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all counts are approximate

example sentences and phrases
final syllables - -na (headwords)
final vowels (headwords)
ho- causatives
initial letter counts
names - words beginning with a capital letter
number of entries
suffixes - words beginning with a hyphen
number of entries
PE (Pukui & Elbert's Hawaiian-English Dictionary) contains appx. 21,000 bold-faced main entries, many with numbered subentries.1 In this version, each numbered subentry appears as a subscripted headword, resulting in appx. 27,000 entries2. There are 6,478 Māmaka Kaiao entries.

Appx. 4,800 entries are cross-references, like:
Same as1998 Pas/imp. of255 similar to54
Redup. of 1594 Var. spelling of176 plural of29
Var. of 565 short for90 a variety of18
and an additional few dozen similar forms.
In this online version all the cross-referenced words are links to the target entry.

example sentences and phrases
There are over 11,000 unique example sentences and phrases, and another few hundred repetitions of these, which can be divided into three main groups (appx. counts):
hoʻo- causatives2,000

Besides the citations of sources for the various examples (below), over 500 indicate that they are from chants (222), songs (213), sayings (41), names (38), prayers (23), place names (20), hula chants and songs (19), etc.

ho- causatives
2000 entries containing ho- causatives are listed here, and in the concordance.

On the reference page is the list of sources cited in the dictionary. There are over 5,200 citations, appx. 1,300 for books of the Bible, 3,900 for other sources. Citations to books of the Bible are split about equally between definitions and examples, appx. 600 for examples, 700 for definitions. Over 1,500 examples cite additional sources, another 3,000 for the definitions.

    At the top of the Bible references:
Pukaana (Exodus) 137
Isaia (Isaiah) 132
Halelu (Psalms) 97
Kinohi (Genesis) 96
Oihanakahuna (Leviticus) 90
Mataio (Matthew) 64
Kanawailua (Deuteronomy) 53
Ieremia (Jeremiah) 49
Nahelu (Numbers) 46
Ioba (Job) 40
I Samuela (I Samuel) 33
II Samuela (II Samuel) 32
Hoikeana (Revelation) 31
Ezekiela (Ezekiel) 28
Solomona (Proverbs) 28
Luka (Luke) 27
Lunakanawai (Judges) 26
I Nalii (I Kings) 25
II Oihanaalii (II Chronicles) 20
Oihana (Acts) 19
Mele a Solomona (Song of Solomon) 18
Mareko (Mark) 17
II Nalii (II Kings) 16
Ioane (John) 16
Roma (Romans) 14
I Korineto (I Corinthians) 13
Iosua (Joshua) 12
I Petero (I Peter) 10
Daniela (Daniel) 10
Hebera (Hebrews) 10

    At the top of the general references:
Neal (In Gardens of Hawaii) 588
For. (Fornander Collection...) 521
Gram. (Elbert & Pukui, Hawaiian Grammar) 401
FS (Elbert, Selections from Fornander's...) 273
Malo (Hawaiian Antiquities) 267
Kep. (Kepelino's Traditions of Hawaii) 247
HP (Handy, Hawaiian Planter) 206
And. (Andrews Dictionary) 202
Kam. (Kamakau's writings) 148
Kel. (Kelekona) 124
KL. (Beckwith: Kumuilipo) 96
AP (Andrews/Harper Dictionary) 95
PH (Emerson, Pele and Hiiaka) 86
Laie (Beckwith, Romance of Laieikawai) 77
UL (Emerson, Hula) 76
Nak. (Nakuina, Moolelo) 73
HM (Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology) 61
GP (Green & Pukui, Legend of Kawelo) 36

As with the links for these references here, clicking on reference links in the dictionary will usually bring you to the appropriate section of the Reference page. Some links, however, are to online versions of the actual references. For example, links to Gram. or books of the Bible will go directly to the book and/or chapter of the work.

initial letter counts

    a      e       h       i       k       l       m      n       o      p      u      w    

The 12 alphabetical sections are the same as in PE. The small column graph above the top index on each dictionary page shows the counts of the entries for each letter. For this arrangement, the ʻokina (ʻ) and the dash (-) have been ignored in initial position. So for example, included under A are all words beginning with a, A, ā, Ā, -a, -A, -ā, -Ā, ʻa, ʻA, ʻā, ʻĀ, -ʻa, -ʻA, -ʻā, or -ʻĀ.3 The actual counts are summarized in the two tables below:

vowel-initial entries
 vV -v-V-v̄-V̄ ʻvʻVʻv̄ʻV̄ -ʻv-ʻV-ʻv̄-ʻV̄tot
a61627772 8 5  10545739413 4   2257
e91116  3 1  28916382 1   458
i366295  9    34813572 2   831
o194539  2    494226869 4   1455
u5142311  12    32581274 3   1027

consonant-initial entries
 cC-c -Ctot
h342916739 3635
k518844651 5685
l196610030 2096
m259214837 2777
n10805819 1157
p456116930 4760
w740404 784

There are 3,972 entries with initial ʻokina (inluding 14 after the dash). The two graphs below show the difference in the initial letter counts when the ʻokina is included. Vowel-intial words are seen to be least frequent.

This is in contrast to the actual distribution of single letters withing the headwords, where the (C)V structure of Hawaiian favors the vowels. The graph below shows the distribution of letters within the headwords.4

A slightly different result is found when the letters in the example sentences are counted:5

final vowels

As shown in the charts, in the dictionary headwords, as expected, word final -a is by far the most frequent Hawaiian word ending.

final syllables - -na

The charts shows the top 25 final syllables

By far the most frequent is final -na, with 1694, followed by -le at 1237 and -la at 1199.

    entries ending with -na


words beginning with a hyphen
250 forms begin with hyphens - numerous suffixes, but mainly hoʻo- causative forms for which no independent forms were known. These are listed here.


words beginning with a capital letter
1535 capitalized words, including the names of stars, months, winds and rains, mythological beings, lua fighting strokes. These are listed here. Another 881 entries for place names outside of Hawaii are listed in the gazetteer.

The ʻokina (glottal stop), kahakō (macron) and capitalization are significant in links, but spaces (and subscripts) are ignored.

1. Kaliko Trapp (pc) reports 21,084 main entries, based on the Ulukau version. (Elbert estimated 29,000 in his 1991 preface to the dictionary, so he was apparently counting the numbered subentries as entries.)
2. 26,855. This version contains 26,922 at this point, including 67 entries from the "Glossary of Hawaiian gods..." section of the 1971 edition, referenced by other entries.
3. Only 11 of these 16 potential "A" forms occur, as can be seen in the table.
4. Vowels with macrons are treated as single examples of the vowel, and capitalization is ignored: 205,396 letters in 36,010 words (many headwords have more than one word).
5. Vowels with macrons are treated as single examples of the vowel, and capitalization is ignored: 205,107 letters in 52,148 words (11,347 examples).