Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   


fa    fe    fi    fo    fu    

PMc   *fa-   reciprocal

Trukesefe-, ffe-mutual 
 ffe-ŋeen, ffe-ŋen, fe-ŋenni-toward one another, together 
 fe-seen, fe-senni-away from each other 
Puluwatesefé-ŋann, fe-háŋŋ·reciprocal
Saipan Carolinianfe-ŋáll, fe-sáŋ·reciprocal
Saipan Carolinian·Tfe-ŋánn·reciprocal
Woleaianfe-, fe-ŋanni, fe-taŋi·reciprocal
Proto-Chuukic*fe-, fe-ŋanni, fe-taŋ[ŋ]i·reciprocal
Ponapeianpε-sεŋaway from each other 
 pε-(nε)toward each other 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*fe-, fe-taŋ[ŋ]i·reciprocal
Kiribatia-(taŋa)mutual friendship 
Proto-Kimbe*va-do mutually 

— Cf. —

Laufaido with, help 
Bugotufaipref. of reciprocity 
Arosihai, hei, himutual action 
Kwaiofa (na)for, with, to him 
 fa (i)for it 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faRireciprocal action  (Geraghty 1990)

Note Saipan Carolinian sefáŋŋ, sefáŋ and Saipan Carolinian·T hefáŋ are metathasized forms of fe sáŋŋ and *fe háng respectively.

PMc   *-faa   where?

Proto–Central Micronesian*iaa·where?
Mortlockese-fawhich (located where)? 
Saipan Caroliniani-fa·where?
Mokilese(?) i-paanear him, with him, in his possession 
Kusaieano-yε, yεwhere? 

— Cf. —


— Cf. —

Fijiane vei·where?
Sa’ai hei·where?
Bugotui vei·where?
Laui fai·where?
Arosii hei·where?
Kwaioi fai·where?
West Nakanaive·where?

See also Proto–Central Micronesian *iaa ‘where?’, Proto–Central Micronesian *maia from ‘where?’.

PMc   *faa-   underside, under

Trukesefaa-(n), fáá-(n)his underside or under him, underside of, under 
Mortlockesefáá-(n)under it 
Puluwatesefaa-(n), fáá-(n)·underside, under
Saipan Carolinianfaa-(l)·underside, under
Satawalesefaa-(l)·underside, under
Woleaianfaa-(le), faa-(li)·underside, under
Pulo-Annanda-(ni) [sic]·underside, under
Proto-Chuukic*faa-·underside, under
Ponapeianpaa, paa-n·underside, under
Mokilesepaa, pee-(n)·underside, under
Marshallese(?) yaw-(mʷi-), yew-(mʷi-)·underside, under
Kiribati(i)-aa-(na), (i)-aa-(n)·underside, under
Kusaiean(y)-ε-(l), (y)-e-(n)·underside, under

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fafaunderside, under 
Sa’ahahadown side 
 [i] hahabelow, underside 
Kwaio[olo] fa [na]under, underneath 

— Cf. also —

Proto-Oceanic*paqalthigh, leg, stem  (Ross 1988)
Fijianyava [na]foot, leg 
West Nakanaivahaleg, foot 
Uraustronesisch*paqaleg, stem 
Lau(i) faraunderneath 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *faa, faa-[sS]i ‘apply the sole of the foot’, Proto-Chuukic *fa[ae]fa[ae] ‘footbrace in the form of a stationary block of wood under the warp beam of a loom’, Proto-Chuukic *faa-raki ‘use one’s foot’.

PMc   *faa-, fa-   four (prefixed to classifier)

Trukesefa-, fé-, fo-, f-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Mortlockesefaa-, féé-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Puluwatesefa-, faa-, fé-, fo-, f-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Saipan Carolinianfaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Satawalesefaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Woleaianfaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Pulo-Annandaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Proto-Chuukic*faa-, fa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Ponapeianpaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Mokilesepaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Pingilapesepaa-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Marshalleseya-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Kiribatia-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Kusaieanæ-, yo-·four (prefixed to classifier)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faa, fati·four (prefixed to classifier) (cf. Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*paat, pat·four (prefixed to classifier) (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*faa·four (prefixed to classifier)
Fijianvaa·four (prefixed to classifier)
Sa’ahai·four (prefixed to classifier)
Bugotuvati·four (prefixed to classifier)
Laufai·four (prefixed to classifier)
Arosihai·four (prefixed to classifier)
Kwaiofai·four (prefixed to classifier)
Proto-Kimbe*vaa·four (prefixed to classifier)
Uraustronesisch*epat, empat·four (prefixed to classifier)

See also Proto-Micronesian *faŋi ‘the number four’ (in serial counting).

PMc   *faa, faasa   string, be strung

Trukeseffaatbe strung (of fish) 
 -ffaatstrings of fish (counting classifier) 
 ffaate-(n), faate-(n)string of 
 faate-nito string it on a line 
Mortlockesefaatstring for hanging fish 
Puluwatesefááte-ni-(y)to pierce it, penetrate it, string it (as fish) 
Saipan Carolinianffaat, faat, ffáti-(l)stringer of fish, string of fish of 
Woleaianfaastring, cord 
 -faatnumerical classifier for strung objects 
 faata-li-(i)string it 
Pulo-Annandata [sic]string, to stab through a string 
 -data [sic]counting classifier for strings of something 
Proto-Chuukic*faa, faada, faada-ni·string, be strung
Kusaieanæstring, fishing line, rope, cord 
 ætdangle, hang 
 ætætdangling, hanging 

— Note also —

Woleaianfaatespecial food (including fish) set aside for a chief 
Pulo-Annandata [sic]special food, chief's food 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *awo ‘fishline’.

PMc   *faa, faa-[sS]i   apply the sole of the foot

Trukesefaa-pertaining to the sole of the foot 
 ffa, ffákick with the sole of the foot 
 fáá-tikick it 
Saipan Carolinianffato kick 
 fáá-tikick (someone) 
 faa-ti-(i)kick it 
Proto-Chuukic*faa, faa-di·apply the sole of the foot
Ponapeianpaa-dto push with ones foot 
Mokilesepaa-dpush with the feet 
 paa-dekpush (something) with the feet 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*faa, faa-di·apply the sole of the foot
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[pv]aRa-ztread on, step on  (Geraghty 1990:66)
Fijianvaa, vaa-catread softly 

— Cf. —

Kiribatiwaefoot, leg, walk 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *faa- ‘underside, under’, Proto-Chuukic *fa[ae]fa[ae] ‘footbrace in the form of a stationary block of wood under the warp beam of a loom’, Proto-Chuukic *faa-raki ‘use one’s foot’.

PCMc   *faa-i-laŋi, faa-ni-laŋi   lower region of sky

Trukesefáá-n nááŋ, fáá-yi-neŋlower heaven 
Woleaianfaa-i-leŋithe earth, the globe, the world 
Proto-Chuukic*faa-i-laŋi·lower region of sky
Kiribatiaa-n-naŋthe atmosphere just below the clouds 

See Proto-Micronesian *faa- ‘underside, under’ and Proto-Micronesian *laŋi ‘sky, heaven, storm’.

PMc   *faca   pandanus

Trukesefaach, fache-(n)pandanus, pandanus of 
PuluwatesefaaR, faRá-(n)·pandanus
Saipan Carolinianfaash, fasha-(l), #faasha-(l)·pandanus
Saipan Carolinian·TfaaR, fara-(n)·pandanus
Woleaianfaash, fesha-(li)·pandanus
Pulo-Annandaasa, dasa-·pandanus
Marshalleseyed-(wahan)wild pandanus 
Kiribatiara-pandanus (in variety names) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fanra·pandanus
Proto-Austronesian*panDan, paŋeDan·pandanus (Blust 1984–85)
Proto-Austronesian*paŋudaN·pandanus (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*paŋdan·pandanus (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto-Oceanic*padran·pandanus (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

PCMc   *faco   constantly

Trukese-ffóchconstantly, all the time, always 
PuluwatesefóRófóRó-(ló)do constantly, do steadily 
Saipan Carolinian-ffóshall the way to a destination 
Woleaianffashoto go through to the end, be complete, come to an end 
Proto-Chuukic*facofaco, ffaco·constantly
Ponapeianpɔtɔpɔteverlasting, constant, permanent 
Kiribatiaroway, manner, custom 

PMc   *fafia   firewood

 fafiya-(a)put firewood in it 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fafi[ae]·firewood

— See also —

Pulo-Annandadiauncultivated land 
Sonsorolesefafiauncultivated land 

PMc   *fai, fai-a   rayfish, stingray

Trukeseffey, ffeyi-(n)stingray, stingray of 
 feyiye-(nap), fayiye-(nnifaro), feyiye-(pʷúk)species of stingray 
Mortlockesefaye·rayfish, stingray
Puluwatesefáyi·rayfish, stingray
Saipan Carolinianfeyi, feey, ffey, fáyirayfish, skate 
Satawalesefayi·rayfish, stingray
 faiye-(getafe)kind of rayfish 
 faiye-(li-shéé-li-gilifé)kind of rayfish 
Pulo-Annandaila·rayfish, stingray
Proto-Chuukic*fai-a·rayfish, stingray
Ponapeianpεε-(pɔrok)a large rayfish 
 pεε-(wεεwε)manta ray 
Mokilese·rayfish, stingray
Marshalleseyayi-(bʷikʷiy)kind of rayfish 
Kusaieanεa kind of fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faRi·rayfish, stingray (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Oceanic*paRi[qØ]·rayfish, stingray (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*fai·rayfish, stingray
Fijianvai·rayfish, stingray
Sa’ahali·rayfish, stingray
Arosihari·rayfish, stingray
Kwaiofali·rayfish, stingray
West Nakanaipai-[le-kova]spine [of the stingray] 
Proto-Austronesian*paRiS·rayfish, stingray (Blust 1984–85, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*paRihskate, stingray (generic); a constellation  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto-Oceanic*paRistingray  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

— See also —

Trukesefáráyapmanta ray 
Puluwatesefááriyáp·rayfish, stingray
Woleaianfairiyape·rayfish, stingray
Pulo-Annandaila·rayfish, stingray

Note that the l of Pulo-Annan form is unexpected. Kusaiean (sii)-fε ‘devilfish, ray’ is an apparent loan.

PMc   *faifine   woman

 peyna-(kapʷ)young woman (kapw new) 
Mokilesepeyn, peyn (kapʷ)·woman
Uraustronesisch*bayi, *binayi·woman

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*papine·woman (Ross 1988)
Proto-Oceanic*papinewoman; female; sister (male speaker)  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

PMc   (?)   *faiSa   do what, what?

Trukesefeetdo what 
Puluwateseféét·do what, what?
Saipan Carolinian(bʷe) feitawhy? (in disagreement), what happened? 
Woleaianfeitaa [sic]what happened? 
Pulo-Annandeitahow is it? what happens? 
Proto-Chuukic*faida·do what, what?
Ponapeianpaydwho else? 
Marshalleseyetdo what? 
Kiribatiaerawhat ... doing? 

— Cf. —

West Nakanairovawhat? 

Note Kiribati e instead of expected i. See Proto-Micronesian *-Saa, mee-Saa ‘interrogative suffix’. Note also Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic *fee ‘engage in sexual intercourse, perform an action’.

PWMc   *fai-Toŋo   kiss by rubbing noses

Saipan Carolinianfái-soŋ and Crn fei-hoŋkiss, rub noses 
Satawalesefai-soŋkiss, rub noses 
Woleaianfai-soŋokiss by rubbing noses together 
 fai-soŋo-o-(we)kiss him 
Ulithianfá-soŋ [sic]·kiss by rubbing noses
Proto-Chuukic*fai-Toŋo·kiss by rubbing noses
Marshalleseya-teŋʷsmell (something) 

— Note —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faRi-reciprocal, plural action  (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*soŋitouch noses, smell 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *fa- ‘reciprocal’. Marshallese t is unexplained.

PMc   *fakaafi   evening

Trukesefááf, fááfi-evening 
 (nee)-fááftime of evening meal 
Puluwatesefáf, fáfi- [sic]evening meal 
 (lee)-fáf [sic]time of evening meal 
Saipan Carolinianfááf, fááfi·evening

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*Rafievening 
Proto-Oceanic*Rapi·evening (Ross 1988)
Proto-Austronesian*Rabievening meal  (Blust 1989:160, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

See also Marck (1994:312) Proto-Micronesian *faka-afi.

PMc   *fale   meeting house

Trukesefáán, fáni-(n),meeting house, meeting house of 
Puluwatesefáál·meeting house
Saipan Carolinianfala-in names of meeting houses 
Woleaianfaale, fale-(li)·meeting house
Pulo-Annandaane. dane-·meeting house
Sonsorolesefaane·meeting house
Proto-Chuukic*fale·meeting house
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fale·meeting house
Proto-Polynesian*fale·meeting house
Fijianvale·meeting house
Bugotuvathe·meeting house
Arosihare·meeting house
Pre-POc*pale·meeting house (Ross 1988)
Uraustronesisch*balay·meeting house

Note: Marshallese pal ‘house’ and Kiribati bare-(aka) ‘boathouse’ are apparent loans, in the Kiribati case clearly from a Polynesian source.

PMc   *fali   taboo, sacred

Trukesefentaboo, restricted, engage in worship 
 fáánchurch worship 
Mortlockesefelbe taboo, to worship traditional gods 
 fáálchurch worship 
Satawalesefálto worship traditional gods 
Woleaianfalibe restricted, taboo 
Proto-Chuukic*fali·taboo, sacred
Ponapeianpεlbe in a taboo relationship 
Kusaieanɒ l-(kin)place (something) under taboo 
Uraustronesisch*pali.·taboo, sacred

PWMc   *fa-liku, fa-liku-ri-   turn away, ignore the presence of others

Woleaianfa-lúgúto be isolated, face away from society, turn away from people 
Marshalleseya-lkʷi-rturn ones back on (someone) 
 #yalkʷirkʷirto turn ones back on someone 

— See also —

Kiribati(tina)-niku-asit or stand in front of (someone), ignore (one who was once a friend) 

See Proto-Micronesian *liku ‘outside’ and Uraustronesisch *likud.

PMc   *falu₁   bruised

Trukesefén, féffénbe bruised, bleed 
 (é)-fénboxing, striking with the fist 
 (é)-fénústrike him with the fist 
Saipan Carolinianfaala bruise, fall be bruised, hurt 
 falla-(ló), fal-(ló)be very swollen, severely infected 
Woleaianfalúbe scratched, to bruise 
 (ge)-falú-(ú)hit him, scratch him 
Proto-Chuukic*falú, fallú·bruised

Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *falu₂ prick, pointed object.

PWMc   *falu₂   prick, pointed object

Trukesefén, fénúfénany instrument used to strike a thorn or sharp object and cause it to puncture 
 ffén, ffénú-(n)thorn, thorn of 
 fénú-ú-(w)prick, tattoo 
Puluwatesefaal, falú-, falúfalspur (on a rooster), burr, thorn, spine on a fish 
Satawalesefalú-(w)pierce (something), tattoo (someone) 
Woleaian#faale, #fela- [sic]spur (on a rooster) 
 (ge)-falúthing with spines, blades, thorns 
 falú-ú-(we)pierce it, tattoo him 
Pulo-Annandanú [sic]tattoo it, write it 
 danúdanútattoo, writing 
Proto-Chuukic*falú, falúfalú, falú-ú-·prick, pointed object
Ponapeianpεlipεltattoo, to tattoo 
 pali-ito tattoo 
Marshalleseyiliyto pierce (vowel raising of the sort in first syllable happens sporadically). 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyeḷcult that tattooed and practiced magic (with unexplained heavy

Proto-Micronesian *falu₁ ‘bruised’, Proto-Chuukic *cúyi-falú nail (in carpentry).

PCMc   *fanaa   a kind of needlefish

Trukesefana, fanaa-(n)a small needlefish, needlefish of 
Puluwatesefanaa lagoon fish, probably a needlefish 
Saipan Carolinianfelahalfbeak 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfanahalfbeak 
Woleaianfelaaa kind of needlefish 
Proto-Chuukic*fanaa·a kind of needlefish
Kiribatianaaa fish 

PMc   *fanau   advice, instruction

Trukese#ffén, #fféna-(n)advice, correction, scolding, advice to him 
 féné-é-(w)advise, correct scold him 
 fféné-(ŋeni)instruct, correct, admonish (someone) 
 (a)-fanafanformal talk, lecture, sermon, speech 
 (a)-fanafanadeliver or give (a talk, etc.) 
Mortlockeseffanadvise, instruct 
 fanéadvise him 
Puluwatese#féné-(y)my punishment (that I suffered) 
 féne-(w) [sic]discipline, punish, advise, (someone) 
 fénú-we-(er) [sic]punishment given by them 
Saipan Carolinian#ffélgive advice or instruction, lecture or preach 
 félé-é-(w)advise, instruct, counsel (someone) 
Saipan Carolinian·T#fféngive advice, etc. 
 féné-é-(y)advise, etc, (someone) 
Woleaianfelaúsermon, discipline 
 felaú-(we), foloo-(we)advise or preach to him 
 fala-(aute)talk, discipline, tradition 
 fala-(auta-a)talk about it 
Pulo-Annandanaúlesson, precept, commandment 
Sonsorolesefanaúlesson, precept, commandment 
Proto-Chuukic*fana, fanaú·advice, instruction
Ponapeianpεnεwbe advised 
 panawi-ito advise him 
Mokilesepɔnɔwgive advice 
 pɔnɔwiadvise (someone) 
Marshalleseyenaw, yeṇawto scold, punish, spank 
 yen-akto suspect. 

— Cf. —

Fijianvunauadmonish, harangue, make a speech, preach 
Tonganfonogive strict or solemn instruction, charge, command, direct, enjoin 
Proto-Polynesian*fonodeliberative assembly 
West Nakanaivulocustoms 

There may be two different roots here, or the East Chuukic languages have developed *fana- and *fféna- as analogical derivations.

PMc   *[fØ]ani[fØ]ani   to bail

Marshalleseyanyén·to bail
Kiribatiannan·to bail
Kusaieanenyen.·to bail

PMc   *fanua   inhabited land

Trukesefénú, fénúwa-·inhabited land
Mortlockesefanéw, fanúwa-·inhabited land
Puluwatesefanú, fanúwa-·inhabited land
Saipan Carolinianfalúw·inhabited land
Saipan Carolinian·Tfanú·inhabited land
Satawalesefalú, falúwa-·inhabited land
Woleaianfalúwe·inhabited land
Pulo-Annandanúa·inhabited land
Proto-Chuukic*fanúa·inhabited land
Marshalleseyanéy, yénéy·inhabited land
Kiribatianna (<*ania)dry land 
Kusaieanεn·inhabited land
Proto-Oceanic*panua·inhabited land
Proto-Polynesian*fanua·inhabited land
Fijianvanua·inhabited land
Sa’ahánue·inhabited land
West Nakanaivaluamen 
Uraustronesisch*banua·inhabited land

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *anu[sS]a ‘small island’. See also Marck (1994:307) Proto-Micronesian *fanua ‘land, island’.

PMc   *faŋa   hand over, give

Trukesefaŋbe handed over 
 faŋa-(na-)thing handed over, gift 
 faŋa-(nó)hand or give away 
 (ni)-ffaŋe-(ni)make a gift to 
Mortlockesefaŋa-(la)give away 
Puluwatesefaŋgive, allow 
Saipan Carolinianfaŋto give, send 
 (li)-ffaŋgift, present 
Satawalesefaŋa-(ló)give away 
Woleaianfaŋegive, allow 
Pulo-Annandaŋagift, give 
Proto-Chuukic*faŋa·hand over, give
Ponapeianpaŋa-(la)betray, give away 
Kiribatiaŋa-(ni)give to 

— Cf. —

Bugotuvaŋato eat, vegetable food 
Arosihaŋa, haŋa-nito feed, nourish 
Kwaiofaŋato eat, food 
 faŋa-li-(a)to feed 

Kusaiean (li) peŋ ‘give to curry favor’ is presumably a loan from a Chuukic language.

PCMc   *faŋi   to preserve by smoking

Puluwatesefáŋ, faŋi-(y)to smoke (as fish or copra) 
Woleaianfaŋito be smoked (as fish) 
 faŋi-i-(ye)smoke it 
Pulo-Annandaŋidaŋito smoke fish 
Proto-Chuukic*faŋi·to preserve by smoking
Kiribatiaŋ, aaŋi-(bue)warm 
 aaŋato warm (something) 

PMc   *faŋi   the number four (in serial counting)

Trukesefáán·the number four (in serial counting)
Mortlockesefáán·the number four (in serial counting)
Puluwatesefáán·the number four (in serial counting)
Saipan Carolinianfáál·the number four (in serial counting)
Saipan Carolinian·Tfáán·the number four (in serial counting)
Satawalesefáán·the number four (in serial counting)
Woleaianfaŋi [sic]·the number four (in serial counting)
Proto-Chuukic*faŋi·the number four (in serial counting)
Ponapeian(ε)-pεŋ·the number four (in serial counting)
Mokilese(ɔ)-pɔŋ·the number four (in serial counting)
Marshallese-yaŋfour (suf. to pronouns) 
Kiribatieight (in counting by twos) 
Kusaieanæŋ·the number four (in serial counting)

See also Proto-Micronesian *faa-, fa- ‘four’ (prefixed to classifier).

PCMc   (?)   *f[ao]ŋ[ou]-si-   blow (ones nose)

Trukesefoŋo-tiblow (ones nose) 
 foŋo-(pʷéét)blow ones nose 
Mortlockesefoŋo-ti, foŋo-(pʷoot)·blow (ones nose)
Puluwatese(yó)-foŋefoŋ·blow (ones nose)
Saipan Carolinian(ó)-foŋofoŋblow ones nose 
 fuŋu-rito blow (the nose) 
Proto-Chuukic*foŋo, foŋo-di-·blow (ones nose)
Ponapeianpaŋi-dto blow (ones nose) 
 pεŋid-εkto blow ones nose 
Kiribatioŋi-rato blow (the nose) 

— Cf. —

Proto-Polynesian*f[ae]ŋublow through ones nose 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanpæŋosrdisease of the nose, speak through ones nose 

Problems here. Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *woŋ[iu]-si ‘wring out’, Proto-Chuukic *ŋúTú, ŋŋúTú-, ŋúTú-ri- ‘to snort, blow one’s nose’.

PWMc   *faŋu   be loved, well liked

Trukeseféŋú-(n)love of/for him or her 
Puluwatesefangbe loved 
 fangú-nlove of/for him or her 
Saipan Carolinianfaŋbe very popular with the opposite sex, be a Don Juan, be sexually promiscous (of a woman) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfaŋbe proper, well behaved, well liked (of people) 
Woleaianfaŋé-é-(we)to love him or her 
Proto-Chuukic*faŋú·be loved, well liked
Marshallese(?) weŋʷbe homesick 

Note that we expect Woleaian *fangú-ú-(we).

PMc   *faŋu, faŋu-ni   awakened, awaken

Trukeseféŋúféŋarouse from sleep, wake someone up 
 féŋú-niwake him up 
Mortlockesefaŋú-néwaken, rouse (someone) 
Satawalesefaŋú-iawaken (someone) 
Woleaianfaŋúbe wakened, aroused 
 faŋú-li-(i)wake him up 
Pulo-Annandaŋúbe wakened 
 daŋú-núwake him up 
Proto-Chuukic*faŋú, faŋu-[nl]i·awakened, awaken
Ponapeianmpεŋbe awakened 
 paŋi-nto awaken 
 paŋi-nto awaken (someone) 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*faŋú, faŋú-ni·awakened, awaken
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faŋu-n·awakened, awaken
Samoanfafagu·awakened, awaken
Uraustronesisch*baŋun. Cf. Crl lifaŋ, lifaŋa-wake up 

— Cf. —

Saipan Carolinianlifaŋ, lifaŋa-wake up 
Marshalleseyaŋinŋin, yaŋiyŋincall by name 

PMc   *fara   core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)

Trukesefaar, fara-(n)core of a breadfruit, its core 
 faré-(seyin)spongy core of ripe coconut 
Mortlockesefaarcopra sponge 
Puluwatesefaar, ferá-(n)core of breadfruit, sponge of coconut, core of 
Saipan Carolinianfaar, fara-(l)core, heart, pit of a fruit, core of 
Woleaianfaare, fera-(li)core of a breadfruit, core of 
 (shoo)-farsprouted brown coconut 
Pulo-Annandaala, dala-copra sponge 
Proto-Chuukic*fara·core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)
Ponapeianpaarspongy center of sprouting coconut, par to sprout (of coconuts) 
 parto sprout (of coconuts) 
 pεri-(n maay)breadfruit tree sprout 
Mokileseparsprouting coconut 
Marshalleseyarpandanus core 
Kiribatiaathe core base of the pandanus bunch 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fara·core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)
Fijianvara·core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)

Marshallese pér ‘small sprouted coconut’ is presumably a loan from Ponapeian or Mokilese. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *far[ae] ‘lungs’.

PMc   *far[ae]   lungs

Saipan Carolinianfáre-wa, fare-wa, fáre-waa-(l)·lungs
Woleaianfare-waanative sponge 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faRa·lungs (Geraghty 1990)

— Cf. —

Yapesewar-rum, wor-rumsponge, lungs 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *fara ‘core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus).

PMc   (?)   *[fp]ara ?   hoarse

Ponapeianparabnormal sounding (as of the voice or an instrument) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faRahoarse  (Geraghty 1990)
Proto-Austronesian*paRak·hoarse (Blust 1970:135)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*paRaekhoarse  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto-Oceanic*paRakhoarse  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *pekopeko or *kopekope ‘cough, to cough’.

PWMc   (?)   *farafa   windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe

Trukesefaraf, farafe-(n)windward platform, windward platform of 
Puluwatesefaraf, farafe-(n)·windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe
Saipan Carolinianperaf·windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe
Woleaianperafe·windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe
Proto-Chuukic*[fp]arafa·windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe
Ponapeianparap·windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe
Marshalleseyerey·windward platform on outrigger booms next to hull of sailing canoe

PCMc   *fari-   less than …

Woleaianfari-pref. that shifts meaning in the opposite direction or makes it less than it would otherwise be (e.g., fari-mwoshomwosho become tall or long, lit. other than or away from short) 
Kiribatiai-prefix to kin terms for ascending and descending relationships to indicate non-lineal connection (e.g., tina-u my mother, my female relative one generation senior and ai-tina-u my mother's or father's sister) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *fari₁ ‘already, just now’.

PCMc   *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka   hold tightly

Trukesefóro-(pach), fara-(pach)to embrace 
 fóru-siembrace him, strangle him, hang him by the neck 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfore-yto hang oneself 
Woleaianffarobe tight 
 (ge)-faro-(o)make it tight 
 faro-gi-(i)tie it tight, bind it, hug her 
Proto-Chuukic*faro, faro-ki-·hold tightly
Ponapeianparo-kto catch something animate, to arrest 
Marshallesehare-kmiserly, covetous, greedy, stingy, 
Kiribatiao-kato deny or refuse (a request) 

Kusaiean færfær ‘hold, embrace’ and færo-s ‘embrace or hug him or her’ appear to be loans from Trukese. Marshallese should have rounded r.

PMc   *fa[sS]ua   child of sibling of opposite sex

Satawalesefatúw·child of sibling of opposite sex
Woleaianfatúwe·child of sibling of opposite sex
Proto-Chuukic*fadúa·child of sibling of opposite sex
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*vasu + achild of man's sister 
Fijianvasuchild of man's sister 
Tonganfahuchild of a man's sister 

— Cf. —

Laufasusugive suck to 

— and cf. —

Kwaiofasusegment, sprout, shoot off 

PMc   *faSale   walk, move around

Trukesefátán, fátánátánwalking, movement, course, progress, walk, proceed, going on and on (as verbal suffix) 
Mortlockesefétalwalk about 
Puluwatese-fetálhere and there, everywhere 
Saipan Carolinianfetálaround, somewhere, randomly 
 (fara)-fetálabout to take a walk 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfatalto walk, journey, take a walk 
Satawalesefetál, fetánwalk 
Woleaianfetalemove by its own power, go, around and about (as verbal suffix) 
Pulo-Annandataneto walk around 
Proto-Chuukic*fadale·walk, move around
Kusaieanεlmarch, parade 

PMc   *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka   planted, to plant, a planted thing

 ffótbe planted 
 fótu-kiplanted it 
 fóta-a-thing planted (by someone) 
Mortlockeseffót, fato-ki·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Puluwatesefót, fóto-ki-(y)·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Saipan Carolinianffót, fóto-ghi, fóót·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Saipan Carolinian·Tfato-gi·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Satawaleseffót, fóto-ki, fóót·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Woleaianfato, ffato, fato-gi-(i), fato-go·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Pulo-Annandato, dato-ki, dato-ko·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Proto-Chuukic*fado, fafado, fado-ki, fado-ka·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Ponapeianpɔd, pɔdo-k·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Mokilesepɔdo-k·planted, to plant, a planted thing
Marshallesehathatplanted, vine 
Kiribatiaro-kacultivated plant 
Kusaieanyokto planted 
 ikʷi, yukito planted (something) 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*pasoqplanted, tuber  (Ross 1988)

— Cf. also —

Kusaieanɔ-ki, ɒ-kiset up, erect 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*pacekdrive in (as a post)  (Blust 1986:66)
Proto-Austronesian*pacekdrive in, as a post, nail or wedge  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

PMc   *faSu   eyebrow

Trukesefaat, fétú-·eyebrow
Puluwatesefaat, fatú-·eyebrow
Saipan Carolinianfaat, fáát, fatú-·eyebrow
Satawalesefaat, fatú-·eyebrow
Woleaianfaatú, fatú-·eyebrow
Pulo-Annandaati, dati-·eyebrow
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*pasucheekbone  (Blust 1983–84:93, Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

PMc   *fata   platform, nest

Trukesefaas, fasa-(n)nest, its nest 
Saipan Carolinian(a)-fasafasnest 
Saipan Carolinian·T(a)-fahafahnest 
 daata, data-shelf 
Proto-Chuukic*faat, fata-·platform, nest
Ponapeianpaas, pesenest, its nest, litter or rack for carrying large yams 
 pasapasplatform, shelf 
Mokilesepaj, paji-(n), paje-(n)nest, nest of 
Proto–Pohnpeic-Chuukic*fata·platform, nest
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fata·platform, nest
Sa’aha’aplatform for storing yams 
Kwaiofaa-[laŋi]raised plank floor 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *fata, fata-ŋa ‘tree trunk’.

PMc   *fata, fata-ŋa   tree trunk

Trukese(nee)-fasa-ŋtorso, trunk 
Pulo-Annandaata, data-·tree trunk
Proto-Chuukic*fata, fata-ŋa·tree trunk
Proto-Oceanic*pataŋ·tree trunk

PCMc   *fato, fato-ŋi-   to call, summon

Trukesefowu-(nó), féwú-(nó)be much talked about, be famous 
 féwú-(n)spoken of, known for 
 féwu-nito call or speak the name of (someone), to talk about (someone) positively 
Puluwatese(yite)-fáye-(ló)be famous, well known 
 fáyi-ŋi-(y), fáyi-ŋa-(a)to call, summon, invite (someone) 
Saipan Carolinianffayto call, beckon 
 fai-ŋito call or beckon to (someone) 
Satawalesefayto call 
Woleaianffaso [sic]to call 
 fase-ŋú-úto call (someone) 
Ulithianfesa-ŋécall (someone) 
Pulo-Annandadadadato call 
 dada-ŋúto call (someone) 
Sonsorolesefada-ŋúcall (someone) 
Proto-Chuukic*ffat[eo], fat[eo]-ŋ[iú]-·to call, summon
Kiribatiato-ŋato utter, to say (something) 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianpasapεŋto respond, to answer 

PMc   *fatu   stone

Trukesefaaw, féwú-, -féw, -feystone, rock, coral, globular object (as classifier) 
Mortlockesefaawstone, rock 
Puluwatesefawú [sic]stone, coral, rock 
 fawú-(má)dead coral 
Saipan Carolinianfaay, faaú, fayú-(l)stone, rock, seed, testicles, stone of 
Satawalesefaaystone, rock 
Woleaianfaaú, faú-, faasú, fasú-stone, rock 
Pulo-Annandaadú, dadú-stone, rock, coral 
 -daúround object (in counting) 
Proto-Chuukic*fatú, -faú·stone
 peeybig seed (as in a mango) 
 pey-(tεεl)big flat pounding stone 
 paythe stones used in an earth oven 
Marshallesehajji-(kad)throw stones repeatedly 
Kiribatiatiseed, stone heated for cooking 
 ati-(ibʷu)stone, coral stone, ati-ati full of seeds 
 ati-atifull of seeds 

— Cf. —

Mokilesepejpandanus cud 

Kusaiean pæt ‘cornerstone’ must be construed as a loan. See also Marck (1994:315) Proto-Micronesian *fatu ‘rock, stone’.

PMc   *fatu, fatufatu   to weave, plait

Trukeseféwúféwplaiting, do plaiting, be plaited 
 féwú-wa-(n)thing plaited by her 
 (a)-fféwunifying or joining two things so as to make one (but not groups of people), splicing rope, translating, interpreting 
 (a)-fféwúto unify, join, splice (something) 
MortlockesefaWúfaWdo weaving or plaiting 
 faWéto weave (something) 
Puluwatesefayi, fayifayi [sic]to plait 
 (ya)-fféwú [sic]to interpret, translate, to splice (as rope) 
Saipan Carolinianfayfayweave, do weaving 
 fayú, faú, fayito weave or plait (something) 
Satawalesefayfayto weave 
 fayúweave it 
Woleaianfaúfaúto weave 
 faú-(we)weave it 
Ulithianfasfos, faséfaséto weave 
 fasu-(y)weave it 
Pulo-Annandadúdadúto weave 
Sonsorolesefadúfédúto weave 
Proto-Chuukic*fatú, fatúfatú·to weave, plait
Ponapeianpεypεyto weave 
 pato weave (something) 
Mokilesepɔypɔyto weave 
 paweave (something) 
Marshalleseyajweave, darn, knit 
 atato weave, braid (something) 
 otweweave (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fatu·to weave, plait
Proto-Polynesian*fatuweave, compose 
Sa’aha’u, ha’u-sito plait 
Arosihau, hau-rito plait 

— Cf. —

Bugotuvaoto plait 
Laufao, faofaoto weave, plait 
Kwaiofaoweave, knit, plait 
Proto-Oceanic*paiweave  (Ross 1988)

The r in the Pingilapese form per ‘weave’, reported by Bender et al. 1984, is unexpected. See also Proto-Micronesian *fau, fau-Si‘tie, bind’.

PCMc   (?)   *fatuku   head


— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷatuhead  (Geraghty 1983)
Laugwau, gwou·head

Note loss of k after t rather than expected loss of *t before *k in the Kiribati form.

PMc   *-fau   hibiscus

Trukese(sini)-fé, (sini)-féé-hibiscus 
Saipan Carolinian(ghúlú)-fé, (ghili)-fé·hibiscus
Kiribati(te-ki)-ai-aia tree 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faRu·hibiscus (Geraghty 1990)
Arosiharutree sp. 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*baRu·hibiscus (Blust 1984–85)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*baRua small shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto-Oceanic*paRuHibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

PMc   *fau, fau-Si   tie, bind

Trukesefééfé, féé-ti·tie, bind
Puluwatesefééfé, féé-ti-(y)·tie, bind
Saipan Carolinianféé-tagh and Crn féé-tagset an anchor, tie up a boat 
Woleaianfééféé, féé-ti-(i)·tie, bind
Pulo-Annandaúdaúto weave 
Sonsorolesefaúfaúto weave 
Proto-Chuukic*faúfaú, faú-di-·tie, bind
Ponapeianpeibe tied up (of boat) 
Marshalleseyawyéwbind, lash 
 yawi-tbind or lash (something) 
Kiribatiaiairibs of a crafts hull 
Kusaieanayʌtie, bind 
 awitie it 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*faqu-ztie, bind  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*faqu·tie, bind
Fijianvau, vau-ca·tie, bind

— Cf. —

Proto-Nakanai*avu, avu-ato wrap, bandage, medicate 
Uraustronesisch*Rapus·tie, bind

Although it might appear that Marshallese pawpéw ‘bind, tie’, pawi-t ‘bind something’ and Kusaiean pip ‘bind’, pʷi ‘bind (something) could be loans from a Polynesian source such as Samoan faufau ‘bind’, the Marshallese pairs yawyéw/pawpéw and their transitives yawi-t/pawi-t have the marks of ancient doublets, with the reduplicated pair exhibiting an a/é alternation, something not found in Polynesian, but expected in Marshallese *CaCu or *CaCi reduplication, and also found in Kusaiean (Bender 1973). Other y/p doublets in Mrs include yewyew ‘stroke, caress’, pewpew ‘sweep, brush off’ and yir ‘deviate’, pir ‘slip down’. These doublets point to an origin as oral/nasal grade alternants (*p/mp) in Proto-Oceanic. Kusaiean ayʌ/pip and awi/pʷi could have this same origin (Bender 1973:463). See also Proto-Micronesian *fatu, fatufatu‘to weave, plait’.

PMc   *fauru   do, make

Trukeseféérido it, make it 
 féér, féérú-(n)deed, action, his deed 
 fféér, fféérú-(n)making, manufacture, production, make of (a place) 
MortlockesefééRε·do, make
Puluwateseféér, fééri-(y)·do, make
Saipan Carolinianfféérto do, make 
 fféérúto do or make (something) 
Satawalesefééri·do, make
Woleaianfoori-(i)make it, do it, build it 
Pulo-Annandaúlúbehavior, deed, to behave, do, make 
 daúlú-(aki)be made 
Proto-Chuukic*faúrú·do, make
Kusaieanorʌdo, make, perform 

See also Proto-Chuukic *faúrú-anútú ‘recite a spell’.

PMc   *fawo   surface, on

Trukesefóó-(són)region of slightly higher, fairly level ground back from the shore 
 fóó-(nu-pi)Pohnpei Island 
 poweon it, above it 
 poo-(n pey)Pohnpei Island 
Marshallese(yi)-yewe-, yewe-on, upon, top, surface, over 
Kiribati(i)-ao-(na)on top of it, on it 
Proto-Oceanic*papo·surface, on
Proto-Polynesian*fafoexterior, outside 
Sa’ahahoabove, top 
Arosihaho-above, upon, over 
Kwaiofofo-on, on top of 
Proto-Nakanai*-vovoskin of entire body 
Uraustronesischbabaw·surface, on

— Cf. —

Bugotupopoabove, top 

See also Proto-Chuukic *wawo- ‘face, surface, upside, on’.

PMc   *faxo   to punt, punting pole

Saipan Carolinianfoopole for pushing boats and canoes 
Pulo-Annandaao, dao-pole 
 daoto pole a canoe 
 dao-(data)a raft 
Proto-Chuukic*fao·to punt, punting pole
Ponapeian-pɔrcounting classifier for long thin pieces or strips of something 
Kiribatiaopunting pole 
 aoaoto engage in propelling a canoe with a pole 
 aoao-ato propel (a canoe) with a pole 
Kusaieanækpole, stick 
 ækito pole (a canoe) 
Proto-Oceanic*pago·to punt, punting pole
Proto-Kimbe*vagoto pole a canoe 
Proto-Kimbe*v-(il)-agopunting pole 

PMc   *[fØ]eci[fØ]eci   stinging, smarting

Marshalleseyidyidstinging sensation, to sting 
Kiribati(ta)-erieribe smarting, stinging (ta- of its own accord) 
Kusaieanisrisrburning or stinging, be smarting, pricking, stinging 

PMc   *feraki, feraki-ni-   to spread

Saipan Carolinianferághto be spread out (of mats and cloth) 
 fferághto spread out flat things 
 ferághá-lispread it out 
Woleaianferagispread, unfold 
 feragi-li-(i)spread it, unfold it 
 fferagibe spread, unfolded 
Pulo-Annandalaki-nito be scattered, spread, to scatter or spread (something) 
Sonsorolesefalaki-nito be scattered, spread, to scatter or spread (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*f[ae]raki, f[ae]raki-[ln]i-·to spread
Ponapeianpεrεkto unroll (as a mat) 
 pεrεkito unroll (something) 
Marshalleseyerek, yerakto spread mats 
 laki-nto spread, unroll (something) 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianparbe fecund, spread about, sprout (of coconuts) 
Mokilesepar-(pijɔŋ)be spread around 

PMc   *fi-   mutually

Trukesefi-do mutually 
 fi-(ti)to go with or accompany (someone) 
 fi-(yuuw)to fight 
Puluwatesefii-(yoow) [sic]to fight 
Saipan Carolinianfi-(ti)to go with or accompany (someone) 
 fi-(yoow)to fight someone 
Woleaianfi-(tii)to go with, accompany 
Ponapeianpi-(sikεn)push each other 
Kiribatii-(tau)to box, to fight with the fists 
West Nakanaivi-[lapu]take hostages from one another as part of peace settlement 

See Proto-Micronesian *fiSi ‘accompany’, Proto-Chuukic *fi-di- ‘wrap, mix’, Proto–Western Micronesian *fiŋi-[sS]i ‘to twist, twirl’.

PMc   *fiaŋo   story, tell a story

Puluwatesefiyoŋ, fiyoŋo-(n)tell a story, a story, story of 
Woleaianfiyaŋostory, legend 
Pulo-Annandiaŋostory, tell a story 
Proto-Chuukic*fiaŋo·story, tell a story
Kiribatiiaŋoconsideration, deliberation 
 iaŋoto reflect, consider, ponder, meditate 
 iaŋo-ato think about, consider, ponder, meditate on (something) 
Kusaieanaŋʷeto say, tell 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyinaŋʷ, yineŋʷlegend, folkloristic story 

PCMc   *fica   a strip of fiber for plaiting

Trukesefiche-(n)strip of (pandanus, coconut, or other palm leaf prepared for plaiting mats 
 -fichcounter for such strips 
Mortlockesefisha-(n)strip or leaf used in weaving 
Puluwatese-fiRcounter for blades 
Proto-Chuukic*fica-·a strip of fiber for plaiting
Ponapeianpit, pitε-(n)classifier for strips and strands 
Marshalleseyidstrands for weaving garlands or stringing leis 
Kiribatiiraa pandanus leaf for braiding, a hair 

PMc   *fici, fici-ki   snip, cut, snap, flick

Trukesefichi-i-(y)snip it, cut it (with scissors), snap it (of a photograph) 
 fichi-(paat)be continually snipping 
 ffichscissors, camera trigger, be cut, snipped, or snapped (of a picture) 
PuluwatesefiRifiRto cut (as hair), knock, thump, snap 
 fiRi-i-(y)to cut it, knock it, thump it, snap it 
Saipan Carolinianffishscissors, to have a sudden sharp pain, rise suddenly without warning 
 fishito cut (something), to play or strum a (stringed instrument), to strike (a light), to shoot (a weapon) 
Saipan Carolinian·TffiRscissors 
 fiRito play or strum (a stringed insgtrument), to strike (a light), to shoot (a weapon) 
Woleaianfishi-i-(ye)pierce or lance it (of a boil), knock it, snap it 
 ffishibe unbuckled, snap off from what it was tied to (as a rope), be knocked 
 (ligaa)-fishi-i-(ye)spear it, lance (a boil) 
Pulo-Annandisi-ŋibreak it in two 
Proto-Chuukic*fici·snip, cut, snap, flick
Marshalleseyidi-kto shake (a hand) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fidi-k·snip, cut, snap, flick
Proto-Polynesian*fitispring up 
Fijianvidi, vidi-kajump, spring, fly up 
Kwaiofidi[obs.] slap, smack 

— Cf. —

Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*bitikjerk, spring up suddenly  (Blust 1980:55)
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*bitiksnare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap)  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)
Proto-Oceanic*pintiksnare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap)  (Blust & Trussel 2010-12)

There appear to be two homonymous Proto-Micronesian roots here bearing a relationship in meaning associations like that in English between snip (with scissors or a knife) and snap (a picture or one’s fingers). See also Proto-Micronesian *pici, pici-ki ‘snap, vibrate’.

PMc   *fili, filifili   choose

Trukese(ni)-finifina matter of choice, a choosy person 
 finichoose it, select it 
 ffinbe chosen 
Mortlockesefilichoose him 
 filεchoose (something) 
 ffilmake a choice 
Puluwatese(li)-filifilmatter, be fussy, choosy 
 fili-(i-y)choose it 
Saipan Carolinianffilto choose, select 
 filichoose it 
 (li)-filifilbe choosy 
 (se li)-filifildoes not matter(not a matter of choice) 
 fili-(y)choose him 
Woleaianfili-(i)choose it 
 ffilichoose, decide 
Proto-Chuukic*fini, ffini·choose
Ponapeianpilipilchoose, select 
 pilchoose (something) 
 pilchoose (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fili·choose
Proto-Polynesian*filiselect, choose 
Rotumanhili, hilhilipick out, choose, select 
Sa’ahili, hili-si and Ula ili-sichoose 

Kusaiean fil-(wel) ‘guess, conjecture, random choice’ is a loan or unrelated.

PWMc   *fiŋi-[sS]i   to twist, twirl

Pulo-Annandiŋi-tito twist, wring, squeeze (something) 
Sonsorolesefiŋi-tito twist, wring, squeeze (something) 
Marshalleseyiŋyiŋtwirl, turn round and round, wind, be kinky (of hair) 
 yiŋ-tékbe twisted, squirm 
 yiŋyiŋ-tékwiggle, wriggle 

See Proto-Micronesian *fi-‘mutually’.

PMc   *fira, fira-[kx]i   to twist

Trukesefire-s, fúre-sa braid, to braid 
 fire-si-(ni)braid it 
 ffire-sa braid, be braided 
 ffire-sibraid it 
Puluwatesefirá-kstrong rope (as used for caulking) 
 firá-ki-(ló)to spread out (as a mat), to braid a rope 
Woleaianfire-gistring, thin rope used to connect or secure the sides of a canoe 
 fire-gi-(i)to weave it (as a lei) 
 ffireto weave (a lei or a strap) 
Pulo-Annandilato braid 
Proto-Chuukic*fira, fira-ki·to twist
Ponapeianpirto turn, to spin, to twist 
 pirε-rto turn, spin, twist (something) 
 pirapirto tie, to wear a belt, a belt 
Kusaieanworto turn, wriggle 
 uro-kto turn, twist (something) 
 wirʷiro-kto turn (something) continuously 

— Note, also —

Marshallesepirékrékto braid (of hair or handle of a basket), plait 
 pirékéybraid (something) 
Kiribatibirato braid (something, as hair or rope) 
 pirakibraid (something) 

Of these the Kiribati form can be accounted for as a loan from Samoan *fili (Proto-Polynesian *firi) ‘to braid, plait’, and the Marshallese and Kusaiean forms as loans from associated Kiribati forms *biri, biraki. The other Micronesian forms can be accounted for as formed from the passive and transitive (with object expressed) forms of...

Proto-Oceanic*piritwist  (Ross 1988)
Proto-Polynesian*firi·to twist
Sa’ahirito lap with a string, to bind 
Bugotufirilap with string, bind, fiifiri to twine, viri twisted, tangled 
Kwaiofili-si-[a]braid together 
Proto-Kimbe*vi[rz]ito twist, wind up 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*biliŋturn, twist 
Proto-Austronesian*pi[dDr]i[Ct]twist, plait  (Blust 1970:135)

Yapese fireg, firgiy ‘weave’ are loans from a Chuukic source as is Chamorro filak ‘braid, plait, weave’.

PMc   *fi[sS]a-   how many

Trukesefite-·how many
Mortlockesefite-·how many
Puluwatesefite-·how many
Saipan Carolinianfita-, fite- fiti-·how many
Satawalesefitá-·how many
Woleaianfita-·how many
Ulithianfetha-·how many
Pulo-Annandite-·how many
Proto-Chuukic*fida-·how many
Kiribatiira-·how many
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*viza·how many (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*pija·how many (Blust 1978:108)
Proto-Polynesian*fiha·how many
Fijianvica·how many
Proto-Kimbe*viza, ziva·how many
Proto-Austronesian*pija·how many (Blust 1978:96))

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*pican·how many (Ross 1988)

PMc   *fiSi   accompany

Trukesefitigo with him/her, accompany him/her, attend it, join it 
 fiti-(pach)stay with one another constantly 
Saipan Carolinianfiti·accompany
Ponapeianpidto pertain to, to concern (something) 
Kiribatiirito go in company 
 irato accompany, go with (someone) 
Kusaieanwiaccompany, travel by 

— Cf. —

Marshalleseyijyijsexual intercourse 
 yijiyhave sexual intercourse with (someone) 

See Proto-Micronesian *fi-‘mutually’.

PMc   *fiSiko   flesh

Trukesefutuk, futuke-n, futukotukflesh, flesh of, be fleshy 
Mortlockesefútuko(final o voiceless) 
Puluwatesefitik, fitiko-·flesh
Saipan Carolinianfitúg, fitugh·flesh
Saipan Carolinian·Tfutug·flesh
Mokileseuduk, udukɔ-·flesh
Marshalleseyitekʷwhale meat 
Kusaieanikoε-(n)flesh of (showing metathesis) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*fiziko·flesh
Proto-Oceanic*pisiko·flesh (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —

Sa’ahási’obody flesh 

PCMc   *fitaki   to struggle

Woleaianfitegiwar, fighting 
 (ga)-fitegitegito compete 
Pulo-Annanditeki and Sns fitekito work 
Proto-Chuukic*fi[dt]eki·to struggle
Ponapeianpidekto go around 
 pideki-igo around (something) 
Mokilesepidεkmove around, surround 
 pidεkisurround (something) 
Kiribatiiakiakiact of struggling (as a child), great activity in work, to struggle to free oneself, to be in spasms, to strike again and again on a shoal, to pound  (showing loss of *t before *k)

PMc   *fiti   flash (of light)

Trukesefiflash, throw a spark (of lightning, electricity) 
 fiififlashing, sparkling, lightning, radiance, to be flashing (as a light or lightning) 
 (e)-fiifishock a person with taboo language 
 fii-sito transfer fire to (something), set (something) afire 
Saipan Carolinianfiifito do burning 
 fii-ghito burn or set fire to (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tfii-gito burn or set fire to (something) 
Woleaianffúsúto spark, blink (as light), make a short interval (as of falling rain), be lighted 
 (ga)-fúsú-(ú)light it, make it flash 
Proto-Chuukic*fiti, fiti-ki-·flash (of light)
Ponapeianipiiplightning without thunder (metathesis?) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*viti·flash (of light)
Bugotuviti-lito flash through 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianpirto flash 
Marshalleseyitstrike a match 

Note that Kusaiean særom ‘light, electricity, lightning’ and Mokilese jórom ‘lightning’ are loans from Marshallese jarwem ‘electricity, lightning, electric shock, punch, hit’. See also Proto-Chuukic *fiti, fiti-ki ‘apply fire’.

PMc   *fit[ou]u   star

Trukesefúú, fúúwe-(n), fúú-(n)star, star of 
Saipan Carolinianfúú, fúú-(l)·star
Satawalesefúú, fúú-(n)·star
Woleaianfúús, fúsú-(li)·star
Proto-Chuukic(?) *fútúú·star
Mokileseuju, ujuu-(n)·star
Proto-Oceanic*pituqunSee Marck (1994:307) Proto-Micronesian *fituu  (Ross 1988)

— Cf. —


— Cf. also —


PMc   *fitu, fitu-ua   seven

Trukesefúús, fúú-, fusu-uw, fisu-uwseven 
Mortlockesefúús, fúú-, fúsu-uw·seven
Puluwatesefúús, fúú-, féhu-uw, fii-k·seven
Saipan Carolinianfiis, fisu-, fisú-, fisi-, fisa-, fisu-uw, fisi-igh·seven
Satawalesefúús, fisú-uw·seven
Woleaianfiisi, fisi-, fisu-(uwe), fisi-ige·seven
Pulo-Annandidi-, didi-(ow), didi-iki·seven
Proto-Chuukic*fitú, fitu-uwa, *fiti-ike·seven
Ponapeian(e)-is, isi-, isu-u·seven
Mokileseiji-, iju-w·seven
Kiribatiiti-, itu-ua, iti-ua·seven
Proto-Oceanic*pitu·seven (Ross 1988)

Note that the é instead of ú in Puluwatese féhu-(uw) is unexpected.

PMc   *fou   feel cold

Trukeseffééwcold, be cold 
 (a)-ffééwbe cold to the touch 
 (a)-ffééwúmake cold, chill 
Saipan Carolinianffooy, ffééyfeel cold 
Woleaianfééúbe cold, cool, shiver 
 (gari)-ffééúbe cold, chilly 
Pulo-Annanddééúto be cold (the whole body) 
 (kali)-ddééúcold (of things) 
Proto-Chuukic*ffééú·feel cold
Ponapeianpowfeeling cold, cool, chilly 
 (ko)-powcold, cool, chilly 
Mokilesepowfeel cold 
 (ko)-powfeel cold (of people) 
Marshallese(pi)-yaw, (pi)-yawyéwchilly, cool 
Kusaieanɔu, ɔyɔucold, chilly 

PMc   *futu   tree (Barringtonia asiatica)

Ponapeianwii·tree (Barringtonia asiatica)
Mokilesewi·tree (Barringtonia asiatica)
Proto-Oceanic*putu·tree (Barringtonia asiatica)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *[tupa ‘fish poison’, *PMc *upa ‘derris vine’, Proto-Micronesian (?) *iwu ‘tree (Barringtonia asiatica)’.

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