan haŋkaputensils (as plates, cups, etc.)
  ka-haŋkap-anhousehold goods (furniture, cooking utensils, comb, iron, tools, baskets, etc.
Tagalog saŋkápcomponent part; element
  ka-saŋkápsaid of any material used in combination with another or others
Bikol saŋkápcomponent, constituent, element, ingredient, part; complete, all-inclusive
  mag-saŋkápto add an ingredient or component; to equip
Aklanon sáŋkaptool, utensil; well-equipped, complete, having all that is needed
Maranao saŋkapcomplete in equipment
Binukid saŋkapto equip someone or something with necessary tools, etc.; to be equipped
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ne-saŋkapto be fitted or equipped with whatever one needs
Mansaka saŋkapcomplete, equipped
Tausug sakapready, prepared

Note:   Also Malay ləŋkap ‘complete; having all its parts or requisites’, mə-ləŋkap-i ‘to fit out’. Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ayta Abellan.


*saŋkut entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled


PWMP     *saŋkut entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled

Tagalog saŋkótimplication; involvement; being implicated or involved
  ka-saŋkótinvolved, implicated
  mag-saŋkótto involve; to implicate; to drag into; to entangle; to get someone involved or entangled; to incriminate; to charge or connect with a crime; to link; to be linked or connected with; to unite or connect
  máka-saŋkótto be involved or implicated in an affair
  má-saŋkótto be entangled, to be involved
  s<um>aŋkótto involve oneself in a quarrel; to become involved or embroiled in a quarrel
Maranao saŋkotencumbrance
Iban saŋkutcatch on, hook up, stick on; hence hinder
Malay saŋkutcatching up; holding up; of a hook (saŋkut-an) for catching up a mosquito curtain, or on which anything can be hung; of a row of clothes-pegs (pə-ñaŋkut kain); of being choked by a thing stuck in the throat (mati tər-saŋkut); or of being very much attached to another (tər-saŋkut hati)
Bahasa Indonesia tər-saŋkut hativery much attached to another person
  bər-saŋkutconnected with, involved with
  bər-saŋkut-aninvolved with, implicated
Toba Batak saŋkuta hook
Javanese ke-saŋkutto get caught or snagged; (fig.) to get involved
  saŋkut-ankite-flying contest (object is to entangle the other kite or cut its string)
  ñaŋkutto catch or hook onto; to involve, drag in


*saŋsáŋ to confront one another, as in a dispute


PPh     *saŋsáŋ to confront one another, as in a dispute     [doublet: *suŋsuŋ₁]

Ibaloy man-saŋsaŋto face one another (implies opposition, hostility, as in disputes, court cases, opposing politicians)
Pangasinan man-saŋsáŋto discuss something, debate, argue
Bikol mag-saŋsáŋ-anto criticize someone in print, on the radio, etc.
Aklanon sáŋsaŋbe harsh on, be stern with
Maranao sansaŋto oppose, go against; hit, as swords in fencing
Tausug s<um>aŋsaŋto go against (a current of water or wind)


*sáŋu to scent, as an animal following prey


PPh     *sáŋu to scent, as an animal following prey

Agta (Eastern) sáŋoto scent (animal using nose to seek or track prey)
Casiguran Dumagat sáŋoto scent (of an animal using the nose to seek or track prey)
Bikol sáŋoodor, smell; whiff
  ma-sáŋoto get a whiff of; to catch a scent of
Maranao saŋo-aʔsmell, odor


*sao kind of long tom


POC     *sao kind of long tom

Lukep (Pono) sauneedlenose fish
Gedaged saolong tom: Strongylura incisa
Takia saokind of long tom
Halia soa <Mgarfish, needlefish
Tikopia sao-saojuvenile Sphyraena sp.
Niue hao-haotrumpetfish
Samoan sao-saokind of fish, said to be predatory and dangerous
Tokelauan hao-haoSphyraena forsteri

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Osmond (2011:52)


*sapa what?


PMP     *sapa what?     [doublet: *apa]

Iban sapainterrogative pronoun: who? what?
Lampung sapawho/which?
Moronene hapawhat?
Helong sawhat?
Dobel yawhat?
Buruese sapa-nwhat?
Kayeli saha-nwhat?
Soboyo saawhat?, something
Nauna cahwhat?
Lenkau sahwhat?
Loniu cahwhat?
Nali sahwhat?
Titan cahwhat?
Ponam sawhat?
Lindrou sa-sahwhat?
Bipi cahwhat?
Mussau saawhat?
Tanga sawhat?
Label sawhat?
Labu sawhat, which
Suau sahawhat?
Motu daha-kawhat?
Mekeo (East) kapawhat?
Saliba sahawhat?
Nehan hawawhat?
Mono-Alu aha-nawhat?
Babatana avawhat?
Bugotu havainterrogative pronoun, what? Used also as indefinite, whatever, anything
Nggela havawhat, whatever, which, any, either, of that sort, of what sort
Talise savawhat?
Lau tafawhat?
Arosi tahainterrogative pronoun, what?
Gilbertese rasuffix of interrogation: what?, which?
Pohnpeian da:interrogative, what?
Mokilese dainterrogative, what?
Lehalurup sapwhat?
Mota savasomething; interrogative pronoun, what?; of a kind, what kind?; any kind whatever
  sava-ia thing of what sort?; in what condition?
Sakao ayawhat?
Tolomako savawhat?
Amblong savawhat?
Wayan ava ~ yavawhat? Questions the identity of things other than time..., position ..., persons and personal names..., quantity..., manner
Fijian cavainterrogative pronoun and adjective, what?, which?
  vaka-cavain what way?, how?, how is it that?, \ why?
  i-cava-ia thing for what purpose?

Note:   Also Chamorro hafa ‘what, question word; also used in common greetings’, Kwaio, Toqabaqita, Sa'a taa ‘what?’, Tongan ‘interrogative, what?’, Samoan ā ‘be (like) what?, be how?’. Much of the Oceanic material cited here was first noted by Pawley (1972:78). Given the rarity of non-Oceanic reflexes it must be asked whether Iban sapa could be a shortening of si-apa, as in Malay si-apa ‘who?’. However, given the person marker *si this could only be a personal interrogative, and the history of the Iban form therefore remains unclear.


*sápad hand of bananas


PPh     *sápad hand of bananas

Yami sapadbunch, unit for bananas; an entire stalk of bananas is called asa a kayo
Itbayaten sapadcluster (especially of bananas); one sapad consists of five to ten bananas, and ten to twenty sapads make saa-kayoh [lit. ‘one tree’]
Ibatan sapada hand of bananas
Ilokano sápadhand of bananas (holding the bulig, or bunch)
Kankanaey sápadhand of bananas --- a part of the whole bunch, about twelve bananas (cf. búlig)
Ifugaw hápadbunch of betel nuts, grapes, cluster of bananas or other fruits
Ifugaw (Batad) hāpada unit measure of a hand of bananas
Casiguran Dumagat sapadhand of bananas; to cut the hands of bananas off of the stalk (buleg)
Ibaloy sapadhand of bananas
Ayta Abellan sapalhand of bananas
Bikol sápada bunch of bananas
Hanunóo sápadsmall bunch, or hand, of bananas; classifier for same
Romblomanon sāpadhand of bananas
Masbatenyo sápadhand of bananas
  mag-sápadseparate hands of bananas from stalk (this means to do it byh removing a whole hand at a time)
Waray-Waray sapádbunch, cluster
Maranao sapadorchard, plants with fruits


PPh     *sapád-an (gloss uncertain)

Ibatan sapad-anthe place on the stem where the hands of bananas are separated
Bikol sapád-anto pick from the fruiting stem one bunch of bananas
Maranao sapad-angarden


PPh     *sapád-en to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk

Ilokano sapád-ento detach by hand (bananas)
Ibaloy sapad-ento separate a bunch of bananas into hands
Bikol sapád-onto remove a bunch of bananas from the fruiting stem

Note:   Also Ibaloy sapal ‘hand of bananas’, Tombonuwo sapad ‘segment of sugarcane or bamboo’. Although this term has been noted so far only in Philippine languages and in one language of Sabah, where is may be a loan from a Greater Central Philippine language, it contrasts with reflexes of the more widely-distributed *buliR, which often refers to an entire stalk or stem of bananas in Philippine languages. In at least Proto-Philippines these two terms may thus have operated as classifiers for units of size with bunches of fruit (‘hand’ vs. ‘stalk’ in relation to bananas).


*sapaD flat (of things that are expected to rounded), flat on one side


PWMP     *sapaD flat (of things that are expected to rounded), flat on one side

Ilokano sapádcrewcut; flat on one side (heads)
Tagalog sapádflat; flattened; having irregular flatness (said of things that are expected to be more rounded)
Iban saparsplit or strip from round to leave flat surface; rive; hence flat-sided, strips removed (as from cane)


*sapak crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking


PMP     *sapak crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking     [disjunct: *cep(e)qak]

Kapampangan aspákcrack
Tagalog sápaksplit something lengthwise, esp. along the grain, break off (said of tree branches)
Manggarai capaktear off; amputate; split


*sa(m)pak branch


PWMP     *sa(m)pak branch

Maranao sapakbranch
Iban sapaktwin, double
Mori sampabranch


*sapal able to cope, able to handle things


PPh     *sapal able to cope, able to handle things

Ibaloy sapal-anto be able to attend to all one’s duties, cope with one’s work
Tagalog sápalof no match; having no chance to win against a superior opponent
Cebuano sapálback up someone’s obligations; take charge or care of another person’s needs; be enough to cover expenses


*sapaŋ a tree: Caesalpinia sappan


PWMP     *sapaŋ a tree: Caesalpinia sappan

Ilokano sapáŋtree with yellow flowers and red bark: Caesalpinia sappan
  sapaŋ-ánto color nets; poison fish
Ibaloy sapaŋkind of tree; slivers of its wood are boiled to make a red tea
Pangasinan sapáŋtree used in dyeing and staining; dye
Minangkabau sapaŋa low thorny tree with yellow flowers: Caesalpinia sappan; it produces sappan wood which is cut to pieces and boiled to produce a red dye
Old Javanese sampaŋname of a tree of which the resin is used for perfumery

Note:   Also Malay səpaŋ ‘a low thorny tree with yellow flowers: ‘Caesalpinia sappan; it produces sappan wood which is cut to pieces and boiled to produce a red dye’. Possibly a Tamil loan (Wilkinson 1959:1076).


*sapaq₁ stream, river


PAN     *sapaq₁ stream, river

Favorlang/Babuza sapāriver
Casiguran Dumagat sapapond; stagnant water
Ayta Abellan hapasmall stream; lake
Tagalog sápaɁbrook; rivulet; small stream (shallow, and may have water only during rainy season)
Bikol sápaɁstream, rivulet
Hanunóo sápaɁriver
Aklanon sapáɁpond, small lake
  sapáɁ-sápaɁpond, very small lake
  sapáɁ-sapáɁ-anoverflooded in areas, covered with puddles, ponds
Hiligaynon sapáɁcreek, brook; lake
Cebuano sápaɁbrook or creek
Mamanwa sapaʔriver
Tausug sapaʔa small river, stream
Samal sapaʔriver
Ida'an Begak sapaɁwater
Mongondow tapaʔbrook, creek


*sapaq₂ oath, pledge; curse


PWMP     *sapaq₂ oath, pledge; curse     [doublet: *sumpaq]

Maranao sapaʔoath; swear
Tiruray safaʔto swear an oath
Tausug s<um>apato swear (an oath), take an oath
Ngaju Dayak sapaabuse, scolding; cursed by an oath


*sapaq₃ chewed betel quid


PWMP     *sapaq₃ chewed betel quid

Ilokano sapáresidue of chewed betel
Bikol mag-sapáɁto munch on, to chew
Malay sapahquid of betel


PPh     *sapaq-en to spit out chewed betel quid

Ilokano sapa-ento spit out chewed betel
Bikol sapaɁ-ónto munch on; to chew


*sapat to put above


PPh     *sapat to put above

Yami sapatto put above
  pa-sapat-anstorage shelf
  pa-sapat-ento be put above by someone
Itbayaten sapatidea of being carried atop of something
Ilokano sápattop, summit, peak
  s<um>ápatto go to the top, ascend; reach the second half; pass the medidian (sun)
Isneg tápatan ordinary basket suspended from the ceiling and empty; it is taken down at the time of a girl’s marriage for storing the sweets that are brought to the groom’s house
Ibaloy i-sapatto put something up to a higher place --- especially of putting rice bundles up into the attic granary or on the sapat-an drying rack; more broadly, of putting cargo on top of a bus
Pangasinan sapátplace something on top of table, roof, etc.
  on-sapátto mount a horse
Mansaka sapatto be above, to put up above
Proto-East Gorontalic *sapatoto put something above something else

Note:   Also Isneg i-sapɁát ‘to lay something on (a shelf, etc .), Ibaloy saɁpat ‘to place farther up, especially of terrain (as houses farther up the mountain)’.


*sapát sufficient, enough


PPh     *sapát sufficient, enough

Casiguran Dumagat sapátsufficient, enough, adequate
Tagalog sapátample; enough; adequate; decent; sufficient; enough; as much as is needed

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan.


*sapaw field hut


PAN     *sapaw field hut

Paiwan tapawhouse in fields
  ta-tapav-antrace or ruin of where a single house formerly stood
Itbayaten sapaw-anridgepole, ridgepiece (one of the pillars attached to roof of house)
Ilokano sápawshade, shelter, screen, cover hut
  mannápawnonvenomous snake found in thatched roofs of temporary huts, built for watching crops and afterwards abandoned
Ida'an Begak sapowroof
Belait sapawthatch, roof
Kelabit aporoof
Kayan hapauleaf thatch of roof
Bintulu sapawroof
  sapaw raʔunroof thatch
Melanau (Mukah) sapawpalm-leaf thatch
Ngaju Dayak sapawroof
Ma'anyan hapawroof
Malay sapautemporary hut put up for the night by travellers in the jungle
Karo Batak sapo page, sapo rumahrice granary on poles
  sapo-sapo jumafield hut
Proto-South Sulawesi *sa(m)pohouse
Buginese saohouse
Buginese (dial.) sapofence
  sappobamboo structure around a well so one may bathe unobserved
Makassarese sapohouse
Popalia sapohouse

Note:   Also Malagasy táfu ‘a roof, a raised cover’, vua-táfu ‘thatched, roofed; covered’, Malay sapar ‘temporary hut’, Toba Batak sopo ‘rice-barn’. Mills (1981:75) gives PAn *sa(m)paw ‘house, hut’, but following Benedict (1975) cites Paiwan tapaw erroneously as tsapaw.


*sapay drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth


PAN     *sapay drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth

Puyuma sapayhang astride, across
  s<əm>apayto hang, as clothes across a bar
  sapay-anayto hang, as clothes over a man’s shoulder


PMP     *sampay₁ drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth

Tagalog sampáyclothes (laundry) hanging on a line, etc.
  i-sampáyto hang clothes (laundry) on a line, etc.
  taga-sampáya person whose job it is to dry clothes by hanging them on a clothesline
Cebuano sampáyhang laundry out; put up in someone else’s place, cause one to do so
  sampáy-sampáybe shoved around from home to home as a dependent
Malagasy sampian idol, a charm, probably so called from its being carried or hung on the neck
Malay sampayhanging loosely
  ber-sampay-anhung out to dry
Talaud sampeto hang on rope
Karo Batak samperemain hanging, as a stick that someone has thrown into a tree
Toba Batak sampe-sampean outer garment, like a shawl that is draped over the shoulder
Sangir ma-nampeto hang
  sa-sampea hanger, thing used for hanging
Proto-South Sulawesi *sampeto hang up
Makassarese sampewooden saddle hung over the back of a pack animal, to which the load is hooked
Buruese sapato hang


PMP     *sampay-an clothesline, place to hang washed clothing

Tagalog sampay-anclothesline
Ngaju Dayak sampay-ana rope, pole, etc. on which one hangs something
Malagasy sampáz-anato be hung up upon, as garments placed across a line, the braces over the shoulders, epaulets, etc.
Malay sampay-an kainclothesline
Uma hampe-abamboo pole over which mats are hung (in the house)


POC     *sape carry by a strap over the shoulder

Tongan hafeto carry by means of a strap or rope, etc. across the shoulder (as one carries a haversack)
Futunan safebe slung over the shoulder

Note:   Also Malay ampay ‘loose suspension; hanging and swaying, of a swaying python, a line for hanging out clothes, tentacles, such as those of the jellyfish, treading water, etc.; to hang clothes out to dry; to lay mown grass to dry on the little dykes in the ricefields; to carry on a sling’, səlampay ‘wearing so that it dangles, especially of wearing the ceremonial shoulder-cloth so that it hangs down on either side of the shoulder; also of any cloth hanging loosely over the shoulder.


*sape₂ abortion


POC     *sape₂ abortion

Arosi tahean abortion
Maori taheabortion
  whaka-taheto cause to abort

Note:   Maori tahe is assumed to contain the third palatal reflex of Polynesian languages. Alternatively, this comparison may be a product of chance.


*sapela tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas


PWMP     *sapela tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas     [doublet: *sapeled, *peled]

Cebuano sapláslightly bitter in taste with an astringent effect, as unripe bananas; get this taste in one’s mouth; for unpolished cereals to be rough on the tongue when eaten
Tausug ma-saplacoarse, rough to the touch; (esp. of dry food on the tongue); coarse (in texture); unpleasant (to the ear)
Malay (Java) səpainsipid; tasting “woody” (of tubers)


*sapeled tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits


PWMP     *sapeled tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits     [disjunct: *sapelet]

Bikol ma-saplóddescribing the taste of fruits eaten out of season and therefore lacking a true full-bodied flavor
Hanunóo saplúdtaste of unripe bananas; acridity of such unripe fruits
  ma-saplúdacrid, tasting like unripe bananas
Cebuano saplúdslightly bitterish in taste; get a bitterish taste (as some beers)
Tiruray sefeled(of a taste) acrid, astringent
Malay sepatharsh, acid, tart, of taste
Malay (Jakarta) sepatharsh, acid, tart, of taste
Mongondow topoḷod ~ topoyodpuckering up, of taste

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-sapred ‘not slippery, to be resisting movement on the surface, rough, coarse’, Casiguran Dumagat saphəd ‘tasteless (of the dry, dead taste of an unripe banana or guava, or of the betel nut)’, Aklanon ma-sápea ‘rough tasting, having foreign matter (like rice which has not been cleaned very well)’, Tausug sapla ‘coarse, rough to the touch (esp. of dry food on the tongue); coarse (in texture); unpleasant (to the ear)’, Sangir pəlladəʔ ‘tart, acid; not sour, but puckering up’.


*sapelet tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits


PWMP     *sapelet tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits     [disjunct: *sapeled]

Bontok saplətto leave a residue in the mouth after eating, as balókok (tree with edible leaves and fruit)
Sundanese səpətnot smooth; tart, acid
Old Javanese səpəttart (taste), acid
Javanese sepettart, sour
Balinese səpətunripe, raw, tart, not easily eaten; fig., be angered
  səpət-inbe infuriated by words
  səpət-anfury at biting words
  səpət-səpətspecies of plant whose fruit is ground up and used in the ointment boreh (kind of face powder)
Sasak səpətpuckering up, of taste; tart, sour
  səpət-inspeak to someone in anger


*sap(e)nut viscous; thick, of liquids


PPh     *sap(e)nut viscous; thick, of liquids

Pangasinan sapnótnot slippery, slightly sticky (of a surface)
Mansaka sapnotthick (as liquids); congealed


*sap(e)quy gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind


PWMP     *sap(e)quy gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind

Kalinga (Guinaang) sapɁúy-anto blow (as on a fire)
Itneg (Binongan) sapɁóyto blow (as on a fire)
Malay səpuy ~ səpuhi <Mblowing softly, of the breeze
  aŋin səpuy-səpuygentle breeze

Note:   Also Northern Kankanaey (Reid 1971) sipɁóy ‘to blow (as on a fire)’, Tagalog haŋin simoy ‘breeze; a gentle or soft wind (often used with hangin)’, Bahasa Indonesia sepoy-sepoy ‘gentle and cool (of the wind)’.


*sapet grab with the hand, catch


PAN     *sapet grab with the hand, catch

Amis capetto grab with the hand; catch
Maranao sampetfind, take hold of


POC     *sabot to catch, as a thing thrown

Tongan hapoto catch (a ball, etc.)
Niue hapoto catch a thing thrown
Samoan sapoto catch (ball, etc.)

Note:   Also Maranao sampen ‘catch, take hold of’.


*sapín lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing


PPh     *sapín lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing     [doublet: *hapin]

Ilokano sapíndrawers; underpants; panties; trousers
  sapin-ánto cover for protection from wetness; to put sapín on someone
Itawis sapínunderlayer
Casiguran Dumagat sapínunderlayer, covering, protective underlayer (as a blanket under a horse’s saddle, or a cloth on one’s shoulder to cushion a heavy pole he is carrying); to put a cushion between something; to saddle a horse
Pangasinan sápinsaddle cloth
Tagalog sapínpad; padding; cushion
  i-sapínto use something as an underlayer (especially for protection)
  mag-sapínto use a protective underlayer; use a protective holder for handling hot objects like a pot, kettle, etc.
  sapin-án ~ sapn-ánto put a protective underlayer or undercloth on something
  sapin-ín ~ sapn-ínto use something as a protective underlayer
  sapín-sapínlayer upon layer
Bikol sapínlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer
  mag-sapínto line (as shelves, boxes); to pad, insulate
Aklanon sapínshoes
Waray-Waray sapínshoes; protective underlayer or overlayer
Cebuano sapínfootgear: shoes, slippers, boots, but not socks; diaper

Note:   Also Isneg sapín ‘trousers, pants’ (< Ilokano). English (1986) claims that Tagalog sapín is a borrowing of Spanish chapin ‘clogs’. This interpretation is supported by semantic matches in Pangasinan, Aklanon and Waray-Waray sapín ‘shoes’, but the meaning in most languages diverges markedly from that of the supposed original, and the claim seems a priori unlikely in view of the apparent PMP doublet *hapin. If this is in fact a Spanish loan its meaning has been reshaped in many languages by contamination with phonetically and semantically similar native forms reflecting *hapin.


*sapiq agreement, harmony


PWMP     *sapiq agreement, harmony

Tagalog sápiɁmembership, act of becoming a member; joining, uniting
  ka-sápiɁmember; one who belongs to a group
  maki-sápiɁto join as a member
Ngaju Dayak sapihin accordance, just so, like
Toba Batak sapito agree with; rhyme
  par-sapi-honbring into harmony or conformity

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sapiq ‘association, club’, but the status of this form remains questionable.


*sapit clamp, pinch together


PWMP     *sapit clamp, pinch together

Murut (Timugon) sapitclip, as for the hair
Old Javanese s<in>apitto clasp, clench, pinch, hold tight
Javanese sapittongs, pincers
  ñapitto pick up with tongs, as a glowing coal

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*sapsap chip off, cut off bit by bit


PWMP     *sapsap chip off, cut off bit by bit

Bontok sapsápto chip wood with an axe or adze; to smooth a rough surface
Ifugaw haphápact of chopping pieces of wood, especially boards, to make their surface even and smooth, using a knife if no plane is available
Pangasinan sapsápto chip off, rasp; splinter, chip produced by rasping or adzing wood
Aklanon sápsapchip, piece of; to chip off, get a piece of
Hiligaynon mag-sápsapto chop so as to make even, to smoothen
Cebuano sapsápto trim down a piece of wood by chipping pieces off (as a stake to make it sharper)
Binukid sapsapto shave the bark or peeling from something (as sugarcane)
Mansaka sapsapto scrape, to trim (as a tree)
Kadazan Dusun sasapto chip off, scrape off bit by bit (as with a knife
Balinese sapsapto wipe off, sweep off; sweep together


PWMP     *ma-ñapsap to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit

Karo Batak napsap-ito cut short, of the hair; to scrape off, as the galuŋi (dykes or bunds) in a paddy field
Toba Batak ma-napsapto cut off (as the ear of a thief)
Old Javanese a-nasapto level, raze to the ground


PWMP     *s<in>apsap (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano s<in>apsápchips of wood which result from this process
Old Javanese s<in>apsapto level, raze to the ground


PWMP     *sapsap-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano sapsap-ánto trim the joints
Balinese sapsap-aŋbe wiped off for someone


PWMP     *sapsap-en be rasped or cut off (?)

Ilokano sapsap-énto rasp or scrape
Kadazan Dusun sapsap-onto be cut off (of tree bark)


*sapsáp fish sp., slipmouth: Leiognathus sp.


PPh     *sapsáp fish sp., slipmouth: Leiognathus sp.

Ilokano sapsápgumabbék fish in fresh water (gumabbék = slipmouth, Leiognathidae family)
Pangasinan sapsápkind of edible fish with flat, circular body
Tagalog sapsápa species of slipmouth fish
Bikol sapsápsmall silver disk-shaped saltwater fish
Aklanon sápsapfish sp.
Maranao sapsapfish of sardine family --- thin fleshed
Subanon sapsapmoonfish

Note:   Central Sama sapsap ‘slipmouth: Leiognathus sp.’ is assumed to be a borrowing from a Greater Central Philippines language.


*sapu to wipe off or brush off; broom


PMP     *sapu to wipe off or brush off; broom

Bikol mag-sapóto sweep back in place with the hand (as fallen bits of rice); to push back the hair from the forehead with the hand
Cebuano sapúto wipe, put something back in place using the hands
Maranao saporub, fondle, scrape off
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) saputo rub something with the hand; to brush something off with the hand
Kadazan Dusun saputo wipe
  a-sapucan be wiped
  sopuv-onto be wiped out (opponents)
Tombonuwo sapubroom
Lun Dayeh afuha broom
  ŋ-afuhto sweep with a broom
Kelabit apuhbroom
  n-apuhto sweep
Malagasy vua-safu-safucoaxed, rubbed in, patted, tapped; to be spied out; to be brushed
Iban saputo brush, sweep, wipe
Malay sapubrushing lightly over anything (of sweeping a room, painting, distempering or varnishing)
Gayō sapubroom
  mu-ñaputo sweep with a broom
Karo Batak sapu-sapubroom
  naputo sweep
  napu-ito sweep something, as a floor
Dairi-Pakpak Batak sapubroom
  mer-sapu darohsmeared with blood
  sapu-ito sweep something
Toba Batak sapubroom
Sundanese saputhe part of the rice straw that is cut off with the panicle; further: broom, brush (of rice straw, but also in general)
Old Javanese sapubroom
  sapu matasomething to wipe the eyes with
  a-naputo sweep, sweep away, slash
  a-napu-naputo sweep, clean with a broom
Javanese sapubroom
  ñaputo sweep
  sapu-nsweeping to be done
Balinese saputo sweep (floors)
  sapu jagadhair or dress that trails on the ground
Sasak saputo sweep
Sangir sa-sapubroom
Tialo sapu-ito sweep
Tae' saputo sweep, sweep up, slowly pass the open hand over something (as in stroking or wiping)
  sapu-isweep away with a broom
  sapu-i palaɁsweep something away with the palm of the hand, meaning rid oneself of something, curse someone so severely that a relationship with the speaker is no longer possible
Proto-South Sulawesi *saputo rub, wipe
Mandar saputo coat, smear on
Rembong sapubroom; to sweep; to finish off
Leti saputo sweep (thought to be from Malay)
Mayá ꞌsa¹²broom
Motu dahu-ato rub, wipe
Lau tafuto brush off, brush against


PWMP     *ma-ñapu to sweep with a broom

Toba Batak ma-naputo sweep with a broom
Sangir ma-naputo sweep
Tialo mo-naputo sweep


PWMP     *s<in>apu swept away

Lun Dayeh in-afuhswept with a broom by someone
Old Javanese s<in>apusweep

Note:   Also Balinese ñapuh ‘to sweep’, sapuh-aŋ ‘sweep it!’, Sasak sapuh ‘to sweep. Some of these forms may be Malay loanwords, but it is unlikely that this problem is widespread enough to invalidate the comparison. Dempwolff (1938) also included Samoan safu ‘broom’, but no such form appears in either Pratt (1878), which was Dempwolff’s source, nor in Milner (1966). The source of this error remains unclear, although it may have arisen from a miscopying of Samoan salu ‘to sweep’. The relationship of Motu dahu-a to the other forms cited here may be due to chance.


*sapuk fine dust, airborne dust


PMP     *sapuk fine dust, airborne dust     [doublet: *apuk]

Pangasinan sapókatom; fine dust carried by the wind
Singhi Land Dayak sapokdust (litter)
Nggela savu, sau-savucloudy, hazy


*sa(m)puk collide, bump into


PWMP     *sa(m)puk collide, bump into     [doublet: *sempuk]

Casiguran Dumagat sapukto slap with the open palm
Tagalog sapóka straight box in the face
Bikol sámpokbump into
Hanunóo sámpukfight, especially cock-fighting
Yakan ta-sampukto hit something (with the foot)
  s<um>ampukto stub the toe
Malay sampokrun up against, run right into
Malay (Jakarta) sampokcollide from the side

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.


*sapul to begin, start at the beginning


PPh     *sapul to begin, start at the beginning

Casiguran Dumagat sapulto begin; since; starting place or time
Tagalog sapólat the very beginning; at the very root; since; ever since; straight or direct
  mag-sapólto start at the very beginning


*sapulu bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp.


POC     *sapulu bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp.

Kove ravulukind of razor shell
Bugotu havuluscallop
Nggela havuluspecies of mollusc, Pelecypod, Pinna
Lau tafuluspecies of mollusc
Sa'a tehuluthe black mussel, used in the manufacture of bow bonito hooks
Arosi tahuruspecies of black mussel used in making bonito hooks
Fijian savulua shellfish: Pinna squamosa

Note:   Also ‘Āre’āre tahuri ‘a black mussel’, Toqabaqita fulu ‘shellfish with black shell’. This comparison was first noted by Pawley (2011:195), who proposed *sapulu(q); I have adopted his reconstruction, but without explicit recognition of the ambiguity.


*sapúpu hold in the lap, as a small child


PPh     *sapúpu hold in the lap, as a small child

Yami sapopohold on the lap or against the chest (as a young child)
  sapopo-enhold on the lap or against the chest
Casiguran Dumagat sampúputo carry something with the arms out in front of the body
Ayta Abellan hampopoto carry a child, person or other things in the arms
Tagalog sapúpoheld, sustained or supported by the palms of the hands
  s<in>ápupu-n-ánbosom; lap; womb
Hanunóo sapúputaking on one’s lap or carrying in one’s arms, as a child
  mag-sapúputo take in one’s lap, or carry something or someone in one’s arms
Aklanon sapúpo(h)to nurse back to health; revive, help (the sick)
Hiligaynon mag-sapúputo take care of (as a small child)
Cebuano sapúpuhave, pick up something in one’s arms

Note:   Also Maranao sapipi ‘carry under the arm’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sepipi ‘carry on the hip; hold something in the arms, especially a child’, Binukid sapipi ‘to carry (something or a small child) on one’s hip’.


*sapuq allotment of meat after butchering an animal


PPh     *sapuq allotment of meat after butchering an animal

Ifugaw hápuallotment, apportionment, i.e. act of dividing things into two parts (not necessarily equal parts), and thus allotting one part to the kinship group of the husband and the other part to the kinship group of the wife; applied to butchered meat that has not been consumed in a festive banquet, but also to movable possessions, as jewels, in cases of divorce
Casiguran Dumagat sapoto butcher an animal
Ibaloy i-sapo(in butchering) to cut an animal into basic large portions, to quarter it
Ayta Abellan hapucut meat into pieces
Maranao sapoɁmeat, flesh, muscle
  sapoɁ-anfleshy, fat, plump
Binukid sapuɁflesh, meat; to cut up meat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sapuɁflesh; meat
Tiruray safuɁto dress meat
Manobo (Sarangani) sapoɁcut up the carcass of an animal
Mongondow tapuɁflesh (of people, animals, and fruit)


*sapút spiderweb; cobwebs


PPh     *sapút spiderweb; cobwebs

Ilokano sáputspiderweb; membrane
  ag-sáputto weave a web
  na-sapút-ancovered with cobwebs
Pangasinan sapótspiderweb
Waray-Waray sapótcobweb; snare

Note:   If the basic sense of this term is ‘to wrap in a spiderweb’ then it may be identical to PPh *saput₁ ‘burial shroud’. Pending further information I will assume that they are distinct.


*saput₁ burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse


PMP     *saput₁ burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse

Casiguran Dumagat sapótcloth used to wrap up a dead body
Tagalog sápotblack shroud for the dead
  mag-sápotto cover with a shroud; to conceal; to veil
Hanunóo sáputshroud, wrapping
  s<ar>aput-ʔan butʔulbone bundle (wrapped bones of the dead)
  sapút-unbe wrapped
Cebuano sapútclothes; wear clothes
  pa-napútattire, the kind of clothes one wears as opposed to the type worn by other classes or on other occasions
  saput-ánclothe something in something
Maranao sapotclothes, dress, cloth as bunting used to decorate
Mansaka sapotcloth, material; to wrap in cloth (as a corpse)
Tiruray safuta cloth
Yakan saputshroud, grave clothes (Yakans, as Muslims generally, do not bury their dead in coffins but wrapped in a white shroud; the body is then placed on a ledge dug in the side of the grave)
  mag-saputto shroud a corpse; wrap a body in grave clothes
Tausug saputa shroud, white cloth used to wrap a corpse for burial
Ngaju Dayak saputburial shroud (most Dayaks create their burial shrouds while they are still living)
Malay saputcovering over lightly; film; thin fleecy integument; ‘velvet’ on horns; thinly veiled (as the moon behind light clouds)
Toba Batak saputthe cloth in which one wraps a corpse; winding sheet
  ma-naput-iwrap something up
  saput-saputwrapper, covering for something
Sundanese saputcovering, as of gold
  sa-saput-ancompletely covered, as with gold overlay
Old Javanese saputcover, covering; a piece of cloth to cover the breasts
  s<um>aputto cover completely, cover everything; overwhelm; in overwhelming numbers
Balinese saputcover completely; a man’s loincloth; a cloth worn over other clothes, blanket, cloth cover
  saput-inbe covered by something
Mongondow taputburial shroud (for Muslims)
Pendau saputwhite burial cloth used on a corpse
Proto-South Sulawesi *sapu(t)to cover over
Manggarai caputto close, cover up


PWMP     *saput-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano sapút-anto involve; wrap; envelop
Tagalog sapút-anto cover with a shroud
Toba Batak saput-ana wrapped packet


*saput₂ to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned


PAN     *saput₂ to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned

Puyuma sapuTto pick up (as chicken feces)
Yami sa-sapotclamp made from betel nut sheaths
  sapot-enpick up with a clamp (as pots)
Itbayaten sapot-ento pick up with something so as not to be soiled or dirtied


*saqebit hook on to something; entangle


PMP     *saqebit hook on to something; entangle

Ilokano sabʔíthook, hanger
Isneg sabítbarb (of spears, etc.); a diminutive herb in the shape of a fishhook that grows on trees; it cures pain in the side
Casiguran Dumagat sabítfor a fishhook to get caught, snagged on something (either in the water, or up in a tree); to stick something between the leaves in the roof of a house
Pangasinan sabítthorn, spine, fish bone
  man-sabítto hang clothes, etc. on a peg
Kapampangan sábitto hang, dangle; cling
Tagalog sabítanything hanging from a peg or hanger; hooked or caught, esp. in the moral sense
  mápa-sabitto happen to be delayed at a neighbor’s place
  má-sábitto lodge; to get caught or stay high up in a place (e.g. a tree) without falling (as a kite)
Bikol ma-saʔbítto catch (as on a nail); to get caught; to lodge
Aklanon sábʔitto hang up (on the wall)
Waray-Waray sabʔítthe act of hanging something (as clothes) on a peg or the like; something fixed or attached to the wall for hanging things on; peg
Hiligaynon mag-sábʔitto hang to accidentally, to put on (as a flower in the hair)
Cebuano sabʔítput something small around something that holds it, or pierce with a hook; decorate with a medal hung from a ribbon put around the neck; put a curved thing around something to pluck or bring it down
Maranao sabitclasp, hook on
  sambitclasp ends together, exchange, interlock
Binukid sabʔitto hang something on a hook, etc.; to hook, catch on to something
Mapun sabitto have two or more lines, strings, or ropes crossing over each other, always touching and often slightly tangled (as kite strings that have crossed over each other)
Tausug sabit ~ saʔbita hook (anything used to snag something else)
  mag-sabitto cross an object over a like object, as one leg over the other, the ends of rope or thread, pieces of rattan, or grass used in weaving
Kadazan Dusun savithook onto, entangle
  ka-savitcan hang, hook onto, entangle
Iban sabitsmall silver or brass chains worn by women round the waist
  sabit bekaitCrooked Sickle, sea lawyer and trouble-maker of the heavens, always ready to settle disputes by fighting
Malay sabitreaping-hook; sickle; in harvesting with the sickle the rice stalks are cut about halfway up and built into small stacks (bumbun), the ears being thereby kept well off the ground and dry; seed-rice is harvested with the tuai
  pə-ñabitreaper; fig., stealer of heads for propitiating the earth-spirits when a great public work is undertaken, there being public scares (known as musim ikan səpat ‘seasons of headless fish’) when it is believed that heads are wanted for this purpose
Simalur sabidhook for pulling down fruit from a high branch
  ma-nabidto use such a hook
Karo Batak sabitkind of large sickle
Nias sabisickle
Rejang sabita sickle
Old Javanese sambitto hook, catch (also fig.)
Javanese sabitcrescent (as a crescent moon)
Balinese sabitcarry something under the arm against the body
Manggarai cabitreaping hook, sickle
Rembong sabitreaping hook, sickle
Lamaholot sawiʔcut grass with a sickle


PPh     *i-saqebít to hang on a hook, suspend from something

Ilokano i-sabʔítto hang from a hook, hook
Isneg i-sabʔítto hang on a hook
Bontok ʔi-sabʔítto hang up, of articles without handles, or rings used for hanging
Kankanaey ʔi-sabʔítto hang up, to hang upon, to hock; to catch, to catch in
Tagalog i-sabítto hang something on a nail, hook, stand or rack
Bikol i-saʔbítto hang something up (as on a wall); place something on a hook
Masbatenyo i-sábʔitto hang on a hook or any protruding thing
Agutaynen i-sabitto hang something up on a nail; to attach something to something; to pin something on something, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt; to be involved in something, be a part of
Binukid i-sabʔitto hang up (as pants on a nail in the wall)


PWMP     *s<um>abit to hook, catch onto something

Tagalog s<um>abítto be attached to something above; to be suspended; to get hooked on something in passing; to ride on the running board of a vehicle
Tausug s<um>abitfor something to hook, catch, or snag on something else
Kadazan Dusun s<um>avitto get entangled; to hang, hook onto


PPh     *saqebit-án to hook, as with a fishhook

Ilokano sabit-ánto pin a medal on
Kankanaey sabit-ánto hook with a fishhook
Tagalog sabit-ánhanger; a thing on which something else is hung; a hook, a stand or a rack for hanging things on
  sabít-anto use a hook, nail, etc. for hanging something on
Bikol sabit-ána hook; also referring to any place on which something can be hung
Masbatenyo sabʔit-ánto hook something
  sabʔít-ana hook; anything used for hanging things (hook, nail or anything protruding which can serve the purpose)
Cebuano sabʔit-án-ansomething onto which something is hooked
Maranao sabit-anbelt
  sambit-anbelt for persons
Mansaka sabit-annative belt
Tausug sabit-anto use a hook (especially for fishing); a cloth money belt (usually used by older men along with loose-fitting cotton trousers)

Note:   Yakan sabit-an ‘web belt (wide and stiff, predominantly green in color; it has a zippered pocket and is usually worn by older men)’ is assumed to be a loan from a Greater Central Philippines language.

Note:   Also Karo Batak sabi-sabi ‘sickle, grass knife’, Muna sabi ‘sickle’ (< Bahasa Indonesia). Manggarai cabit, Rembong sabit may be loans from Malagasy. With root *-bit ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*saq(e)buR to strew, sow, sprinkle


PMP     *saq(e)buR to strew, sow, sprinkle

Pangasinan sabólfountain, spring (of water)
Tagalog sábogscattering, dispersing; planting of seeds by scattering them; explosion; eruption, as of a volcano; dispersion, as of light; things scattered around
  sabógscattered; dispersed; widely separated from each other, as members of a family
  i-sábogto disseminate; to scatter like seed; to spread about; to plant seeds by scattering them
  mag-sábogto scatter; to throw loosely about; to throw here and there; to strew; to splash water on; to mix one liquid with another
Bikol i-sábogto sow by scattering seeds
  sabúg-anseed bed
Hiligaynon mag-sábɁugto scatter, to sow
Ngaju Dayak samburspray out (water from the mouth)
Malay saburconfusion; in scattered formation; wild mélée; of girls rushing wildly to the window to see a popular hero pass; also of a babel of sound, whether of music and singing, or of cries and lamentations; bespatter
Toba Batak saburstrewn out (as the stars across the night sky)
  sabur-onsowing time (the third month of the rice growing year)
Old Javanese sawurscattering, rain (of arrows)
  (p)a-sawurstrewing, spreading
  a-sawur-anscattering, dispersing, raining
  s<um>awurstrewn, spread, scattered
Javanese sawursmall objects (coins, rice, etc.) scattered before a funeral procession as it makes its way to the cemetery; to plant rice seeds by scattering them
  ñawurto bestrew something with small particles, e.g. sand
Sangir ma-sawuhəɁstrewn, scattered around
Uma hawuɁto strew
  pa-ti-hawuɁstrewn in every which direction
  ti-hawuɁspread, scattered, dispersed
Bare'e mo-tunda sawusit helter-skelter, not in a row
  man-cawuto strew, sow seed
Buruese safu-kto disseminate, sow


POC     *sapuR to strew, scatter, sprinkle

Nggela havuto scatter, as seeds
  havul-agito cause to be scattered
  havul-ito scatter or sprinkle water; to wash with water, as a canoe


PWMP     *ma-nabuR to strew, sow seeds

Toba Batak ma-naburto sow (seeds)
Sangir ma-nawuhəɁto strew, sow seeds


PWMP     *ka-sabuR-an (gloss uncertain)

Ngaju Dayak ka-sabur-anscattered, dispersed
Old Javanese ka-sawur-anto bestrew, strew on

Note:   With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow; sprinkle’.


*saq(e)gid touch or brush against


PPh     *saq(e)gid touch or brush against

Ilokano ságida touch
  ag-ságidto collide; brush up against; touch accidentally or incidentally
  ag-pas-pa-ságidto hang about the girls; haunt; (fig.) allude, insinuate
  pa-sagíd-anto hurt the feelings of; offend, wound
  s<um>ágidto meet casually, touch in passing; brush up against; (fig.) to be partly correct
  sagíd-ento touch; lay hands upon; hint to, tell casually
Ibaloy sagidto make contact with, touch, brush asgainst something with sufficient force to be felt
Bikol mag-saʔgídto sideswipe or brush against
  ma-saʔgid-ánto get sideswiped
Masbatenyo mag-ságʔidto rub against, brush against (as a water buffalo rubbing against a post)
Maranao sagidto pass by

Note:   Also Aklanon sághid ‘to strike, scrape against (like lighting a match); to graze’, Cebuano saghíd ‘to brush, come into light contact’.


*saq(e)ŋit snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling


PPh     *saq(e)ŋit snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling