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Updated: 6/21/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


za    ze    zi    zu    




























*zakan to cook in water, cook rice


PMP     *zakan to cook in water, cook rice

Karo Batak er-dakanto cook rice
Toba Batak in-dahancooked rice
  mar-dahanto cook rice
Balinese ñakanto cook rice, cook food, be busy in the kitchen
  jakan-awas cooked, was prepared as food
Pendau rakanto boil (food)
Boano man-dakanto boil, cook (in pot, water)
Tialo jaʔanto boil, cook (in pot, water)
Dampelas jaʔaŋto boil, cook (in pot, water)
Chamorro chahancook in an underground pit; underground pit oven
Rembong zakanto boil (yams)


POC     *sakan to boil food

Fijian saŋgato be cooking in a pot; to boil (intr.)
Tongan hakato stew or boil (food); to boil (clothes); to smelt (iron, etc.); to melt, render (fat); to brew beer; food put on to boil or stew; food which has been boiled or stewed


*za(ŋ)kit contagious, spreading by contact


PWMP     *za(ŋ)kit contagious, spreading by contact     [doublet: *laŋkit]

Iban jaŋkitinfectious, contagious; catch, spread (as fire or disease)
Malay jaŋkitspread without visible contact, as an epidemic or fire
Proto-Sangiric *dakit, *dakiʔcontagious (of diseases)
Mongondow dakitto ignite, as a hearth fire; spread, jump across (also applied to sicknesses)


*za(ŋ)kuC grab, grasp, seize


PAN     *za(ŋ)kuC grab, grasp, seize

Paiwan djakutsgrab, take in hand (non-cylindrical object)
Tagalog dakóthandful, graspful
Balinese jaŋkutembrace, take in one's arms
Sangir dakuʔseize, grasp, catch


*zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something


PAN     *zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something

Basai tsatsanpath, road
Trobiawan tsatsanroad
Kavalan razan <Mroad; path, trail
  mani-razanto take the same way
  nan-razansame way of life
  sa-razanto pass through the bush
Saisiyat raLanroad
Pazeh daranroad, trail
Sakizaya daðanpath, road
Amis lalanpath, road, street, highway; direction figuratively; means to do something
Favorlang/Babuza tarranroad, path
Thao saranpath, road
  mu-sarango out onto the road; take out onto the road
Bunun daanroad, path
Bunun (Isbukun) daanroad
Hoanya dzalanroad
Tsou cronəroad
Kanakanabu caánəroad, path
Siraya daraŋroad, path
Proto-Rukai *daɭanəroad
Puyuma daɭanroad
  mi-a-daɭanspirits of the road
  p<in>u-daɭan-anplace where a road has been made
Paiwan djalanroad, trail, path
  pu-djalanto have a road; make a road
  ta-djalansame, same kind of (“one road”)
  ta-djalan a tsautsausame kind of people


PMP     *zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way

Itbayaten raxanpath, wake, footpath, trace of boat-passing on the water; wheel track; furrow
  ka-raxanact of passing
  maka-raxanto pass away, to be out of season
  ma-naxanto be leaking, passing through
Ilokano dálanroad, street, path; passage; track; corridor; aisle
  dalán-ento follow a road
  i-dálanto advise; guide; influence
  pa-dalán-ento give way; make way
Agta (Dupaningan) dilanroad, path, trail
Isneg dálanpath
Itawis dálanroad
  ma-nálanto walk
Malaweg dalanpath, road
Bontok dálantrail, path, road
Ifugaw dálanpath; nowadays horsetrail, road for large vehicles; act of walking, traveling
Ifugaw (Batad) dālana way, habitually used in going from one place to another; to walk (person or animal); make a path through a given area by clearing it with a bolo, walking back and forth over the same area; for the sun, moon, stars, water in a river, spirit beings, to follow a set course
Casiguran Dumagat dilanpath, trail, way; to walk on a trail
Ibaloy shalantrail, road; route; way
  man-shalanto pass a certain way
  on-shalanto drop by somewhere for a quick visit enroute to somewhere else
  shalan-ento take a certain route
Pangasinan dalánroad, way, street, path
Kapampangan dálanroad, way, passage
Tagalog dáan ~ daánroad, street, thoroughfare; way, passageway; track, trail, path
Bikol dálanpath, track, trail; road, thoroughfare, way
Buhid dálanpath, road
Hanunóo dálantrail, path, road, route
Masbatenyo dálanpath, trail, street, road, way
Aklanon dáeanroad,way, path, trail, street; be carried away by, be led by; almost forget (something else)
Waray-Waray dálanroad, street; avenue, way; path, highway
Agutaynen dalanroad, street; fig., the way, methodology, standards one follows in one’s work, life, beliefs; the way by which something is achieved, accomplished
Hiligaynon dálanstreet, road, path, cleared path
Cebuano dálanstreet, road, way; way, means; the way one acts, lives
  sin-dálanto do something else while walking
Maranao lalanpath, trail, road, way, course, street
  lalan a rogoʔblood vessel
Binukid dalanpath, trail, way; road, street
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dalantrail; path
Mansaka daranpath, trail, way; road, street
Maguindanao lálanpath, road
Tiruray dolonroad, highway, path, trail
Klata dalatrail
Mapun lānroad; street; path; highway; time
  lan-ana way of doing something
Yakan lān ~ lalanpath, trail, road, way
  mata lānthe middle of the road
Tboli lanpath, way, road; area worked on; handiwork; to pass through, follow a path
Tausug dānway, road, trail, street, path
  dān-anthe cause (of something), course of events leading up to (something)
Rungus Dusun ralanpath, road
Kadazan Dusun d̲ahanway
  in-d̲ahan-anplace to walk
Murut (Paluan) ralanpath, road
Kujau raLanpath
Minokok raLanpath
Ida'an Begak dalanroad
Lun Dayeh dalanroad, route, street, way
  nalanto walk, travel
  delan-inpath to be taken
Tabun dalanpath
Kelabit dalanpath, road
  nalanto walk
  me-dalanhelp someone walk
Sa'ban alinpath, road
Narum jaliənpath, road
Kenyah (Long Ikang) jalanpath, road
Penan (Long Lamai) jalanpath, road
Murik jalanpath, road
Kiput dalaanpath
  dalaan lalunroad (‘big path’)
Melanau (Mukah) jalanpath
Samihim lalanpath, road
Delang jalanpath, road
Iban jalaiway, path, road; go, walk, travel; way of doing something, method, solution (way out) of difficulty
  jalai bumaimethod of farming, way to farm
  jalai asuʔhunting trail
Tsat la:n¹¹path, road
Cham jalanpath, road
Jarai jəlanpath, road
Moken jalanpath, road
Malay jalanmovement in a definite direction; course; road; way; way to do something
  jalan bahasaway of speech, idiom
  ber-jalanto walk, go
Talaud daḷannapath, road
Karo Batak dalanpath, road; means to achieve something; cause of something; way of doing something
Toba Batak dalanway, path; manner, way, means; opportunity; cause, occasion
Nias lalapath, road
Rejang daleunroad, path, street
  daleun tikusfootpath, jungle path (lit. ‘rat path’)
Javanese dalanroad, street, passage; way, route; way, means
  nalanon the way to/from
Balinese jalango, walk, travel, proceed; path, road, street, way
Sasak men-jalanto walk
Sangir daḷeŋpath, trail, road
Tonsea lalanpath, road
Tontemboan lalanway, path; way of acting
  to-lalanthe Milky Way
Mongondow daḷanpath, road
Tialo jalantrail, track
Dampelas jalaŋroad
Balaesang dalaŋroad
Petapa Taje jalapath, road
Bare'e jayapath, way, road; means to achieve something; means of transport
  jaya ŋkadagroove between nose and upper lip
  san-jayaa traveling party (lit. ‘one way’)
Tae' lalanpath, road
  lalan limaimprint of the hand
  sa-ŋ-lalanname of the relationship between men whose wives are sisters, or between women whose husbands are brothers (lit. ‘one path’)
Mori Atas salapath, road
Padoe salapath, road
Bungku salapath, road
Koroni salapath, road
Moronene salapath, road
Wolio dalaroad, street, path; item, possibility
  ma-liŋu-aka dalato lose one’s way
  bawine-na dalaprostitute (‘woman of the street’)
Muna salapath, track, trail; sort, thing
  sala waghuathe Milky Way
Palauan raylroad; path; way; connection (between families, etc.)
Chamorro chalanroad, highway, street, path
Komodo lalaŋway, road, path
Manggarai salaŋway, road, path; channel (as in irrigation)
Lamaholot rarãpath, road
Adonara rarapath, road
Solorese laranpath, road
Kodi lararoad
Lamboya lararoad
Anakalangu laralara
Hawu ʄarapath, way
Dhao/Ndao jararoad
Rotinese dala(k)row; path, road
Atoni lalanpath, road
Tetun dalanroad, track, path
  ha-tudu dalanto teach or show the way
Vaikenu lalanroad
Galoli salanroad
Waima'a dalapath, road
Idate lalanpath, road
Erai sala(n)road, path, way
Tugun saləroad
Roma callapath, road
West Damar holloroad
Luang talləpath, road
Wetan tallapath, road
Kola yalapath, road
Ujir jalapath, road
Dobel salaroad, path
Manusela halapath
Kamarian lalanpath, road
Gah laanroad
Alune lalanepath, road
Saparua lalanoroad
Hitu lalanpath, road
Asilulu lalanroad, path
Boano₂ lalanepath, road
Batu Merah lalaniroad
Kayeli lalanpath, road
Kowiai/Koiwai raranpath, road
Gimán lolanpath, road
Misool (Coast) lelinpath, road
Mayá ꞌlili³npath
As alinpath, road
Dusner rianpath, road
Waropen ranpath, road
Pom rayanway, path
Ambai raŋpath, road
Woi raŋ (< *raraŋ)path, road
Kurudu ranway, path


POC     *jalan path, road, way

Nauna calpath, way, road
Lou salpath, way, road
Loniu canpath, way, road
Nali saypath, way, road
Andra calpath, road
Leipon calpath, way, road
Ahus calpath, road
Lele saypath, road
Kele salpath
Papitalai calpath, road
Drehet saŋpath, road
Sori mana saŋpath, way, road
Seimat awa-i-salpath, way, road (lit. ‘mouth of path’)
Wuvulu talapath, way, road
Mussau salanapath, way, road
Tigak salanpath, road
Sursurunga səlpath, road
Bali (Uneapa) ndalaŋapath, road
Arop dalapath, road
Biliau daʔalpath, road
Sobei rarapath, road
Wogeo jalapath, way, road
Manam jalapath, way, road
Takia dalpath, way, road
Mbula zaalapath, road; way, manner; way of life; opportunity, chance
Motu dalaroad; path
  dala katakatacrossroads
Pokau dararoad
Papapana tananaʔpath, road
Uruava ara-path, road
Luangiua alapath, road
Nggela hala-uturoad, path
  hala-tinamain road, government road
Kwaio talaroad, path, track
  faʔa-tala i kwalastir up blame, provoke a feud
  tala-abe born
Marau₂ tarapath, road
Lau talapath, road; opportunity; to begin; the Milky Way
Toqabaqita talapath, track, road
Sa'a talapath, road, way; a row, a string of objects
Arosi tara-(na)path, road; a seam in sewing; a row; place, resting place for something; cause, reason, beginning
Sikaiana alapath, road
Marshallese iaḷroad; path; street; way; itinerary; journey; lane; route; transportation
Pohnpeian ahlroad, street, trail, path, line
Mokilese alroad, street, line, path, way; to line, to draw lines
Chuukese aanroad, street, path, way, route, course (at sea); approach (to a job or problem); method, way (of doing); line of reckoning (in genealogies); Milky Way (short for anenimey, lit. path of breadfruit, because on this heavenly path the breadfruit comes from its southern homeland when summoned by the sowuyótoomey, the breadfruit summoner who performs the ritual to induce the spirit of the breadfruit to come each year from its southern homeland to Truk and ensure a good breadfruit harvest)
Puluwat yaalroad, path, street
Woleaian yala-liroad of, way of, path of
Carolinian aalpath, road
Sonsorol-Tobi jara-iway, track, road
Haununu tarapath, road
Pileni alapath, road
Mota mate-salapath, road
Merig met-salpath, road
Malmariv salaroad
Lametin salroad
Aore salapath, road
Araki salaroad, path, way
Peterara salapath, road
Apma halpath, road
Vao na halpath, road
Atchin ni-selpath, road
Rano selroad
Lingarak ne-salroad
Avava a-salpath, road
Axamb na-serpath, road
Lonwolwol haltrack, road; road for thinking about, the faculty of being able to forecast events
Rotuman salapath, road, street; route; way, method; (of words) method of using or applying, usage, application, meaning; (of thing to be obtained) condition, stipulation, what must be done in order to obtain it; journey, distance; to go, come, or originate
Fijian salapath, road, track
  sala ni caŋithe Milky Way
  sala ni waŋgathe wake of a ship
  vaka-sala-takato point the way, show, advise, warn
Tongan halapath, road (lit. or fig.); gangway, stairway
  hala-fakitake an indirect or roundabout route
Niue halapath, track, way, mode, means, method, procedure
  hala utaby land
  hala vakaby canoe, by sea
Futunan alaroad, way, path
Samoan alapath, road; way; method, way of doing something; cause of, reason for; working section (area of mat woven by one person at a particular time)
  faʔa-alaexpress an opinion
Tuvaluan ala-tuuroad, path
Kapingamarangi alaresponsibility, be responsible for; row of plaiting on a net
Rennellese agapath, trail, track, road, street; doorway, door; way, method
  haka-agatake food on a trail, as to a ritual feast; the food so taken
Anuta arapath, road
Rarotongan araroad, path, way, track
Maori araway, path; means of conveyance; layer of sedge thatch on a roof
Rapanui arapath
Hawaiian alapath, road, trail


PWMP     *ma-zalan (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ma-raxanto be able to pass
Ilokano ma-dalán-anto pass by
Waray-Waray ma-dálanhaving many streets
Mapun ma-lāndrive a vehicle or fly a plane
Bare'e mo-jayatake a path; make headway


PWMP     *pa-zalan make something go or move

Itbayaten pa-raxan-encause to pass through; give way to someone; obtain by means of
Ilokano ag-pa-dálanto give way, make room for, go to the road
Tagalog pa-raánway; a way of doing something; method; a course of action or conduct; tactics; resource; any means of achieving success or getting out of trouble; style
Mapun pa-lānhabitually going somewhere
Tae' pa-lalangrow seed; cultivate in order to sow later, of actions; make a model (to prepare the way for some action)
Palauan or-rayllead (animal, etc.); drive (boat, car, etc.); start (engine)


PAN     *ka-zalan-an improvised trail, trail made by passing through?

Rukai (Budai) ka-daa-dalán-anəroad
Paiwan ka-djalan-anmountain trail
Javanese ke-dalan-anto have a road, passage, etc. on or through it; to be passed by a road, etc.


PWMP     *pa-zalan-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano pa-dalán-anto run over; excuse, apologize
Tagalog pa-raan-ánto pass over something; to allow someone to pass over or through a certain place (stress on the place)
Mapun pa-lan-ana place to go


PAN     *za-zalan (gloss uncertain)

Rukai (Maga) da-dránəroad
Paiwan dja-djalancompanion on road
Yami ra-rahanroad
Itbayaten ra-raxanroad, street, avenue
Boano da-daantrail, track


PWMP     *z<um>alan to pass through

Ilokano d<um>álanto go, walk, travel
Ifugaw d<um>álanto walk
Tagalog d<um>aánto drop in (for a short visit); pass through; to pass, pass through or over; to go by
Mapun l<um>ānto walk, to go somewhere
Palauan mə-raylgo; walk; travel; leave; (water) flow/move (in pipe); (blood) flow out


PAN     *zalan-an passageway, place where one has walked

Thao saran-anwalk on or across something; place where one is walking or going
  s<in>aran-anplace where one walked or went; passageway made by walking through
Itbayaten raxan-anpass, narrow passage
Ilokano dalán-ana passageway, pathway; to run over; run through; do haphazardly
Ifugaw dalán-anpath, way to walk upon
Kapampangan dalan-anpass by for someone
Tagalog daán-an ~ daan-ánto pass by a certain place; to drop in at someone’s place with intention of bringing that person with you
  daan-ánaccess; the way of approaching or reaching a place or person
Kelabit delan-anpath made by repeated walking over the same course
Javanese dalan-anroadways, street areas
Tae' lalan-ana way; make a hole for, as in boring a hole in order to knock in a dowel; prepare the way


POC     *salan-an passageway

Bipi salanpassage through the reef


PAN     *zalan-zalan small path or trail

Paiwan djala-djalansmall path
Bikol dálan-dálanpath, trail

Note:   Also Sa'ban alin, Kenyah (Long Anap) janan, Kayan (Uma Juman) alan, Berawan (Long Terawan) ilan, Lemeting jalin, Karo Batak dalin ‘path, road; means to achieve something; cause of something; way of doing something’, Buli laliŋ ‘footpath’, Moor ràrina, Yeresiam jáàra, Serui-Laut raŋ, Munggui layan ‘path, road’, Puluwat yel- road, path, Toqabaqita tale ‘path, track, road; a row of something’.

A number of words in South Halmahera-West New Guinea languages resemble the expected reflex of PAn *zalan, but with various irregularities. It is unclear whether these should be treated as inherited forms with sporadic changes, as loanwords, or as chance resemblances. The variant forms from Lemeting, Karo Batak , Buli and Moor might be taken to support a double *zalin, but since Sa'ban alin, Lemeting jalin and similar forms in other North Sarawak languages appear to be products of low vowel fronting it seems best for now to treat the minority pattern with last-syllable *i a product of convergence.


*zalateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.


PMP     *zalateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *lateŋ, *zilateŋ]

Iban jelataŋsmall tree, Laportea stimulans Miq., having stinging hairs on the leaves, which can be littered about where an enemy may rest
Malay jelataŋstinging nettle, generic for certain plants with stinging leaves, including tree nettle (Laportea stimulans), causing intense pain and a rash like erysipelas, and used by Malays as an ingredient in poison or hung over doors to keep away evil spirits, common small nettle (Fleurya interrupta), causing itch, when the expression kena jelataŋ (or simply jelataŋ) ‘itchy, lascivious’, and stinging climber (Cnesmone javanica); a minute marine insect that gives a slight sting, sea-flea


POC     *salatoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *la-latoŋ]

Manam zalatostinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Arosi daraospecies of nettle, species of jellyfish; Portuguese man of war, Physalia (sea nettle)
Bauro taraospecies of nettle
Wayan salatonettle tree: Dendrocnide Harveyi (uncommon tree of mesic mid-altitude forest)
Fijian salatothe nettle plant, Laportea harveyi, Urticaceae
Samoan salatolarge forest tree, the tree nettle, Laportea spp.

Note:   Also Sangir əŋgalatiŋ, Bare'e gelata ‘stinging nettle tree: Laportea spp.’.


*zaluaŋ bark cloth


PWMP     *zaluaŋ bark cloth     [disjunct: *daluaŋ]

Malay jeluaŋvegetable parchment; native paper ... Old Malayo-Javanese romances are met with that have been written on this parchment (the bark used being that of Morus macroura or of Brousonnetia papyrifera)
Sundanese daluaŋnative paper
Old Javanese daluwaŋclothing of bark cloth (worn by hermits, etc.)
Wolio daluathin paper, tissue paper


*zaluR striped, banded


PWMP     *zaluR striped, banded

Isneg dal-dáluga half-grown pig with brown and yellow stripes
Malay bər-jalurbanded; in broad stripes

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*zaŋan₁ handspan


PMP     *zaŋan₁ handspan     [disjunct: *saŋa 'bifurcation']

Yami raŋandistance between an outstretched middle finger (or pinky) and thumb, used to measure length
Ivatan raŋanspan (8 inches)
Ilokano dáŋanhandspan
  saŋa-dáŋanmeasure of the palm of the hand
  daŋán-ento measure by handspans
Bontok dáŋanhandbreadth; the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger when the fingers are outstretched
Bare'e jaŋaspan
Wolio ndaŋaan of the hand (about 20 cm.)
Nggela haŋaa span, outstretched fingers
Fijian i cagaspan (about 9 inches)
Tongan haŋaspan (about 9 inches)
Hawaiian anato measure, survey, evaluate, rate

Note:   Also Maranao raŋao ‘measure by using stretched thumb and finger as measuring tool’, Mongondow yaŋow ‘span with the fingers’, toŋo yaŋow ‘one handspan’, Sa'a taŋaa ‘span; to span with the hand’.


*zaŋan₂ negative


PWMP     *zaŋan₂ negative

Tagalog dáŋanwere it not for; if it were not that
Malay jaŋandon't


*zaŋaw insect destructive to rice


PWMP     *zaŋaw insect destructive to rice     [doublet: *baŋaw]

Isneg dáŋawkind of stinkbug very destructive to young ears of rice
Ifugaw dáŋokind of stinkbug very destructive to young ears of rice -- eats also the leaves of sweet potatoes
Casiguran Dumagat daŋáwtype of insect (they eat the rice plants when the fruit is beginning to develop)
Kayan jaŋawcrop destroyed by insects


*zaŋkal handspan


PWMP     *zaŋkal handspan     [doublet: *ze(ŋ)kal]

Casiguran Dumagat daŋkálunit of measurement from tip of thumb to tip of outstretched middle finger
Tagalog daŋkálunit of measurement from tip of thumb to tip of outstretched middle finger
Maloh jaŋkala measurement (from thumb to second finger)

Note:   Also Tae' daŋkan ‘a span’, Manggarai daka ‘small unit of measure’, se-daka ‘handspan’. Mills (1975: 719) reconstructs Proto-South Sulawesi *jaŋka[l?] ‘handspan (unit of measure)’, a form which he proposes to derive irregularly from Dempwolff's (1934-38) *ze(ŋ)kal.


*zaŋkaŋ wide apart, as the legs


PWMP     *zaŋkaŋ wide apart, as the legs

Malay jaŋkaŋwide astretch, of the limbs
Banggai daŋkaŋwide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*zapit pinch, squeeze, press


PWMP     *zapit pinch, squeeze, press

Javanese japitclip, fastener, tongs
Balinese japitpinch
Banggai dapitpinch, squeeze, press

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*zaqat bad, evil; ugly


PMP     *zaqat bad, evil; ugly     [doublet: *zaqet]

Maranao rataʔsad, sadness, unhappy; bad
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) daʔatto destroy; to harm; to ruin
Yakan laʔatbad, evil (morally); poorly (of feeling)
  laʔat-aneasily getting angry, hot-tempered
Murut (Paluan) a-laatbad
Abai Sembuak a-laatbad
Kujau a-raatbad
Minokok a-raatbad
Murut (Tagol) a-laatbad
Tingalan (West) a-laatbad
Basap jaʔatbad
Lun Dayeh daatbad; ugly; wicked; cruel
  fe-daataccuse or blame one another; say bad things about one another
  ne-daatdied, passed away, became bad
  si-daatpretend to be poor or no good
Narum jeətbad
Dusun Deyah daatbad
Dusun Witu raʔatbad
Malay jahatevil-hearted
  ber-jahatto speak ill deliberately of a person
  jahat-kanto represent as wicked, to defame
Karo Batak jahatbad, dangerous, not to be trusted (of animals and people)
Javanese jahatflaw, imperfection
Balinese jahatbad, immoral, nasty (conduct)
Petapa Taje jaatibad
Uma da-daʔabad
Bare'e mampa-ka-jaʔato make something bad, to spoil
Komodo daʔbad, evil
Manggarai daʔatbad; spoiled, ruined; death, dead
Rembong daʔatbad
Riung daʔatbad


POC     *saqat bad

Label sakabad
Bali (Uneapa) zaghatabad
Vitu zahabad
Manam rat-abad; great
Gitua sagat-ibad
Nehan sabad, evil; wrong
Vaghua satabad
Varisi sakatabad
Ririo saʔatbad
Lau bad, evil
'Āre'āre taʔawrong, bad, evil; be dying, be in a bad condition
Sa'a taʔabad; also used as commiseration
Ulawa mwane taʔapoor fellow
Arosi taʔabad, poor; of poor quality; very
  taʔa-ha(na)badness, poorness
Hiw sabad
Southeast Ambrym sabad
Nakanamanga sabad
Futuna-Aniwa sabad


PMP     *ma-zaqat bad, evil

Maranao ma-rataʔbad, disagreeable, wrong, evil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-zaʔatbad; evil; dirty; undesirable
Lolak mo-haatbad
Mongondow mo-raatbad, foul, rotten
Balaesang ma-jaʔatbad, rotten, nasty
Bare'e ma-jaʔabad, wrong, spoiled, useless, ugly, difficult, unpleasant
Buginese ma-jaʔbad
Amblong ma-satbad

Note:   Also Mapun maat ‘evil; badness’, mag-maat ‘to do bad; to have bad intentions’, ka-maat-an ‘dislike something’ (lit. ‘be affected by the badness of something’), Tausug kaat ‘(for a person) to go wrong, do things that are considered bad; (for someone’s behavior) to become bad’, Murung jeʔet ‘bad, Iban jaiʔ ‘bad, spoilt, broken, out of order, no more use’, Jarai sat ‘bad’, Toba Batak jahat ‘bad; vulgar’, Lamaholot daʔ ‘bad’, Toqabaqita taʔaa ‘be bad, no good; general term for expressing negative evaluation’.


*zaqet bad, evil; ugly


PWMP     *zaqet bad, evil; ugly     [doublet: *zaqat]

Yami rahetbad
Itbayaten raetdefect, deficiency, flaw
  ka-raetugliness, badness
  ma-raetugly, bad, unpleasant, evil
  pi-raet-ento mislead, make into the wrong way
Hanunóo daʔútbad, ugly
Hiligaynon dáʔutto injure, to hurt; to harm, to damage
Cebuano dáutdestroy, make inoperative; to harm, have bad effects on; be in bad health, cause bad health; harm someone with sorcery; speak ill of someone; of the weather, to get bad
  daút-ansorceror; bad in character or effect, not auspicious
Binukid ma-daétbad (in character and effect); dirty, unclean, soiled
  pig-daetto destroy something; to ruin, damage something, make something inoperative; to corrupt someone or something; to harm, have bad effects on someone; to harm, kill someone by sorcery
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) datbad
Kelabit daʔetbad
  pe-daʔetsay something bad about someone
  d<in>aʔetwas damaged by someone
Kenyah (Long Anap) jaʔətbad
Bonerate daʔobad, evil

Note:   Also Kayan (Uma Juman) jaʔək, Bintulu jaʔəs ‘bad, evil’.


*zaqit to sew


PMP     *zaqit to sew

Itbayaten rayitsewing
Ilokano dáitsewing; manner of sewing; style of sewing
  ag-dáitto sew
  pag-dáitneedle; sewing thread
  pa-náitsewing thread
  da-dait-encloth for sewing
Bontok dáitto sew
Kankanaey i-dáitto add; to put, to join something to
Ifugaw dáitjoin two woven pieces by sewing them together
Ibaloy shaitsewing; style of sewing, how a thing is sewn
  i-shait-ansew something for someone
  man-shaitto sew
  me-naittailor, dressmaker, seamstress
  shait-ansewing machine
Pangasinan man-dáitto sew
Tagalog daítplaced so close as to be touching; united, fastened, attached
  mag-daítto be very close to another or others so as to be touching one another
Yakan mag-laʔitto sew (clothing, etc.)
Bintulu jaʔitsewing; sew (imper.)
Melanau (Mukah) jaʔitto sew
Iban jaitsewing, sew, work with a needle
Tsat siʔ²⁴to sew
Cham jhikto sew
Malay jahitsewing, stitching
  men-jahitto sew
Toba Batak jaitto sew
Javanese jaitpertaining to sewing
  men-jaitto make clothing
Balinese jahitsew, do needlework, stitch
Sasak jaitto sew
Makassarese jaiʔsewing
Komodo daiʔto sew
Manggarai jaʔikto sew


POC     *saqit to sew

Mussau sai-kito sew, of clothes
Ali seito sew
Mekeo (East) kai-nato sew
Nggela hai-haito patch an old garment
Kwaio taito sew; close up
  futa taiclosely related by kinship
  tai-ato sew
Lau taito sew
  tai-ato sew
  tai-lāa sewing, a seam
Toqabaqita tai-ato sew
'Āre'āre tai-ato entangle (of spider’s web entangling a person); entwine, mix together; jumble up; sew
Arosi taʔito sew, join together
Tongan haʔito bind (lit. or fig.); (of words) to bracket, put in brackets; binding; bond, that which binds, fetter, etc., or bracket (parenthesis)
  haʔi-haʔito bind round and round so as to make a number of bundles; to bandage
Niue haito lash on, tie fast (as in tying two canoes or baskets together)
Samoan āisew; seam


PPh     *daqit-en to sew

Itbayaten rayt-ento sew
Ilokano dait-ento sew something
Ibaloy shait-ento sew, mend something (as dress, a tear)

Note:   Also Itawis dahét ‘stitch’, mad-dahét ‘to sew’, Jarai jhik ‘to sew’, Muna dhai ‘sew an ornamental seam (to trouser legs; a practice in former times)’, Molima saila ‘to sew, make nets’.


*zariaŋaw a plant: Calamus spp.


PWMP     *zariaŋaw a plant: Calamus spp.

Malay jeraŋauthe sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints
Minangkabau jariaŋauthe sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints
Wolio dariaŋocalamus: kind of plant whose soft rootstocks are used as liniment against pains and worms, and for rubbing pregnant women and children for protection when they go out after dark

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed doublets *zaraŋaw, *zariŋaw.


*zariŋ noose or net trap


PMP     *zariŋ noose or net trap

Ngaju Dayak jariŋa 100-300 foot long cord from which a quantity of nooses are hung down to the near ground level, and into which wild animals are driven with the help of hunting dogs
  man-jariŋto hunt with such a net
Iban jarinlength of stout canes twisted together from which are hung overlapping cane nooses to catch driven deer
  ñarinto hunt deer in this way
Malay jariŋbarrier net – of stake nets drawn across a stream, drift nets in a tideway, and fowlers’ nets (not of seines or dragnets)
Toba Batak jariŋnet used to catch fish, bats, game and birds
  man-jariŋto hunt with such a net
Sundanese jariŋlong net used to catch birds, dragnet
  ŋa-jariŋfish with a dragnet
Old Javanese jariŋnet (to catch fish, birds, kidangs [barking deer])
  jariŋ-jariŋspider web
Javanese jariŋnet for trapping fish, birds; fig., trick for snaring an unwary person; spider web
  jariŋ-anintestines; internal organs
Balinese jariŋnet; fishing net; net for birds
  jariŋ burona net for wild animals
  ñariŋto catch with a net
  jariŋ-jariŋspider web
Sasak jariŋnet
  je-jariŋkind of spider


POC     *sariŋ noose or net trap

Kwaio talistuck, be stuck; come to hand, obtain, catch
'Āre'āre tarito stick in the throat; to be tangled up in, be caught in, be aground, stick fast in
Sa'a täriland a fish in a landing net; to stick fast in a tree or a noose
Arosi taria noose; bring in a profit, enrich, get gain
Maori tarinoose for catching birds, etc.; to ensnare

Note:   Also Malay jaliŋ ‘barrier net (said to be rare)’. In addition, Dempwolff (1938) included Tagalog dáliŋ ~ dálin ‘fastening; binding for bamboo floors’, but the divergent semantics raises questions about whether this form is cognate. This comparison, which was first proposed by Dempwolff (1938) in a somewhat more restricted form, remains problematic. I assume that Maori tari shows the ‘third palatal reflex’ found in a number of other forms, but the connection of Oceanic forms to those in western Indonesia may be due to chance.


*zaRami rice straw


PAN     *zaRami rice straw     [doublet: *gaRami]

Puyuma darami-enrice straw
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) daRami-anrice straw
Paiwan djami-arice straw


PMP     *zaRami rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk

Isneg daxámistraw of rice; namely: that part of the culm that is situated below the place where the ear is cut at the harvest.
  (dag)-daxamiy-anthe culms or haulms of rice that remain in the field after reaping; a female spirit who makes children sick if they play at the place where the harvest is going on
Bontok dagámirice straw
Ifugaw (Batad) dagāmirice stubble, i.e. stalks remaining after the upper stalks with rice panicles ... have been harvested, either standing in a pond field, or removed to allow for a second planting
Ayta Abellan dayamirice husk
Kapampangan dayamirice straw, rice stubble (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol dagámistraw
Romblomanon dagāmirice stubble
Aklanon dagámirice stalk, straw (from rice)
Waray-Waray dagámihay, straw
Agutaynen dalamistraw, dried rice stalk
Hiligaynon dagámihay, straw
Cebuano dagámistalk that has been left after grain or sugar has been harvested
Maranao ragamirice stalk, straw
Mansaka dagamistraw (of grain)
Kelabit deramihrice straw, rice stubble (dbl. gəramih)
Kayan jəmeʔstubble or straw of rice left in the field after reaping
Kayan (Uma Juman) jəmiʔrice stubble, rice straw
Iban jəramiʔsacred plants (induʔ padi – lit. ‘rice mother’) in the paddy field after harvest
  tanah jəramiʔ‘stubble’, land harvested of paddy with crops other than grain still to be gathered; land in the first year of fallow
Malay jeramistubble; rice-aftergrowth; the waste or inedible parts of fruits like the jack and durian
Nias damistemlet on the rice kernel; chaff
Rejang jamaystubble, rice stubble; last season’s ricefield
Old Javanese damirice-straw
  damya-damy-ana whistle made from a rice-stalk
Sangir dahamifallow ricefield, land left fallow for not more than a year that is covered with newly-sprouted bushes
Tontemboan raʔamirice straw, a rice-straw flute
  ka-raʔamitime that the children blow on rice straws (i.e. ‘harvest time’)
Mongondow dogamibrushwood, undergrowth

Note:   Also Kavalan Rami ‘rice straw’, Bunun dumali (< met.) ‘millet straw’, Tagalog dayámi ‘straw; hay; dried rice or grain stalks used as fodder for cattle’ (Kapampangan loan), Binukid lagami ‘stalk that is left after the grain or sugarcane has been harvested; straw’, Bare'e deami ‘rice stubble; fallow ricefield’.

The basic referent of this term appears to have been that part of the rice stalk that remains in the field after the harvest (to fertilize the soil for the next planting). In at least two widely-separated languages (Old Javanese and Tontemboan) this word also refers to a flute made from a rice stalk, and in parts of northern Sulawesi the meaning has shifted from the stalks of the planted rice left after the harvest to the invasive weeds and brush that sprouts in a newly fallow field.


*zaRaŋ having wide intervals; seldom


PWMP     *zaRaŋ having wide intervals; seldom

Bisaya raŋgaŋfar apart, widely spaced; seldom
Iban jaraŋat wide intervals, far apart, seldom
Malay jaraŋhaving intervals or interspaces; sparse
Javanese jaraŋscarce, rare, seldom
Sasak jaraŋfar apart, scarce, seldom
Tae' ma-daraŋseldom, scarce, infrequent

Note:   Also Tagalog dálaŋ 'sparseness; scarcity; infrequency'. Dempwolff (1934-38) has *zaraŋ ‘seldom; scarce’. The Bisaya form shows secondary prenasalization of g from *R.


*zaRem needle


PAN     *zaRem needle     [doublet: *zaRum]

Pazeh daxemneedle
Itbayaten rayemneedle
  mar-rayemneedle-shaped, needle-like
Mamanwa dagɨmneedle
Manobo (Dibabawon) dágɨmneedle
Mansaka dagumneedle; spear (as of rice)


*zaRum needle


PAN     *zaRum needle     [doublet: *zaRem]

Thao lhalhumneedle
  pash-lhalhum-anpincushion; place to keep needles
  pu-lhalhumto thread a needle
Paiwan djaumneedle
  dj<m>aumto use a needle
Yami rayomneedle
Itbayaten rayemneedle
  mar-rayemneedle-shaped, needle-like
Ilokano dágumneedle
  dágum- dágumsting of a bee, wasp, etc.
Isneg dáxumneedle
Itawis dáhumneedle
Casiguran Dumagat digumneedle
  ga-digumterm for a stage in the growth of rice plants (when they are about three inches high)
Kapampangan ka-ráyumneedle
Bikol dágomneedle
  mag-dágomto prick with a needle
Hanunóo dáyumneedle
Hiligaynon dagumsewing needle; injection needle
Cebuano dágumneedle
Maranao ragomneedle
Binukid dagumneedle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) raɣumsewing needle
Mansaka dagumneedle; spear (as of rice)
Tiruray darumneedle
Yakan dalumneedle
Tboli dalumneedle
  d<m>alumneedle-like (as young rice plant)
Iban jarum(sewing) needle; hand of clock or needle of dial
  padi ñau ñarumthe padi is sprouting (i.e. like green needles)
Cham jrumneedle
Jarai jrumneedle
Malay jarumneedle
  men-jarumto sprout, of needle-like plants such as grasses, rice seedlings
Karo Batak jarumsewing needle; hand of a clock; compass needle
Toba Batak jarumneedle
  man-jarumto sew
Rejang doloma needle
Javanese domneedle
  ŋe-dominsert a needle/pin into
Balinese jahumsewing needle
  jahum panabokanan awl
Sasak jarumneedle
Sangir dahuŋ ~ da-rahuŋneedle
Tontemboan raum ~ raʔumsew or plait thatch for roofing
Mongondow mo-dagumto sew
  do-daguma needle
  tumon-do-dagumbe needle-shaped (of new rice sprouts)
Lauje mon-jauŋto sew
Bare'e jauneedle
  mon-jauto sew
Tae' darunneedle
  darun lemothorn of a citrus tree
Mandar raruŋneedle
Makassarese jaruŋneedle
Bonerate deyuneedle
Muna deuneedle (sometimes worn in the cap to ward off malicious spirits)
  ka-deu-deuburrs, stickers
Palauan rasmneedle
  mə-rasmto sew (cloth or thatching)
Bimanese ndaʔuneedle; to sew
Manggarai jaruŋneedle
Rembong zarunneedle
Hawu ʄauto sew


POC     *saRum needle

Lou sou-n pwikneedle (lit. ‘needle of flying fox (bone)’
Mussau raumneedle
Kove salumuneedle
Gitua sarumneedle
Wampar soneedle
Nehan harumneedle
Selau saləmneedle
Nggela i-halusmall bone needle for sewing a sail
'Āre'āre taru-aneedle, the bones of a flying fox
Arosi tarubat’s bone for tattooing
Tongan hauthin dagger or stiletto, like a giant-sized needle, used in spearing bonito
Samoan auneedle; tattooing comb
Rennellese autattooing needle, with a point made of ibis (taghoa) or chicken bone

Note:   Also Puyuma daum ‘sewing needle’ (< Paiwan), Agta (Dupaningan) dagum ‘needle’ (< Ilokano), Bontok dágom ‘needle’, Ibaloy shaKom ‘needle (as for sewing, injection)’, Pangasinan dágom ‘needle’, Tagalog ka-rayom ‘needle’ (< Kapampangan), Hanunóo dágum (< a Bisayan source?), Tausug jawm ‘a needle; any needle-like object, as a compass needle or the hands of a watch’ (< Malay), Bare'e jaru ‘European fabric needle (< Malay or Buginese). Manggarai jaruŋ may be a Makassarese loan.


*zauq far


PMP     *zauq far

Tombonuwo o-rawufar
Supan adtuʔfar
Belait jaufar
Lun Dayeh a-dodistance
  -adoget away from something; put distance between someone and some place
Sa'ban adiəwfar
Berawan (Long Terawan) diofar
Narum jaoʔfar
Dali' jeufar
Kenyah (Long Anap) coʔfar
Penan (Long Labid) juʔfar
Murik sufar
Kayan (Uma Bawang) suʔfar
Kiput jəuʔfar
Bintulu jauʔfar
Melanau (Mukah) jauʔfar
Melanau Dalat jauʔfar
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) jauʔfar
Tunjung ncoʔfar
Ngaju Dayak ke-jaudistant (in space or time); very different
Kapuas ke-jaufar
Katingan ke-caufar
Lawangan oroʔfar
Paku oroʔfar
Delang joohfar
Iban jauhfar, far off, distant, remote
Salako jauhfar
Malay jauhremoteness
Karo Batak dauhfar; other
  pe-dauh-dauhseparately from one another
Sundanese jauhfar, far away
Old Javanese doha distance, the distance, afar, being far away
  a-dohfar away, distant
  d<um>ohto go away, withdraw
  d<um>oh-ito avoid, evade, shun, forsake, desert, abandon
Javanese dohfar off
  ŋe-dohkeep something at a distance
  d<um>ohfar off
  woŋ d<um>oha dull-witted person
Madurese jaufar, distant
Sasak jaoʔfar
  bə-jaoʔmake a distant trip
  bə-jaoʔ-anbe distantly related to one another
Sangir daufar distance
Tonsea douʔfar
Chamorro chagoʔfar, afar, distant
  chagoʔ-ñafurther, more distant
Bimanese ɗoʔofar
Dhao/Ndao do-kfar
Rotinese do-klong; distant, far
Atoni lofar
Tetun doo-kfar, distant, remote
  mata-n doo-ka seer or fortune-teller (lit. ‘distant eyes’)
Mambai rofar
Galoli sofar
Erai sofar
Tugun soofar
Kola yaufar
Kamarian laufar
Paulohi e-laufar, distant
Asilulu laufar, distant
  pata-laudistant; far (from each other)
Manipa -laufar
Boano₂ -loufar
Buli laufar, far away
As i-laufar
Minyaifuin laufar


POC     *sauq₁ far

Aua rau-afar
Vitu zaufar
Kairiru i-saufar away
Manam ʔa-saufar
Takia a-saufar
Lungga soufar
Simbo saufar
Bugotu hauto be far; a long time
  i-haufar; of old
  hau-nito be far off from, distant
Talise sau-nafar
Kwaio (ta)-taufar, distant; for long
Lau taua long way, far off; a long time, always
Toqabaqita taube a long time, go on for a long time, last a long time; be far, distant in time (past or future) or in space
Sa'a haʔa tauto be far off, distant
Arosi haʔa-taufar off
Mota saufar


PMP     *ma-zauq far

Lun Dayeh m-adofar away
Kelabit ma-dofar
Dohoi ma-hcuʔfar
Madurese ma-jaudistance oneself
Sangir ma-raufar, distant, remote
Waiyewa ma-rofar
Lamboya ma-raufar
Kambera ma-raufar, at a great distance


POC     *masauq far

Mussau masaufar
Kairiru masauoutside (as outside the reef)


PMP     *zauq zauq (gloss uncertain)

Old Javanese doh dohat a distance, far away


POC     *sauq sauq (gloss uncertain)

Seimat xau-xau-anfar
Takia a-sau-sauvery far
Motu dau-daudistant; to be distant (of place or time)

Note:   Also Toba Batak dao ‘far, distant’. This morpheme appears to have replaced PAn *dawiN ‘far, distant’ in PMP. Favorlang/Babuza ro, ma-ro is a superficially similar form that, if accepted, would establish both *zauq and *dawiN as PAn, and raise fundamental questions about homonymy. However, the Favorlang/Babuza reflex of PAn *z is clearly t in etymologies such as *zalan > tarran ‘road’, and *quzaN > utas ‘rain’, and it therefore seems best to treat the similarity of Favorlang/Babuza ro, ma-ro to such non-Formosan forms as Lawangan oroʔ, Mambai ro or Waiyewa ma-ro as a product of chance convergence.


*zawa₁ daybreak, dawn


PMP     *zawa₁ daybreak, dawn

Singhi Land Dayak jawahday (opposed to night)
Yamdena rawedaybreak, dawn
Buruese dawaday, the part of the day that is light

Note:   Also Malagasy (Provincial) javanjavana ‘illumination’.


*zawa₂ millet sp.: Setaria italica (?)


PAN     *zawa₂ millet sp.: Setaria italica (?)

Puyuma dawamillet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.
Yami rawaear of grain
Ilokano dáwaear of grain
  ag-dáwato develop spikes (rice)
  manag- dáwafruitful
Isneg dáwaear, head, spike (of grain)
  taŋa-dáwaone ear (of grain)
Itawis dáwaear or head of grain
Pangasinan dawárice grain (in relation to remainder of rice plant)
Kapampangan dawaseed (edible)
Tagalog dáwamillet, Setaria italica (Madulid 2001)
Hanunóo dáwaItalian millet (Setaria italica [Linn.] Beauv.)
Romblomanon dāwapearl millet grass or seed: Pennisetum glaucum (seed grain is cooked as a staple food)
Masbatenyo dáwamillet (glutinous millet is used to make a dessert)
Abaknon dawagrain like wheat
Aklanon dáwa(h)grass; rice grain dessert preparation
Agutaynen dawamillet, a small grain used for porridge, or chicken feed
  dawasmall, round grain, such as millet, sesame seeds or poppy seeds (some types can be made into porridge, others can be fed to birds)
Cebuano dáwamillet: Setaria italica. Widely cultivated, it is most commonly made into budbud [sweet prepared from crushed ingredients (rice, corn, pili nut, millet, etc.) formed into sticks, wrapped in banana leaves and steamed]
  dawa-dáwakind of tall grass bearing spikes similar to millet in appearance: Echinochloa crusgalli
Subanen/Subanun dawamillet
Binukid dawamillet
Mansaka dawamillet (cooked until soft)
Mapun dawamillet
Yakan dawamillet: Echinochloa frumentacea or Setaria italica (small-seeded annual cereal and forage grass, often planted at the edge of rice fields)
Tausug dawamillet, a cereal grass grown in Jolo and available in the market; Italian millet (Setaria italica)
Ngaju Dayak jawæa plant resembling sugarcane but smaller, only about one finger thick, with many stalks that support grain in a black hull; the curved grains are somewhat smaller than rice grains, and are eaten cooked, having a taste somewhat like rice, but greasier; in central Borneo jawæ is often planted as a substitute for rice
Iban jawaʔmillet, especially Bulrush millet, Pennisetum typhoideum; jawaʔ is planted with the padi, but not as a main crop
  jawaʔ jambaisuperior kind of millet with long ear
Karo Batak dawaa kind of grain
Old Javanese jawaa grain (in particular barley or millet?). Perhaps a Prakrit form of Sanskrit yawa (barley). Was barley known in Java? Or should we assume jawa = jawawut (millet)?
Balinese jawamillet

Note:   Old Javanese jawa, after which the island of Java may have been named, is sometimes thought to be a loan from Sanskrit yawa ‘barley’, a word that reportedly derives from the more general term ‘grain’ attested in both Avestan and Sanskrit (Buck 1949: 513). Adopting this interpretation requires the assumption that Sanskrit yawa ‘barley’ was borrowed as pre-Javanese jawa ‘millet’ within the past two millennia, as the early Indian name for Java was Yawadwipa, presumably because millet was widely cultivated on Java at that time (barley is not a native Southeast Asian crop --- see the doubts expressed in the gloss of Old Javanese jawa).

This putative loanword then spread northward with substitution of d for j in languages that lacked palatals, presumably replacing whatever term applied to the type of millet that this word represented. One possible scenario, then, is that jawa > dawa replaced reflexes of *beCeŋ ‘foxtail millet: Setaria italica’. However, the specific application of reflexes of *zawa to foxtail millet in southern Taiwan and much of the central Philippines (but not in intervening areas) argues against this interpretation and in favor of *zawa as a PAn term that has been lost over wide areas but retained in scattered pockets in its original meaning. Various references (Aklanon, Cebuano, Agutaynen, Yakan, Iban) suggest that millet was secondary to rice as a daily staple in virtually all language groups, a factor that may have played a role in the far more robust attestation for terms like *pajay or *beRas as compared with *beCeŋ, or *zawa.

TOP      za    ze    zi    zu    















*zegzeg to stand erect


PWMP     *zegzeg to stand erect

Malay jəjakstanding straight up, vertical
Dairi-Pakpak Batak jeŋjeŋto stand up
Balinese jegjegstand up properly (written letters); stand upright (the horns of a bovine)
  jejegstand bolt upright, stand up straight
Sasak mə-jəjəkto stand
Makassarese jajʔaʔto stand up straight


*zeket to burn (fields, etc.)


PMP     *zeket to burn (fields, etc.)

Palawan Batak dɨkɨtburn (Reid 1971)
Cebuano dukútfor fire to catch to something
Miri jukatto burn (rubbish, the fields)


POC     *sokot to burn

Arosi togomake up a fire, set more wood on

Note:   Miri jukat is assumed to be a u ablaut form of an unrecorded base **jəkat.


*zekzek to tread, trample on


PAN     *zekzek to tread, trample on

Kavalan m-zezzekto tread on
Pazeh dekedekto step on the ground
Malay jəjakto trample on

Note:   Possibly a product of convergence.


*zelaq tongue


PWMP     *zelaq tongue     [doublet: *dilaq]

Klata delaʔtongue
Mapun dallaʔtongue
Yakan dellaʔtongue
  mag-dellaʔ tuwaka triangular tear, as in clothing
Sama (Central) dəllaʔtongue
Berawan (Long Terawan) jəlitongue
Miri jəleʔtongue
Kenyah (Long Anap) jəlaʔtongue
Murik jəlatongue
Wahau tlæʔtongue
Gaai klae̯ʔtongue
Kelai klæʔtongue
Mei Lan Modang tələa̯ʔtongue
Woq Helaq Modang tələa̯ʔtongue
Long Gelat Modang təleʔtongue
Kayan (Uma Juman) jəlatongue
Bintulu jəlaʔtongue
Melanau (Mukah) jəlaʔtongue
Melanau Dalat jəlaʔtongue
Bukat jalaʔtongue
Tunjung cəlaʔtongue
Lawangan lolatongue
Ma'anyan lelaʔtongue
Malagasy lelatongue; blade of a knife, sword, etc.
  lela-natalkative, vociferous
  lel-afoa flame, a blaze (< lela + afo ‘fire’)
Nias lelatongue
Wolio delatongue
Muna lelatongue (also of instruments)
  lela ghuleboaster, big talker (lit. ‘snake tongue’)


*zelay a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L.


PMP     *zelay a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L.

Maranao delayJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi
Subanen/Subanun delayJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi
Bintulu jəlaykind of cultivated plant
Ngaju Dayak jeleya plant similar to millet, but with larger grains that are round and yellowish
Malay jelaymillet, Aphania pancijuga
  buah jelayseeds of Coix lachryma-jobi, used as rosary beads
Bare'e jolenative maize: Coix agrestis
  jole goaMakasar maize: Zea mays
Tae' dallemaize: Zea mays
  dalle sisikanJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L., a plant with seed heads like the riceplant that contains numerous oval seeds; it is an edible plant, the seeds of which are pounded and then cooked, and also used as beads
Manggarai selaJob’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L.
Rotinese delekind of millet that is especially important as a foodstuff in eastern Roti

Note:   Also Malay henjelay ‘millet’, Old Javanese jahəli ~ jahli ~ jali ‘a kind of millet: Eleusine coracana’, Javanese jali ‘a plant that produces corn-like (barley-like) kernels’, Balinese jali-jali ‘a species of plant’.


*zeliŋ cross-eyed; squint


PWMP     *zeliŋ cross-eyed; squint     [doublet: *zuliŋ]

Iban jeliŋlook from the corners of the eyes
Malay jeliŋgive a side-glance full of meaning
Karo Batak jeliŋcross-eyed
Toba Batak joliŋslanting, inclined
Balinese jileŋ <Msquint, be cross-eyed

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) siliŋ ‘cross-eyed’, Old Javanese jilak ‘partial eye defect (cross-eyed?)’, Wolio jilo ‘cross-eyed, squint’, Rotuman jila ‘squint, be crossed (eyes)’.


*zelzel stuff or fill with material


PWMP     *zelzel stuff or fill with material

Cebuano duldúlkapok fiber or tree: Ceiba pentandra. The pods produce a cotton-like fiber which is used as furniture stuffing
Ngaju Dayak jejelmaterial used for stopping something up
Malay jejalclose an orifice with stuffing of any sort
Old Javanese jəjəlcrowding, packing


*zemak feel, grope


PMP     *zemak feel, grope     [doublet: *zamaq]

Karo Batak jemakhold something tightly in the hand
Dairi-Pakpak Batak jemakgrasp in the hand
Toba Batak jomakgrasp something with the whole hand
Balinese jemakpick up, take, seize, stretch out a hand for something, grasp
Manggarai demakgrope for something in a hole or cave; pick someone's pocket, take without permission

Note:   Also Toba Batak gomak ‘grasp something, take a handful’, Mongondow domok ‘catch, grasp, seize; fight, come to blows or grips’.


*zeŋkuŋ curved


PMP     *zeŋkuŋ curved

Iban jeŋkoŋcurved handle (as on a pail, teapot)
Banggai deŋkuŋcurly, of the hair


POC     *sokuŋ bent, curved

Arosi tokubent, of an arm which cannot be straightened


*zepit pinch, take up with the fingers


PWMP     *zepit pinch, take up with the fingers

Iban jempitcrushed
Malay (Jakarta) jepitnip, catch between pincers
Javanese jepèt, jepitpinched tightly (in a clip, etc.)
Uma jopiʔnarrow

Note:   Uma jopiʔ may be a Kulawi loan. With root *-pit (or *peqit?) ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*zeRa hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience


PWMP     *zeRa hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deǥato frighten or discourage someone or some creature from repeating an action
Tiruray derafeeling uncared for, sulky as a manifestation of hurt feelings rather than real anger
Iban jeraʔlearn by experience (‘the hard way’), have one’s fill, get one’s fingers burned, be fed up with; (poetic) fearful, crazed
Malay jeradeterred; warned by experience

Note:   Also Tagalog daláʔ ‘wary, cautious or scared because of previous painful, unpleasant, unfortunate or unsatisfactory experience’, ma-daláʔ, dalaʔ-ín ‘to have an unpleasant experience caused by the attitude of others or by other circumstances; to be taught by painful experience (in consequence of which one is wary about returning to a certain place)’, Cebuano dulá ‘for animals to be shy and not allow anyone to approach them’, Mapun dallaʔ ‘to give up doing something (because of having a bad or painful experience; to begin to give up’, dallaʔ-un ‘cause someone to give up doing something’.

It is unclear whether the Tagalog and Mapun forms justify a doublet *zeraq, but this seems doubtful, since the expected Tagalog reflex of such a form would be **diláʔ. Rather, it seems more likely that forms such as those listed in this note are loanwords from Malay. The same cannot be said, however, for Manobo (Western Bukidnon) deǥa, and so the reconstruction stands despite the questionable nature of some of its members.


*zeRet noose trap


PWMP     *zeRet noose trap     [doublet: *ziRet]

Mapun dallotto catch an animal with a noose (usually placed on the ground)
Melanau (Mukah) jahətnoose trap
Banjarese jahatnoose trap
Malay jəratrunning noose, of noose snares for birds and small mammals
Balinese jehet ~ jahetsnare, trap for birds
Sasak jərətsnare; knot
  tə-jərətto be caught in a snare

Note:   Also Toba Batak jorat ‘noose trap for catching animals’ (< Malay).

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*zilak cross-eyed


PMP     *zilak cross-eyed     [doublet: *zeliŋ, *zuliŋ]

Old Javanese jilakpartial eye defect (cross-eyed?)


POC     *silak₂ cross-eyed

Rotuman jilasquint, be crossed (eyes)


*zilat to stick out the tongue


PWMP     *zilat to stick out the tongue

Ilokano ag-dílatto stick out the tongue
  dilát-anto stick out the tongue at someone
Pangasinan dilátto stick out the tongue
Malay jilatto lick or lick up, of touching with the tongue, of a dog licking up food; of a dancing girl picking up coins with her lips
Karo Batak n-dilatto lick, give a lick
  n-dilat-ito lick something off
Toba Batak man-dilatto lick


*zilateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.


PMP     *zilateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *lateŋ, *zalateŋ]

Minangkabau jilataŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Lampung jilatoŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.


POC     *silatoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *latoŋ, *salatoŋ]

Roviana jilatoŋokind of nettle
Marovo zilatoŋonettle varieties: Laportea interrupta and L. ruderalis
Merlav ne-silatnettle: Dendrocnide sp.

Note:   The Oceanic members of this comparison are taken from Ross (2008:232).


*ziŋkit touching or joined along the length


PWMP     *ziŋkit touching or joined along the length

Cebuano díkitbe close so as to touch, put something close to touch it
  liŋkítfor two things to be joined along their lengths
Maranao riŋkitstick together
Sundanese jéŋkétstuck together, as the hair

Note:   With root *-kit₂ ‘join along the length’.


*ziRet noose trap


PWMP     *ziRet noose trap     [doublet: *zeRet]

Iban jiratto hobble or tie by the legs (of animals, usually for killing)
Malay (Jakarta) jirətnoose trap
Bare'e jionoose trap to catch mice or wild chickens

Note:   Iban jərat ‘running noose, snare’ is assumed to be a Malay loan.


*ziteq vine from which poison is obtained


PWMP     *ziteq vine from which poison is obtained

Isneg dítavenom, poison. Whether natural (as in snakes, etc.) or artificial (for arrowheads, etc.). Obtained by boiling the bark of the lanúg vine or that of the díta tree; a forest tree whose bark, when boiled, yields a poison to be smeared on arrowheads, etc.
Pangasinan ditávenom, poison secreted by snakes and other animals; to smear poison on an arrowhead, etc.
Bisaya (Limbang) riteʔblowpipe poison
Malay akar jitaha liana, Willughbeia spp.


*zitzit to hiss


PMP     *zitzit to hiss     [disjunct: *sitsit]

Chamorro cecethiss, call by hissing sound, call attention to


POC     *sisit to hiss, as to call attention to

Samoan sisihiss (to summon someone without attracting attention)


*ziuq bathe


PMP     *ziuq bathe     [doublet: *diRuq, *diRus]

Tingalan (West) a-jiuʔto bathe
Kelabit diuʔbathe


POC     *siuq₂ bathe

Bugotu siubathe, wash oneself
Nggela siu, siu-vibathe
Lau siu, siu-fibathe, wash standing in water

Note:   Also Bintulu mən-duʔ ‘to bathe’. Mills (1975:684) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *dio(C(?)), ‘bathe’, which he associates with PAn *DiRuq or *DiRus, with unexplained loss of *R.


*zizi disgusted, revolted


PWMP     *zizi disgusted, revolted

Tagalog dírifeeling of loathing for what is foul or filthy
Malay jijidisgust

Note:   Also Malay jijék, cicék ‘disgust’, Javanese jijiːk ‘revolted, disgusted’.


*ziziq grin, show the teeth


PMP     *ziziq grin, show the teeth     [disjunct: *zizir]

Chamorro cicéʔgrin (showing teeth); smile (toothy), gritting teeth


POC     *sisiq₂ grin, show the teeth

Manam ao-sisito smile
Gedaged sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling)
Sa'a sisito grin like a dog, lay bare the teeth
Arosi sisilay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning

Note:   Milke (1961:170, 173) compares the Sa'a word with Fijian sisiva ‘jealous’, Tongan hihihihi ‘gnash the teeth’, Samoan ma-sisi ‘term of abuse’. However, his source for Tongan (Churchward 1959) does not list hihihihi in the stated meaning, and Pratt's (1984) masisi ‘the piece of wood used in operating for tafao (circumcision), used reproachfully’ presents both formal and semantic problems, thus effectively invalidating the earlier comparison.


*zizir grin, show the teeth


PMP     *zizir grin, show the teeth     [disjunct: *ziziq]

Minangkabau jijirgrinning, showing the teeth


POC     *sisir₂ grin, show the teeth

Manam ao-sisito smile
Gedaged sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling)
Sa'a sisito grin like a dog, lay bare the teeth
Arosi sisilay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning

Note:   Milke (1961:170, 173) compares the Sa'a word with Fijian sisiva ‘jealous’, Tongan hihihihi ‘gnash the teeth’, Samoan ma-sisi ‘term of abuse’. However, his source for Tongan (Churchward 1959) does not list hihihihi in the stated meaning, and Pratt's (1984) masisi ‘the piece of wood used in operating for tafao (circumcision), used reproachfully’ presents both formal and semantic problems, thus effectively invalidating the earlier comparison.

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*zukut grass


PMP     *zukut grass

Toba Batak duhutgrass, plants
Nias duʔugrass, weeds
  mo-duʔube overgrown with grass or weeds
Sundanese jukutgrass, vegetables
Old Javanese dukutgrass
Javanese dukutgrass
Tonsea dukutgrass
Hawu juʔugrass

Note:   Also Bikol dúʔot ‘grass, lawn, weed’.


*zulaq saliva; to spit


PWMP     *zulaq saliva; to spit     [doublet: *dulaq, *ludaq, *luzaq]

Tboli dulakto spit
Kenyah julaʔspittle
Kenyah (Long Dunin) ñulaʔto spit, expectorate
Bintulu bə-julaʔto spit
Taboyan ñurato spit, expectorate
Sasak julaʔsaliva, spittle
  bə-julaʔto spit
  julaʔ-into be spat upon
  julaʔ ladaʔthe first betel spittle, first expectoration after chewing areca nut


*zuliŋ cross-eyed


PWMP     *zuliŋ cross-eyed

Ilokano dulíŋslightly cross-eyes
  ag-dulíŋ-dulíŋto be cross-eyed
Pangasinan dolíŋcross-eyed
Tagalog dulíŋcross-eyed; cock-eyed; having both eyes turned toward the nose
Cebuano dulíŋcross-eyed
Iban juliŋsquint; uneven, slanting
Malay juliŋsquint; cast in eye
  juliŋ bər-taŋkapcross-eyed


*zulu earlier, in advance


PAN     *zulu earlier, in advance

Paiwan pa-djuluprepare something in advance
Sasak juluʔdo something before another
  julu-anearlier, former

Note:   Also Malay dahulu, dulu ‘before; in advance of; ahead’. Sasak Ɂ in this form is unexplained, but given the sporadic and often non-corresponding occurence of final glottal closure in languages such as Iban and Sasak, the final consonant in this form cannot be reconstructed with any confidence.


*zuluŋ kind of freshwater fish


PWMP     *zuluŋ kind of freshwater fish

Tagalog dulóŋlake goby or anchovy fry
Malay juluŋ-juluŋkind of freshwater fish


*zuŋkuk bend over, stoop


PMP     *zuŋkuk bend over, stoop

Malagasy jokokacattle whose horns turn down (Provincial)
Malay joŋkokto squat
Manggarai dukukbend down (as when going to sit)
Ngadha dukuto bend, bow, incline the body forward; bend down, stoop

Note:   Also Javanese juŋkruk ‘sit with bowed head’, Makassarese dukku ‘bend over, bow, duck down; crouch down to hide. With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’. Possibly a chance resemblance made more similar through sharing a common monosyllabic root.


*zuŋzuŋ carry on the head


PWMP     *zuŋzuŋ carry on the head

Malay junjoŋsupporting on the head (of a hawker carrying a basket on his head, a warrior raising his club over his head before striking, and of fixing gun shields on guns); indirectly, of props on which a thing rests; fig. obeying
Karo Batak er-jujuŋcarry something on the head
  jujuŋ-enwages for something, above all for someone who will join in a fight
Toba Batak man-juŋjuŋcarry something on the head
  hau juŋjuŋ buhita forest tree that is used as an offering pole; male figures of the two gods of life are cut from its wood
Sundanese ŋa-juŋjuŋlift up, raise; also to raise in function or dignity
Old Javanese ka-juŋjuŋto life; to raise in rank
Balinese junjuŋcarry on the head
  juŋjuŋto praise highly, flatter
Sasak bə-junjuŋhold something above one’s head
  tə-junjuŋto boast, exalt oneself
Tae' duduŋtake or carry on the head
  pa-duduŋ-igive someone something to carry on the head
Buginese jujuŋcarrying on the head
  n-cujuŋto carry on the head
Makassarese aʔ-jujuŋtake or carry on the head (as a basket full of rice)
  pa-jujuŋpeople (especially women) who carry loads on their heads


PWMP     *zuŋzuŋ-an what is carried on the head; a burden

Mapun duruŋ-ancarry something on one’s head (as laundry)
Javanese junjuŋ-ana burden
  junjuŋ-junjuŋ-anlifting, raising
Tae' duduŋ-anthat which is carried on the head
Makassarese jujuŋ-aŋload to be carried on the head


*zuRu corner; side, edge


PWMP     *zuRu corner; side, edge

Ilokano dúgocorner post of a house (one of four); backbone; foundation; monument
Bontok dúguthe corner of a rice terrace
Ifugaw (Batad) dūgua roof-ridge rafter of a traditional house; a corner line of a box, building basket (reference is to the exterior or interior line where two converging walls of a building meet; a horizontal or oblique line where two sides of a box or basket meet, as of a colander basket
Ibaloy shogocorner (as of a house)
  i-shogoplace something in a corner
  man-shogoput oneself in a corner
Ayta Abellan doyocorner, nook
Maranao rogocorner
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ruǥua partitioned off sleeping room
Tausug dugua corner, a place behind (something); to do something in secret, in a corner
Malay pen-jurucorner; section, quarter
Gayō duruside; room of a house near the doorway
Dairi-Pakpak Batak duruside, edge of a field
  men-duru-durukeep at a distance; commit adultery
  ter-durube put on the side, as someone who will receive attention later
Toba Batak duruside, edge, corner
  man-duru-ibe undecided about something
  pa-durupush to the side
  tar-durube pushed to the side
Lampung juyuback side
Sundanese juruexternal corner, as of a mat, a house, a fence, etc.
Old Javanese du ~ dūcorner, side, edge

Note:   Also Maranao pidoro ‘corner, form’ (< Malay?), Mansaka kadogoŋan ‘corner (as of house), Minangkabau pinjuru ‘corner; section, quarter’. This term may have had a more precise meaning than that given here.


*zuRuq juice; sap; gravy; soup


PMP     *zuRuq juice; sap; gravy; soup

Tagalog dugóʔblood
  ka-dugóʔblood relation, one who is related by blood
  d<in>ugu-ána dish made with pig's or cow's blood
  dugu-ánbloody, covered with blood
  dugu-ínto have a hemorrhage
Bikol dugóʔblood
  ma-dugóʔbloody, gory
  mag-dugóʔto bleed
Hanunóo dugúʔblood
Masbatenyo dugóʔblood
  mag-dugóʔto bleed
  duguʔ-ónbe blood-stained
Bantuqanon rogoʔblood
Aklanon dugóʔblood; to bleed
  pa-dugóʔto bleed, let bleed
  d<in>ugo-ána Filipino dish made from the blood and intestines of pigs, chickens, etc.
Waray-Waray dugóʔblood
  ma-dugóʔbloody, stained with blood
  dugoʔ-ónbloody, stained with blood
Hiligaynon dugúʔblood
  mag-dugúʔto bleed
Maranao rogoʔblood
Mansaka dogoʔto bleed, menstruate
  ma-dogoʔbleeding profusely
Klata duluʔblood
Tausug duguʔblood; one's life; a blood relative
  mag-duguʔto bleed
  ka-duguʔ-anto bleed
  duguʔ-unto experience menstruation
Abai Sembuak duuʔhoney
Ida'an Begak dduʔjuice, broth; make into broth
Lun Dayeh duruʔhoney
Kelabit duruʔhoney
Melanau (Mukah) juuʔjuice (of fruit), sap (of tree); gravy
  juuʔ bəñuhcoconut cream
Ngaju Dayak johobroth of meat or fish; sap, juice, fluid, liquid
  ha-johohaving broth, sap or milk
Malay jurohsyrup made of native sugar
Karo Batak duruhplant sap; milk
Old Javanese duhjuice, sap, oil (for a lamp)
  a-duhto contain fluid
Mongondow duguʔblood
  d<m>uguʔto bleed
  duguʔ-anbloody, blood-stained
Ponosakan duhuʔblood
Tae' durospecks of shiny oil on water or in a sauce
Chamorro chugoʔsap, juice (as from an orange); pus; semen
Wetan turiliquid; decoction
Numfor rurjuice of fruits; decoction produced from boiling leaves; boiled water


POC     *suRuq₁ juice; broth, soup; gravy

Nauna cuysoup
Baluan suysoup
Lou sisoup
Loniu cuysoup
Likum susoup
Bali (Uneapa) zurukacoconut milk
Vitu zurukaliquid, soup, juice
  zuruka paidococonut juice
Kove suhuliquid (as from a plant)
Manam surusoup
Gitua suruprepared potable liquid: includes juice, coconut water, soup, tea, coffee, etc.
Molima sulucoconut milk
Lau sululiquid, oil, juice, sap
  sulu-awatery; to melt
  sululiquid, oil, juice, sap
  sulu-nagreen, of timber; melted, running, liquified; to melt
Toqabaqita sulujuice, liquid of fruit; broth, sauce, gravy (in cooking)
  sulu-na niuthe water of a coconut
'Āre'āre suruboiled coconut cream
Sa'a sululiquid, water
  sulu ni waiwater
  sulu ni niuthe liquid of a green coconut
Arosi surucoconut milk, liquid of coconut; yam soup with strained coconut scrapings and cabbage, octopus, etc.
Rotuman juice of a ripe coconut
Fijian subroth, soup
Tongan wet
Niue paha-hūdamp, wet by dew
Samoan be moist; (of taro) be watery
Rennellese suuto be wet, damp, moist (as fleshy food; contrasting with vegetables)
Hawaiian ūmoist; to drip, drizzle; impregnated, as with salt

Note:   Also Javanese juruh sweet thick syrup or sauce, usually made of coconut sugar, Balinese juruh syrup. The exact meaning of this term is hard to pin down. It evidently referred to naturally occurring liquids that are more viscous than water, as juices of fruits, coconut water and the like, as well as broths or soups that are produced by cooking.


*zutzut pluck, pull out


PWMP     *zutzut pluck, pull out     [doublet: *dutdut]

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dudutto pluck, as feathers from a chicken or weeds from the ground
Melanau (Mukah) dudutpull out, as a post or a tree; pluck feathers
Malay jonjot (secondary prenasalization)picking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum
Minangkabau jujutpicking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 6/21/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)