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Updated: 5/31/2020

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*y   

ya    ye    yu    

ya

ya

yabyáb

yadyád

yagyág

yahuŋ

yakál

yamyám

yapyáp

yátab

yawyaw

33916

*ya nominative case marker for singular common nouns

12747

PAN     *ya nominative case marker for singular common nouns

Formosan
Kavalan yanominative marker
WMP
Isneg yathe definite article
Itawis yacommon singular and plural nominative and genitive particle
Sambal (Botolan) yatopic indicating particle (also used as relative pronoun)
Kalagan yamarker of definite predicate

Note:   Many thanks to David Zorc (p.c.) for pointing out a somewhat longer version of the Philippine portion of this comparison to me. Because it is so far the only PAn reconstruction that begins with *y, the question must be raised whether phonemically this might have been *ia The function of this case marker in relation to PPh *su ‘nominative case marker for singular common nouns’ (Blust 2015:449-451) remains unclear.

33917

*yabyáb to winnow by fanning

12748

PPh     *yabyáb to winnow by fanning     [doublet: *yapyap]

WMP
Ifugaw yabyába fan; the act of fanning; draft, breeze, winnow
Mansaka yabyábto winnow

33918

*yadyád to grate or shred foodstuffs

12749

PPh     *yadyád to grate or shred foodstuffs

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) yadyádto shred coconut
Bikol mag-yadyádto grate (sweet potato, squash)

12750

PPh     *yadyad-án coconut grater

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) yadyad-ána shredder
Bikol yadyad-ána grater

33919

*yagyág to trot, of a horse, to jog, of a person

12751

PPh     *yagyág to trot, of a horse, to jog, of a person

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat yagyágto trot (of a horse or person)
Tagalog pag-yagyágto trot; trotting; the motion of a trotting horse

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.

33920

*yahuŋ a bowl or wide cup

12752

PPh     *yahuŋ a bowl or wide cup

WMP
Ilokano yáoŋkind of wide, glazed china cup
Waray-Waray yahóŋbowl
Binukid yahuŋbowl

Note:   Possibly a Chinese loan, although the source remains unknown.

33921

*yakál the Philippine mahogony: Shorea or Hopea sp.

12753

PPh     *yakál the Philippine mahogony: Shorea or Hopea sp.

WMP
Ilokano yakálspecies of durable hardwood: Hopea sp.
Bontok yakála tall softwood tree, the mahogany: Hopea sp.
Tagalog yakála tree producing lumber of the first group: Hopea flagata
Aklanon yakála hardwood tree: Shorea gisok or Shorea balangeran
Waray-Waray yakála species of hardwood, the yacal tree: Hopea sp.
Tausug yakala tree: Shorea gisok

Note:   This comparison, one of perhaps two dozen secure instances of PPh *y-, was first identified by David Zorc (p.c.), who drew my attention to my previous neglect of this section of the PPh lexicon.

33922

*yamyám to talk excessively, or in a rapid, meaningless stream

12754

PPh     *yamyám to talk excessively, or in a rapid, meaningless stream

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) yamyámfor excessive talking to tire the mouth
Bikol yamyámblah-blah, incessant talk or chatter
  mag-yamyámto talk incessantly, esp. when annoyed or angry
Cebuano yamyámto utter, articulate words rapidly and not for the purpose of communicating; mumble, mutter
Binukid yamyamto mumble words (not for the purpose of communicating)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) yamyamto say “I told you so”

33923

*yapyáp to winnow by fanning

12755

PPh     *yapyáp to winnow by fanning     [doublet: *yabyab]

WMP
Kankanaey yapyápto fan; to winnow; the first fanning
Bikol mag-yapyápto fan someone with a hand fan
  paŋ-yapyápa hand fan
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) yapyapthe final process in winnowing to remove the last of the chaff

12756

PPh     *yapyap-an to winnow by fanning

WMP
Kankanaey yapyáp-anto fan; to winnow; the first fanning
Bikol yapyap-ánto fan someone with a hand fan

33934

*yátab small hand knife for harvesting rice

12770

PPh     *yátab small hand knife for harvesting rice

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) yátabto harvest sticky rice by cutting the stalks long, not just the heads\
Kapampangan yátabsmall hand knife for harvesting rice
Tagalog yátabsmall, short hand sickle for cutting rice stalks
Hanunóo yátabcrescent-shaped hand knife for harvesting rice
Romblomanon yātaba harvest knife (used in times past; presently a harvest sickle, kārit, is almost exclusively used for harvesting)

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution. As in Java and the Malay world, traditionally such small blades, concealed in the palm of the hand, but inefficient in relation to time and labor, almost certainly were used to avoid frigtening the soul of the rice, and so spoiling future harvests.

33924

*yawyaw move the mouth in eating

12757

PPh     *yawyaw move the mouth in eating

WMP
Ilokano yawyáwcolloquial term for eating
Bontok yawyáwto eat
Ibaloy yawyawexpression used to call someone to come and eat, i.e. Let’s eat!; Come and eat!
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) yewyewto move the jaw back and forth as a sign of anger
Mansaka yawyawto murmer, to grumble

TOP      ya    ye    yu    

ye

yegyeg

yekyek₁

yekyek₂

33925

*yegyeg to shake, as a tree to bring down fruit

12758

PPh     *yegyeg to shake, as a tree to bring down fruit     [disjunct: *yugyug]

WMP
Ilokano ag-yegyégto tremble, shake, shiver, quake, shudder
  yegyeg-énto grind, pulverize, triturate; shake something
Isneg yagyágearthquake
  maŋ-yagyágto quake, said of the earth
Pangasinan yegyégtremor, earthquake
Ayta Abellan yegyegto shake up and down (especially branches of trees) for a short time; shaky
Bikol mag-yugyógto shake (as a tree to bring down the fruits); to jog, to agitate
Aklanon yúgyugto shake (usually by the shoulders)
Cebuano yugyúgto shake back and forth or up and down in short, quick movements (as in rocking a hammock so a baby will soon sleep)

12759

PPh     *ma-yegyeg to shake, get shaken

WMP
Isneg ma-yagyágto shake, to tremble
Bikol ma-yugyógto get shaken, agitated

Note:   Also Ibaloy jegjeg, Samal jogjog tanaɁ ‘earthquake’, which cannot reflect this reconstruction, since *y unconditionally became /y/ in both languages, and there is no known PPh source for /j/ in either one. A variant of this comparison was first brought to my attention by David Zorc.

33926

*yekyek₁ armpit

12760

PPh     *yekyek₁ armpit

WMP
Bontok yəkyəkarmpit
Bikol yukyókarmpit

Note:   Also Ifugaw yoyók ‘armpit’.

33927

*yekyek₂ coughing fit

12761

PPh     *yekyek₂ coughing fit

WMP
Ilokano yekyek-énto choke, suffocate, smother, stifle (through coughing or sickness); to constantly cough
Binukid yekyekheavy and prolonged cough
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) yekyeka choking cough

Note:   Also Binukid ayekɁek ‘heavy and prolonged cough’.

TOP      ya    ye    yu    

yu

yugyúg

yukúq

yukús

yukyuk

yuŋyúŋ

33928

*yugyúg to shake, as a tree to bring down fruit fruit

12762

PPh     *yugyúg to shake, as a tree to bring down fruit fruit     [doublet: *yegyeg]

WMP
Ilokano yugyug-ento beat eggs; to shake, sway (of a tree)
Pangasinan i-yogyógto shake
Tagalog y<um>ugyógto shake up and down (esp. branches of trees)

Note:   A variant of this comparison was first brought to my attention by David Zorc.

33929

*yukúq to stoop, bend down

12763

PPh     *yukúq to stoop, bend down     [doublet: *yukús]

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) yokóʔto stoop down
Tagalog yokóʔa bending of the head or body; inclination; bending; bowing
Cebuano yukúʔbent way over; to be, become bent; to bend over

33930

*yukús to bend down

12764

PPh     *yukús to bend down     [doublet: *yukúq]

WMP
Ilokano yúkosstooping
Ifugaw yúku(h)to bend something as deeply as possible
Tagalog yukósbent (as a branch of a tree laden with fruit)

Note:   Also Ilokano ayyúkos ‘stooping’.

33931

*yukyuk to stab

12765

PPh     *yukyuk to stab

WMP
Ilokano yukyuk-anto stab
Sambal (Botolan) yokyokto stab
Cebuano yukyukto stab and jiggle around (as in killing a pig as quickly as possibe)

33932

*yuŋyúŋ to hang the head, look downward

12766

PPh     *yuŋyúŋ to hang the head, look downward

WMP
Bontok yuŋyúŋto bend over in order to look at something on the ground, or to put something on the ground
  yuŋúyuŋto hang down, as a branche which is laden with fruit; to walk with bowed head, as when one is sad
Ifugaw (Batad) yuŋyuŋfor a person to bow down the head
Tagalog yuŋyóŋto hang the head, look downward
Romblomanon yuŋyuŋsomeone or something droops the head

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 5/31/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-y