Updated: 12/23/2017
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Micronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    c    e    f    i    k    l    m    mʷ    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    pʷ    r    s    S    t    T    u    w    x    y   


pʷa    pʷe    pʷi    pʷo    pʷu    

PCMc   *pʷ[ae]   because

Trukesepʷe, pʷé, wo, wé·because
Saipan Carolinianbʷe·because

— Cf. —


— Cf. also —


Jackson (1986:229 fn. 4) gives Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷa. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷ[ae] ‘future aspect marker’.

PMc   *pʷ[ae]   future aspect marker

Trukese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Mortlockese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Puluwatese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Saipan Carolinian-bʷe·future aspect marker
Satawalese-pʷe·future aspect marker
Woleaian-be·future aspect marker
Pulo-Annan-pʷe·future aspect marker
Proto-Chuukic*-pʷe·future aspect marker
Kusaiean·future aspect marker

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*ba·future aspect marker (Ross 1988)

Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷ[ae] ‘because’. Jackson (1986:229 fn. 4) gives Proto-Micronesian *pʷa.

PMc   *pʷaa   to say

Ponapeianpʷa·to say
 pʷee-ŋsay to, tell (someone) 
Marshallesebʷah·to say
Kusaieanfæ-ksay, tell, announce 
 fwæ-kbe said 

— Cf. —

Fijiankaya, kʷaya·to say (Geraghty 1983)

PCMc   *pʷaca₁   loose

Trukesepʷpʷach, pʷachapʷachloose, slack,wrinkled 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷashbe old and wrinkled 
Woleaian(?) bʷashebe crooked (of bow legs) 
Marshallese(bʷ)bʷadey(dey)rough (of skin) 
Kiribatibʷaraloose, untied 

PCMc   *pʷaca₂   kind of round basket

Saipan Carolinianbʷaash·kind of round basket
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷaaR·kind of round basket
Woleaianbaashe, bashe-·kind of round basket
Pulo-Annanpʷaasa, pʷasa-·kind of round basket
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaca·kind of round basket
Kiribatibʷaraa cap-like basket made of coconut leaf (but cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷasau basket) 

PCMc   *pʷai   object of value

Ponapeianpʷεypʷεybe bought, be paid, cost money 
 pʷay-nto buy, pay, hire (something) 
Kiribatibʷaithing, object 
 bʷai-nato make use of, posssess (something) 
 bʷaibʷaito have property 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷaRi·object of value
Bugotubalithing by which, thing for the purpose of 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *mau, mau-ni ‘be traded, acquire in trade’.

PMc   *pʷai, pʷai-ti   pull up, take up

Trukesepʷeepʷe, pʷee-(wu), pʷee-yipull up from the sea, pull up fishtraps, pull it up 
Puluwatesepʷee-(wu), pʷee-y·pull up, take up
Woleaianbeebee, bee-ye-(tage)take up, take it up 
 bee-tagibe taken up 
Pulo-Annanpʷepʷe, pʷe-(yow), pʷe-ŋi [sic]take up from under ground, fish trap, take it up 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷeepʷee, pʷee-, pʷee-ti·pull up, take up
Kusaieanfai, fai-spull or draw out 

— Cf. —

Fijianyavi·pull up, take up

PWMc   *pʷaipʷai   silly, stupid

Satawalesepʷayipʷaybe silly, disrespectful 
Ponapeianpʷeypʷeystupid, silly, idiotic, simple, dumb 
Marshallesebʷéybʷéycrazy, silly, foolish 

— Cf. —

Arosipʷai-, pʷei-prefix of derogation 

— Cf. also —


This cannot be cognate with Proto–Eastern Oceanic *buRa ‘foolish’ (Geraghty 1990).

PWMc   *pʷaku   open (as bud or blossom)

Puluwatesepʷakopen a bit (as a bud) 
Ponapeianmpʷεkflower bud 
Marshallese(hal)-bʷékʷflower bud 
 (te)-bak, (kab)-békmale flower of breadfruit 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *pʷakú, pwpʷakú ‘be awake at night’.

PMc   *pʷ[ae]la, pʷ[ae]la-ŋi, pʷ[ae]la-ŋaki   to split something open

Mortlockesepʷele-ŋeto force (something) open, to rape (someone) 
Ponapeianpʷalbe slit, cut open, operated on, divided 
 pʷala-ŋto slit (something), cut (something open), etc. 
Mokilesepʷalbroken, split, operated on 
 pʷala-ŋto break or split (something) 
Pingilapesepʷεla-ŋekto split a coconut 
Marshallesebʷel-(kek), bʷél-(kék)cracks in skin of soles of feet 
 bʷel-ŋakbe split open, spread legs wide open 
Kiribatibʷena-adivide (something) in two parts, split (something) 
Kusaieanfalfalto split, saw lengthwise 
 fʌlʌchasm, cleft, crevasse, canyon 
 fʌlʌ-ŋto split (something) 

PCMc   *pʷalili   encircling or covering a whole

Trukese#pʷeen, pʷenni-, -pʷáánenvirons, go in a circuit around something 
 pʷenni-i-(y)go all the way around it 
Puluwatesepʷalli-i-(y)go around it, surround it 
Saipan Carolinianbʷálto walk around 
 bʷáli-i-(y), bʷeli-i-(y)to surround (something or someone), to go all the way around (something) 
Woleaianbaanni, banniinspect, go around 
Pulo-Annanpʷaanniinspect, go around inspecting 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷalli·encircling or covering a whole
Marshallesebʷalli-(n)covering of, clothing of 
Kiribatibʷaninthe whole, entire thing 
 bʷaninbe whole or entire 

PMc   *pʷalu   cover, lid

Trukese(é)-pʷpʷén, -pʷpʷénú-(n)cover or lid, cover of 
 pʷénú-ú-wcover it 
 pʷénúpʷéncover, lid, cover with a lid 
 (é)-pʷpʷénúmake it covered 
Mortlockesepʷalúto cover (something) 
Puluwatese(ya)-pʷpʷal, -pʷpʷale-(n)cover, lid, cover of 
Saipan Carolinianbʷalabʷalcover, lid 
 bʷalú-wto cover (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷalúto cover (something) 
Woleaianbalúbelúcovering, to cover 
 balú-ú-(we)cover it 
Pulo-Annanpʷonúpʷonúa cover, to cover 
 pʷonú [sic]cover it 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷalú·cover, lid
Ponapeian(ko)-mpʷal, (ko)-mpʷεlcover an earth oven with leaves 
 (koduu)-pʷalto cover up 
 (koduu)-pʷεlbe covered up 
Mokilese(ko)-mpʷalcover an earth oven with leaves 
Pingilapese(ko)-mpʷεlcover an earth oven with leaves 
Marshallesebʷalcovered over 
 (kʷe)-bʷalcover an earth oven with leaves 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷalu·cover, lid
Arosipʷaru, bʷaru, pʷaru-si, bʷaru-sito shut, cork, put the lid on 
 pʷanu, pʷanu-sito cork, shut, close an opening 

— Cf. —

Kiribatibʷono-tato cover, shut, close 
Arosipʷono, pʷono-sito stop up, block, choke, cork 

Kusaiean kafa, kafa-i ‘cover, put a lid on’ are evident loans from English.

PCMc   *pʷalu   taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp

Trukesepʷéén, pʷénútaro swamp 
Woleaianbéélú, belú-taro swamp 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷalú·taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp
Ponapeianpʷeel, pʷeli-taro swamp 
Mokilesepʷeltaro swamp 
Marshallesebʷéltaro patch 
Kiribatibʷon-(ro)dark, rich soil, suitable for the cultivation of bwabai (ro dark, bwabai plant … resembling taro) 

Cf. Proto–Western Micronesian *pʷalu ‘taro swamp’ (Jackson 1986:229 fn. 4, and Marck 1994:316). Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu ‘dirt, soil’.

PCMc   *pʷaŋa   hole

Trukesepʷaaŋ, pʷaŋa-(n), -pʷaŋhole or cavity, its hole, her vagina, hole (in counting) 
Puluwatese-pʷaŋhole (in counting) 
Woleaianbbaŋecrevice, have holes 
Pulo-Annanpʷaaŋa, pʷaŋa-vagina 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaŋa, pʷpʷaŋa·hole
Kiribatibʷaŋafish trap 
 bʷaŋahide in a hole 

— Cf. —


See also Marck (1994:319) Proto–Central Micronesian *p’aŋa.

PCMc   *pʷapʷu   toothless shark

Mortlockesepʷóópʷ·toothless shark
Puluwatesepʷóópʷ, pʷópʷu-(n)kind of shark, shark of  (Bender et al. 1984)
Satawalesepʷóópʷspecies of shark 
Woleaianpaabua kind of shark 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷapʷu·toothless shark
Mokilesepʷɔɔpʷa white shark 
Marshallesebʷabʷ·toothless shark
Kiribatibʷabʷua shark with flat snout  (Bender et al. 1984)

PCMc   *pʷara   rocky ledge

Ponapeianpʷarapʷarridge cap 
Kiribatibʷaacontinuous hard coral rock or ledge 

— Cf. —

Woleaianporoubeach rock 

PCMc   *pʷaro   curved, bent

Trukesepʷór, pʷpʷórcurved, bent 
 pʷóre-e-(y)bend it, curve it 
 (ó)-pʷóramake it curved 
 (eyii)-pʷóró-pʷórbe curved, make a curving course 
Puluwatesepʷpʷór·curved, bent
Saipan Carolinianbʷór, bʷar·curved, bent
Woleaianbaro, bbaro·curved, bent
Pulo-Annanpʷalo·curved, bent
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaro·curved, bent

— Cf. —

Kusaieanfor, furo-ktwist, spin 

PMc   *pʷaro   box, hole

Trukesepʷóór, pʷóru-(n)·box, hole
Puluwatesepʷóór, pʷóro-(n)·box, hole
Saipan Carolinianbʷóór, bʷóro-(l)·box, hole
Woleaianbaaro, baro-·box, hole
Pulo-Annanpʷaalo, pʷalo-·box, hole
Proto-Chuukic*pʷaro·box, hole
Ponapeianpʷɔɔrhole, cave 
 pʷɔrpʷɔrfull of holes 
Kusaieanfærcavity, hole, pit 
 færfærfull of cavities 

— Cf. —

Kiribatibaroprovision box, overflow hole, hollow where water stays 

See also Marck (1994:319) Proto-Micronesian *p’aro.

PWMc   *pʷasa   late

Ponapeianpʷandlate, slow 
Marshallesebʷbʷatlate, too late for something 

Kusaiean pæt ‘late, delayed’, instead of expected *fæt, is presumably a loan from Marshallese.

PMc   *pʷasau   basket

Trukesepʷótow, pʷótowu-·basket
Puluwatesepótóówo [sic]·basket
Saipan Carolinianbʷutów·basket
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷutow·basket
Satawalesepʷotaaw [sic]·basket
Pulo-Annanpʷatao [sic]·basket
Marshallesebʷejawbasket of fine weave 
 pocket, pouch’·basket
Kiribatibʷarai-(too)a small hat (but cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷaca₂ kind of round basket) 

— Cf. —

Fijiankatobasket, box 

Note Marshallese j instead of expected t, which suggests that it is a loan, but from what source is not clear.

PCMc   *pʷata   dried out, withered

Trukesepʷas, pʷpʷasdry, dried out, light in weight 
Puluwatesepʷahdry, withered 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷas. pʷpʷasa-(ló)be dried up 
Woleaianbbase, bbatebe dry, dead, thin skinny 
 pʷatepʷatebe thirsty 
Pulo-Annanpʷpʷatabe dry 
 pʷatapʷatabe completely dry, withered 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷata, pʷpʷata·dried out, withered
Kiribatibʷatablack, dark colored, sunburnt 

PMc   *pʷau   to pound food

Trukesepʷpʷo, pʷpʷoo-breadfruit pounder 
 pʷpʷoo-nipound it (breadfruit) 
Puluwatesepʷopound (breadfruit) 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷopestle for pounding, to pound with a pestle 
 pʷpʷoo-lito pound (food) with a mortar and pestle 
Woleaianbbooto pound (breadfruit), pounding stone 
 bboo-li-(i)pound it 
Pulo-Annanppao [sic]·to pound food
Proto-Chuukic*pʷpʷoo, pʷpʷau·to pound food
Ponapeianpʷaywooden implement for splitting breadfruit 
Kusaieanfæfækind of poi (mashed food) 

PCMc   *pʷaua   a snapper fish

Trukesepóów, pówu-(n)species of snapper, snapper of 
Saipan Carolinian·Tpʷpʷówspecies of snapper 
Ponapeianpʷeewsnapper (Lutjanus semicinctus
Kiribatibʷauaa fish 

PMc   *pʷauSu   nose

Trukesepʷéét, pʷéétú-·nose
Mortlockesepʷoot, pʷootú-·nose
Puluwatesepʷoot, pʷootú-·nose
Saipan Carolinianbʷoot, bʷootú-·nose
Satawalesepʷoot, pʷootú-·nose
Mokilese(sɔ)-pʷɔɔd, -pʷɔɔdi-·nose
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷaRu[sz]u·nose (Geraghty 1983)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷaRucu·nose (Geraghty 1990)

— Note —

Yapesep’eeth-(ŋuun)his nose 

— Cf. —

Arosiisuisunose ornament 

PMc   *pʷawu   fishing pole

Trukesepʷoow, pʷowu-, pʷóów, pʷówu-fishing pole 
 pʷowto fish with a pole 
Mortlockesepʷóów, pʷówo-·fishing pole
Puluwatesepʷówo [sic]·fishing pole
Saipan Carolinianpʷóów, pʷów·fishing pole
Satawalesepʷaaw·fishing pole
Woleaianbaau, bau-·fishing pole
Pulo-Annanpʷaau, pʷau-·fishing pole
Proto-Chuukic*pʷau·fishing pole
Ponapeianpʷow·fishing pole
Mokilesepʷo·fishing pole
Marshallesebʷay·fishing pole
Kusaieanfo·fishing pole

— Cf. —

Yapesebaawfishing pole 
Kusaieanpʷe (ŋ-i)fish for with a pole (at night) 

PMc   *pʷax[ae]   come to view, reveal

Trukesepʷá, pʷáá-come to view 
 (á)-pʷápick or gather breadfruit 
Puluwatesepʷá, pʷáá-appear 
Saipan Carolinianbʷábe or become visible, to appear 
 pʷpʷáappear suddenly 
Woleaianbaa, bbaaemerge to view, come from behind 
 (ga)-baadig it up 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷae, pʷae-ri-·come to view, reveal
Mokilesepʷaremerge, come to view 
Pingilapesepʷarto appear, rise (of sun) 
Kusaieanfæksay, tell, announce 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷaka, pʷaŋka·come to view, reveal
Sa’aqa’ato rise [of heavenly bodies] 
 qa’a-[qito]to sprout, spring up [of plants] 
Arosipʷaato rise 

See also Proto-Chuukic *pʷaya ‘swarm of fish’, Proto-Micronesian *pʷere ‘to sprout, blossom’. Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pʷera ‘go or come through’.

PMc   *pʷece, pʷecepʷece   white, powdered lime

Trukesepʷech, pʷechepʷechbe white, be a light color 
 pʷeech, pʷecha-, pʷeche-powdered lime 
Mortlockesepʷeshepʷesh, pʷeesh·white, powdered lime
PuluwatesepʷeR, pʷeRepʷeR, pʷeeR·white, powdered lime
Saipan Carolinianbʷesh, bʷeshebʷeshwhite, have lime on it 
 bʷeeshcoral lime 
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷeR·white, powdered lime
SatawalesepʷeRepʷeR, pʷeeR·white, powdered lime
Woleaianbeshe, bbeshe, beshebeshe, beeshe, beshe-·white, powdered lime
Pulo-Annanpʷesepʷese, pʷeese, pʷese-·white, powdered lime
Proto-Chuukic*pʷece, pʷecepʷece·white, powdered lime
Ponapeianpʷεtεpʷεt, pʷεεt·white, powdered lime
Kusaieanfasrfasr, fasr·white, powdered lime

— Cf. —

Yapeseweachlime, white 
PWMP*budeqwhite  (Blust 1980:56)

— Cf. —

Bugotupura·white, powdered lime

Cf. Jackson (1986: 229: fn. 4) Proto-Micronesian *pʷace ‘coral lime’. See also Marck’s (1994:317) Proto-Micronesian *p’[ae]t’e.

PMc   *pʷeci   hot

Trukesepʷich, pʷichi-kkar, e-pʷichihot, burning hot, heat it 
PuluwatesepʷeR, pʷeRi-kkar, ya-pʷeri-(y)·hot
Saipan Carolinianbʷeshi-kkar, a-bʷeshi·hot
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷeRi-kkar, a-bʷeRi·hot
Woleaianbeshi, beshi-kkare, ga-beshi-i·hot
Pulo-Annanpʷesi, pʷesi-kkala·hot
Proto-Chuukic*pʷeci, pʷeci-kkara, ka-pʷeci-i-·hot
Kusaieanfʌsrfʌsr, fisrʌ-k, fisrʌ-k·hot

PWMc   *pʷee   knot divination

Trukesepʷeedivination by numbers (with knots in four coconut leaves, counting each by fours and using remainder numbers in their permutations) 
 pʷee-(y)divine for 
Puluwatesepʷe [sic], pʷee-(ni)·knot divination
Saipan Carolinianbʷee, bʷee-(li), bʷee-(y)·knot divination
Woleaianbee·knot divination
Proto-Chuukic*pʷee·knot divination
Marshallesebʷeyleft over, result of divination 
 bʷéyknot in divination 

PMc   *pʷeka   kind of bat

Trukese(ninnu)-pʷesmall species of fruitbat 
Ponapeianpʷεεk·kind of bat
Mokilesepʷeek·kind of bat
Kusaieanfak·kind of bat
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bʷekafruitbat  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianbeka, bekʷabat  (Geraghty 1983)

PMc   (?)   *pʷeki   carry, take

Mortlockesepʷeketo lift, carry (something) 
Puluwatesepʷekto carry (on the shoulders or in the hand) 
 pʷeki-(y)to carry (something) 
Saipan Carolinianbʷeibʷogh, bʷoobʷoghto bring, take, carry 
 bʷughi, bʷoghito carry, get, take, bring, transport (something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷogobʷogto bring, take, carry 
Satawalesepʷikito bring (something) 
Woleaianbegito take 
 begi-(i)to take (something) 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷeki·carry, take
Ponapeianpʷεkto lift, adopt (something) 
Mokilesepʷɔkpʷɔkto lift 
 pʷɔkto lift (something) 
Marshallesebʷbʷekto take, carry 
 bekto take, carry, receive, get, capture (something) 
Kusaieanfʌkto steal (something), commit adultery with (someone) 

— Cf. —

Pulo-Annanpʷe, pʷeŋito take (something) up from underground 

— Cf. also —

Sa’aqá’ito lever, prize 

PCMc   *pʷelu   break

Satawalesepʷel, pʷelúpʷelto break 
Woleaianbelibelsnap off, break off 
 beli-ŋi-(i)snap it off, break it off 
 beli-ŋegibe snapped off, broken off 
Mokileseki-pʷele-kbend something with a movement of the wrist, twist something off, break something with a snap 
 ki-pʷelbend (something) with a movement of the wrist, twist (something) off, break (something) with a snap 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pʷelubend  (Geraghty 1983:123)

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷilakʷbreak, crease, fracture (something) 
Kiribatibʷenabʷenato split 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷúllú, pʷpʷúlúbreak 

— See also —

Kusaieanfokbreak, smash (of brittle objects) 
 fokfokbroken, smashed 
 fuku-lbreak or smash (something) 

PCMc   *pʷelu, pʷepʷelu   dirt, soil

Trukesepʷpʷún, pʷpʷúnú-soil 
Puluwatesepʷpʷél, pʷpʷéli-soil 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷel, pʷpʷelú-, pʷpʷél, pʷpʷélú-dirt, soil, be dirty, soiled 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷelú, pʷpʷelú·dirt, soil
Marshallesebʷil-(téwénwén)filthy, dirty (ttéwén dirty, corrupt, nasty, obscene, vulgar, gross) 
Kiribatite-bʷon, bʷoni-black soil, loam which has been sifted 

— Cf. —

Woleaianboole, bola-(li)center (of an island), center of 
Kusaieanfolfolblue, indigo, dark blue 

— Cf. also —

Proto–Eastern Oceanic*[bp]welamud  (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Polynesian*peladirty, decayed 
Arosibʷeraa swamp 
 bʷerabʷerabe in flood 

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷelu ‘dirt, soil, dirty’ (Jackson 1986:229, fn. 4, and Marck 1994:316). Cf. also Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷalu ‘taro swamp, dirt as found in taro swamp’.

PMc   (?)   *pʷenu   cause, beginning, basis

Trukesepʷún, pʷúnú-(tá)be begun, originated 
 pʷúnú-(n)cause of, reason for, because 
 pʷúnú-ú-(w)begin it 
Saipan Carolinianbʷelbegin 
 bʷelú-(w)to start (something) 
 bʷele-(táá-)beginning (of something) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷene-(táá-)beginning (of something) 
Woleaianbéélú, belú-cause, reason 
 belú-ú-(we)originate it, begin it 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷenú·cause, beginning, basis
Kusaieanfono-, fɔnɔ-buttocks, hip, (? bottom) 

— Cf. —

Marshallesewin, wini-(n)base, basis, root, cause, reason 
Fijianvuu-(na)·cause, beginning, basis
Proto-Kimbe*vuhu, vuutrunk, basis, reason, cause 
Uraustronesisch*puqun·cause, beginning, basis

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷuku ‘base, tail’.

PCMc   (?)   *pʷepʷe   butterfly


— Cf. —

Sa’apepebutterfly, moth 
Laubebebutterfly, moth 
Kwaiobebebutterfly, moth 

The Kiribati form may be a loan from Samoan, and the Marshallese a loan from Kiribati. If so, this would be the same root as in Proto-Micronesian *pepe, pepepe ‘to skip along, flit’.

PMc   *pʷera   go or come through, pass

Trukesepʷer, pʷere-come, go 
Saipan Carolinianbʷár, bʷerto go all the way through, pierce something through 
Woleaianbbereget something through a hole 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷer[ae]·go or come through, pass
Ponapeianpʷarappear, pass in a race 
Mokilesepʷarto be through, penetrated, emerge or come to view 
Marshallesebʷeyrah-(dik)begin going 
Kusaieanfærpass, go, come (a loan?) 

— Cf. —

Kusaieanfæsrpass, go, come 
Kiribatibaakigone ashore (as a boat on the beach) 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pʷawu ‘fishing pole’, Proto-Micronesian *pʷax[ae] ‘come to view’.

PMc   *pʷere   to sprout, blossom

Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷár, pʷpʷerto emerge, sprout 
Ponapeianpʷεrappear, blossom (of fruit and flowers) 
Kiribatibʷebʷe [sic]sprouting, budding 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷel, bʷbʷelbloom 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian *pʷawu ‘fishing pole’, Proto-Chuukic *pʷuku or *pwúkú ‘sprout’ (of a seed)’.

PMc   *pʷexe, pʷepʷexe   twins

Trukese(ni)-pʷpʷe, (ni)-pʷpʷee-twin (of siblings) 
Saipan Carolinian(li)-pʷpʷeytwins of the same sex 
 (li)-pʷpʷeya-(alú)twins of opposite sex 
Saipan Carolinian·T(li)-pʷ-pʷeya-(anú)twins of opposite sex 
Marshallesebʷew·twins (eastern dialect) 

— Cf. —


Cf. also the reconstruction *pʷexa by Jackson (1983:384;1986:229 fn. 4).

PMc   *pʷili   to slip off, put aside

Trukesepʷin, pʷinipʷin, pʷini-tislipped on or off (of clothing), thing taken off and given to someone one meets on a path, slip it on or off 
Puluwatesepʷil·to slip off, put aside
Saipan Carolinianbʷili-ti, bʷúli-tú, bʷúli-ti·to slip off, put aside
Woleaianbilibili, bili-ti·to slip off, put aside
Proto-Chuukic*pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-di·to slip off, put aside
Ponapeianpʷilto put down or put aside (as ones beliefs) 
Kusaieanfil, filiplace or put aside or away 

PMc   *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta   sap, gum, resin, gummy

 (a)-pʷili-saget sap 
Puluwatesepʷilbring down toddy from a tree 
Woleaianbili-segum, sap, glue, be glued 
 bili-sa-(a)glue it 
Pulo-Annanpʷuunú, pʷunú-gum, sap, glue 
 pʷunúpʷunúbe sticky 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷili, pʷili-ta·sap, gum, resin, gummy
Ponapeianpʷiil, pʷili-gum 
Mokilesepʷil, pʷili-gum, sap 
 bʷilbʷilgummy, resin 
Kusaieanfulbreadfruit sap, gum 

— Cf. —

Proto-Oceanic*bulut·sap, gum, resin, gummy
Fijianbulubulu-tibe sticky 
Proto-Polynesian*pulugum, resin 
Sa’apulupitch, resin 
Arosiburugum of buru (Parinarium) tree used to caulk canoes, to stick 
West Nakanaibulujuice, sap 
Uraustronesisch*pulutglue, paste 

PMc   *pʷ[iu]Sowa   sweat

Ponapeianpʷudo, pʷudaw, pʷudowεsweat, perspiration, his sweat 
Mokilesepʷudoto sweat 
 pʷudoo-nhis sweat, sweat of 
 pʷudoo-dito have sweated 
Kusaieanfiyɔsweat, perspiration, to perspire 

PWMc   *pʷiti   group

Trukesepʷii-, pʷiipʷigroup, sibling of same sex, be siblings of same sex 
Mortlockesepʷii, pʷiipʷi·group
Puluwatesepʷi-, pʷiipʷiy [sic]·group
Saipan Carolinianbʷii, bʷiibʷi·group
Satawalesepʷii, pʷiipʷi·group
Woleaianbisi-, bisibisi·group
Pulo-Annanpʷiidi, pʷidi-, pʷidisibling of same sex, befriend 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷiiti, pʷpʷiti-, pʷitipʷiti·group
Ponapeianpʷii-(n)group, team 
Marshallesebʷiji-(n)flock or crowd of 

— Cf. —

Kiribati-bʷiiunit of ten in counting 

PMc   *pʷoca   turtle shell

Trukesepʷooch, pʷocha-(n)armor plating of a turtles shell or crocodiles back, its armor plating 
Mortlockesepʷoosh, pʷosha-(n)·turtle shell
PuluwatesepʷooR, pʷoRe-(y)·turtle shell
Saipan Carolinianbʷoosh·turtle shell
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷooR·turtle shell
SatawalesepʷooR·turtle shell
Woleaianbooshe, bosha-(li)·turtle shell
Pulo-Annanpʷoosa, pʷosa-·turtle shell
Proto-Chuukic*pʷoca·turtle shell
Ponapeianpʷεεt·turtle shell
Marshallesebʷed·turtle shell
Kiribatibʷora·turtle shell
Kusaieanfisrε-piece of turtle shell 

PMc   (?)   *pʷoi, pʷoa   odor, smell

Trukesepʷoo-·odor, smell
MortlockesepʷéW, pʷéwú-(n), pʷowu-(n)·odor, smell
Puluwatesepʷo, pʷowú-(n)·odor, smell
Saipan Carolinianbʷoo-·odor, smell
Satawalesepʷoo-·odor, smell
Woleaianboo, boo-·odor, smell
Pulo-Annanpʷoo·odor, smell
Sonsorolesebʷoú·odor, smell
Proto-Chuukic(?) *pʷoo, pʷowe-·odor, smell
Ponapeianpʷoo, pʷowεsmell, odor, aroma, its smell 
Mokilesepʷo, pʷɔɔsmell, its smell 
Marshallesebʷiyi-, bʷi-·odor, smell
Kiribatibʷoiscent, odor, smell 
 bʷoito smell, have odor 
Kusaieanfoto smell, have odor 
 fɔlɔ-(l), foli-(n)its smell, smell of 
Proto-Oceanic(?) *bo-i, bo-ato smell, have odor, a smell or odor 
Proto-Polynesian*poafish odor 
Fijianboi, boi-ca·odor, smell
 bonastink because rotten 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*bahu·odor, smell
Proto-Austronesian*baSu·odor, smell

There are problems here, especially the Kusaiean l.

PMc   *pʷon[ao]   whole, complete

Ponapeianpʷonwhole, entire 
 pʷonopʷonround, circular, a circle 
Mokilesepʷonwhole (quantity) 
Kusaieanfɔnwhole, complete, entire 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bono·whole, complete
Arosibonoto spread over (as grass or weeds) 

— Cf. —

Saipan Carolinianbʷéllbe completely planted (of a field) 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷonnbe completely planted (of a field) 
Kiribatibʷonreally, truly, indeed 

See also Proto-Micronesian *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta ‘be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close’.

PMc   *pʷono   promise

Trukesepʷpʷon, pʷpʷone-(n)a promise, agreement, vow, pledge, oath, promise of (something), to promise, make a contract, take an oath 
 pʷpʷono-(ffeŋen)make an agreement, contract, or covenenant 
Mortlockesepʷpʷonagree, promise 
Puluwatesepʷonto promise, agree 
Satawalesepʷpʷonagree, promise 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bono·promise
Proto-Polynesian*ponotruth, correctness 

— Cf. —

Sa’aqoŋito promise 
Ulawanpoŋito promise 
Lau(dau) boŋitake hold of (dau take, hold) 

PMc   *pʷono, pʷono-ti, pʷono-ta   be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close

Trukesepʷonbe enough 
Mortlockesepʷonfilled up 
Puluwatesepʷono-(ló)be crowded, packed, filled 
 Crl: bʷol and Crn bʷonhave something in the eye 
Satawalesepʷonbe crowded, have no more room 
Woleaianbonebe thick, bushy 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷon[ao]·be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close
Ponapeianponstuffed up, clogged 
Marshallesebʷeṇʷblock, clogged, obstructed, constipated, stymied 
Kiribatibʷonoshut, closed, stopped, obstructed 
 bʷono-tato cover, shut, close (something) 
 bʷonosea wall 
Kusaieanfɔnfɔnjammed, block 
 fɔno-sto block, blockade, jam, check, obstruct, stop (something) with a cork 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pono-t·be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close (Geraghty 1990)
Fijianbono, bono-tato block, dam up 
Proto-Polynesian*ponoclose, block up 
Sa’aponoto close, mend 
 pono-sito stuff up 
Bugotuponobe closed up, stuffed up 
Laubonoto close a hole 
Arosibono, bono-sito close, stuff up, dam 
 pʷono, pʷono-sito stop, block, choke 
 bono, bono-sito close, stuff up 
Kwaiobonoclosed, shut, constipated 
 bono-tastopper, plug 
 bono-si-[a]to block 
Uraustronesisch*pened·be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close

Note that the Ponapeian and Mokilese initial stops are not the expected reflexes. See Proto-Micronesian *pʷon[ao] ‘whole, complete’. Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷalu ‘cover, lid’.

PMc   *pʷoŋi   night

Trukesepʷiin, pʷini-·night
Mortlockesepʷooŋ, pʷoŋú-·night
Puluwatesepʷooŋ, pʷoŋi-·night
Saipan Carolinianbʷooŋ, bʷoŋi-·night
Satawalesepʷooŋ, pʷoŋi-·night
Woleaianbooŋi, boŋi-·night
Pulo-Annanpʷooŋi, pʷoŋi-·night
Mokileseand Png pʷoŋ·night
Kiribatiboŋ, bʷoŋi-·night
Sa’apoŋi and Ula qoŋitime, season 
Proto-Austronesian*beRŋin·night (Blust 1980:51)

— Note —

Trukesepon-(nóóon)day before yesterday 

See also Marck (1994:308) Proto-Micronesian *p’oŋi.

PCMc   *pʷoto   swelling

Trukesepʷoo, pʷoo-swelling of any kind 
 pʷo, pʷoopʷobe swollen, be pregnant 
Puluwatesepʷo, pʷoopʷo·swelling
Saipan Carolinianbʷoo, bʷo, bʷoobʷo·swelling
Woleaianboo, booboo·swelling
Proto-Chuukic*pʷoo, pʷoopʷoo·swelling
Ponapeianmpʷosboil, swelling 
 mpʷosa-(da)to swell up, rise (as bread) 
Mokileseumpʷɔssickness, chicken pox 
Marshallesebʷbʷejswollen, swell, lump 
Kiribatibʷotoa bulbous root 
 bʷotohaving a bulb 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷéj, bʷéji-swollen corpse 
Kusaieanfitibud, swelling 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*booboil, swelling  (Geraghty 1983)
Fijianbooa boil 

PMc   *pʷuasa   slingshot

 #fʌtishoot (something) with a slingshot 

The Mokilese and Kusaiean forms could be loans from Marshallese.

PCMc   *pʷuce   foolish, stupid, crazy

Trukesepʷuch, pʷuchopʷuchcrazy 
 pʷuché-(ér)cry out in distress 
Saipan Carolinianbʷushnaive, ignorant, foolish, senile 
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷuRnaive, ignorant, foolish, senile 
Woleaianbushocrazy, stupid 
Pulo-Annanpʷuuse, pʷuse-a fool 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuce·foolish, stupid, crazy
Ponapeianpʷutjoyous, lusty 
Marshallesebʷédmistake, error, wrong 
Kiribatibʷureto err, blunder, do wrong 

— Cf. —

Proto–Eastern OceanicbuRefoolish  (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *pʷuk[ao]   knot, node

Trukesepʷukopʷuka knot, be knotted, tie in knots 
 pʷpʷuk, pʷuke-(n)a knot, knot of 
 pʷukopʷukbe knotted 
 pʷuke-e-(y)tie it 
Mortlockesepʷuuk, pʷukopʷuk, pʷuke-(y)·knot, node
Puluwatesepʷukopʷukknot (as in a tree) 
 pʷuko-(y)knot it 
Saipan Carolinianbʷughe-e-(y)tie (it) in a knot 
 bʷughobʷugha knot, tie knots 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷuge-(y)knot it 
Satawalesepukʷopʷuk, pʷuko-(y)·knot, node
Woleaianbugobugoa knot, tie, bind, fasten 
 bugo-si-(i)tie it, connect it 
 bugo-tagibe tied, fastened 
Pulo-Annanpʷukopʷukoknots, tie knots, bind 
 pʷuko-ditie it together, knot it 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuk[ao], pʷuk[ao]pʷuk[ao], pʷuk[ao]-ti-·knot, node
Ponapeianpʷukopʷuka knot, tie knots 
 pʷukε-(n)knot of 
 pʷukεto tie (something) 
Mokilesepʷukknot made to be temporary 
Kusaieanfokoknot, node 
 fuko-etie (it) in a knot 
Proto-Oceanic(?) *buk-athing tied 

— Cf. —

Fijianbuki, buki-atie, fasten 
 buku, buku-yatie a knot 
Bugotu(vari)-pukua knot, to tie together 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷiwbʷiwtie a knot; divination using knots 
 biwij-iytie something 

— Cf. also —

Ponapeianpʷukεl, pʷukεlεknot, joint, node, its knot 

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷuku, pʷukua ‘node, joint, knot, knee’.

PWMc   *pʷukari   sedge

Trukesepʷuker, pʷukeri-(n)a sedge (Fimbristylis polymorpha and F. cymosa), a plant (Chrysopogon aciculatus
Puluwatesepukár [sic]Fimbristylis sedge 
Saipan Carolinianbʷugher, bʷughárF. cymosa 
 bʷughári-(ŋŋas)F. atollensis 
Saipan Carolinian·TbʷugerF. cymosa 
Woleaianbugorigrasses of several types 
 bugori-(ŋase)a swamp plant with good smell 
Marshallesebʷikéra plant (Cyperus ferax

PMc   *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua   hundred

Trukese(i)-pʷúkú, -pʷúkúú-·hundred
Saipan Carolinian-bʷúghúw·hundred
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷúgú·hundred
Kusaiean-fok, -foko·hundred

Cf. Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷuku, pʷukua ‘node, joint, knot, knee’.

PMc   (?)   *pʷuku   base, tail

Kiribatibʷukibase, butt-end, buttocks, tail, reason, cause, motive 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buku, puku (Fij bukutail 
West Nakanaivuubase, reason, cause 

— Cf. —

Uraustronesisch*puŋku[rR]·base, tail

— Cf. —

Proto-Kimbe*vuhubase, cause 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*puqun·base, tail

Cf. also Proto-Micronesian (?) *pʷenu ‘cause, beginning, basis’, Proto-Micronesian *iku‘tail’.

PMc   (?)   *pʷuku, pʷukua   node, joint, knot, knee

Trukesepʷúkú, pʷúkúwa-, pʷúkúwe-node, joint, knot, knee 
Mortlockesepʷúkú, pʷúkúwa-·node, joint, knot, knee
Puluwatesepʷúkúwknee  (Bender et al. 1984)
Saipan Carolinianbʷughúwa-node, protruding joint, protuberance 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷugúya-node, protruding joint, protuberance 
Woleaianbúgúweoutside curved projection, knee 
Pulo-Annanpʷukúa·node, joint, knot, knee
Proto-Chuukic*pʷukúa·node, joint, knot, knee
Ponapeianpʷukiεhis knee 
Marshallesebʷikʷéy, bʷikʷiyeyknee 
Kiribatibʷubʷuaknee or elbow joint 
Kusaieanfuku-(n)joint of 
Proto-Oceanic*buku, bukua (Fij bukuanything knotted and humped 
Bugotupukuswelling, lump, knot, tumor 
 [vari]-pukua knot, to tie together 
West Nakanaibukuaswollen, protruding) 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*bukuknee or... 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*bu(ŋ)kuqbend, bent  (Blust 1980:130)

Cf. Proto-Micronesian *pʷuk[ao] ‘knot, node’, Proto-Micronesian *-pʷukiwa or *-pʷukua ‘hundred’.

PMc   *pʷula, pʷupʷula   to flame, flare

Trukesepʷpʷun, pʷpʷuna-(n)blaze, flash, flame, its blaze 
 pʷpʷolá-(tá)flame up 
Puluwatesepʷúl [sic]burn (Bender et al. 1984: pwpwul burn, flame up) 
Saipan Carolinianpʷpʷulto burn, be burning 
 bʷupʷpʷulto be burning, in flames 
Satawalesepʷpʷunbe alight 
Woleaianbbuleburn, light up 
 bulobuloshiny, flaming 
 bbubbuleflame, light 
Pulo-Annanpuna [sic]glow, flame, blinking of lights 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷula, pʷpʷula·to flame, flare
Marshallesebʷilburn, hot, fever 
Kusaieanfolhot, heated, sweaty 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bula·to flame, flare
Proto-Polynesian*puLashine, glow 
Rotumanpulabe alight, burn 

— Cf. —

Yapese(gu)-bulto flare up 

— Cf. also —

Bugotubeubethuto blaze, burn, a flame 

PWMc   *pʷulaka₁   a fish

Trukesepʷunakind of unicorn fish 
Puluwatesepʷulaa common reef fish 
Saipan Carolinian·Tbulakind of surgeon fish 
Woleaianbulaga-(aleye)a kind of fish 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷulaka·a fish
Ponapeianpʷulakunicorn fish (Naso unicornis
Marshallesebʷilakunicorn fish 

— Cf. —

KwaiobulaPacific sea perch 

Marshallese heavy expected.

PMc   *pʷulaka₂   Cyrtosperma taro

Trukesepʷuna, pʷunaa-·Cyrtosperma taro
Mortlockesepʷulá·Cyrtosperma taro
Puluwatesepʷula·Cyrtosperma taro
Saipan Carolinianbʷula·Cyrtosperma taro
Satawalesepʷula·Cyrtosperma taro
Woleaianbulage·Cyrtosperma taro
Pulo-Annanpʷunaka·Cyrtosperma taro
Proto-Chuukic*pʷulaka·Cyrtosperma taro
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*bulaka·Cyrtosperma taro
Samoanpula’a·Cyrtosperma taro

— Cf. —

Marshalleseqiwbilkena variety of inedible taro 

— Cf. also —

West NakanaiulaCyrtosperma taro 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buRaka·Cyrtosperma taro (Geraghty 1990)

PMc   *pʷuli   shell

Trukesepʷiin, pʷini-cowrie shell 
Puluwatesepʷiil cowrie s. scraper’·shell
Saipan Carolinianbʷiilcowrie shell 
Pulo-Annanpiini, pini- [sic]shellfish, mussel 
Ponapeianpʷili [sic]cowrie shell 
Marshalleselibʷ-(bʷikʷey)any cowrie shell, any shell (showing metathesis) 
Kiribatibʷuna bivalvular shellfish 
Kusaieanful, fuli-nshellfish, shell of 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buli·shell
Sa’apulicowrie shell 
Proto–Malayo-Polynesian*buliq·shell (Blust 1980:56)

— Cf. —

Yapesewullarge cowrie 

Mokilese and Pingilapese pʷun ‘shell’ are apparent loans from Kiribati.

PMc   *pʷuli, pʷulipʷuli, pʷulita   gum, sap, resin, gummy

see Proto-Micronesian *pʷili, pʷilipʷili, pʷili-ta.

PWMc   (?)   *pʷulo, pʷul[ou]lo   heart

Saipan Carolinianbʷúll, bʷúllé-(l)heart, his heart 
Woleaianbunne, bunne-(i)heart, keel section of a canoe, my heart 
Marshallesebʷéḷwheart of tree, root of matter, core, pith 

PCMc   *pʷuŋ[iu]   descend, get lower

Woleaianbúŋú, buŋu-(tiwe)bend down, get lower, lower ones body 
 búŋú-(matto)to sit down 
Pulo-Annanpʷúŋú-(tio)to sit down 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷúŋú·descend, get lower
Ponapeiankoro-pʷuŋsmall waterfall 
Marshallesebʷiŋʷfall down 
 biŋʷi-(t)fall down on someone or something 
Kiribatibʷuŋgoing down, descending 
 bʷuŋibʷuŋbe long (of hair), flooding (after miscarriage), to set (of the sun) 

See also Proto-Chuukic *púŋú ‘to fall’. See also Marck (1994:319) Proto–Central Micronesian *p’uŋu.

PMc   *pʷuŋu   handle

Saipan Carolinianbʷúúŋ, bʷuuŋ, bʷúŋu-lhandle, its handle 
Pulo-Annanpʷuuŋú, pʷuŋú-·handle
Marshallesebʷiŋʷspear handle 

PMc   *pʷupʷu   trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross

Trukesepʷuupʷ, pʷupʷu-trigger fish, Southern Cross 
 (táá-nu)-pʷrising of the Southern Cross 
Mortlockesepʷuupʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Puluwatesepʷupʷ [sic]·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Saipan Carolinianbʷuubʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Satawalesepʷuupʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Woleaianbuubu, #buubu-·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Proto-Chuukic*pʷupʷu, -pʷu·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Ponapeianpʷuupʷtrigger fish 
Mokilesepʷupʷ·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Marshallesebʷibʷtrigger fish 
 bʷibʷ, bʷibʷi-Southern Cross 
Kiribatibʷubʷu·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Kusaieanfifa kind of fish 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*mpumpu·trigger fish, constellation Southern Cross
Sa’apupuSouthern Cross 
Arosibubuspecies of Baliates fish 
Kwaiobubureef trigger fish 

Note that the consetllation is named for the fish.

PMc   *pʷuro   collide, fall

Trukesepʷurbe bumped, stubbed, trip 
 pʷuro-(ffeŋen)be bumped together, be in collision 
Puluwatesepʷuro-ti-(y)to hit, collide with, bump against 
Saipan Carolinianbʷurto fall forward on ones face 
Woleaianburobe off ones feet, fall, tumble down 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuro·collide, fall
Ponapeianpʷuurto descend into, fall into, step into (as a hole) 
Kusaiean(?) fʌlslip, drop, slide 

Cf. Proto–Central Micronesian *pʷuŋ[iu]‘descend, get lower’.

PCMc   *pʷurua   insides

Ponapeianpʷuri, pʷuriyεstomach (of certain fish like tuna), core (as of breadfruit), hemorrhoid, its stomach 
Mokilesepʷiri, pʷurrɔ, pʷirii-(n), pʷurre-(n), pʷirii-(n)fish stomach, breadfruit core, its stomach, stomach of 
Marshallesebʷéréw, bʷiriwe-seat of the emotions, throat, heart, gills 
 bʷiriyuvula, esophagus 
Kiribatibʷuuarumen, sack, pocket, bag, throat, mouth  (Sabatier 1971)

— Cf. —

Kiribatiburoothe heart (a Marshallese loan?) 

PMc   *pʷusa, pʷusa-ka   bad, improper

Trukese-pʷutdisliked, bad 
 (o)-pʷut, (o)-pʷutato dislike 
 pʷuta-kbad, improper, unsuitable 
Puluwatese-pʷut, (yó)-pʷut, (Róó)-pʷut·bad, improper
Saipan Carolinian(a)-pʷuta, (ó)-bʷutato dislike or hate (someone) 
 (shóó)-bʷutwoman, female 
Saipan Carolinian·T(Róó)-bʷutwoman, female 
 bʷuuta-gbad, improper, rude, ugly 
Woleaian-buto, (paa)-butebe unfortunate, in bad condition 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷuda, *pʷudaka·bad, improper
Marshallesebʷét, bʷiteydisobedient, naughty, disobey someone 
Kiribatibʷua-kawage war, be tempestuous, stormy 
 bʷua-kakabad, objectionable (with loss of *s before *k?) 
Kusaieanfɔsmessy, confused, entangled 

— Cf. —


PMc   *pʷu[sS]o   foam

Ponapeianpʷudopʷudfoam, scum 
Kiribatibʷuroto boil 
 bʷurobʷurofrothy, foamy, boiling 
 bʷurobʷurofoam, froth, bubbles 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*buso, fuso·foam
Fijianvusoto effervesce, froth 
Sa’ahutohutofroth, foam 
Arosihuto, hutohutofroth, foam 

— Cf. —

Marshallesebʷiḷwiḷwḷwiḷwto boil (of water only) 

Cf. Proto-Chuukic *pʷuro, pʷuropʷuro ‘bubble, foam’. Marck (1994:315) includes the forms in Proto-Chuukic *pʷuro, pʷuropʷuro ‘bubble, foam’ with these forms in his Proto-Micronesian *p’usop’uso ‘foam, froth’.

PCMc   *pʷuta[ei]   feces

Trukesepʷise, pʷisee-·feces
Saipan Carolinianbʷuse·feces
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷuhe·feces

— Cf. —

Marshallesedeydefecate from trees (of birds) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*taqe-·feces (Geraghty 1983)
Proto-Oceanic*taqe·feces (Ross 1988)
Fijiandee-[na], daa [<*dae]·feces

PMc   *pʷuto   navel

Trukesepʷuu, pʷuwa-(n)navel, his/her navel 
Woleaianpʷuuse, pʷusa-(l)·navel
Pulo-Annanpʷuuta, pʷuta-navel 
 pʷpʷuawaist, center 
Ponapeianpʷuus, pʷusε·navel
Kiribatibʷuto, bʷuto-(na)·navel
Kusaieanfʌt, fitε-(l)·navel

— Note also —

Saipan Carolinianbʷuugh·navel
Saipan Carolinian·Tbʷuug·navel

— Cf. —

Kwaioboo, bou-(na)·navel

PMc   *pʷutu   step, tread, apply ones foot

Trukesepʷuplace ones foot 
 pʷuupʷustep, tread, to place ones foot on something, treadle, pedal 
 pʷuu-ristep on, tread on 
Puluwatesepuu-ri-(y) [sic]to stamp or tread on 
Saipan Carolinianbʷu, bʷuubʷuto step, stand on 
 bʷuubʷuto step on something, be standing on something 
 bʷuu-rito step, stomp, tread on (something) 
 bʷuu-rágh, bʷuu-reghto stomp the feet (as when throwing a tantrum) 
Proto-Chuukic*pʷu[tØ]u, pʷu[tØ]u-ri-·step, tread, apply ones foot
Marshallesebʷijbʷijkick, a dance 
 bʷij-(jik)to kick, be kicking 
 (je)-bʷijspur, cut with spurs, kick 
Kiribatibʷutua small weapon with a single sharks tooth used by women 
 futu-ŋkick, stomp (something) 
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*butu·step, tread, apply ones foot
Fijianbutu, butu-kastamp or tread on 
Sa’apuuto tread, stamp, stand firm 
 puu-listrike with the talons [of birds] 
Bugotubuubutustamp the foot in dancing, tread hard 
 butu-lito trample, kick 
 butu-ŋagito withstand 
Kwaiobuutread, step 
 buu-li-[a]scrape with the foot 

— Cf. —

Ponapeianpʷuur-descend into, fall into, step into (as a hole) (with directional suffix) 
Mokilesepʷuuj, pʷuujipush, shove (loan from English?) 
Kiribatibutubututo crowd 
 butu-ato push or press against (something) (loan from Samoan putu, putuputu be crowded) 

PMc   (?)   *pʷuu   to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)

Trukesepʷu, pʷuu-·to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)
Proto–Eastern Oceanic*pupuu·to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)
Tonganpupuu·to sound (when blown, as a trumpet)

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